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Sample records for xe ion irradiation

  1. A Comparison Between the Irradiation Damage Response of Spinel and Zirconia Due to Xe Ion Bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Sickafus, Kurt E.; Wetteland, Christopher J.; Baker, Neil P.; Yu, Ning; Devanathan, Ram; Nastasi, Michael; Bordes, Nicole

    1997-12-31

    The mechanical properties of Xe-implanted spinel and cubic zirconia surfaces, as determined by nano-indentation measurements, are distinct and the differences can be related to their microstructures. Upon Xe(2+) ion irradiation at cryogenic temperature (120K), the Young`s modulus of irradiated spinel increases slightly (a few percent) then falls dramatically until the modulus is only about 3/4 the unirradiated value. The maximum modulus occurs concurrent with the formation of a metastable crystalline phase of spinel. The subsequent elastic softening at higher Xe(2+) doses is an indication of the onset of amorphization of the spinel. Xe-implanted zirconia surfaces behaves differently, in all cases showing almost no change in elastic modulus with increasing Xe(2+) ion dose. This is consistent with microstructural observations of Xe-implanted zirconia crystals which, unlike spinel, show no change in crystal structure with increasing ion dose. The defected layer in zirconia due to ion damage simply thickens with increasing Xe(2+) dose. This thickening may be a consequence of compressive stresses that form in the ion- implanted surface region. The hardness of both spinel and zirconia increases slightly for low Xe(2+) ion doses. At higher doses, zirconia shows little change in hardness, while the hardness of the implanted spinel falls by more than a factor of two. The initial increase in hardness of both spinel and zirconia is probably due to point defect accumulation and the precipitation of small interstitial clusters, while the drop in hardness of spinel at high Xe(2+) ion doses is due to the formation of an amorphous phase.

  2. Effect of Xe ion irradiation on photocatalytic performance of oblique TiO2 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengcao; Teng, Yi; Chen, Chienhua; Lv, Shasha; Wang, Guojing; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2015-02-01

    In this work oblique TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWs) were prepared by magnetron sputtering method and irradiated by 200 keV Xe ion with different doses. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was studied by degrading methyl orange dye (MO) under ultraviolet (UV) light, which indicates that the photocatalytic performance of as-deposited and irradiated TiO2 NWs. It was found that when the dose was relatively low, the Ti3+ content on the surface was increased upon irradiation, dominating the enhancement of the photocatalytic property of the TiO2 NWs. By this means, an optimization of Xe ion dose can largely improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2 NWs.

  3. Teflon impregnated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles irradiated by 80 keV Xe+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanam, Rizwin; Paul, Nibedita; Kumar, P.; Kanjilal, D.; Ahmed, Gazi A.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2014-10-01

    We report the effect of 80 keV Xe+ ion irradiation on the morphological and optical responses of TiO2 nanoparticles spread over commercially available polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon). These nanoparticles were synthesized via a convenient, sol-gel approach with titanium isopropoxide as the main precursor. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies we found that, the nanoparticles crystallize in anatase phase and with a preferential orientation of crystallites along (1 0 1) plane. Upon irradiation at a fluence of 1.25 1017 ions/cm2, the nanoparticle dimension was found to increase from a value of ?9 nm to ?20-30 nm. Essentially, particle growth is predicted as a consequence of swelling behavior accompanied by the formation of Xe van der Waal crystals in isolated regions of nano-titania. Evidence of nanoripples was also witnessed on the surface of the irradiated nano-titania. The morphological evolution was assessed both by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies (AFM and TEM) independently. From the UV-Vis optical absorption studies, the estimated optical band gap was found to drop with increasing fluence, while refractive index exhibited a remarkable improvement. Photoluminescence (PL) studies have revealed that, the band edge emission and those due to the self trapped excitons (STE) and other oxygen vacancy related ones were manifested considerably as a result of Xe ion irradiation.

  4. Effect of Xe ion (167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC implanted with Kr and Xe at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlatshwayo, T. T.; O’Connell, J. H.; Skuratov, V. A.; Msimanga, M.; Kuhudzai, R. J.; Njoroge, E. G.; Malherbe, J. B.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of swift heavy ion (Xe 167 MeV) irradiation on polycrystalline SiC individually implanted with 360 keV Kr and Xe ions at room temperature to fluences of 2  ×  1016 cm‑2 and 1  ×  1016 cm‑2 respectively, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Implanted specimens were each irradiated with 167 MeV Xe+26 ions to a fluence of 8.3  ×  1014 cm‑2 at room temperature. It was observed that implantation of 360 keV Kr and Xe ions individually at room temperature amorphized the SiC from the surface up to a depth of 186 and 219 nm respectively. Swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation reduced the amorphous layer by about 27 nm and 30 nm for the Kr and Xe samples respectively. Interestingly, the reduction in the amorphous layer was accompanied by the appearance of randomly oriented nanocrystals in the former amorphous layers after SHI irradiation in both samples. Previously, no similar nanocrystals were observed after SHI irradiations at electron stopping powers of 33 keV nm‑1 and 20 keV nm‑1 to fluences below 1014 cm‑2. Therefore, our results suggest a fluence threshold for the formation of nanocrystals in the initial amorphous SiC after SHI irradiation. Raman results also indicated some annealing of radiation damage after swift heavy ion irradiation and the subsequent formation of small SiC crystals in the amorphous layers. No diffusion of implanted Kr and Xe was observed after swift heavy ion irradiation.

  5. EFFECTS OF XE ION IRRADIATION AND SUBSEQUENT ANNEALING ON THE PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM-ALUMINATE SPINEL

    SciTech Connect

    I. AFANASYEV; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    Single crystals of magnesium-aluminate spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup 2} ions at {minus}173 C ({approximately} 100 K). A fluence of 1 x 10{sup 20} Xe/m{sup 2} created an amorphous layer at the surface of the samples. The samples were annealed for 1 h at different temperatures ranging from 130 C to 880 C. Recrystallization took place in the temperature interval between 610 C and 855 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show two distinct layers near the surface: (1) a polycrystalline layer with columnar grain structure; and (2) a buried damaged layer epitaxial with the substrate. After annealing at 1100 C for 52 days, the profile of implanted Xe ions did not change, which means that Xe ions are not mobile in the spinel structure up to 1100 C. The thickness of the buried damaged layer decreased significantly in the 1100 C annealed sample comparing to the sample annealed for 1 h at 855 C.

  6. Quasi-two-dimensional Ag nanoparticle formation in silica by Xe ion irradiation and subsequent Ag ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Jia, Guangyi; Mu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Changlong; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics Faculty of Science, Tianjin 300072

    2013-04-01

    Ag nanoparticles were fabricated in silica by Xe ion irradiation and subsequent Ag ion implantation, which distributed in a depth range from 4.8 to 14.3 nm, rather than dispersed from surface to a depth of 24.7 nm when no irradiation was made in advance. In addition, the suppression of Ag implants' sputtering loss was also evidenced by a greatly increased Ag content in the prepared sample. These results are mainly due to the defect-enhanced in-beam particle growth. Further, formation of polycrystalline Ag nanoparticles was revealed, whose effect on optical absorption was discussed according to the electron mean-free-path mode.

  7. 200 keV Xe+ ions irradiation effects on Zr-Ti binary films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weipeng; Chai, Maosheng; Feng, Wei; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2015-05-01

    200 keV Xenon irradiation experiments were performed on magnetron sputtered Zr-Ti films under different doses up to 9 * 1015 ions/cm2. XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, HRTEM, nano-indentation and white light interferometer characterizations were applied to study the structural and mechanical properties modification introduced by the bombardment. Upon Xenon irradiation, structure of film matrix kept stable while the crystallinity of the top surface degraded significantly. Meanwhile, properties of irradiated films such as hardness, modulus and sheet resistance evolved with the same tendency, i.e. increased firstly and decrease with further increasing the irradiation dose. By selective area irradiation, competition between the surface sputtering and swelling was revealed, by which surface defects evolution was highlighted. The micro-defects evolution during Xenon irradiation was believed to be responsible for the macro-properties' modification.

  8. Electrically Active Defects In Solar Cells Based On Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction After Irradiation By Heavy Xe Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmatha, Ladislav; Mikolek, Miroslav; Stuchlkov, L'ubica; Ksa, Arpd; ika, Milan; Hrub?n, Ladislav; Skuratov, Vladimir A.

    2015-11-01

    The contribution is focused on the diagnostics of structures with a heterojunction between amorphous and crystalline silicon prepared by HIT (Heterojunction with an Intrinsic Thin layer) technology. The samples were irradiated by Xe ions with energy 167 MeV and doses from 5 108 cm-2 to 5 1010 cm-2. Radiation defects induced in the bulk of Si and at the hydrogenated amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface were identified by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). Radiation induced A-centre traps, boron vacancy traps and different types of divacancies with a high value of activation energy were observed. With an increased fluence of heavy ions the nature and density of the radiation induced defects was changed.

  9. Energy loss effect on color center creation in LiF crystals under irradiation with 12C, 14N, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 130Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauletbekova, A.; Schwartz, K.; Sorokin, M. V.; Baizhumanov, M.; Akilbekov, A.; Zdorovets, M.

    2015-09-01

    Color center creation in LiF crystals irradiated with 12C, 14N, 40Ar, 84Kr, and 130Xe MeV ions were studied as a function of the absorbed energy (fluence). For light ions (12C, 14N) the saturation of single F centers takes place at higher absorbed energy (5 1023 eV/cm3) than that for 40Ar, 84Kr and 130Xe ions (?1023 eV/cm3). The saturation concentration of F centers for 12C and 14N (2 1019 cm-3) is twice of that for the heavier ions. Further irradiation with light ions decreases concentration of F centers, presumably due to aggregation, whereas for heavy ions the saturation concentration remains approximately the same that can be explained by much stronger recombination losses within single tracks.

  10. Damage Accumulation in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yttria-Stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by Xe-Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I.V.; Gritsyna, V.T.; Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1999-04-25

    Magnesium-aluminate spinel (MAS) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) are being considered for use as ceramic matrices in proliferation resistant fuels and radioactive storage systems, and may be used either as individual entities or as constituents in multicomponent ceramic systems. It is worthwhile, therefore, to compare radiation damage in these two potentially important materials when subjected to similar irradiation conditions, e.g., ion beam irradiation. To compare radiation damage properties of these two materials, single crystals of spinel and zirconia were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup ++} ions at 120 K, and subsequently investigated by Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling (RBS/C), and optical absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that damage accumulation in both spinel and zirconia follow a three stage process: (1) very slow damage accumulation over a wide range of dose; (2) rapid changes in damage over a range of doses from about 0.25 to 25 displacements per atom (DPA); (3) slower damage accumulation at very high doses and possibly saturation. Optical absorption results indicate that F-centers form in Xe ion-irradiated spinel and that the concentration of these centers saturates at high dose. Absorption bands are also formed in both spinel and zirconia that are due to point defect complexes formed upon irradiation. These bands increase in intensity with increasing Xe dose, and, in the case of zirconia, without saturation. Finally the rate of change in intensity of these bands with increasing Xe dose, mimic the changes in damage observed by RBS/C with increasing dose.

  11. XRD study of yttria stabilized zirconia irradiated with 7.3 MeV Fe, 10 MeV I, 16 MeV Au, 200 MeV Xe and 2.2 GeV Au ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, K.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Iwase, A.

    2016-03-01

    To simulate energetic neutron irradiation effects, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is one of the major materials for electrical corrosion potential sensors (ECP sensors) was irradiated with heavy ions at energies ranging from 7.3 MeV to 2.2 GeV. Ion irradiation effects on the lattice structure were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The increase in lattice constant was induced by the ion irradiation. It was dominated by the elastic collision process and not by the electronic excitation process. The lattice disordering which was observed as a broadening of XRD peaks was also induced by the irradiation especially for 200 MeV Xe ion irradiation. The present result suggests that the expansion and/or the disordering of YSZ lattice induced by energetic neutrons may affect the durability of a joint interface between a metal housing and YSZ membrane for the usage of ECP sensors in nuclear power reactors.

  12. The studies of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking on reactor internals stainless steel under Xe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong-shan; Xu, Chao-liang; Liu, Xiang-bing; Huang, Ping; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Specimens of Chinese domestic reactor internals stainless steel were irradiated with 6 MeV Xe ions for three peak displacement damage of 2, 7 and 15 dpa at room temperature. The slow strain rate tests (SSRT), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and nano-indentation tests were carried out to study the IASCC properties, phase transition and nano-hardness variations. The SSRT results indicate that the IASCC susceptibility increases with irradiation damage. Ion irradiation accelerates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A new ferrite phase diffraction peak of ?(1 1 0) after irradiated to 7 dpa and another two ? phase of ?(2 0 0) and ?(2 1 1) after irradiated to 15 dpa were observed by GIXRD, which may be due to localized deformation. A similar trend of irradiation hardening and IASCC susceptibility was observed, which suggests an essential connection between them.

  13. Defect studies of zirconia implanted by high energy Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Procházka, I.; Hruška, P.; Skuratov, V. A.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work positron lifetime spectroscopy was employed for characterization of radiation-induced defects in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) implanted by 167 MeV Xe ions. Positron lifetime data were interpreted with aid of ab-initio theoretical modelling of defects in YSZ lattice. Damage caused by Xe implantation was investigated in two YSZ samples with different microstructure: (i) single crystal and (ii) sintered ceramic. The virgin YSZ single crystal exhibits single component spectrum with lifetime of ≈ 180 ps. Similar lifetime component was found also in the virgin sample of sintered YSZ ceramic. Since this lifetime is significantly higher than the YSZ bulk lifetime the virgin YSZ crystal and the sintered ceramic both contain vacancy-like defects. Xe implantation leads to appearance of additional defect component with longer lifetime ≈ 370 ps which comes obviously from vacancy clusters fonned by agglomeration of irradiation induced vacancies. A broad absorption band with peak absorption at ≈ 518 nm was found in Xe-implanted crystal by optical measurements.

  14. Irradiation behavior study of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with high energy Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mo, K.; Yun, D.; Mohamed, W.; Pellin, M.; Fortner, J.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Wiencek, T.; Van den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation responses of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel have been investigated by irradiation with 84 MeV Xe26+ ions. Dispersion fuels fabricated with uncoated and ZrN-coated fuel particles were irradiated to various doses at ?350 C. The highest dose achieved was 2.9 1017 ions/cm2 (?1200 displacement per atom (dpa)). Following the irradiation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments were carried out to characterize the microstructures of the irradiated samples. The post irradiation examinations (PIE) revealed that: (1) crystalline interdiffusion product (UMo)Alx developed at locations where no coating or compromised coating layer is present; (2) intact ZrN coating layers effectively blocked the interdiffusion between U-Mo and Al; (3) SEM-observable Xe bubbles distributed along grain/cell boundaries in U-Mo; and (4) gas bubble interlinkage was observed at a dose of 2.9 1017 ions/cm2.

  15. Xe irradiation of graphene on Ir(111): From trapping to blistering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, Charlotte; hlgren, E. Harriet; Schrder, Ulrike A.; Martnez-Galera, Antonio J.; Arman, Mohammad A.; Kotakoski, Jani; Knudsen, Jan; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Michely, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that upon keV Xe+ irradiation of graphene on Ir(111), Xe atoms are trapped under the graphene. Upon annealing, aggregation of Xe leads to graphene bulges and blisters. The efficient trapping is an unexpected and remarkable phenomenon given the absence of chemical binding of Xe to Ir and to graphene, the weak interaction of a perfect graphene layer with Ir(111), as well as the substantial damage to graphene due to irradiation. By combining molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations with our experiments, we uncover the mechanism of trapping. We describe ways to avoid blister formation during graphene growth, and also demonstrate how ion implantation can be used to intentionally create blisters without introducing damage to the graphene layer. Our approach may provide a pathway to synthesize new materials at a substrate2D material interface or to enable confined reactions at high pressures and temperatures.

  16. Surface damage and mechanical properties degradation of Cr/W multilayer films irradiated by Xe20+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feida; Tang, Xiaobin; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Li, Huan; Qiu, Yunlong; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    3 MeV Xe20+ ion irradiation experiments were performed on the Cr/W multilayer films to investigate the evolution of surface morphology and mechanical properties. Results showed that the W layer in the as-deposited pure W and Cr/W multilayer films are simple cubic structure, but it is not stable under ions irradiation. After exposure to 2.14 1018 m-2 Xe ions irradiation, the W layer has completely transformed into the bcc structure. For surface morphology characterization, serious swelling effects were observed in the pure W films. Compared with the pure W films, the Cr/W multilayer films showed much better resistance against the irradiation-induced swelling. Meanwhile, the decrease of hardness and Young's modulus of the Cr/W multilayer films was also less than the pure W films. Results of surface morphology and mechanical tests suggested that radiation tolerance of the Cr/W multilayer films is significantly better than the pure W films.

  17. Xe-bearing hydrocarbon ions: Observation of Xe.acetylene+rad and Xe.benzene+rad radical cations and calculations of their ground state structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhong-hua; Attah, Isaac K.; Platt, Sean P.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Kertesz, Miklos; El-Shall, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports evidence for novel types of Xe-bearing hydrocarbon radical cations. The Xe.acetylene+rad radical cation adduct is observed at nearly room temperature using the mass-selected drift cell technique. The irreversible addition of the Xe atom and the lack of back dissociation to HCCH+rad + Xe is consistent with the calculated binding energy of 0.85 eV to be contrasted with the metastable nature of the neutral Xe.acetylene adduct. The observed Xe.benzene+rad radical cation appears to be a weakly bound complex stabilized mainly by ion-induced dipole interaction consistent with a calculated binding energy in the range of 0.14-0.17 eV.

  18. Molecular dynamic studies on anisotropic explosion of laser irradiated Xe cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Gaurav; Gupta, N. K.

    2012-09-15

    A three dimensional molecular dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamics of Xe clusters of various radii irradiated by laser of moderate intensities ({approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 16}W/cm{sup 2}). The FWHM pulse duration of the laser is varied from few laser cycles to hundreds of femtosecond. For cluster of radius 50 A irradiated by a laser of 170 fs pulse duration, it is observed that ion yield is more along the direction of laser polarization than perpendicular to it. This trend reverses (more ions are emitted along the direction perpendicular to laser polarization than parallel to it) when laser pulses of few cycles are used. This reversal of anisotropy is explained on the basis of spatial shielding of ions due to the oscillating inner electron cloud along direction of laser electric field. The nature of anisotropy remains same with variations in laser intensity and cluster size.

  19. Sputtering yields exceeding 1000 by 80 keV Xe irradiation of Au nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinov, A.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Greaves, G.; Hinks, J. A.; Busby, P.; Mellors, N. J.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Using experiments and computer simulations, we find that 80 keV Xe ion irradiation of Au nanorods can produce sputtering yields exceeding 1000, which to our knowledge are the highest yields reported for sputtering by single ions in the nuclear collision regime. This value is enhanced by more than an order of magnitude compared to the same irradiation of flat Au surfaces. Using MD simulations, we show that the very high yield can be understood as a combination of enhanced yields due to low incoming angles at the sides of the nanowire, as well as the high surface-to-volume ratio causing enhanced explosive sputtering from heat spikes. We also find, both in experiments and simulations, that channeling has a strong effect on the sputtering yield: if the incoming beam happens to be aligned with a crystal axis of the nanorod, the yield can decrease to about 100.

  20. Microstructure evolution in Xe-irradiated UO2 at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    L.F. He; J. Pakarinen; M.A. Kirk; J. Gan; A.T. Nelson; X.-M. Bai; A. El-Azab; T.R. Allen

    2014-07-01

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy was conducted for single crystal UO2 to understand the microstructure evolution during 300 keV Xe irradiation at room temperature. The dislocation microstructure evolution was shown to occur as nucleation and growth of dislocation loops at low irradiation doses, followed by transformation to extended dislocation segments and tangles at higher doses. Xe bubbles with dimensions of 1-2 nm were observed after room-temperature irradiation. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that UO2 remained stoichiometric under room temperature Xe irradiation.

  1. Heavy Ion Irradiation Effects in Zirconium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.W.; Bond, G.M.; Valdez, J.A.; Swadener, J.G.; McClellan, K.J.; Maloy, S.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Oliver, B.

    2004-07-01

    Polycrystalline zirconium nitride (ZrN) samples were irradiated with He{sup +}, Kr{sup ++}, and Xe{sup ++} ions to high (>1.10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) fluences at {approx}100 K. Following ion irradiation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal structure of the post-irradiated material. For ion doses equivalent to approximately 200 displacements per atom (dpa), ZrN was found to resist any amorphization transformation, based on TEM observations. At very high displacement damage doses, GIXRD measurements revealed tetragonal splitting of some of the diffraction maxima (maxima which are associated with cubic ZrN prior to irradiation). In addition to TEM and GIXRD, mechanical property changes were characterized using nano-indentation. Nano-indentation revealed no change in elastic modulus of ZrN with increasing ion dose, while the hardness of the irradiated ZrN was found to increase significantly with ion dose. Finally, He{sup +} ion implanted ZrN samples were annealed to examine He gas retention properties of ZrN as a function of annealing temperature. He gas release was measured using a residual gas analysis (RGA) spectrometer. RGA measurements were performed on He-implanted ZrN samples and on ZrN samples that had also been irradiated with Xe{sup ++} ions, in order to introduce high levels of displacive radiation damage into the matrix. He evolution studies revealed that ZrN samples with high levels of displacement damage due to Xe implantation, show a lower temperature threshold for He release than do pristine ZrN samples. (authors)

  2. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the CLAM steel with nanocrystalline grains under Xe irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Xiaolin; Guo, Qiang; Wan, Farong; Long, Yi

    2014-12-01

    This work presents an early look at irradiation effects on China low activation martensitic (CLAM) steel with nanocrystalline grains (NC-CLAM steels) under 500 keV Xe-ion bombardment at room temperature to doses up to 5.3 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructure in the topmost region of the steel is composed of nanocrystalline grains with an average diameter of 13 nm. As the samples were implanted at low dose, the nanocrystalline grains had martensite lath structure, and many dislocations and high density bubbles were introduced into the NC-CLAM steels. As the irradiation dose up to 5.3 dpa, a tangled dislocation network exists in the lath region, and the size of the bubbles increases. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystal quality decreases after irradiation, although the nanocrystals obviously coarsen. Grain growth under irradiation may be ascribed to the direct impact of the thermal spike on grain boundaries in the NC-CLAM steels. In irradiated samples, a compressive stress exists in the surface layer because of grain growth and irradiation-introduced defects, while the irradiation introduced grain-size coarsening and defects gradients from the surface to matrix result in a tensile stress in the irradiated NC-CLAM steels. Nanoindentation was used to estimate changes in mechanical properties during irradiation, and the results show that the hardness of the NC-CLAM steels increases with increasing irradiation dose, which was ascribed to the competition between the grain boundaries and the irradiation-introduced defects.

  3. Angle Control on the Optima HE/XE Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Edward; Satoh, Shu

    2008-11-03

    The Optima HE/XE is the latest generation of high energy ion implanter from Axcelis, combining proven RF linear accelerator technology with new single wafer processing. The architecture of the implanter is designed to provide a parallel beam at the wafer plane over the full range of implant energies and beam currents. One of the advantages of this system is the ability to control both the horizontal and vertical implant angles for each implant. Included in the design is the ability to perform in situ measurements of the horizontal and vertical angles of the beam in real time. The method of the horizontal and vertical angle measurements is described in this paper.

  4. Patterning of silica MCM-41 high-order material on a glass surface by XeCl laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahibakhsh, Somayeh; Hadi Maleki, Mohammad; Jelvani, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Silica glass samples (with the compositions of SiO2 96.66, Na2O 0.62, MgO 0.80, Al2O3 1.66 and CaO 0.26 in wt%) were irradiated with 5 pulses of a nanosecond XeCl excimer laser at a fluence of 300mJ/cm2 and 1Hz repetition rate. Scanning electron microscopy images of the irradiated area showed that micro and nanostructures were developed on the glass surface by the XeCl laser irradiation. It is found from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy that the structures are fine crystalline patterns of silica MCM-41 materials. It is supposed that crystallization of the glass is induced through the absorption of 308nm wavelength XeCl laser irradiation by silicon ions. Therefore, it is proposed that this method of spatially selective crystallization of glass could be applicable to other glass materials for potential optics and photonics applications.

  5. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammedein, Adel M.; Ghoneim, Adel A.; Kandil, Kandil M.; Kadad, Ibrahim M.

    2010-01-05

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K-, L{sub 1}-, L{sub 2,3}-, M{sub 1}-, M{sub 2,3}- and M{sub 4,5} subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} and Xe{sup 10+} ions, and the charged X{sup 8+} ions are the highest. The main product from the L{sub 1}- shell ionization is found to be Xe{sup 8+}, Xe{sup 9+} ions, while the charged Xe{sup 8+} ions predominate at L{sub 2,3} hole states. The charged Xe{sup 6+}, Xe{sup 7+} and Xe{sup 8+} ions mainly yield from 3s{sub 1/2} and 3p{sub 1/2,3/2} ionization, while Xe in 3d{sub 3/2,5/2} hole states mainly turns into Xe{sup 4+} and Xe{sup 5+} ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data.

  6. I-Xe dating - Intercomparisons of neutron irradiations and reproducibility of the Bjurbole standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Previously unpublished data from the stepwise heating analysis of the Valecitos 1 (V1) Bjurbole standard are presented together with the results of an isotopic dilution measurement of a KI monitor included in the V1 irradiation package. The results of these analyses are compared with the values observed in other irradiations. Apparent I-Xe 'formation' ages are reproducible for three different samples of Bjurbole, suggesting isotopic homogeneity for initial iodine in the bulk material. The systematics of neutron capture in Xe-135 (produced from U-235 neutron fission) are examined and verified in irradiated BCR-1.

  7. Influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions on the micro-hollow cathode discharge driven by thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2014-04-15

    The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms on the hollow cathode discharge driven by electron thermionic emission is studied using two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions modeling. A comparison with the results of two-component (electrons and Xe{sup +} ions) plasma modeling showed that the presence of the Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms in the plasma affects the plasma parameters (density, potential, and ion fluxes toward the cathode). The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions and Xe* atoms on the plasma sheath parameters, such as thickness and the ion velocity at the sheath edge, is analyzed.

  8. Observation of hyperfine mixing in measurements of a magnetic octupole decay in isotopically pure nickel-like 129Xe and 132Xe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V

    2006-12-21

    We present measurements of high statistical significance of the rate of the magnetic octupole (M3) decay in nickel-like ions of isotopically pure {sup 129}Xe and {sup 132}Xe. On {sup 132}Xe, an isotope with zero nuclear spin and therefore without hyperfine structure, the lifetime of the metastable level was established as (15.06 {+-} 0.24) ms. On {sup 129}Xe, an additional fast (2.7 {+-} 0.1 ms) decay component was established that represents hyperfine mixing with a level that decays by electric quadrupole (E2) radiation.

  9. Magnetic relaxation and activation energies of Xe irradiated DyBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Th.; Theuss, H.; Schuster, Th.; Kronmüller, H.; Kraus, M.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1995-02-01

    Magnetic-relaxation measurements M(t, T) have been carried out on DyBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystals before and after irradiation with 340 MeV Xe ions. The data are analyzed within the framework of first-order kinetics assuming a distribution of activation energies. The results are in good agreement with the assumption, that the most important pinning mechanism is given by the core interaction of pancake vortices or short sections of a flux line with defects. The irradiation-induced enhancement of the average activation energies of just about 70% can be explained by the broadening of the flux-line core if the flux line is located in the amorphous channels with radius R > ξ caused by irradiation damage.

  10. Response of GaN to energetic ion irradiation: conditions for ion track formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlui?, M.; Kozubek, R.; Lebius, H.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Buljan, M.; Siketi?, Z.; Scholz, F.; Meisch, T.; Jaki?, M.; Bernstorff, S.; Schleberger, M.; anti?, B.

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the response of wurzite GaN thin films to energetic ion irradiation. Both swift heavy ions (92?MeV Xe23+, 23?MeV I6+) and highly charged ions (100?keV Xe40+) were used. After irradiation, the samples were investigated using atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in channelling orientation and time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis. Only grazing incidence swift heavy ion irradiation induced changes on the surface of the GaN, when the appearance of nanoholes is accompanied by a notable loss of nitrogen. The results are discussed in the framework of the thermal spike model.

  11. Radiolysis and sputtering of carbon dioxide ice induced by swift Ti, Ni, and Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, C.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Trautmann, C.; Boduch, Ph.; Bordalo, V.; Domaracka, A.; Lv, X. Y.; Martinez, R.; Rothard, H.

    2015-12-01

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO2) is found in several bodies of the solar system, the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects, where it is exposed to cosmic and stellar wind radiation. Here, the chemical and physical modifications induced by heavy ion irradiation of pure solid CO2 at low temperature (T = 15-30 K) are analyzed. The experiments were performed with Ti (550 MeV) and Xe (630 MeV) ions at the UNILAC of GSI/Darmstadt and with Ni ions (46 and 52 MeV) at IRRSUD of GANIL/Caen. The evolution of the thin CO2 ice films (deposited on a CsI window) was monitored by mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). The dissociation rate of CO2, determined from the fluence dependence of the IR absorption peak intensity, is found to be proportional to the electronic stopping power Se. We also confirm that the sputtering yield shows a quadric increase with electronic stopping power. Furthermore, the production rates of daughter molecules such as CO, CO3 and O3 were found to be linear in Se.

  12. Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Shu; Ferrara, Joseph; Bell, Edward; Patel, Shital; Sieradzki, Manny

    2008-11-03

    The Optima XE is the first production worthy single wafer high energy implanter. The new system combines a state-of-art single wafer endstation capable of throughputs in excess of 400 wafers/hour with a production-proven RF linear accelerator technology. Axcelis has been evolving and refining RF Linac technology since the introduction of the NV1000 in 1986. The Optima XE provides production worthy beam currents up to energies of 1.2 MeV for P{sup +}, 2.9 MeV for P{sup ++}, and 1.5 MeV for B{sup +}. Energies as low as 10 keV and tilt angles as high as 45 degrees are also available., allowing the implanter to be used for a wide variety of traditional medium current implants to ensure high equipment utilization. The single wafer endstation provides precise implant angle control across wafer and wafer to wafer. In addition, Optima XE's unique dose control system allows compensation of photoresist outgassing effects without relying on traditional pressure-based methods. We describe the specific features, angle control and dosimetry of the Optima XE and their applications in addressing the ever-tightening demands for more precise process controls and higher productivity.

  13. Effect of XeCl laser irradiation on the defect structure of Nd:YAG crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahibakhsh, S.; Jelvani, S.; Maleki, M. H.; Mollabashi, M.; Abolhosseini, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of XeCl laser irradiation on Nd:YAG single crystal samples with various number of pulses at different repetition rates and laser fluences. Effects of the irradiation on the optical and structural properties of the crystal are analyzed by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Annihilation of some point defects of the crystal structure is observed following laser irradiation at a fluence of 100 mJ cm-2 with 100 and 500 pulses. Increasing the laser fluence and pulse numbers leads to saturation and new defects are found to be formed in the crystal. Additional absorption spectra of the irradiated samples show that oxygen vacancies in the Nd:YAG crystals are removed during the low-dose irradiation. The laser irradiation is compared to the thermal annealing process for Nd:YAG crystal modification. Additional absorption spectrum of an annealed sample reveals that induced negative absorption band at 236 nm is correlated with the annihilation of the oxygen vacancy center. Our results also demonstrate that XeCl laser treatment has several advantages upon annealing at high temperatures in the Nd:YAG crystal quality improvement. Thus, the present work can give a new approach to modify Nd:YAG crystals to be used in a wide variety of solid-state laser engineering.

  14. Secondary ion emission from arachidic acid LB-layers under Ar +, Xe +, Ga + and SF 5+ primary ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapel, D.; Brox, O.; Benninghoven, A.

    1999-02-01

    The influence of primary ion energy, mass and composition on sputtering and secondary ion emission of arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett mono- and multilayers, deposited on gold substrates, has been investigated. Ga +, Ar +, 129Xe+ and SF 5+ in the energy range 5-25 keV were used as primary ions. Yields Y, damage cross-sections ?, and ion formation efficiencies E have been determined for selected secondary ions, characterizing the molecular overlayer, the overlayer substrate interface and the substrate. We found a strong influence of layer thickness and of primary ion energy, mass and composition on Y, ? and E. Information depth increases with increasing ion energy and decreasing mass of primary ions, being higher for SF 5+ than for Xe +. Y, ? and E increase with increasing primary ion mass. They are considerably higher for a molecular (SF 5+) than for atomic ions of comparable mass ( 129Xe+). The experimental results supply information on the extension of impact cascades, generated in different substrate materials by different primary ion species and different energies. They demonstrate that in analytical SIMS application information depths can be minimized and yields and ion formation efficiencies can be maximized by the use of molecular primary ions.

  15. Radiation damage induced in Al2O3 single crystal by 90 MeV Xe ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirour, H.; Izerrouken, M.; Sari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiation damage induced in Al2O3 single crystal by 90 MeV Xe ions were investigated by optical absorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The irradiations were performed at the GANIL accelerator in Caen, France for the fluence in the range from 1012 to 6 × 1013 cm-2 at room temperature under normal incidence. The F+ and F22+ centers kinetic as a function of fluence deduced from the optical measurements explains that the single defects (F and F+) aggregate to F center clusters (F2 , F2+, F22+) during irradiation at high fluence (>1013 cm-2). Raman and XRD analysis reveal a partial disorder of 40% of Al2O3 in the studied fluence range in accordance with Kabir et al. (2008) study. The result suggests that this is due to the stress relaxation process which occurs at high fluence (>1013 cm-2).

  16. Irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels under helium implantation and heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hengqing; Zhang, Chonghong; Yang, Yitao; Meng, Yancheng; Jang, Jinsung; Kimura, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels after multi-energy He-ion implantation, or after irradiation with energetic heavy ions including Xe and Bi-ions was investigated with nano-indentation technique. Three kinds of high-Cr ODS ferritic steels including the commercial MA956 (19Cr-3.5Al), the 16Cr-0.1Ti and the 16Cr-3.5Al-0.1Zr were used. Data of nano-hardness were analyzed with an approach based on Nix-Gao model. The depth profiles of nano-hardness can be understood by the indentation size effect (ISE) in specimens of MA956 implanted with multi-energy He-ions or irradiated with 328 MeV Xe ions, which produced a plateau damage profile in the near-surface region. However, the damage gradient overlaps the ISE in the specimens irradiated with 9.45 Bi ions. The dose dependence of the nano-hardness shows a rapid increase at low doses and a slowdown at higher doses. An 1/2-power law dependence on dpa level is obtained. The discrepancy in nano-hardness between the helium implantation and Xe-ion irradiation can be understood by using the average damage level instead of the peak dpa level. Helium-implantation to a high dose (7400 appm/0.5 dpa) causes an additional hardening, which is possibly attributed to the impediment of motion dislocations by helium bubbles formed in high concentration in specimens.

  17. Ion irradiation enhanced crystal nucleation in amorphous Si thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, J. S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    1990-10-01

    The nucleation kinetics of the amorphous-to-crystal transition of Si films under 1.5 MeV Xe+ irradiation have been investigated by means of in situ transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range T=500-580 C. After an incubation period during which negligible nucleation occurs, a constant nucleation rate was observed in steady state, suggesting that homogeneous nucleation occurred. Compared to thermal crystallization, a significant enhancement in the nucleation rate during high-energy ion irradiation (five to seven orders of magnitude) was observed with an apparent activation energy of 3.90.75 eV.

  18. Ion energy distributions, electron temperatures, and electron densities in Ar, Kr, and Xe pulsed discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Hyungjoo; Zhu Weiye; Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2012-05-15

    Ion energy distributions (IEDs) were measured near the edge of Faraday-shielded, inductively coupled pulsed plasmas in Ar, Kr, or Xe gas, while applying a synchronous dc bias on a boundary electrode, late in the afterglow. The magnitudes of the full width at half maximum of the IEDs were Xe > Kr > Ar, following the order of the corresponding electron temperatures in the afterglow, T{sub e}(Xe) > T{sub e}(Kr) > T{sub e}(Ar). The measured decays of T{sub e} with time in the afterglow were in excellent agreement with predictions from a global model. Measured time-resolved electron and positive ion densities near the plasma edge did not decay appreciably, even in the 80 {mu}s long afterglow. This was attributed to transport of ions and electrons from the higher density central region of the plasma to the edge region, balancing the loss of plasma due to diffusion. This provides a convenient means of maintaining a relatively constant plasma density in the afterglow during processing using pulsed plasmas.

  19. Ion-ion neutralization of iodine in radio-frequency inductive discharges of Xe and I{sub 2} mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.N.; Kushner, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    Xe/I{sub 2} low-pressure electric discharges are being developed as efficient, long-lived ultraviolet lighting sources. In this work the kinetics of low pressure, 0.5{endash}5 Torr, radio-frequency inductively excited discharges sustained in Xe and I{sub 2} were investigated to determine the source of radiating states. The diagnostics applied in this study include optical absorption and emission spectroscopy, microwave interferometry, and microwave absorption. We found that in time modulated discharges, the emissions from excited states of atomic iodine decays with time constants of hundreds of microseconds. These observations are consistent with those states being populated by ion-ion neutralization. Electron-ion recombination leading to excited states appears not to be an important source of emission.

  20. Effect of heavy noble gas ion irradiation on terahertz emission efficiency of InP (100) and (111) crystal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhanpura, K.; Lewis, R. A.; Sirbu, L.; Enachi, M.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2014-09-01

    Emission of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation from heavily-doped (5 1018 cm-3) (100) and (111) InP bulk materials and nanoporous honeycomb membranes, irradiated with heavy noble gas (Kr and Xe) ions, is presented. Irradiating samples with Kr or Xe improves THz emission efficiency. For (111) samples, as for unirradiated samples, the irradiated porous structures generate more THz radiation than their bulk counterparts. On the other hand, in contrast to unirradiated (100) samples, the irradiated (100) samples show a decrease in THz emission with porosity. We attribute this behaviour to changes in the local electric field due to the combined effect of the irradiation and nanoporosity.

  1. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-15

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,v{sub x}) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  2. Study of the zirconium oxidation under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brerd, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Chevarier, A.; Jaffrzic, H.; Faust, H.; Balanzat, E.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to put in evidence the influence of damages due to the collision cascades which take place at the end of the heavy ion micrometer range, on the zirconium surface oxidation. A comparison between two zirconium oxidation experiments under heavy ion irradiation performed in the same temperature and pressure conditions is presented. In the first experiment, a 6 ?m thick zirconium foil is irradiated with a 50 MeV 129Xe beam which stops in the Zr foil. In the second one, a 2 ?m thick zirconium foil is crossed by the whole fission fragment distribution emitted in the 235U fission. In order to explain the unexpected increase of the oxidation rate observed in the first case, MeV argon irradiation experiments have been performed at IPNL. Results show that collision cascades created in the Zr foil, far from the surface, increase significantly the Zr oxidation.

  3. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.B.; Allen, W.R.; Buhl, R.A.; Packan, N.H.; Cook, S.W.; Mansur, L.K.

    1988-12-01

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm/sup 2/ in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 ..mu..m. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A guided-ion beam study of the reactions of Xe{sup +} and Xe{sup 2+} with NH{sub 3} at hyperthermal collision energies

    SciTech Connect

    Levandier, Dale J.; Chiu, Yu-Hui

    2010-10-21

    We have measured the absolute cross sections for reactions of Xe{sup +} and Xe{sup 2+} with NH{sub 3} at collision energies in the range from near-thermal to {approx}34 and {approx}69 eV, respectively. For Xe{sup +}, the cross section for charge transfer, the only exothermic channel, decreases from {approx}200 A{sup 2} below 0.1 eV to {approx}12 A{sup 2} at the highest energies studied. The production of NH{sub 3}{sup +} is the only channel observed below 5 eV, above which a small amount of NH{sub 2}{sup +} is also formed. In Xe{sup 2+} reactions, the main products observed are NH{sub 3}{sup +} and NH{sub 2}{sup +}. The charge transfer cross section decreases monotonically from {approx}80 to {approx}6 A{sup 2} over the studied energy range. The NH{sub 2}{sup +} cross section is similar to the charge transfer cross section at the lowest energies, and exhibits a second component above 0.4 eV, with a maximum of 65 A{sup 2} at 0.7 eV, above which the cross section decreases to {approx}30 A{sup 2} at the highest energies studied. At energies above 10 eV, a small amount of NH{sup +} is also observed in Xe{sup 2+} collisions. Product recoil velocity distributions were determined at selected collision energies, using guided-ion beam time-of-flight methods.

  5. 1 MeV electron irradiation of solid Xe nanoclusters in Al : an in-situ HRTEM study.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, S. E.; Furuya, K.; Song, M.; Birtcher, R. C.; Allen, C. W.

    1997-12-05

    Thin film samples of a simple embedded nanocluster system consisting of solid Xe precipitates in Al have been subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope. High-resolution images have been recorded on videotape in order to monitor the changes to the system resulting from the passage of electrons through the film. Inspection of the video recordings (in some cases frame-by-frame) reveals that complex, rapid processes occur under the electron beam. These include, movement of small clusters, coalescence of neighboring clusters, shape changes, the apparent melting and resolidification of the Xe, and the creation and annealing of extended defects within the Xe lattice. A tentative interpretation of some of the observations is presented in terms of the electron-induced displacement processes at the surface of the clusters.

  6. Energy Levels and Transition Rates for GA-Like Ions (Xe XXIV-Pr XXIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, F.

    2015-07-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and line strengths have been calculated for allowed electric dipole 4s 2 4p-4s4p 2 and 4s 2 4p-4s 2 4d transitions of Gallium-like ions from Z = 54 to 59, Xe XXIV, Cs XXV, Ba XXVI, La XXVII, Ce XXVIII, and Pr XXIX. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method, taking into account both correlations within the n = 4 complex and the quantum electrodynamic effects, has been used in the calculations. The results have been compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results.

  7. An apparatus to manipulate and identify individual Ba ions from bulk liquid Xe.

    PubMed

    Twelker, K; Kravitz, S; Montero Díez, M; Gratta, G; Fairbank, W; Albert, J B; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Daugherty, S J; Davis, C G; DeVoe, R; Delaquis, S; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fabris, L; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Hall, C; Heffner, M; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jiang, X S; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Ouellet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Retiere, F; Rowson, P C; Rozo, M P; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tosi, D; Vuilleumier, J-L; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Yang, L; Yen, Y-R; Zhao, Y B

    2014-09-01

    We describe a system to transport and identify barium ions produced in liquid xenon, as part of R&D towards the second phase of a double beta decay experiment, nEXO. The goal is to identify the Ba ion resulting from an extremely rare nuclear decay of the isotope (136)Xe, hence providing a confirmation of the occurrence of the decay. This is achieved through Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS). In the test setup described here, Ba ions can be produced in liquid xenon or vacuum and collected on a clean substrate. This substrate is then removed to an analysis chamber under vacuum, where laser-induced thermal desorption and RIS are used with time-of-flight mass spectroscopy for positive identification of the barium decay product. PMID:25273779

  8. Dose Control System in the Optima XE Single Wafer High Energy Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Shu; Yoon, Jongyoon; David, Jonathan

    2011-01-07

    Photoresist outgassing can significantly compromise accurate dosimetry of high energy implants. High energy implant even at a modest beam current produces high beam powers which create significantly worse outgassing than low and medium energy implants and the outgassing continues throughout the implant due to the low dose in typical high energy implant recipes. In the previous generation of high energy implanters, dose correction by monitoring of process chamber pressure during photoresist outgassing has been used. However, as applications diversify and requirements change, the need arises for a more versatile photoresist correction system to match the versatility of a single wafer high energy ion implanter. We have successfully developed a new dosimetry system for the Optima XE single wafer high energy ion implanter which does not require any form of compensation due to the implant conditions. This paper describes the principles and performance of this new dose system.

  9. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  10. Ion charge-resolved branching in decay of inner shell holes in Xe up to 1200 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eland, J. H. D.; Slater, C.; Zagorodskikh, S.; Singh, R.; Andersson, J.; Hult-Roos, A.; Lauer, A.; Squibb, R. J.; Feifel, R.

    2015-10-01

    Using a new multi-electron multi-ion coincidence apparatus and soft x-ray synchrotron radiation we have determined branching ratios to final Xe n+ states with 2 < n < 9 from the 4d-1, 4p-1, 4s-1, 3d-1 and 3p-1 Xe+ hole states. The coincident electron spectra give information on the Auger cascade pathways. We show that by judicious choice of coincident electrons, almost pure single charge states of the final ions can be selected.

  11. Photoionization cross section calculations for the halogen-like ions Kr+ and Xe+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; Ballance, C. P.

    2012-04-01

    Photoionization cross section calculations on the halogen-like ions; Kr+ and Xe+ have been performed for a photon energy range from each ion threshold to 15 eV, using large-scale close-coupling calculations within the Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix approximation. The results from our theoretical work are compared with recent measurements made at the ASTRID merged-beam set-up at the University of Aarhus in Denmark and from the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance trap method at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation facility in Saint-Aubin, France Bizau et al (2011 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44 055205) and the advanced light source Mller (2012 private communication), Aguliar et al (2012 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. at press). For each of these complex ions our theoretical cross section results over the photon energy range investigated are seen to be in excellent agreement with experiment. Resonance energy positions and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg resonances series identified in the spectra are compared with experiment for these complex halogen-like ions.

  12. Fast luminescence in vacuum ultraviolet region in heavy-ion-irradiated ?-Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshimizu, Masanori; Kimura, Kazuie; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Asai, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the time-resolved luminescence properties of ?-Al2O3 under heavy ion irradiations in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region. A luminescence band at approximately 170 nm, at which a luminescence band was observed under VUV irradiation and was ascribed to self-shrunk excitons. The decay rate increased with the linear energy transfer (LET). The luminescence efficiency of the band increased sharply with the LET for the case of Xe irradiation, whose LET was estimated to be higher than the threshold LET for track formation. The fast decay rate and high luminescence intensity for Xe irradiation was explained according to the enhanced radiative rate caused by close interactions among excited states.

  13. Single- and double-electron processes in collisions of Xe{sup 23+} ions with helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Baowei; Wan Chengliang; Chen Shangwen; Yu Deyang; Ruan Fangfang; Lu Rongchun; Cai Xiaohong; Shao Caojie

    2010-09-15

    We report the measurements of relative cross sections for single capture (SC), double capture (DC), single ionization (SI), double ionization (DI), and transfer ionization (TI) in collisions of Xe{sup 23+} ions with helium atoms in the velocity range of 0.65-1.32 a.u. The relative cross sections show a weak velocity dependence. The cross-section ratio of double- (DE) to single-electron (SE) removal from He, {sigma}{sub DE}/{sigma}{sub SE}, is about 0.45. Single capture is the dominant reaction channel which is followed by transfer ionization, while only very small probabilities are found for pure ionization and double capture. The present experimental data are in satisfactory agreement with the estimations by the extended classical over-barrier (ECB) model.

  14. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, Kin

    1996-05-01

    The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  15. Xenon-nitrogen chemistry: gas-phase generation and theoretical investigation of the xenon-difluoronitrenium ion F2N-Xe+.

    PubMed

    Operti, Lorenza; Rabezzana, Roberto; Turco, Francesca; Borocci, Stefano; Giordani, Maria; Grandinetti, Felice

    2011-09-12

    The xenon-difluoronitrenium ion F(2)N-Xe(+) , a novel xenon-nitrogen species, was obtained in the gas phase by the nucleophilic displacement of HF from protonated NF(3) by Xe. According to Mller-Plesset (MP2) and CCSD(T) theoretical calculations, the enthalpy and Gibbs energy changes (?H and ?G) of this process are predicted to be -3 kcal mol(-1) . The conceivable alternative formation of the inserted isomers FN-XeF(+) is instead endothermic by approximately 40-60 kcal mol(-1) and is not attainable under the employed ion-trap mass spectrometric conditions. F(2)N-Xe(+) is theoretically characterized as a weak electrostatic complex between NF(2)(+) and Xe, with a Xe-N bond length of 2.4-2.5 , and a dissociation enthalpy and free energy into its constituting fragments of 15 and 8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. F(2)N-Xe(+) is more fragile than the xenon-nitrenium ions (FO(2)S)(2)NXe(+), F(5)SN(H)Xe(+), and F(5)TeN(H)Xe(+) observed in the condensed phase, but it is still stable enough to be observed in the gas phase. Other otherwise elusive xenon-nitrogen species could be obtained under these experimental conditions. PMID:21826753

  16. Radioluminescence Investigation of Ion-Irradiated Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Bennett, B. L.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Martin, M. S.; Shao, L.

    2009-03-10

    Phosphors are materials that emit light under the excitation of incoming radiation. This property is used, among other applications, in radiation detection. Efficient energy transfer from the ionization track to the luminescent centers must occur to yield significant light output. Besides, the investigation of the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of phosphors is comparatively unexplored. In this work, we review radioluminescence (RL) investigation of ion-irradiated oxides and oxide phosphors, and present preliminary data on the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of intrinsic phosphor Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}(BGO). Commercial crystals were irradiated, and the irradiation effects characterized by means of RL measurements as a function of temperature, from 10 K to room temperature (RT), and optical absorption measurements. Overall, surface modification induced by ion irradiation leads to higher luminescence output.

  17. Radioluminescence Investigation Of Ion-irradiated Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, Luiz; Muenchausen, Ross; Bennett, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Phosphors are materials that emit light under the excitation of incoming radiation. This property is used, among other applications, in radiation detection. Efficient energy transfer from the ionization track to the luminescent centers must occur to yield significant light output. Besides, the investigation of the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of phosphors is comparatively unexplored. In this work, we review radioluminescence (RL) investigation of ion-irradiated oxides and oxide phosphors, and present preliminary data on the effects of ion irradiation on the luminescence of intrinsic phosphor Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}0{sub 12} (BGO). Commercial crystals were irradiated, and the irradiation effects characterized by means of RL measurements as a function of temperature, from 10K to room temperature (RT), and optical absorption measurements. Overall, surface modification induced by ion irradiation leads to higher luminescence output.

  18. Tracing electron-ion recombination in nanoplasmas produced by extreme-ultraviolet irradiation of rare-gas clusters.

    PubMed

    Schtte, B; Campi, F; Arbeiter, M; Fennel, Th; Vrakking, M J J; Rouze, A

    2014-06-27

    We investigate electron-ion recombination in nanoplasmas produced by the ionization of rare-gas clusters with intense femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses. The relaxation dynamics following XUV irradiation is studied using time-delayed 790-nm pulses, revealing the generation of a large number of excited atoms resulting from electron-ion recombination. In medium-sized Ar-Xe clusters, these atoms are preferentially created in the Xe core within 10ps after the cluster ionization. The ionization of excited atoms serves as a sensitive probe for monitoring the cluster expansion dynamics up to the ns time scale. PMID:25014813

  19. Tracing Electron-Ion Recombination in Nanoplasmas Produced by Extreme-Ultraviolet Irradiation of Rare-Gas Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, B.; Campi, F.; Arbeiter, M.; Fennel, Th.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Rouzée, A.

    2014-06-01

    We investigate electron-ion recombination in nanoplasmas produced by the ionization of rare-gas clusters with intense femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses. The relaxation dynamics following XUV irradiation is studied using time-delayed 790-nm pulses, revealing the generation of a large number of excited atoms resulting from electron-ion recombination. In medium-sized Ar-Xe clusters, these atoms are preferentially created in the Xe core within 10 ps after the cluster ionization. The ionization of excited atoms serves as a sensitive probe for monitoring the cluster expansion dynamics up to the ns time scale.

  20. Fragmentation of DNA components by hyperthermal heavy ion (Ar+ and Xe+) impact in the condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Sarvenaz Sarabipour, Ms; Michaud, Marc; Deng, Zongwu; Huels, Michael A.

    The overriding environmental factor that presently limits human endeavors in space is exposure to heavy ion radiation. While knowledge of its damage to living tissue is essential for radiation protection and risk estimates for astronauts, very little data exists at the molecular level regarding the nascent DNA damage by the primary particle track, or by secondary species during subsequent reaction cascades. This persistent lack of a basic understanding of nascent damage induced by such low dose, high LET radiation, introduces unacceptable errors in radiation risk estimates (based mainly on extrapolation from high dose, low LET radiation), particularly for long term exposure. Mutagenic effects induced by heavy ion radiation to cells are largely due to DNA damage by secondary transient species, i.e. secondary ballistic ions, electrons and radicals generated along the ion tracks; the secondary ions have hyperthermal energies up to several 100 eV, which they will deposit within a few nm in the surrounding medium; thus their LET is very high, and yields lethal clustered DNA lesions. We present measurements of molecular damage induced in films of DNA components by ions with precisely such low energies (1-100 eV) and compare results to conventional electron impact measurements. Experiments are conducted in UHV using a mass selected low energy ion source, and a high-resolution quadrupole MS to monitor ion yields desorbing from molecular films. Among the major fragments, NH4 + is identified in the desorption mass spectra of irradiated films of Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, indicating efficient deamination; in cells this results in pre-mutagenic lesions. Experiments with 5-amino-Uracil, and comparison to previous results on uracil and thymine show that deamination is a key step in the NH4 + fragment formation. For Adenine, we also observe formation of amine aducts in the films, viz. amination of Adenine, and global fragmentation in all ion impact mass spectra, attributed mainly to kinetic & potential ion scattering.[Funded by NSERC and the Canadian Space Agency].

  1. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ions: Study of the Auger Decay of the 4 d →n f (n =4 ,5 ) Resonances in Xe5 + Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizau, J.-M.; Cubaynes, D.; Guilbaud, S.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Andric, L.; Palaudoux, J.; Al Shorman, M. M.; Blancard, C.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied, for the first time by electron spectroscopy, the Auger decay of the 4 d →n f (n =4 ,5 ) resonances in Xe5 + ion. By detecting in coincidence the Auger electrons with the resulting Xe6 + ions, we unravel the contribution of the different final ionic states to the total cross section measured by ion spectroscopy. A strong intensity of 5 s 5 p satellite lines has been observed, up to 4 times stronger than the 5 s2 main lines. This unexpected behavior is confirmed by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. This technique provides the most stringent test for theoretical models and allows us to disentangle the contribution of ions in the ground and metastable states in the target beam.

  2. TEM, XRD and nanoindentation characterization of Xenon ion irradiation damage in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. F.; Li, J. J.; Li, D. H.; Liu, R. D.; Lei, G. H.; Huang, Q.; Yan, L.

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional and bulk specimens of a 20% cold-worked 316 austenitic stainless steel (CW 316 SS) has been characterized by TEM, XRD and nanoindentation to determine the microstructural evolution and mechanical property changes of 316 SS after irradiation with 7 MeV Xe26+ ions. TEM results reveal the presence of dislocation loops with a number density of approximately 3 1022 m-3 and sizes between 3 to 10 nm due to the collapse of vacancy rich cores inside displacement cascades. Peak broadening observed in XRD diffraction patters reveal systematic changes to lattice parameters due to irradiation. The calculated indentation values in irradiated 316 SS were found to be much higher in comparison to the unirradiated specimen, indicating the dose dependent effect of irradiation on hardness. The relationship between irradiation induced microstructural evolution and the changes to the mechanical properties of CW 316 SS are discussed in the context of fluence and irradiation temperature.

  3. Heavy Ion Irradiated Ferromagnetic Films: The Cases of Cobalt and Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, K. P.; Zhang, K.; Mller, G. A.; Gupta, R.; Schaaf, P.

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline, e-gun deposited Co, Fe and Co/Fe films, tens of nanometers thick, have been irradiated with Ne, Kr, Xe and/or Fe ions to fluences of up to 5 1016 ions/cm2. Changes in the magnetic texture induced by the implanted ions have been measured by means of hyperfine methods, such as Magnetic Orientation Mssbauer Spectroscopy (Fe), and by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. In Co and CoFe an hcp ? fcc phase transition has been observed under the influence of Xe-ion implantation. For 1016 Xe-ions/cm2, ion beam mixing in the Co/Fe system produces a soft magnetic material with uniaxial anisotropy. The effects have been correlated with changes in the microstructure as determined via X-ray diffraction. The influences of internal and external strain fields, an external magnetic field and pre-magnetization have been studied. A comprehensive understanding of the various effects and underlying physical reasons for the modifications appears to emerge from these investigations.

  4. A photoionization study of the charge transfer reactions - Xe/+/ + O2 yields O2/+/ + Xe and O2/+/ + Xe yields Xe/+/ + O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The charge transfer reactions: Xe(+) + O2 yields O2(+) + Xe and O2(+) + Xe yields Xe(+) + O2 were studied using photoionization mass spectroscopy. It is shown that the reaction of Xe(+)(2P-3/2) ions with O2 molecules is much more efficient than the reaction of Xe(+)(2P-1/2) ions with O2 molecules. The charge transfer reaction of O2(+) ions with Xe atoms was detected for O2(+) ions in the a 4Pi-u state.

  5. Swift heavy ion irradiation of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in silica: Radiation-induced deoxidation and shape elongation

    SciTech Connect

    Amekura, H.; Tsuya, D.; Mitsuishi, K.; Nakayama, Y.; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Singh, U. B.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mohapatra, S.

    2013-11-11

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in amorphous SiO{sub 2} were irradiated with 200 MeV Xe{sup 14+} swift heavy ions (SHIs) to a fluence of 5.0 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Optical linear dichroism was induced in the samples by the irradiation, indicating shape transformation of the NPs from spheres to anisotropic ones. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that some NPs were elongated to prolate shapes; the elongated NPs consisted not of ZnO but of Zn metal. The SHI irradiation induced deoxidation of small ZnO NPs and successive shape elongation of the deoxidized metal NPs.

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiation of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in silica: Radiation-induced deoxidation and shape elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekura, H.; Okubo, N.; Ishikawa, N.; Tsuya, D.; Mitsuishi, K.; Nakayama, Y.; Singh, U. B.; Khan, S. A.; Mohapatra, S.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2013-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in amorphous SiO2 were irradiated with 200 MeV Xe14+ swift heavy ions (SHIs) to a fluence of 5.0 × 1013 ions/cm2. Optical linear dichroism was induced in the samples by the irradiation, indicating shape transformation of the NPs from spheres to anisotropic ones. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that some NPs were elongated to prolate shapes; the elongated NPs consisted not of ZnO but of Zn metal. The SHI irradiation induced deoxidation of small ZnO NPs and successive shape elongation of the deoxidized metal NPs.

  7. Development of function-graded proton exchange membrane for PEFC using heavy ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Fumiya; Yoshikawa, Taeko; Oshima, Akihiro; Oshima, Yuji; Takasawa, Yuya; Fukutake, Naoyuki; Gowa Oyama, Tomoko; Urakawa, Tatsuya; Fujita, Hajime; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Oka, Toshitaka; Kudo, Hisaaki; Murakami, Takeshi; Hama, Yoshimasa; Washio, Masakazu

    2011-08-01

    The graded energy deposition of heavy ion beam irradiation to polymeric materials was utilized to synthesize a novel proton exchange membrane (PEM) with the graded density of sulfonic acid groups toward the thickness direction. Stacked Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (FEP) films were irradiated by Xe 54+ ion beam with the energy of 6 MeV/u under a vacuum condition. The induced trapped radicals by the irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiated films were grafted with styrene monomer and then sulfonated. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that the densities of sulfonic acid groups were controlled for injection "Surface" and transmit "Back" sides of the fabricated PEM. The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabricated by the function-graded PEM showed improved fuel cell performance in terms of voltage stability. It was expected that the function-graded PEM could control the graded concentration of sulfonic acid groups in PEM.

  8. Anisotropic proton-conducting membranes prepared from swift heavy ion-beam irradiated ETFE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yosuke; Chen, Jinhua; Asano, Masaharu; Maekawa, Yasunari; Katakai, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    Poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films were irradiated by swift heavy ion-beams of 129Xe 23+ with fluences of 0, 3 10 6, 3 10 7, 3 10 8 and 3 10 9 ions/cm 2, followed by ?-ray pre-irradiation for radiation grafting of styrene onto the ETFE films and sulfonation of the grafted ETFE films to prepare highly anisotropic proton-conducting membranes. The fluence of Xe ions and the addition of water in the grafting solvent were examined to determine their effect on the proton conductivity of the resultant membranes. It was found that the polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by grafting the styrene monomer in a mixture of 67% isopropanol and 33% water to the ETFE film with an ion-beam irradiation fluence of 3.0 10 6 ions/cm 2 was a highly anisotropic proton-conducting material, as the proton conductivity was three or more times higher in the thickness direction than in the surface direction of the membrane.

  9. Melting of crystalline and amorphous silicon by Ruby, XeCl and KrF laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, M.J.; White, C.W.; Narayan, J.; Stritzker, B.

    1985-06-01

    Pulses of radiation from a ruby laser (lambda = 693 nm, FWHM = 12 ns), a XeCl excimer laser (lambda = 308 nm, FWHM = 25 and 70 ns), and a KrF excimer laser (lambda = 248 nm, FWHM = 32 ns) have been used to induce melting of crystalline silicon and thin (<1 ..mu..m) amorphous layers of Si on crystalline silicon substrates. Depths of melting in crystalline Si were measured by TEM observations of the removal of dislocation loops created by low-dose ion implantation. Depths of melting of amorphous Si layers were monitored by observing the boundaries between a large polycrystalline region, assumed to form by normal melting from and resolidification back to the free surface, and a fine polycrystalline region, assumed to form by the explosive propagation inward of a thin buried liquid layer. In this work we report the comparison of predictions of heat flow calculations to the measured depth of melting in both crystalline and amorphous silicon. Excellent agreement is found with the Ruby and the XeCl results. Reasonable agreement with the KrF results is obtained only if the silicon liquid phase reflectivity at 249 nm is significantly less than that obtained by extrapolation of the optical parameters from longer wavelengths.

  10. Effects of ion irradiation in metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Jesse; Fu, E. G.; Bassiri, G.; Dvorak, B. M.; David Theodore, N.; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, D. A.; Martin, Michael; Hollander, Mark; Zhang, Xinghang; Shao, Lin

    2009-05-01

    Application of metallic glasses as structural materials has been limited by their poor ductility. To overcome brittle failure, nanocrystals are intentionally introduced to stabilize the glasses. In this study, we report on the application of ion irradiation to induce nanocrystalization in a Cu50Zr45Ti5 (CZT) alloy. Transmission electron microcopy, microindentation and nanoindentation have been used to characterize the CZT alloy irradiated with 140 keV He ions at room temperature. Hardness enhancement was observed near the projected range of the He ions, coinciding with the formation of nanocrystals. Such microstructural changes, however, were not observed in the near surface region, where the electronic stopping process is dominant.

  11. In situ observation of defect growth beyond the irradiated region in yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by 400 keV xenon ion-beam at -90 and 30{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.; Kodali, P.; Nastasi, M.

    1996-04-01

    Single crystals of yttria-stabilized zirconia were irradiated with 400 keV Xe ion-beam at room temperature and minus 90 degrees centigrade. Defect growth was monitored in situ with Rutherford Backscattering and ion channeling techniques using a 2 MeV He ion beam.

  12. Ion irradiation effects on metallic nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C.S.; Foran, G.J.; Cookson, D.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2008-04-02

    We have investigated structural and morphological properties of metallic nanocrystals (NCs) exposed to ion irradiation. NCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy in combination with advanced synchrotron-based analytical techniques, in particular X-ray absorption spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. A number of different effects were observed depending on the irradiation conditions. At energies where nuclear stopping is predominant, structural disorder/amorphization followed by inverse Ostwald ripening/dissolution due to ion beam mixing was observed for Au and Cu NCs embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ion-irradiation-induced crystalline to amorphous transition in the NCs, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding bulk metals, was attributed to their initially higher structural energy as compared to bulk material and possibly preferential nucleation of the amorphous phase at the NC/SiO{sub 2} interface. At very high irradiation energies (swift heavy ion irradiation), where the energy loss is nearly entirely due to electronic stopping, a size-dependent shape transformation of the NCs from spheres to rod like shapes was apparent in Au NCs. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with considerations on melting of the NCs in the ion track as one mechanism involved in the shape transformation.

  13. Investigation of the dynamics of formation of excited atoms, ions, and excimer molecules in the plasma of an electric-discharge XeCl laser

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, V.E.; Treshchalov, A.B.

    1985-12-01

    The plasma of an electric-discharge XeCl laser was investigated by the method of absorption probing with tunable dye laser pulses. The duration of a probe pulse was 7 nsec and the half-width of the laser line was 15 pm. A synchronization system made it possible to shift the probe pulse on the time scale relative to the discharge and this could be done with an accuracy of 3 nsec. The absorption spectra were determined in the range 335--610 nm for a mixture of the composition He:Xe:HCl = 550:8:1 at a pressure of p = 2.2 atm. The time dependences of the absolute concentrations of Xe*, He*, Xe/sup +/*, and Cl/sup -/ were obtained. The dynamics of population of excited atoms and ions was analyzed. Amplification of a small signal was used to determine the time dependence of the absolute concentration of XeCl* excimer molecules. It was found that during the initial stage of the discharge the dominant XeCl* formation channel was a harpoon reaction, whereas during later stages the ion--ion recombination process predominated.

  14. Investigations of Atomic Transport Induced by Heavy Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banwell, Thomas Clyde

    The mechanisms of atomic transport induced by ion irradiation generally fall into the categories of anisotropic or isotropic processes. Typical examples of these are recoil implantation and cascade mixing, respectively. We have measured the interaction of these processes in the mixing of Ti/SiO(,2)/Si, Cr/SiO(,2)/Si and Ni/SiO(,2)/Si multi-layers irradiated with Xe at fluences of 0.01 - 10 x 10('15)cm('-2). The fluence dependence of net metal transport into the underlying layers was measured with different thicknesses of SiO(,2) and different sample temperatures during irradiation (-196 to 500C). There is a linear dependence at low fluences. At high fluences, a square-root behavior predominates. For thin SiO(,2) layers (<20nm), the cross -over point depends on the SiO(,2) thickness. These results are readily interpreted in terms of competition between the flux of injected atoms and diffusion of the accumulating metal. The detailed analysis allows us to speculate on the role of chemical reaction kinetics in controlling the outcome of intra-cascade processes. There is no significant correlation between the reactivity of the metal with SiO(,2) and the amount of mixing observed when the irradiations are performed at 25C or below. The contribution from primary recoils is quite pronounced since the gross mixing is small. A significant correlation exists between the mixing and the energy deposited through elastic collisions F(,D ). Several models are examined in an attempt to describe the transport process in Ni/SiO(,2). It is likely that injection of Ni by secondary recoil implantation is primarily responsible for getting Ni into the SiO(,2). Secondary recoil injection is thought to scale with F(,D). Trends in the mixing rates indicate that the dominant mechanism for Ti and Cr could be the same as for Ni. The processes of atomic transport and phase formation clearly fail to be separable at higher temperatures. A positive correlation with chemical reactivity emerges at higher irradiation temperatures. The temperature at which rapid mixing occurs is not much below that for spontaneous thermal reaction. Less Ni is retained in the SiO(,2) at high irradiation temperatures. Ni incorporated in the SiO(,2) by low temperature irradiation is not expelled during a consecutive high temperature irradiation. The Ni remains trapped within larger clusters during a sequential 500C irradiation. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

  15. Observation of sputtering of yttrium from Y2O3 ceramics by low-energy Ar, Kr, and Xe ion bombardment in microwave-excited plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2015-12-01

    Y2O3 ceramics were immersed in microwave-excited Ar, Kr, and Xe plasmas, and the sputtering of yttrium atoms from Y2O3 ceramics as a result of low-energy (range of approximately 10 eV) Ar, Kr, and Xe ion bombardment was observed. The amount of sputtered yttrium atoms well correlated with the ion bombardment energy estimated by Langmuir probe measurement. The estimated sputtering yield was 10‑5 or less for such a low ion bombardment condition.

  16. A new method of chlorophenols decomposition based on UV-irradiation by XeBr-excilamp and their subsequent biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnin, E. A.; Matafonova, G. G.; Batoev, V. B.; Christofi, N.

    2008-01-01

    The combined decomposition method of chlorophenols (CP) is offered. The method is based on photolysis of CP through XeBr-excilamp UV irradiation at 283 nm in a flow photoreactor with subsequent treatment of photolysis products by microorganism-destructor B. cereus isolated from an aeration pond of Baikal pulp-and-paper mill. At initial concentration of CP of 20 mg/l the polluted solutions can be utilized directly by means of biological treatment using B. cereus under aerobic conditions. However, if the initial CP concentration is higher than 20 mg/l, the polluted solutions are low biodegradable. It is shown, that the combined treatment is most effective method in this case. At initial CP concentration of 50 mg/l and higher it is suggested to use the deep preliminary UV-treatment with the purpose of removal 80-90 % of initial CP. It is revealed, that 4-CP is relatively persistent compound for B. cereus, easily decomposed by UV-radiation of XeBr-excilamp. As a result of subsequent biological treatment during 10 days the utilization of basic CP photoproducts is obtained. Experimentally, the preliminary UV-processing time was essentially less than that found earlier by E. Tamer, Z. Hamid, Aly A. (Chemosphere, 2006), where the half-life periods of initial CP were from 2.2 to 54 hours at the same value of initial concentration of CP. Correspondingly, the total CP decomposition process was accompanied by high power inputs. It is suggested to use mentioned above method for effective CP decomposition at high concentration values.

  17. Cantilever beam stress measurements during ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sambeek, A.I. Van; Averback, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    In-situ stress measurements on single crystal MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been performed during ion irradiation. A cantilevered beam sample arrangement was used, with the stress in the implanted layer determined form the deflection of the sample as measured by the change in capacitance between the free end of the sample and a reference electrode. Point defect concentrations are obtained by dividing the volume strain by the defect relaxation volume, with saturation values of 0.8 to 1.2% obtained for 1.0 MeV Ne, Ar and Kr irradiations. Defect production is sublinear with dose, with an efficiency of less than 25% compared to Kinchin-Pease predictions. Ionization induced annealing is evaluated with 1.0 MeV He and 1.0 MeV H irradiations following heavy ion irradiation.

  18. In situ ion irradiation of zirconium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Christopher J.; Motta, Arthur T.; Kirk, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a candidate material for use in one of the layers of TRISO coated fuel particles to be used in the Generation IV high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor, and thus it is necessary to study the effects of radiation damage on its structure. The microstructural evolution of ZrCx under irradiation was studied in situ using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory. Samples of nominal stoichiometries ZrC0.8 and ZrC0.9 were irradiated in situ using 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at various irradiation temperatures (T = 20 K-1073 K). In situ experiments made it possible to continuously follow the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation using diffraction contrast imaging. Images and diffraction patterns were systematically recorded at selected dose points. After a threshold dose during irradiations conducted at room temperature and below, black-dot defects were observed which accumulated until saturation. Once created, the defect clusters did not move or get destroyed during irradiation so that at the final dose the low temperature microstructure consisted only of a saturation density of small defect clusters. No long-range migration of the visible defects or dynamic defect creation and elimination were observed during irradiation, but some coarsening of the microstructure with the formation of dislocation loops was observed at higher temperatures. The irradiated microstructure was found to be only weakly dependent on the stoichiometry.

  19. Deformation behavior of ion-irradiated polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S.O.; Felter, T.E.; Anthamatten, M.; Bradby, J.E.

    2004-08-02

    We study nanoindentation hardness, Young's modulus, and tensile strength of polyimide (Kapton H) films bombarded with MeV light ions in the predominantly electronic stopping power regime. Results show that, for all the ion irradiation conditions studied, bombardment increases the hardness and Young's modulus and decreases the tensile strength. These changes depend close to linearly on ion fluence and superlinearly (with a power-law exponent factor of {approx}1.5) on electronic energy loss. Physical mechanisms of radiation-induced changes to mechanical properties of polyimide are discussed.

  20. In situ imaging of highly charged ion irradiated mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, L. P.; Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the modification of mica surfaces due to the impact of Xe44+ ions by imaging the ion-exposed surfaces with atomic force microscopy in vacuum. By incorporating the microscope into the vacuum chamber where the samples are exposed to the ions, we rule out posterior modification of these features in air. The features, raised bumps 19(2) nm in diameter, are similar to those imaged previously in air, however, their heights appear to be larger than previously reported.

  1. Cadmium Nanowire Formation Induced by Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Wang, Chong M.; Young, James S.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Lian, Jie; Wang, Lumin; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2005-07-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanowires, of semiconductors and metals are of great technological interest due to their potential for many advanced technology applications. Utilization of these materials versus their bulk counterparts will not only allow for device miniaturisation, but also may improve device performance or create new functions. Here we report a novel method for the synthesis of crystalline Cd-nanowires without involving either templates or a “seeded” structure. Ion irradiation at low temperatures (≤ 295 K) has been used to induce material decomposition and phase segregation in a cadmium niobate pyrochlore (Cd2Nb2O7) wafer. During the formation and rupture of the gas-filled blisters in the material, soft metallic Cd is extruded/extracted as nanowires through pores in the exfoliated layer. The entire process may be readily controlled by changing the ion irradiation conditions (e.g., ion species, dose and energy) with minimal thermal constraints.

  2. Irradiation of nuclear track emulsions with thermal neutrons, heavy ions, and muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rusakova, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n th +10 B ? 7 Li + (?)+ ? were studied in nuclear track emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with 86Kr+17 and 124Xe+26 ions of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsionsmade it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nucleardiffraction interaction mechanism.

  3. Enhanced light absorption of amorphous silicon thin film by substrate control and ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Large-area periodically aligned silicon nanopillar (PASiNP) arrays were fabricated by magnetic sputtering with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on substrates coated by a monolayer of close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanospheres. The structure of PASiNP arrays could be manipulated by changing the diameter of PS nanospheres. Enhanced light absorptance within a wavelength range from 300 to 1,000nm was observed as the diameter of nanopillars and porosity of PASiNP arrays increased. Meanwhile, Xe ion irradiation with dose from 1??1014 to 50??1014 ions/cm2 was employed to modify the surface morphology and top structure of thin films, and the effect of the irradiation on the optical bandgap was discussed. PACS code 81.15.Cd; 78.66.Jg; 61.80.Jh PMID:24717078

  4. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penninkhof, J. J.; van Dillen, T.; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; van Blaaderen, A.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks.

  5. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  6. Surface and interface modification of Zr/SiC interface by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoroge, E. G.; Theron, C. C.; Malherbe, J. B.; van der Berg, N. G.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study thin Zr films (135 nm) were deposited on 6H-SiC substrate at room temperature by sputter deposition. The Zr/SiC couples were irradiated by 167 MeV Xe26+ ions at room temperature at fluences of 5.0 1012, 1.0 1013, 5.0 1013, 2.0 1014, 3.1 1014 and 6.3 1014 ions/cm2. The samples were analysed before and after irradiation using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary electron microscopy (SEM). The surface morphology from SEM analysis revealed a homogeneous Zr surface which did not vary with increasing fluences of irradiation. AFM analysis revealed that the Rrms surface roughness did increase from the as-deposited value of 1.6 nm and then decrease at higher SHI irradiation fluences to 1.4 nm. RBS results indicate that interface mixing between Zr and SiC interface occurred and varied linearly with irradiation ion fluence. The value obtained for diffusivity of Zr shows that the mixing was due to interdiffusion across the interface during a transient melt phase according to the thermal spike model.

  7. Mutation induced with ion beam irradiation in rose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Nagatomi, S.; Morishita, T.; Degi, K.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y.

    2003-05-01

    The effects of mutation induction by ion beam irradiation on axillary buds in rose were investigated. Axillary buds were irradiated with carbon and helium ion beams, and the solid mutants emerged after irradiation by repeated cutting back. In helium ion irradiation, mutations were observed in plants derived from 9 buds among 56 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini' and in plants derived from 10 buds among 61 irradiated buds in 'Red Minimo'. In carbon ion, mutations were observed in plants derived from 12 buds among 88 irradiated buds in 'Orange Rosamini'. Mutations were induced not only in higher doses but also in lower doses, with which physiological effect by irradiation was hardly observed. Irradiation with both ion beams induced mutants in the number of petals, in flower size, in flower shape and in flower color in each cultivar.

  8. Theoretical investigation of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe)

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2015-04-14

    The equilibrium geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) were investigated using the following method: Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP), Boese-Matrin for Kinetics (BMK), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)). The results indicate that HHeNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HArNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HKrNH{sub 3}{sup +}, and HXeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are metastable species that are protected from decomposition by high energy barriers, whereas the HNeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ion is unstable because of its relatively small energy barrier for decomposition. The bonding nature of noble-gas atoms in HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} was also analyzed using the atoms in molecules approach, natural energy decomposition analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis.

  9. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-02-08

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation.

  10. Microstructure of Swift Heavy Ion Irradiated MgAl(Sub 2)O(Sub 4) Spinel

    SciTech Connect

    Matzke, H.; Skuratov, V.A.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1998-11-30

    Plan view and cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) following room temperature irradiation with either 430 MeV Kr, 614 MeV Xe, or 72 MeV I ions. The fluences ranged from 1 x 10{sup 16}/m{sup 2} (single track regime) to 1 x 10{sup 20}/m{sup 2}. Destruction of the ordered spinel crystal structure on both the anion and cation sublattices was observed in the ion tracks at low fluences. At intermediate fluences, the overlapping ion tracks induced the formation of a new metastable crystalline phase. Amorphization with a volumetric expansion of {approximately}35% was observed in spinel irradiated with swift heavy ions (electronic stopping powers >7 keV/nm) at fluences above 1 x 10{sup 19}/m{sup 2}. These results demonstrate that swift heavy ion radiation can induce microstructural changes not achievable with conventional elastic collision irradiation at comparable temperatures.

  11. On-line Raman spectroscopy of calcite and malachite during irradiation with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedera, Sebastian; Burchard, Michael; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöppner, Nicole; Trautmann, Christina; Severin, Daniel; Romanenko, Anton; Hubert, Christian

    2015-12-01

    A new on-line Raman System, which was installed at the M3-beamline at the UNILAC, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt was used for first "in situ" spectroscopic measurements. Calcite and malachite samples were irradiated in steps between 1 × 109 and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 with Au ions (calcite) and Xe ions (malachite) at an energy of 4.8 MeV/u. After irradiation, calcite revealed a new Raman band at 437 cm-1 and change of the full width at half maximum for the 1087 cm-1 Raman band. The Raman bands of malachite change significantly with increasing fluence. Up to a fluence of 7 × 1010 ions/cm2, all existing bands decrease in intensity. Between 8 × 1010 and 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 a broad Cu2O band between 110 and 220 cm-1 occurs, which superimposes the pre-existing Raman bands. Additionally, a new broad band between 1000 and 1750 cm-1 is formed, which is interpreted as a carbon coating. In contrast to the Cu2O band, the carbon band vanished when further irradiating the sample. The installations as well as first in situ measurements at room temperature are presented.

  12. Phase transformations in ion-irradiated silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, C. A.; Lau, S. S.; Suni, I.; Hung, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has three objectives. The first is concerned with the phase transformation of CoSi2 under ion implantation and the subsequent crystallization characteristics during annealing, taking into account epitaxial and nonepitaxial recrystallization behavior. The second objective is related to a study of the general trend of implantation-induced damage and crystallization behavior for a number of commonly used silicides. The last objective involves a comparison of the recrystallization behavior of cosputtered refractory silicides with that of the ion-implanted silicides. It was found that epitaxial regrowth of ion-irradiated CoSi2 occurred for samples with an epitaxial seed left at the Si/CoSi2 interface. A structural investigation of CoSi2 involving transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that after high-dose implantation CoSi2 is amorphous.

  13. I-Xe systematics in LL chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.; Honda, M.

    1988-01-01

    A stepwise heating analysis of Ar and Xe data from five neutron-irradiated whole rock LL chondrites (Soko Banja, Alta Ameen, Tuxtuac, Guidder, and Olivenza) is presented, emphasizing the complicated thermal history of ordinary chondrites. None of the present meteorites show a well-defined (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) apparent age plateau comprised of more than two release fractions. Most of the samples are found to yield well-defined high-temperature correlations between Xe-129/Xe-130 and Xe-128/Xe-130, and thus determinations of I-129/I-127 and Xe-129/Xe-130 at the time of isotopic closure for Xe. As in the case of other ordinary chondrites, the I-Xe systematics for LL chondrites correlate neither with a metamorphic grade nor with chronologies based opon other methods.

  14. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-12-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ?1 1024 ions m-2. Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four.

  15. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-?) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  16. Irradiation effect of yttria-stabilized zirconia by high dose dual ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Wen; Wang, Xu; Liu, Shi-Yi; Tang, Mei-Xiong; Zhao, Zi-Qiang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Bao-Yi; Cao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is irradiated with 2.0-MeV Au2+ ions and 30-keV He+ ions. Three types of He, Au, Au + He (successively) ion irradiation are performed. The maximum damage level of a sequential dual ion beam implanted sample is smaller than single Au ion implanted sample. A comparable volume swelling is found in a sequential dual ion beam irradiated sample and it is also found in a single Au ion implanted sample. Both effects can be explained by the partial reorganization of the dislocation network into weakly damaged regions in the dual ion beam implanted YSZ. A vacancy-assisted helium trapping/diffusion mechanism in the dual ion beam irradiated condition is discussed. No phase transformation or amorphization behavior happens in all types of ion irradiated YSZ.

  17. Materials Modification Under Ion Irradiation: JANNUS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Trouslard, Ph.

    2004-12-01

    JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nano-Science and Nuclear Simulation) is a project designed to study the modification of materials using multiple ion beams and in-situ TEM observation. It will be a unique facility in Europe for the study of irradiation effects, the simulation of material damage due to irradiation and in particular of combined effects. The project is also intended to bring together experimental and modelling teams for a mutual fertilisation of their activities. It will also contribute to the teaching of particle-matter interactions and their applications. JANNUS will be composed of three accelerators with a common experimental chamber and of two accelerators coupled to a 200 kV TEM.

  18. Space Weathering on Primitive Asteroids: Ion Irradiation of Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    We simulate space weathering processes on primitive bodies using ion implantation as a simulation of solar wind irradiation. The laboratory analogs we irradiate and analyze with visible to mid-infrared spectroscopy are carbonaceous chondrites.

  19. Amorphization and dynamic annealing of hexagonal SiC upon heavy-ion irradiation: Effects on swelling and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbiriou, Xavier; Costantini, Jean-Marc; Sauzay, Maxime; Sorieul, Stephanie; Thome, Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Structural, mechanical, and dimensional evolutions of silicon carbide (SiC) induced by heavy-ion irradiations are studied by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling (RBS/C), nanoindentation, and surface profilometry measurements. 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystals were irradiated with 4 MeV Au{sup 2+} and 4 MeV Xe{sup +} ions at room temperature (RT) or 400 deg. C. Using a Monte Carlo program to simulate the RBS/C spectra (MCCHASY code), we find that Au ion irradiation at RT induces a total silicon sublattice disorder related to full amorphization at a dose of about 0.4 displacement per atom (dpa). A two-step damage process is found on the basis of the disordered fractions deduced from RBS/C data. Complete amorphization cannot be reached upon both Au and Xe ion irradiations at 400 deg. C up to about 26 dpa because of the dynamic annealing of defects. When complete amorphization is reached at RT, the Young's modulus and Berkovich hardness of irradiated 6H-SiC samples are lower by, respectively, 40% and 45% than those of the virgin crystals. The out-of-plane expansion measured by surface profilometry increases versus irradiation dose and the saturation value measured in the completely amorphous layer (normalized to the ion projected range) is close to 25%. We show that the modifications of the macroscopic properties are mainly due to the amorphization of the material. The macroscopic elasticity constants and dimensional properties are predicted for a composite material made of crystalline matrix containing dispersed amorphous inclusions using simple analytical homogenization models. Voigt's model seems to give the best approximation for disordered fractions larger than 20% in the second step of the damage process.

  20. Metal(II) hexafluorophosphates(V) (M = Sr, Pb) containing XeF(2)-coordinated metal ions [M(XeF(2))(3)](PF(6))(2), [Pb(3)(XeF(2))(11)](PF(6))(6), and [Sr(3)(XeF(2))(10)](PF(6))(6).

    PubMed

    Bunic, Tina; Tramsek, Melita; Goreshnik, Evgeny; Tavcar, Gasper; Zemva, Boris

    2007-06-25

    From the system MF(2)/PF(5)/XeF(2)/anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (aHF), four compounds [Sr(XeF(2))(3)](PF(6))(2), [Pb(XeF(2))(3)](PF(6))(2), [Sr(3)(XeF(2))(10)](PF(6))(6), and [Pb(3)(XeF(2))(11)](PF(6))(6) were isolated and characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The [M(XeF(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) (M = Sr, Pb) compounds are isostructural with the previously reported [Sr(XeF(2))(3)](AsF(6))(2). The structure of [Sr(3)(XeF(2))(10)](PF(6))(6) (space group C2/c; a = 11.778(6) Angstrom, b = 12.497(6) Angstrom, c = 34.60(2) Angstrom, beta = 95.574(4) degrees, V = 5069(4) Angstrom(3), Z = 4) contains two crystallographically independent metal centers with a coordination number of 10 and rather unusual coordination spheres in the shape of tetracapped trigonal prisms. The bridging XeF(2) molecules and one bridging PF(6)- anion, which connect the metal centers, form complicated 3D structures. The structure of [Pb(3)(XeF(2))(11)](PF(6))(6) (space group C2/m; a = 13.01(3) Angstrom, b = 11.437(4) Angstrom, c = 18.487(7) Angstrom, beta = 104.374(9) degrees, V = 2665(6) Angstrom(3), Z = 2) consists of a 3D network of the general formula {[Pb(3)(XeF(2))(10)](PF(6))(6)}n and a noncoordinated XeF(2) molecule fixed in the crystal structure only by weak electrostatic interactions. This structure also contains two crystallographically independent Pb atoms. One of them possesses a unique homoleptic environment built up by eight F atoms from eight XeF(2) molecules in the shape of a cube, whereas the second Pb atom with a coordination number of 9 adopts the shape of a tricapped trigonal prism common for lead compounds. [Pb(3)(XeF(2))(11)](PF(6))(6) and [Sr(3)(XeF(2))(10)](PF(6))(6) are formed when an excess of XeF(2) is used during the process of the crystallization of [M(XeF(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) from their aHF solutions. PMID:17521185

  1. Enhanced adhesion from high energy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, B. T.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Qui, Y.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    It has been found that the adhesion of thin metal films on insulators, semiconductors, and metals could be improved by subjecting the material to a high-energy ion bombardment. Griffith et al. (1982) have first suggested a use of this technique with insulators. The present investigation has the objective to determine the mechanism for the adhesion enhancement. A description is presented of a preliminary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of thinned bonded samples of silver on silicon using electron diffraction. It is found that irradiation of a variety of thin film-substrate combinations by heavy ion beams will provide a remarkable improvement in the adherence of the film. The evidence for the mechanism involved in the enhancement of adhesion is discussed.

  2. Heavy and light ion irradiation damage effects in δ-phase Sc4Hf3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Li, Y. H.; Tang, M.; Valdez, J. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Patel, M. K.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Polycrystalline δ-phase Sc4Hf3O12 was irradiated with light and heavy ions to study the radiation stability of this compound. In order to explore the ion species spectrum effect, the irradiations were performed with 400 keV Ne2+ ions to fluences ranging from 1 × 1014 to 1 × 1015 ions/cm2, 600 keV Kr3+ ions to fluences ranging from 5 × 1014 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2, and 6 MeV Xe26+ ions to fluences ranging from 2 × 1013 to 1 × 1015 ions/cm2. Irradiated samples were characterized by various techniques including grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A complete phase transformation from ordered rhombohedral to disordered fluorite was observed by a fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2 with 400 keV Ne2+ ions, equivalent to a peak ballistic damage dose of ∼0.33 displacements per atom (dpa). Meanwhile, the same transformation was also observed by 600 keV Kr3+ ions at the same fluence of 1 × 1015 ions/cm2, which however corresponds to a peak ballistic damage dose of ∼2.2 dpa. Only a partial O-D transformation was observed for 6 MeV Xe26+ ions in the fluence range used. Experimental results indicated that the O-D transformation is observed under both electronic and nuclear stopping dominant irradiation regimes. It was also observed that light ions are more efficient than heavy ions in producing the retained defects that are presumably responsible for the O-D phase transformation. The O-D transformation mechanism is discussed in the context of anion oxygen Frenkel defects and cation antisite defects. We concluded that the irradiation induced O-D transformation is easier to occur in δ-phase compounds with partial order of cations than in that with fully disordered cation structures.

  3. Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates by Oxygen Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Takaoka, G. H.; Ryuto, H.; Araki, R.; Yakushiji, T.

    2008-11-03

    Oxygen cluster ions and/or monomer ions were used for the sputtering and the surface modification of polymers such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the case of oxygen cluster ion irradiation, the sputtered depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the sputtering yield was much larger than that by the monomer ion irradiation. The sputtered particles represented the polymer structure, which indicated that the bond scission by the cluster ion irradiation resulted in an ejection of monomer molecule through the intermolecular collision. On the other hand, for the oxygen monomer ion irradiation, the implanted depth increased with increase of the acceleration voltage, and the bond scission occurred at the deep region through the binary collision with the high energetic ions. Therefore, the sputtering yield for the polymer surfaces decreased, and the sputtering effect became very small. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was more effective for oxidation of the PET surfaces rather than the monomer ion irradiation or the cluster ion irradiation. As a result, the contact angle measurement showed that the wettability of the PET surfaces irradiated by the simultaneous use of oxygen cluster and monomer ions was much enhanced.

  4. Chemical reactivity and ion beam irradiation behaviour of perovskite- and zirconolite-nuclear ceramics type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larguem, H.; Trocellier, P.; Tarrida, M.; Madon, M.; Poissonnet, S.; Gosset, D.; Leseigneur, O.; Martin, H.; Bonnaillie, P.; Beck, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Miro, S.

    2006-08-01

    Oxide ceramics of two neighboring families: perovskite A(II)B(IV)O3 and zirconolite A(II)B(IV)C(IV)2O7 have been synthesized by a classical solid route. Substitution of divalent cation (Ca) by trivalent cation (Nd) was tested on zirconolite compositions. Then, the ceramic pellets were submitted to aqueous leaching tests at 90 C in deionized water. Some of them were previously ion irradiated with 150 keV Xe+ within a fluence range 5 1013-1 1015 cm-2 in order to study the effect of ion damaging on their intrinsic chemical reactivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion beam analysis (IBA) methods were used to characterize the evolution of the crystallinity level and the surface chemical composition of the ceramics after each step (synthesis, irradiation, leaching). The alteration mechanism of unirradiated titanate ceramics appears to be not uniform at the sample surface. Chemical durability of zirconolite is shown to be dependent both on the pH of the aqueous solution and the ceramic composition. Surface hydration only concerns a very thin layer, typically 200 nm and the hydrogen content does not go beyond 1-2 at.%. No differences have been detected in the leaching behaviour of unirradiated or irradiated perovskite samples.

  5. Summary of results from the ORNL ion irradiation program

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Reiley, T.C.; Farrell, K.; Mansur, L.K.; Bloom, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    The ion irradiation program is focused on developing an understanding of the mechanisms by which irradiation changes the physical and mechanical properties of metals and alloys. The scope includes void and bubble swelling, irradiation creep, and embrittlement. Theory and experiment are brought to bear on these phenomena. Dual and triple beam ion irradiations are carried out at the 5 MV Van de Graaff - 0.4 MV Van de Graff Facility. Heavy ions (e.g., Ni, Fe, Ti, Al) are accelerated with the 5 MV Van de Graaff and light ions (He, D/sub 2/, H/sub 2/) are accelerated with the 0.4 MV Van de Graaff. To make the depth of the light ion implantation span the region of radiation damage caused by the heavy ions the energy of the light ion is varied continuously by cycling the terminal voltage from 200 to 400 kV.

  6. Optical birefringence of Zn nanoparticles embedded in silica induced by swift heavy-ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Amekura, H; Okubo, N; Ishikawa, N

    2014-12-01

    Zn nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a silica matrix subjected to irradiation with swift heavy ions of 200 MeV Xe?? have been found to undergo shape elongation from spheres to prolate-spheroids while maintaining the major axes of the NPs in parallel alignment. The directionally-aligned Zn spheroids enable acquisition of optical properties, such as linear dichroism and birefringence. In this paper, the birefringence of the Zn spheroids was evaluated by the crossed-Nicols (XN) transmittance, where a sample was inserted between a pair of optical polarizers that were set in an orthogonal configuration. Linearly-polarized light aligned by the first polarizer was transformed to an elliptic polarization by the birefringence of the Zn spheroids. The existence of the birefringence was confirmed by the non-zero transmittance of the second polarizer in the orthogonal configuration. The sample irradiated with a fluence of 5.0 10 ions/cm exhibited a maximum XN transmittance of 2.1% at a photon energy of ~4 eV. The XN transmission was observed down to a fluence of 1.0 10 ions/cm, but reduced below the detection limit at a fluence of 1.0 10 ions/cm. The possible application of the elongated Zn NPs as a polarizer with nanometric thickness working in the near- and mid-ultraviolet region is discussed. PMID:25606918

  7. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  8. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide,more » irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.« less

  9. Emulation of reactor irradiation damage using ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Was, G. S.; Jiao, Z.; Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Maloy, S. A.; Anderoglu, O.; Sencer, B. H.; Hackett, M.

    2014-06-14

    The continued operation of existing light water nuclear reactors and the development of advanced nuclear reactor depend heavily on understanding how damage by radiation to levels degrades materials that serve as the structural components in reactor cores. The first high dose ion irradiation experiments on a ferritic-martensitic steel showing that ion irradiation closely emulates the full radiation damage microstructure created in-reactor are described. Ferritic-martensitic alloy HT9 (heat 84425) in the form of a hexagonal fuel bundle duct (ACO-3) accumulated 155 dpa at an average temperature of 443°C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Using invariance theory as a guide, irradiation of the same heat was conducted using self-ions (Fe++) at 5 MeV at a temperature of 460°C and to a dose of 188 displacements per atom. The void swelling was nearly identical between the two irradiation and the size and density of precipitates and loops following ion irradiation are within a factor of two of those for neutron irradiation. The level of agreement across all of the principal microstructure changes between ion and reactor irradiation establishes the capability of tailoring ion irradiation to emulate the reactor-irradiated microstructure.

  10. Temperature effects on ion irradiation damage in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.

    1995-09-01

    The search for radiation resistant materials, particularly ceramics, for the applications in radiation environments has been an active area of research for the past few decades. Among the most well studied ceramics, stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) has been found to be one of the most radiation resistant ceramics. Here, single crystalline samples of (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}), <100> oriented, were irradiated at 100K and 670K with 370--400 keV Xe ions to doses of (1--2){times}10{sup 16} Xe/cm{sup 2}. The microstructures of irradiated samples were subsequently examined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope. A uniform layer of amorphous phase was observed on the surface of spinel irradiated at 100K. At the end of the damage range underlying the amorphous layer, a disordered transition layer resided on the undamaged substrate. Both high resolution electron microscopy and microdiffraction revealed that the transition layer retained single crystallinity with epitaxial relationship to the underlying substrate. However, the intensity of <220> reflections in the transition layer was significantly weaker than that of the undamaged spinel. No evidence of amorphization was found in the spinel sample irradiated at 670K to a dose of 2{times}10{sup 16} Xe/cm{sup 2}. The <220> reflections exhibit only limited diminution in the heavily damaged region. The observation of reduced intensity of <220> reflections or absent reflections suggests that spinel experiences a structural transition from its original cubic phase (a=0.808 nm) to a new cubic phase (a=0.404 nm). A transition sequence from the original phase to a metastable phase and then to an amorphous phase has been observed. The temperature dependence of metastable and amorphous phase formation has revealed that the accumulation efficiency of cation disorder decreases with increasing irradiation temperature due to the enhancement of interstitial-vacancy recombination.

  11. Influence of irradiation with swift heavy ions on multilayer Si/SiO{sub 2} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kachurin, G. A. Cherkova, S. G.; Marin, D. V.; Volodin, V. A.; Cherkov, A. G.; Antonenko, A. Kh.; Kamaev, G. N.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2013-03-15

    The influence of Xe ions with an energy of 167 MeV and a dose in the range 10{sup 12}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} on heterostructures consisting of six pairs of Si/SiO{sub 2} layers with the thicknesses {approx}8 and {approx}10 nm, correspondingly, is studied. As follows from electron microscopy data, the irradiation breaks down the integrity of the layers. At the same time, Raman studies give evidence for the enhancement of scattering in amorphous silicon. In addition, a yellow-orange band inherent to small-size Si clusters released from SiO{sub 2} appears in the photoluminescence spectra. Annealing at 800 Degree-Sign C recovers the SiO{sub 2} network, whereas annealing at 1100 Degree-Sign C brings about the appearance of a more intense photoluminescence peak at {approx}780 nm typical of Si nanocrystals. The 780-nm-peak intensity increases, as the irradiation dose is increased. It is thought that irradiation produces nuclei, which promote Si-nanocrystal formation upon subsequent annealing. The processes occur within the tracks due to strong heating because of ionization losses of the ions.

  12. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni alloys.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, E; Tolley, A; Condo, A M; Schumacher, G

    2009-05-01

    The effects produced by swift heavy ions in the martensitic (18R) and austenitic phase (?) of Cu based shape memory alloys were characterized. Single crystal samples with a surface normal close to [210](18R) and [001](?) were irradiated with 200MeV of Kr(15+), 230MeV of Xe(15+), 350 and 600MeV of Au(26+) and Au(29+). Changes in the microstructure were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that swift heavy ion irradiation induced nanometer sized defects in the 18R martensitic phase. In contrast, a hexagonal close-packed phase formed on the irradiated surface of ? phase samples. HRTEM images of the nanometer sized defects observed in the 18R martensitic phase were compared with computer simulated images in order to interpret the origin of the observed contrast. The best agreement was obtained when the defects were assumed to consist of local composition modulations. PMID:21825455

  13. Generation of colour centres in yttria-stabilized zirconia by heavy ion irradiations in the GeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Beuneu, Franois; Schwartz, Kurt; Trautmann, Christina

    2010-08-01

    We have studied the colour centre production in yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2:Y3 + ) by heavy ion irradiation in the GeV range using on-line UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy. Experiments were performed with 11.4 MeV amu - 1 127Xe, 197Au, 208Pb and 238U ion irradiations at 8 K or room temperature (RT). A broad and asymmetrical absorption band peaked at a wavelength about 500 nm is recorded regardless of the irradiation parameters, in agreement with previous RT irradiations with heavy ions in the 100 MeV range. This band is de-convoluted into two broad Gaussian-shaped bands centred at photon energies about 2.4 and 3.1 eV that are respectively associated with the F + -type centres (involving a singly ionized oxygen vacancy, VO) and T centres (i.e. Zr3 + in a trigonal symmetry) observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In the case of 8 K Au ion irradiation at low fluences, six bands are used at about 1.9, 2.3, 2.7, 3.1 and 4.0 eV. The three bands near 2.0-2.5 eV can be assigned to oxygen divacancies (i.e. F2 + centres). No significant effect of the irradiation temperature is found on the widths of all absorption bands for the same ion and fluence. This is attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening arising from the static disorder due to the native charge-compensating oxygen vacancies. However, the colour centre production yield is strongly enhanced at 8 K with respect to RT. When heating irradiated samples from 8 K to RT, the extra colour centres produced at low temperature do not recover completely to the level of RT irradiation. The latter results are accounted for by an electronically driven defect recovery process.

  14. Conducting Well-Controlled Ion Irradiations To Understand Neutron Irradiation Effects In Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Naab, F. U.; West, E. A.; Toader, O. F.; Was, G. S.

    2011-06-01

    A firm understanding of the effect of radiation on materials is required to develop predictive models of materials behavior in-reactor and provide a foundation for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. Ion irradiation can serve this purpose for nuclear reactor components and is becoming a key element of materials development for advanced nuclear reactors. Ion irradiations can be conducted quickly, at low cost, and with precise control over irradiation temperature, temperature uniformity, dose rate, dose uniformity and total dose. During proton irradiations the 2{sigma}(twice the standard deviation) of the sample temperature is generally below {approx}7 deg. C, the dose rate variation {approx}3%, the dose uncertainty {approx}3%, and there is an excellent temperature and dose uniformity across the irradiated area. In this article, we describe the experimental setup and irradiation procedure used to conduct well-controlled ion irradiations at the University of Michigan.

  15. Kinetic and thermodynamic enhancement of crystal nucleation and growth rates in amorphous Si film during ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, J. S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    1991-07-01

    The effect of 1.5 MeV Xe + irradiation at elevated substrate temperatures on the crystal nucleation rate and on the subsequent crystal growth rate in amorphous Si has been investigated. The analysis of apparent activation energies obtained for the nucleation rate, growth rate, and incubation time suggests that the interfacial rearrangement kinetics of subcritical nuclei and large crystals may be similarly affected by the incident ions. The observed rates of crystal growth show excellent agreement with a recently proposed defect model for ion-induced crystallization in the ion flux and temperature regime where both the ion-generated and thermally generated defects contribute significantly to the total crystal growth rate. The nucleation rate is found to be more dramatically enhanced by ion irradiation than either the growth rate or the incubation time. This suggests enhancement in the total nucleation rate under irradiation that is of a thermodynamic origin due to transient unrelaxation within a defect-rich cascade created by the incident ion.

  16. Hopping magnetoresistance in ion irradiated monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlimak, I.; Zion, E.; Butenko, A. V.; Wolfson, L.; Richter, V.; Kaganovskii, Yu.; Sharoni, A.; Haran, A.; Naveh, D.; Kogan, E.; Kaveh, M.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) of ion irradiated monolayer graphene samples with a variable-range hopping (VRH) mechanism of conductivity was measured at temperatures down to T=1.8 K in magnetic fields up to B=8 T. It was observed that in perpendicular magnetic fields, hopping resistivity R decreases, which corresponds to negative MR (NMR), while parallel magnetic field results in positive MR (PMR) at low temperatures. NMR is explained on the basis of the "orbital" model in which perpendicular magnetic field suppresses the destructive interference of many paths through the intermediate sites in the total probability of the long-distance tunneling in the VRH regime. At low fields, a quadratic dependence (| ΔR / R | ∼ B2) of NMR is observed, while at B > B*, the quadratic dependence is replaced by the linear one. It was found that all NMR curves for different samples and different temperatures could be merged into common dependence when plotted as a function of B/B*. It is shown that B* ∼ T1/2 in agreement with predictions of the "orbital" model. The obtained values of B* also allowed us to estimate the localization radius ξ of charge carriers for samples with a different degree of disorder. PMR in parallel magnetic fields is explained by suppression of hopping transitions via double occupied states due to alignment of electron spins.

  17. A study of defects in electron- and ion-irradiated ZrCuAl bulk glassy alloy using positron annihilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, F.; Onodera, N.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishii, A.; Iwase, A.; Kawasuso, A.; Yabuuchi, A.; Maekawa, M.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Free volume changes in Zr50Cu40Al10 bulk glassy alloys irradiated by 200 and 2.5 MeV Xe ions, 180 keV He ions, and 2 MeV electrons were investigated at room temperature using positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening techniques. In addition, a slow positron beam was used to probe the change in free volume in the 180 keV He ion-irradiated sample. X-ray diffraction revealed that no crystallization took place in any of the irradiated samples. The Doppler broadening spectra from the annihilated gamma rays remained essentially constant in all ion-irradiation cases; however, an extremely minor change of positron mean lifetime was detected in each case. For electron- and He ion-irradiated samples the positron lifetime increased, and the opposite was seen in heavy-ion irradiated samples. The Doppler broadening S parameter increased with He-ion radiation dose, and the depth profile correlated well to the damage profile.

  18. Atomistic simulations of MeV ion irradiation of silica

    SciTech Connect

    Backman, Marie; Djurabekova, Flyura; Pakarinen, Olli H; Nordlund, Kai; Zhang, Yanwen; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations to study 2.3 MeV Au ion irradiation of silica. In this energy regime, the instantaneous energy loss of the ion is divided almost equally between electronic and nuclear energy loss. The inelastic thermal spike model was used to model the electron-phonon interactions due to the high electronic energy loss. Binary collision approximation calculations provided input for the recoil energies due to MeV ions. We performed simulations of the damage due to the separate damage mechanisms as well as together, and found that the inelastic thermal spike is needed to accurately simulate the irradiation damage from MeV ions.

  19. Ion irradiation of ternary pyrochlore oxides.

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, G. R.; Smith, K. L.; Blackford, M. G.; Whittle, K. R.; Harvey, E. J.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Zaluzec, N. J.; Materials Science Division; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation; Univ. of Cambridge

    2009-05-01

    Polycrystalline synthetic samples of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 7} with x = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6, together with Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 1.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 7}, and La{sub 1.6}Y{sub 0.4}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}, were irradiated in situ in the intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM)-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory using 1.0 MeV Kr ions at temperatures of 50 to 650 K. Determination of the critical amorphization fluence (F{sub c}) as a function of temperature has revealed a dramatic increase in radiation tolerance with increasing Sn content on the pyrochlore B site. Nonlinear least-squares analysis of the fluence-temperature curves gave critical temperatures (T{sub c}) of 666 {+-} 4, 335 {+-} 12, and 251 {+-} 51 K for the Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 7} samples with x = 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2, respectively. The sample with x = 1.6 appears to disorder to a defect fluorite structure at a fluence below 1.25 x 10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} and remains crystalline to 5 x 10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} at 50 K. Additionally, the critical fluence-temperature response curves were determined for Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 1.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 7} and La{sub 1.6}Y{sub 0.4}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and we obtained T{sub c} values of 685 {+-} 53 K and 473 {+-} 52 K, respectively, for these pyrochlores. Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} did not become amorphous after a fluence of 2.5 x 10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} at 50 K, but there is evidence that it may amorphize at a higher fluence, with an estimated T{sub c} of 135 K. The observed T{sub c} results are discussed with respect to the predicted T{sub c} values based upon a previously published empirical model (Lumpkin, G. R.; Pruneda, M.; Rios, S.; Smith, K. L.; Trachenko, K.; Whittle, K. R.; Zaluzec, N. J. J. Solid State Chem. 2007, 180, 1512). In the Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 7} pyrochlores, T{sub c} appears to be linear with respect to composition, and is linear with respect to r{sub A}/r{sub B} and x(48f) for all samples investigated herein.

  20. Persistent photoconductivity study of ion irradiated carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Subramanyam, S.V.; Kanjilal, D.

    1996-12-31

    Conducting carbon films are irradiated by high energy ion beam and persistent photoconductivity has been found from the irradiated samples. A complex distribution of traps created mostly by random displacement of carbon atoms by energetic ion beam from its polymeric matrix showed a persistent photoconductivity at low temperatures down to 50 K. From the photo decay constants and the magnitude of photocurrent the density of traps and the corresponding activation energies have been calculated.

  1. Ion irradiation testing of Improved Accident Tolerant Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-01-14

    This report summarizes the results of ion irradiations conducted on two FeCrAl alloys (named as ORNL A&B) for improving the accident tolerance of LWR nuclear fuel cladding. After irradiation with 1.5 MeV protons to ~0.5 to ~1 dpa and 300°C nanoindentations were performed on the cross-sections along the ion range. An increase in hardness was observed in both alloys. Microstructural analysis shows radiation induced defects.

  2. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  3. The response of the pyrochlore structure-type to ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Jie

    Pyrochlore with the general formula of A3+2B4+2O7 (Fd3m; Z = 8) has been proposed as the candidate waste form for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons. Because actinides decay by alpha-decay events, radiation effects on the waste form are a concern. The effects of radiation on different pyrochlore compositions, A2B2O7 (A = La Lu, and Y; B = Ti, Sn, and Zr), have been investigated by 50 KeV He+, 600 KeV Ar+, 1.0 MeV Kr+, and 1.5 MeV Xe+ ion irradiations. Titanate pyrochlores are generally sensitive to ion beam damage and can be amorphized at a low damage level (0.2 dpa). The critical amorphization temperature, Tc, increases from 480 to 1120 K with increasing A-site cation size. A dramatically increasing radiation "resistance" to ion beam induced-amorphization has been observed with increasing Zr-content in the Gd2Ti2-xZrxO7 system. The pure end-member, Gd2Zr2O7, cannot be amorphized, even at doses as high as 100 dpa. Although zirconate pyrochlores are generally considered to be radiation "resistant", ion beam-induced amorphization occurs for La2Zr2O7 at a dose of 5.5 dpa at room temperature. Stannate pyrochlores A2Sn 2O7 (A = La, Nd, Gd) are readily amorphized by ion beam damage at a relatively low dose (1 dpa) at room temperature; while no evidence of amorphization has been observed in A2Sn2O7 (A = Er, Y, Lu) irradiated with 1 MeV Kr+ ions at a dose of 6 dpa at 25 K. The factors that influence the response of different pyrochlore compositions to ion irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed in terms of cation radius ratio, defect formation energies, and the tendency of the pyrochlore structure-type to undergo an order-disorder transition to the defect-fluorite structure. The "resistance" of the pyrochlore structure to ion beam-induced amorphization is not only affected by the relative sizes of the A- and B-site cations, but also the cation electronic configurations. Pyrochlore compositions that have larger structural deviations from the ideal fluorite structure are more sensitive to ion beam-induced amorphization. These fundamental results provide insight into the structural and compositional controls on radiation-induced amorphization of pyrochlores. This understanding can be used for the design and selection of materials used for the immobilization of actinides.

  4. The effects of swift heavy-ion irradiation on helium-ion-implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B. S.; Du, Y. Y.; Wang, Z. G.; Shen, T. L.; Li, Y. F.; Yao, C. F.; Sun, J. R.; Cui, M. H.; Wei, K. F.; Zhang, H. P.; Shen, Y. B.; Zhu, Y. B.; Pang, L. L.

    2014-10-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) was used to study the effects of irradiation with swift heavy ions on helium-implanted silicon. <1 0 0>-oriented silicon wafers were implanted with 30 keV helium to a dose of 3 1016 He+/cm2 at 600 K. Subsequently, the helium-implanted Si wafers were irradiated with 792 MeV argon ions. The He bubbles and extended defects in the wafers were examined via XTEM analysis. The results reveal that the mean diameter of the He bubbles increases upon Ar-ion irradiation, while the number density of the He bubbles decreases. The microstructure of the He bubbles observed after Ar-ion irradiation is comparable to that observed after annealing at 1073 K for 30 min. Similarly, the mean size of the extended defects, i.e., Frank loops, increases after Ar-ion irradiation. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Fabrication of metal nanocluster and nanoparticles in the CaO-Bi2O3-B2O3-Al2O3-TiO2 glass by irradiation of XeCl pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Masai, Hirokazu; Mizuno, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Takumi; Mori, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2008-02-18

    We report the fabrication of nanoparticles that contain metal nanoclusters at the surface of the CaO-Bi(2)O(3)-B(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3)-TiO2 glass using XeCl laser irradiation. We have demonstrated that the surface morphology such as that containing nanoparticles or a smooth flat surface can be controlled by laser irradiation conditions; the laser fluence, repetition rate, and temperature of the glass. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the cross section of the nanoparticles show that the metal nanoclusters were formed inside the nanoparticle by XeCl pulsed laser irradiation, a unique phenomenon different from TiO2-crystallization achieved by conventional heat-treatment of the glass. Since formation of nanoparticles containing metal nanocluster is a phenomenon different from previous papers about XeCl laser irradiation of oxide glasses, the combined process of pulsed laser irradiation and heat-treatment will open a wide variety of optical glass devices. PMID:18542344

  6. Ion irradiation tolerance of graphene as studied by atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlgren, E. H.; Lehtinen, O.; Kotakoski, J.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.

    2012-06-04

    As impermeable to gas molecules and at the same time transparent to high-energy ions, graphene has been suggested as a window material for separating a high-vacuum ion beam system from targets kept at ambient conditions. However, accumulation of irradiation-induced damage in the graphene membrane may give rise to its mechanical failure. Using atomistic simulations, we demonstrate that irradiated graphene even with a high vacancy concentration does not show signs of such instability, indicating a considerable robustness of graphene windows. We further show that upper and lower estimates for the irradiation damage in graphene can be set using a simple model.

  7. Ion-beam-irradiation induced defects in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Weber, W. J.; Wang, C. M.

    2003-05-01

    Epitaxial single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) films on sapphire were irradiated at low and room temperatures using O + ions over a range of fluences. The accumulation of disorder on the Ga sublattice has been investigated based on He + Rutherford backscattering analysis along the <0 0 0 1> -axial channeling direction. The degree of disorder in the O + irradiated GaN increases at low doses and saturates above 10 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructures of two O +-irradiated specimens are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Similar planar defect structures at the saturated disorder level are observed for as-irradiated and thermally annealed GaN. The growth and annihilation of these defects during ion irradiation and thermal annealing are believed to contribute to the saturation and stability of defect concentrations.

  8. Ion-Beam-Irradiation Induced Defects in Gallium Nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Wang, Chong M.

    2003-05-16

    Epitaxial single-crystal gallium nitride (GaN) films on sapphire were irradiated at low and room temperatures using O ions over a range of fluences. The accumulation of disorder on the Ga sublattice has been investigated based on He Rutherford backscattering analysis along the <0001>-axial channeling direction. The degree of disorder in the O irradiated GaN increases at low doses and saturates above 10 displacements per atom (dpa). The microstructures of two O-irradiated specimens are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Similar planar defect structures at the saturated disorder level are observed for as-irradiated and thermally annealed GaN. The growth and annihilation of these defects during ion irradiation and thermal annealing are believed to contribute to the saturation and stability of defect concentrations.

  9. Edge-on ion irradiation of electron microscope specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Otero, M.P. |; Allen, C.W.

    1992-07-01

    A special technique is described for in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) experiments involving simultaneous ion irradiation, in which the resultant phenomena are observed as in a cross-section TEM specimen. That is, instead of ion-irradiating the film or foil specimen normal to the major surfaces and observing in plan view (i.e., in the same direction), the specimen is irradiated edge-on (i.e., parallel to the major surfaces) and is observed normal to the depth direction with respect to the irradiation. The results of amorphization of Si, irradiated in this orientation by 1 or 1.5 MeV Kr, are presented and briefly compared with the usual plan view observations. The limitations of the technique are discussed and several experiments which might profitably employ this technique are suggested.

  10. Edge-on ion irradiation of electron microscope specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Otero, M.P. Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial , Lorena, SP ); Allen, C.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A special technique is described for in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) experiments involving simultaneous ion irradiation, in which the resultant phenomena are observed as in a cross-section TEM specimen. That is, instead of ion-irradiating the film or foil specimen normal to the major surfaces and observing in plan view (i.e., in the same direction), the specimen is irradiated edge-on (i.e., parallel to the major surfaces) and is observed normal to the depth direction with respect to the irradiation. The results of amorphization of Si, irradiated in this orientation by 1 or 1.5 MeV Kr, are presented and briefly compared with the usual plan view observations. The limitations of the technique are discussed and several experiments which might profitably employ this technique are suggested.

  11. Effect of ion irradiation on hydrogen gas sensitivity of polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. L.; Shrinet, V.; Pandya, N. R.; Sharma, Anita; Patel, N. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    In search of economical hydrogen gas sensor material, polymer blend with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyester (PET) has been investigated as sensor material. The polymer blend were irradiated with 50 MeV Li 3+ ions at different fluences. The changes in conductivity of the ion irradiated blend in the presence of hydrogen gas were studied. The sensitivity, response time and recovery time were studied as a function of ion fluences on exposing the sensor material to the H 2 gas at ambient condition. Preliminary results observed are encouraging.

  12. Anomalous Plastic Deformation and Sputtering of Ion Irradiated Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nanowires of various diameters were irradiated with 100 keV and 300 keV Ar+ ions on a rotatable and heatable stage. Irradiation at elevated temperatures above 300 C retains the geometry of the nanostructure and sputtering can be gauged accurately. The diameter dependence of the sputtering shows a maximum if the ion range matches the nanowire diameter, which is in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations based on binary collisions. Nanowires irradiated at room temperature, however, amorphize and deform plastically. So far, plastic deformation has not been observed in bulk silicon at such low ion energies. The magnitude and direction of the deformation is independent of the ion-beam direction and cannot be explained with mass-transport in a binary collision cascade but only by collective movement of atoms in the collision cascade with the given boundary conditions of a high surface to volume ratio. PMID:25951108

  13. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, T. R.

    2015-05-14

    We have examined microstructural evolution in irradiated ceria (CeO2) using swift heavy ion irradiation, electron microscopy, and atomistic simulation. CeO2, a UO2 fuel surrogate, was irradiated with gold ions at an energy of 1 GeV to fluences up to 1x1014 ions/cm2. Transmission electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that the ion tracks were of similar size at all fluences, and that there was no chemical change in the ion track core. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at the lower energy and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  14. University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory: A facility for irradiated materials and ion beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, K. G.; Wetteland, C. J.; Cao, G.; Maier, B. R.; Dickerson, C.; Gerczak, T. J.; Field, C. R.; Kriewaldt, K.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-04-01

    The University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory (UW-IBL) has recently undergone significant infrastructure upgrades to facilitate graduate level research in irradiated materials phenomena and ion beam analysis. A National Electrostatics Corp. (NEC) Torodial Volume Ion Source (TORVIS), the keystone upgrade for the facility, can produce currents of hydrogen ions and helium ions up to ˜200 μA and ˜5 μA, respectively. Recent upgrades also include RBS analysis packages, end station developments for irradiation of relevant material systems, and the development of an in-house touch screen based graphical user interface for ion beam monitoring. Key research facilitated by these upgrades includes irradiation of nuclear fuels, studies of interfacial phenomena under irradiation, and clustering dynamics of irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened steels. The UW-IBL has also partnered with the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) to provide access to the irradiation facilities housed at the UW-IBL as well as access to post irradiation facilities housed at the UW Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials (CLIM) and other ATR-NSUF partner facilities. Partnering allows for rapid turnaround from proposed research to finalized results through the ATR-NSUF rapid turnaround proposal system. An overview of the UW-IBL including CLIM and relevant research is summarized.

  15. University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory: A facility for irradiated materials and ion beam analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K. G.; Wetteland, C. J.; Cao, G.; Maier, B. R.; Gerczak, T. J.; Kriewaldt, K.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.; Dickerson, C.; Field, C. R.

    2013-04-19

    The University of Wisconsin Ion Beam Laboratory (UW-IBL) has recently undergone significant infrastructure upgrades to facilitate graduate level research in irradiated materials phenomena and ion beam analysis. A National Electrostatics Corp. (NEC) Torodial Volume Ion Source (TORVIS), the keystone upgrade for the facility, can produce currents of hydrogen ions and helium ions up to {approx}200 {mu}A and {approx}5 {mu}A, respectively. Recent upgrades also include RBS analysis packages, end station developments for irradiation of relevant material systems, and the development of an in-house touch screen based graphical user interface for ion beam monitoring. Key research facilitated by these upgrades includes irradiation of nuclear fuels, studies of interfacial phenomena under irradiation, and clustering dynamics of irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened steels. The UW-IBL has also partnered with the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR-NSUF) to provide access to the irradiation facilities housed at the UW-IBL as well as access to post irradiation facilities housed at the UW Characterization Laboratory for Irradiated Materials (CLIM) and other ATR-NSUF partner facilities. Partnering allows for rapid turnaround from proposed research to finalized results through the ATR-NSUF rapid turnaround proposal system. An overview of the UW-IBL including CLIM and relevant research is summarized.

  16. Dislocation loop evolution under ion irradiation in austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etienne, A.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Genevois, C.; Radiguet, B.; Pareige, P.

    2010-05-01

    A solution annealed 304 and a cold worked 316 austenitic stainless steels were irradiated from 0.36 to 5 dpa at 350 °C using 160 keV Fe ions. Irradiated microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Observations after irradiation revealed the presence of a high number density of Frank loops. Size and number density of Frank loops have been measured. Results are in good agreement with those observed in the literature and show that ion irradiation is able to simulate dislocation loop microstructure obtained after neutron irradiation. Experimental results and data from literature were compared with predictions from the cluster dynamic model, MFVIC (Mean Field Vacancy and Interstitial Clustering). It is able to reproduce dislocation loop population for neutron irradiation. Effects of dose rate and temperature on the loop number density are simulated by the model. Calculations for ion irradiations show that simulation results are consistent with experimental observations. However, results also show the model limitations due to the lack of accurate parameters.

  17. Raman measurements in silica glasses irradiated with energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, R. Martin, P.; Vila, R.; León, M.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Girard, S.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2014-10-21

    Ion irradiation with energetic He{sup +} (2.5 MeV), O{sup 4+} (13.5 MeV), Si{sup 4+} (24.4 MeV) and Cu{sup 7+} (32.6 MeV) species at several fluences (from 5 × 10{sup 12} to 1.65 × 10{sup 15} ion/cm{sup 2}) were performed in three types of SiO{sub 2} glasses with different OH content (KU1, KS-4V and Infrasil 301). After ion implantation the Raman spectra were measured and compared with the spectra of unirradiated samples. Irradiated samples of the three fused silica grades exhibit changes in the broad and asymmetric R-band (ω{sub 1} around 445 cm{sup −1}), in D{sub 1} (490 cm−1) and D{sub 2} (605 cm{sup −1}) bands associated to small-membered rings. The D{sub 2} band shows an increase with increasing fluences for different ions, indicating structural changes. Raman spectra of ion-irradiated samples were compared with the spectra of neutron irradiated samples at fluences 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2} and 1018 n/cm{sup 2}. Macroscopic surface cracking was detected, mainly at fluences corresponding to deposited energies between 10{sup 23} eV/cm{sup 3} and 10{sup 24} eV/cm{sup 3} (after ion beam shutdown)

  18. Damage studies on tungsten due to helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N. J.; Buzarbaruah, N.; Mohanty, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    Energetic and high fluence helium ions emitted in a plasma focus device have been used successfully to study the radiation induced damage on tungsten. The reference and irradiated samples were characterized by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by hardness testers. The micrographs of the irradiated samples at lower magnification show uniform mesh of cracks of micrometer width. However at higher magnification, various types of crystalline defects such as voids, pinholes, bubbles, blisters and microcracks are distinctly noticed. The prominent peaks in X-ray diffraction spectrum of irradiated samples are seen shifted toward higher Bragg angles, thus indicating accumulation of compressive stress due to the heat load delivered by helium ions. A marginal reduction in hardness of the irradiated sample is also noticed.

  19. Penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams for biological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tano, Shigemitsu

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation on biological systems, an apparatus for penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams was set up. By comparison of ranges of 1.5 MeV/u He 2+ between the theoretically calculated ranges and the practical ranges using chemical and biological materials, it was demonstrated that the range of an ion beam in a biological material could be controlled linearly by changing the distance from the beam window in the atmosphere to a target, although the fluence decreased at the range-end of the ion beams. In addition, the penetration controlled irradiation of tobacco pollen increased the frequency of leaky pollen. The increased frequency of the leaky pollen suggested that damage in the pollen envelope was induced at the range-end.

  20. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases. PMID:26822900

  1. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases.

  2. Site-selective local fluorination of graphene induced by focused ion beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Daukiya, Lakshya; Haldar, Soumyajyoti; Lindblad, Andreas; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Aubel, Dominique; Hajjar-Garreau, Samar; Simon, Laurent; Leifer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene remains an important challenge for numerous applications expected by this fascinating material. To keep advantageous properties of graphene after modification or functionalization of its structure, local approaches are a promising road. A novel technique is reported here that allows precise site-selective fluorination of graphene. The basic idea of this approach consists in the local radicalization of graphene by focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation and simultaneous introduction of XeF2 gas. A systematic series of experiments were carried out to outline the relation between inserted defect creation and the fluorination process. Based on a subsequent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, a 6-fold increase of the fluorine concentration on graphene under simultaneous irradiation was observed when compared to fluorination under normal conditions. The fluorine atoms are predominately localized at the defects as indicated from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The experimental findings are confirmed by density functional theory which predicts a strong increase of the binding energy of fluorine atoms when bound to the defect sites. The developed technique allows for local fluorination of graphene without using resists and has potential to be a general enabler of site-selective functionalization of graphene using a wide range of gases. PMID:26822900

  3. Structural evolution of zirconium carbide under ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, D.; Doll, M.; Simeone, D.; Baldinozzi, G.; Thom, L.

    2008-02-01

    Zirconium carbide is one of the candidate materials to be used for some fuel components of the high temperature nuclear reactors planned in the frame of the Gen-IV project. Few data exist regarding its behaviour under irradiation. We have irradiated ZrC samples at room temperature with slow heavy ions (4 MeV Au, fluence from 10 11 to 5 10 15 cm -2) in order to simulate neutron irradiations. Grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis have been performed in order to study the microstructural evolution of the material versus ion fluence. A high sensitivity to oxidation is observed with the formation of zirconia precipitates during the ion irradiations. Three damage stages are observed. At low fluence (<10 12 cm -2), low modifications are observed. At intermediate fluence, high micro-strains appear together with small faulted dislocation loops. At the highest fluence (>10 14 cm -2), the micro-strains saturate and the loops coalesce to form a dense dislocation network. No other structural modification is observed. The material shows a moderate cell parameter increase, corresponding to a 0.6 vol.% swelling, which saturates around 10 14 ions/cm 2, i.e., a few Zr dpa. As a result, in spite of a strong covalent bonding component, ZrC seems to have a behaviour under irradiation close to cubic metals.

  4. Oxide glass structure evolution under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, C.; Peuget, S.; Charpentier, T.; Moskura, M.; Caraballo, R.; Bouty, O.; Mir, A. H.; Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C.; Jegou, C.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of ion tracks on the structure of oxide glasses were examined by irradiating a silica glass and two borosilicate glass specimens containing 3 and 6 oxides with krypton ions (74 MeV) and xenon ions (92 MeV). Structural changes in the glass were observed by Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a multinuclear approach (11B, 23Na, 27Al and 29Si). The structure of irradiated silica glass resembles a structure quenched at very high temperature. Both borosilicate glass specimens exhibited depolymerization of the borosilicate network, a lower boron coordination number, and a change in the role of a fraction of the sodium atoms after irradiation, suggesting that the final borosilicate glass structures were quenched from a high temperature state. In addition, a sharp increase in the concentration of three membered silica rings and the presence of large amounts of penta- and hexacoordinate aluminum in the irradiated 6-oxide glass suggest that the irradiated glass is different from a liquid quenched at equilibrium, but it is rather obtained from a nonequilibrium liquid that is partially relaxed by very rapid quenching within the ion tracks.

  5. Two-photon laser-assisted reaction with Xe/Cl/sub 2/ to form XeCl and with Xe/ICl to form XeCl and XeI

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.K.; Inoue, G.; Setser, D.W.

    1983-08-04

    Two-photon laser-assisted reactions yielding XeCl(B,C) in 5 to 15-torr Xe/Cl/sub 2/ mixtures and XeCl(B,C) and XeI(B,C) in 5 to 15-torr Xe/ICl mixtures have been observed. The order dependence, the time dependence, and the excitation wavelength dependence are consistent with transfer from the ground-state, nonreactive potential to an excited-state, reactive potential followed by chemical reaction. The reactive potential may be the ion pair potential, V(Xe/sup +/,Cl/sub 2//sup -/), or a potential involving electronically excited chlorine, V(Xe,Cl/sub 2/**), or more likely a mixed potential having character of both states. 3 figures.

  6. Structure alterations in microporous (Mg,Fe) 2Al 4Si 5O 18 crystals induced by energetic heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletich, Ronald; Diego Gatta, G.; Redhammer, Gnther J.; Burchard, Michael; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Weikusat, Christian; Rotiroti, Nicola; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Trautmann, Christina; Neumann, Reinhard

    2010-10-01

    The microporous framework structure of (Mg 1- xFe x) 2Al 4Si 5O 18 (=cordierite) has been subject to a comparative study on the effect of structural alterations originating from exposure to high-energy heavy ions. Oriented samples (with x=0.061, 0.122, and 0.170) were irradiated with swift 124Xe, 197Au and 96Ru ions with 11.1 MeV per nucleon energy and fluences of 110 12 and 110 13 ions/cm 2. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, Mssbauer spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy. Structural investigations reveal an essentially unchanged Al,Si ordering, which appears to be unaffected by irradiation. The most remarkable macroscopic change is the ion-beam induced colouration, which could be assigned to electronic charge transfer transitions involving the Fe cations. Mssbauer spectra indicate an increased amount of [4]Fe 3+ for the irradiated sample. The most noticeable structural alteration concerns irradiation-induced dehydration of extra-framework H 2O, which is accompanied by a reduction in the molar volume by 0.2 vol%.

  7. Crystalline nanostructures on Ge surfaces induced by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xin; Facsko, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Besides conventional low efficiency lithographic techniques broad ion beam irradiation is a simple and potentially mass productive technique to fabricate nanoscale patterns on various semiconductor surfaces. The main drawback of this method is that the irradiated semiconductor surfaces are amorphized, which strongly limits the potential application of these nanostructures in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this work we report that high-quality crystalline nanostructure patterns are formed on Ge surfaces via Ar+ irradiation at elevated temperatures. This pattern formation process resembles the pattern formation in homoepitaxy. Therefore, the process is discussed based on a 'reverse epitaxy' mechanism.

  8. Surface modification of multilayer graphene using Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan; Shao, Ying; Ge, Daohan; Ren, Naifei; Yang, Qizhi

    2015-04-28

    The effect of Ga ion irradiation intensity on the surface of multilayer graphene was examined. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the irradiation caused defects in the crystal structure of graphene. The density of defects increased with the increase in dwell times. Furthermore, the strain induced by the irradiation changed the crystallite size and the distance between defects. These defects had the effect of doping the multilayer graphene and increasing its work function. The increase in work function was determined using contact potential difference measurements. The surface morphology of the multilayer graphene changed following irradiation as determined by atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the adhesion between the atomic force microscopy tip and sample increased further indicating that the irradiation had caused surface modification, important for devices that incorporate graphene.

  9. Depth-independent hardness improvements in ion irradiated polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.R.; Riester, L.; Lee, E.H.

    1994-12-31

    Polystyrene (PS) was irradiated with 2 MeV He{sup +} ions to a fluence of 3.3 {times} 10{sup 9} ions/m{sup 2}. A cross-section of the irradiated layer was subjected to hardness measurements across the section using a nanoindentation technique. Results showed that hardness increased as a function of irradiation depth and showed a maximum value of 12 GPa at a depth of approximately 6.5 {mu}m, for a total ion penetration range of 9 {mu}m, as compared to a hardness of 0.45 GPa for unirradiated PS. The hardness variation with depth followed the trend for Linear Energy Transfer (LET) for ionization from the energetic ions to substrate atoms. This investigation showed for the first time how hardness varies as a function of depth for ion-irradiated polymers; this variation approximately follows the ionization LET profile, suggesting that cross-linking in the polymers could be proportional to ionization.

  10. Sputtering of metals at ion-electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Korshunov, S. N.; Skorlupkin, I. D.

    2014-02-01

    It has been found that, in contrast to the commonly accepted opinion, simultaneous irradiation by 15-keV Ar+ ions and 2.5-keV electrons at temperatures above 0.5 T m ( T m is the melting temperature) induces much larger sputtering of metallic copper, nickel, and steel than irradiation only by Ar+ ions. The effect increases with the temperature. At T = 0.7 T m, the sputtering coefficients in the case of ion-electron irradiation are more than twice as large as the sputtering coefficients in the case of irradiation by Ar+ ions. The experiments on the sublimation of copper show that the sublimation rate in the case of the heating of a sample by an electron beam is higher than that in the case of heating in an electric vacuum oven. The revealed effects are explained by the electron-induced excitation of adatoms (atoms stuck over the surface, which appear owing to ion bombardment). Excited adatoms have a smaller binding energy with the surface and are sputtered more easily.

  11. Charge-state dependence of inner-shell processes in collisions between highly charged Xe ions and solids at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jieru; Zhao, Yongtao; Zhou, Xianming; Wang, Xing; Lei, Yu; Xu, Ge; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Shidong; Sun, Yuanbo; Xiao, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    The x-ray emission during the penetration of 2-6 MeV Xeq + (q =20 ,22 ,26 ,30 ) ions into thick solid targets of iron and nickel has been measured. An obvious charge-state and incident-energy dependence of the target-to-projectile vacancy-production cross-section ratios was found for the iron target but not for the nickel target. The results are supported by the vacancy-sharing model and direct ionization theory and imply the great importance of level matching for the inner-shell process. The charge equilibration time of Xe30 + in solid iron was derived to be around 9 fs from the measured x-ray yields.

  12. Inner-shell photoionization and core-hole decay of Xe and XeF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Stephen H.; Picón, Antonio; Lehmann, C. Stefan; Wehlitz, Ralf; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.

    2015-06-14

    Photoionization cross sections and partial ion yields of Xe and XeF{sub 2} from Xe 3d{sub 5/2}, Xe 3d{sub 3/2}, and F 1s subshells in the 660–740 eV range are compared to explore effects of the F ligands. The Xe 3d-ϵf continuum shape resonances dominate the photoionization cross sections of both the atom and molecule, but prominent resonances appear in the XeF{sub 2} cross section due to nominal excitation of Xe 3d and F 1s electrons to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), a delocalized anti-bonding MO. Comparisons of the ion products from the atom and molecule following Xe 3d photoionization show that the charge-state distribution of Xe ions is shifted to lower charge states in the molecule along with production of energetic F{sup +} and F{sup 2+} ions. This suggests that, in decay of a Xe 3d core hole, charge is redistributed to the F ligands and the system dissociates due to Coulomb repulsion. The ion products from excitation of the F 1s-LUMO resonance are different and show strong increases in the yields of Xe{sup +} and F{sup +} ions. The subshell ionization thresholds, the LUMO resonance energies, and their oscillator strengths are calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster methods and agree well with measurements.

  13. Amorphous carbon nitride films irradiated with argon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Rangel, Elidiane C.; da Cruz, Nilson C.; Swart, Jacobus W.; de Moraes, Mario A. B.

    2000-05-01

    Hard, electrical-conductive and corrosion-resistant coatings can be obtained by energetic ion irradiation of amorphous carbonaceous materials such as organic polymers and hydrogenated amorphous carbon films. In this work, amorphous carbon nitride films (a-C:N) containing hydrogen and oxygen were deposited in glow discharges of C2H2, N2 and O2 mixtures and then irradiated with 150 keV Ar+ ions at fluences ranging from 1018 to 1020 m-2. The molecular structure and elemental composition of the as-deposited and irradiated films were studied using infrared reflectance spectrophotometry (IRS) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). A significant change in the composition and structure of the films, produced by ion irradiation, was revealed by the IRS spectra. Increasing the ion fluence, Φ, the concentration of unsaturated CC bonds increased while that of N-H, C-H and CO bonds decreased. From the RBS data it was concluded that the O/C and N/C atomic ratios decreased with ion irradiation. Modifications of the electronic structure were manifested by changes in the optical gap, EG, and in the electrical conductivity, σ. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to determine EG while σ was obtained using a two-point probe. While EG decreased, σ increased with increasing Φ. The dependence of EG and σ on the structural modifications is discussed. Comparison of the electrical conductivity measurements of this work with those reported for irradiated amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) films revealed that even at high fluences - when the content of both the a-C:N and the DLC films are nearly 100% carbon - the electronic structures of these materials are different.

  14. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced modifications in sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, T.; Mishra, N. C.; Singh, F.; Tiwari, U.; Kanjilal, D.

    2003-12-01

    Swift heavy ion irradiation is carried out on sapphire (?-Al 2O 3) for controlled modification of its optical properties. Single crystals of ?-Al 2O 3 (0 0 0 1) were irradiated at room temperature with 190 MeV Ag ions having Se23 keV/nm with fluences varying from 10 11 to 10 13 ions/cm 2. The pristine as well as irradiated sapphires were characterized by photoluminescence, Fourier transform infrared spectra, optical absorption and X-ray diffraction techniques. The intensity of the PL peak observed at 2.1 eV increases with fluence. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the surface starts getting amorphized after the fluence of 1 10 12 ions/cm 2. Structural disorder and generation of optically active defect centers (color centers) occur after a fluence of 1 10 12 ions/cm 2. At this fluence the defected zones start overlapping due to multiple ion impact giving rise to cumulative optical response of defects.

  15. Diamond structure recovery during ion irradiation at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Belay, Kidane; Elliman, Robert G.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Riley, Daniel P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-12-01

    CVD diamond is irradiated by 5 MeV carbon ions, with each sample held at a different temperature (300-873 K) during irradiations. The defect structures resulting from the irradiations are evident as vacancy, interstitial and amorphous carbon signals in Raman spectra. The observed variation of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and peak position of the diamond peak suggests that disorder in the diamond lattice is reduced for high temperature irradiations. The dumbbell interstitial signal is reduced for irradiations at 873 K, which suggests this defect is unstable at these temperatures and that interstitials have migrated to crystal surfaces. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy results indicate that damage to the diamond structure at the surface has occurred for room temperature irradiations, however, this structure is at least partially recovered for irradiations performed at 473 K and above. The results suggest that, in a high temperature irradiation environment such as a nuclear fusion device, in situ annealing of radiation-created defects can maintain the diamond structure and prolong the lifetime of diamond components.

  16. Tailoring the properties of copper nanowires by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sushil; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, we investigated the change in the properties of copper nanowires under the irradiance of 80 MeV Si7+ ion beam. The nanowires were electrodeposited in the cylindrical pores of the track-etched polycarbonate membranes. The phase, morphology and optical absorbance of the fabricated nanowires were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy, respectively. The XRD study showed a face centered cubic crystal structure of copper nanowires. Further measurements with FESEM revealed that nanowires were continuous, aligned with uniform diameter having high aspect ratio. The XRD spectra of irradiated nanowires indicated an improved crystalinity at low ion fluences while it declines at higher ion fluences. The optical absorbance properties of the irradiated copper nanowires were also examined. The absorption spectra exhibited a peak at 568 nm which was attributed to the surface plasmon resonance. A significant increase in absorbance after irradiation accounts for the possibility of defects formation. The electrical properties measured from I-V characteristics showed an increase in resistivity of irradiated nanowires.

  17. Defects and critical current in REBCO films by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Ozaki, Toshinori; Zhang, Cheng; Brookhaven National Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    We will present our recent studies on the defects and critical current density (Jc) in superconducting ReBa2Cu3O7 films (Re = Y, or rare earth element) irradiated by several types of ions at energy level between hundreds of KeV and tens of MeV. We observed remarkable enhancement of Jc in some of the irradiated films at low temperature and at high magnetic fields up to 35 T. We examined the ion irradiation induced defects by using advanced transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the ion irradiation at this kinetic energy range produces defects that are rather small (~ a few nanometers) in physical size. However, these defects were found to create a substantially large strain field in the vicinity that depresses the pair potential and produce effective flux pinning at low temperatures. As the temperature approaching Tc, the irradiation induced pinning was found less effective, presumably due to the softening of vortex line. A correlation between the nano-structures of the defects and critical current will be discussed.

  18. Magnetic properties of ion irradiated epitaxial Fe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Mitani, S.; Echigoya, J.; Mohapatra, J. N.; Kikuchi, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Takanashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of a heavy-ion irradiated single crystalline iron film were investigated. A high quality Fe (001) film with a thickness of 250 nm was fabricated on MgO (001) using the molecular beam epitaxy technique. The film was irradiated by 3.2 MeV Ni ions at room temperature using a tandem accelerator. Formation of dislocation loops with nanometer size was observed by TEM observation, and that of sub-nanometer size vacancy clusters was confirmed indirectly from a resistivity increase. However, M-H hysteresis curves and magnetic domain structure did not change significantly. These results indicate the formation of irradiation defects of pure iron in nanometer scale range has little influence on the magnetization process of the iron.

  19. Gel behavior of keV ion irradiated polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.; Licciardello, A.; Puglisi, O.

    1988-10-17

    Among the chemical and physical modifications induced by ion bombardment of polymers, the solubility changes are very important because of technological application for lithography in microelectronic devices. Solubility changes due to the occurrence of crosslinkings have been followed on monodisperse and polydisperse polystyrene after ion irradiations (10/sup 11/--10/sup 14/ ions/cm/sup 2/, keV energy). By using the Inokuty gel theory (M. Inokuti J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2999 (1963)), the chemical yield (crosslinking/eV) has been determined for different molecular weights and molecular weight distributions.

  20. Effects of Ga ion-beam irradiation on monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Yanmin; Shao, Ying; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan; State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050

    2013-08-12

    The effects of Ga ion on the single layer graphene (SLG) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy (RS), SEM, and field-effect characterization. Under vacuum conditions, Ga ion-irradiation can induce disorders and cause red shift of 2D band of RS, rather than lattice damage in high quality SLG. The compressive strain induced by Ga ion decreases the crystalline size in SLG, which is responsible for the variation of Raman scattering and electrical properties. Nonlinear out-put characteristic and resistance increased are also found in the I-V measurement. The results have important implications during CVD graphene characterization and related device fabrication.

  1. Irradiation resistance properties studies on helium ions irradiated MAX phase Ti3AlC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Zhiguang; Cui, Minghuan; Shen, Tielong; Li, Yuanfei; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Huang, Qing; L, Jinjun

    2014-05-01

    The study presents an investigation of irradiation resistance properties of Ti3AlC2 under 500 keV He ions irradiation with the doses ranging from 5.0 1016 to 1.0 1018 ions cm-2 at certain temperatures, like room temperature (RT), 300 and 500 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to study the evolution of structural damage and the behavior of deposited He ions respectively. XRD analysis reveals that for the highest dose irradiation (?52 dpa at peak), no amorphization occurs. And the structural recovery of Ti3AlC2 is more significant accompanied with the gradual disappearance of the irradiation-induced TiC phase as the temperature rises from RT to 300 and to 500 C with the same dose irradiation. TEM observations show that He bubbles appear in the shapes of sphere, string and platelet but no big bubbles are formed for all irradiations. Moreover, no large cracks form in the sample implanted with the highest helium concentration of ?6.4 105 appm.

  2. I-Xe Ages and Trapped Xe Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Meshik, A. P.

    2003-01-01

    I-Xe isochrons are mixing lines between a single trapped and a single iodine derived component. The slope of this line establishes initial iodine and hence the I-Xe age. One end of the isochron is fixed by the composition of the trapped Xe component, which should be representative of the Xe that was present in the early solar system (Q-Xe or OC-Xe). Because the I/Xe ratio in the solar nebular was 1, and the I-129/I-127 was about 10-4, the Xe-129 in trapped Xe cannot evolve appreciably with decay of I-129. While it may be possible for Xe in a closed system with elevated I/Xe ratios to evolve producing trapped components with higher Xe-129/Xe-132 ratios, trapped Xe compositions with lower (sub-planetary) Xe-129/Xe-132 ratios seem implausible.

  3. Effects on focused ion beam irradiation on MOS transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.N.; Peterson, K.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Soden, J.M.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of irradiation from a focused ion beam (FIB) system on MOS transistors are reported systematically for the first time. Three MOS transistor technologies, with 0.5, 1, and 3 {mu}m minimum feature sizes and with gate oxide thicknesses ranging from 11 to 50 nm, were analyzed. Significant shifts in transistor parameters (such as threshold voltage, transconductance, and mobility) were observed following irradiation with a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam with ion doses varying by over 5 orders of magnitude. The apparent damage mechanism (which involved the creation of interface traps, oxide trapped charge, or both) and extent of damage were different for each of the three technologies investigated.

  4. Ion emission from fused silica under 157-nm irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Sharon R.; Leraas, J. A.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2007-04-01

    We present a summary of initial work on the etching of silica at 157 nm. At fluences well below the threshold for plasma formation, we have characterized the direct desorption of atomic ions from fused silica surfaces during 157-nm irradiation. The ion identities and kinetic energies were determined by time-resolved mass spectroscopy. The principal ions are Si+ and O+. The emission intensities are dramatically increased by treatments that are expected to increase the density of surfaces defects. Molecular dynamics simulations of the silica surface suggest that silicon ions bound at surface oxygen vacancies (analogous to E' centers) provide suitable configurations for emission. We propose that emission is best understood in terms of a hybrid mechanism involving both antibonding chemical forces (Menzel-Gomer-Redhead model) and repulsive electrostatic forces on the adsorbed ion after laser excitation of the underlying defect.

  5. Enhancement of Secondary Hydrocarbon Ion Emission Yield from Graphite Irradiated with Energetic Carbon Cluster Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Hiromi; Saitoh, Yuichi; Chiba, Atsuya; Narumi, Kazumasa

    When radiations, such as UV lights, X-rays, gamma-rays, and energetic electrons and ions, irradiate interstellar grains, excitation and ionization of the atoms and molecules around the surface of the grains occur, and chemical reactions are induced. Thus many kinds of organic and inorganic molecules are produced on the interstellar grains. We have observed the yield enhancement of secondary hydrocarbon cluster ion emission from graphite irradiated by energetic cluster ions. As energetic cluster ions can bombard a very small (atomic size) area of a solid surface with many atoms simultaneously and release large kinetic energy in a very short time (from femto-to pico-second region), nonlinear effects or synergetic effects are caused. This effect enhances the secondary ion emission yields. Energetic cluster ion beams used for the study of secondary ion emission processes were pro-duced by the TIARA tandem accelerator at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA. A time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer combined with a pulsed cluster ion beam was used for a secondary ion measurement. In this report we present some results of positive and negative secondary ion emission from a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) target bombarded with 0.5 MeV/atom (˜ 42 keV/amu) C1+ ˜ C8+ ions. The total secondary ion yields except for yields of hydrogen ions (H+, H2+, H3+ or H-) from a HOPG target bombarded with carbon cluster ions are presented. The yields of negative secondary ions for all incident cluster ions Cn+ are about twice of positive ion yields and the super-linear relation can be seen. We will discuss about this enhancement of the yield of secondary emission.

  6. One and two-electron investigation of electronic structure for Ba(+)Xe and BaXe van der Waals molecules in a pseudopotential approach.

    PubMed

    Abdessalem, Kawther; Mejrissi, Leila; Issaoui, Noureddine; Oujia, Brahim; Gada, Florent Xavier

    2013-09-12

    The potential energy curves, vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, and dipole moment curves for the ground and excited states of BaXe and its ion Ba(+)Xe molecules are calculated with an ab initio method using pseudopotential techniques and core polarization potentials. The molecules are treated as two (BaXe) or one (Ba(+)Xe) active electrons systems taking benefit of the zero pseudopotential approach for Xe. The vibrational levels and their energy spacing have been also determined for ?(+), ?, and ? states. The permanent and transition dipole moment curves are investigated for the (1,3)?(+) states of the BaXe neutral molecule and (2)?(+) states of the Ba(+)Xe ion. The analysis of these numerous results shows interesting behavior in potential energy curves imprinted by the strong repulsive interactions between electron and Xe and also indicates an intense transition dipole moment for both Ba(+)Xe and BaXe. PMID:23987477

  7. Slowing down of fast electrons as probe for charging and decharging dynamics of ion-irradiated insulators

    SciTech Connect

    De Filippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Amorini, F.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.; Politi, G.; La Guidara, E.; Lombardo, I.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Volant, C.; Rothard, H.

    2011-06-15

    The slowing down of fast electrons emitted from insulators [Mylar, polypropylene (PP)] irradiated with swift ion beams (C, O, Kr, Ag, Xe; 20-64 MeV/u) was measured by the time-of-flight method at LNS, Catania and GANIL, Caen. The charge buildup, deduced from both convoy- and binary-encounter electron peak shifts, leads to target material-dependent potentials (6.0 kV for Mylar, 2.8 kV for PP). The number of projectiles needed for charging up (charging-up time constant) is inversely proportional to the electronic energy loss. After a certain time, a sudden decharging occurs. For low beam currents, charging-up time, energy shift corresponding to maximum charge buildup, and time of decharging are regular. For high beam currents, the time intervals become irregular (chaotic).

  8. Characterization of swift heavy ion irradiation damage in ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Yablinsky, Clarissa A.; Devanathan, Ram; Pakarinen, Janne; Gan, Jian; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-04

    Swift heavy ion induced radiation damage is investigated for ceria (CeO2), which serves as a UO2 fuel surrogate. Microstructural changes resulting from an irradiation with 940 MeV gold ions of 42 keV/nm electronic energy loss are investigated by means of electron microscopy accompanied by electron energy loss spectroscopy showing that there exists a small density reduction in the ion track core. While chemical changes in the ion track are not precluded, evidence of them was not observed. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of thermal spikes in CeO2 with an energy deposition of 12 and 36 keV/nm show damage consisting of isolated point defects at 12 keV/nm, and defect clusters at 36 keV/nm, with no amorphization at either energy. Inferences are drawn from modeling about density changes in the ion track and the formation of interstitial loops that shed light on features observed by electron microscopy of swift heavy ion irradiated ceria.

  9. Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si){sub 3}, (U, Mo)(Al, Si){sub 3}, UMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20}, U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}Al{sub 43} and UAl{sub 4}. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 C to ion doses up to 2.5 x 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} ({approx}10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}/s ({approx}4.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Sputtering of amorphous silicon nitride irradiated with energetic C60 ions: Preferential sputtering and synergy effect between electronic and collisional sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, T.; Morita, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Narumi, K.; Saitoh, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Sataka, M.; Toulemonde, M.; Kimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicon nitride films (thickness 30 nm) deposited on Si(0 0 1) were irradiated with 30-1080 keV C60 and 100 MeV Xe ions to fluences ranging from 2 × 1011 to 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The composition depth profiles of the irradiated samples were measured using high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The sputtering yields were estimated from the derived composition profiles. Pronounced preferential sputtering of nitrogen was observed in the electronic energy loss regime. In addition, a large synergy effect between the electronic and collisional sputtering was also observed. The sputtering yields were calculated using the unified thermal spike model to understand the observed results. Although the calculated results reproduced the observed total sputtering yields with a lowered sublimation energy, the observed preferential sputtering of nitrogen could not be explained. The present results suggest an additional sputtering mechanism related to the electronic energy loss.

  12. Late degeneration in rabbit tissues after irradiation by heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Keng, P. C.; Lee, A. C.; Su, C. M.; Bergtold, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for investigations of the late effects of heavy-ion irradiation on rabbit tissues which were undertaken to assess the hazards associated with the long-term exposure of humans to heavy ions in space during such activities as the construction of solar power stations or voyages to Mars. White rabbits approximately six weeks old were exposed to various doses of collimated beams of 400-MeV/n Ne ions, 570 MeV/n Ar ions and Co-60 gamma rays directed through both eyes, and the responses of the various tissues (hair follicles, skin, cornea, lens, retina, Harderian glands, bone and forebrain) were examined. Proliferating tissues are found to exhibit high damage levels in the early and late periods following irradiation, while terminally differentiating tissues repond to radiation most intensely in the late period, years after irradiation, with no intermediate recovery. The results obtained from rabbits are used to predict the occurrence of late tissue degeneration in the central nervous system, terminally differentiating systems and stem cells of humans one or more decades following exposure to radiation levels anticipated during long-duration space flights. The studies also indicate that tissues may be prematurely aged in the sense that tissue life spans may be shortened without the development of malignancies.

  13. An infrared study of pure and ion irradiated frozen formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Baratta, G. A.; Strazzulla, G.

    2006-08-01

    Context.The chemical evolution of formamide (HCONH2), a molecule of astrobiological interest that has been tentatively identified in interstellar ices and in cometary coma, has been studied in laboratory under simulated astrophysical conditions such as ion irradiation at low temperature.Aims.To evaluate the abundances of formamide observed in space or in laboratory, the integrated absorbances for all the principal IR features of frozen amorphous pure formamide deposited at 20 K were measured. Further evidence that energetic processing of ices occurring in space is extremely relevant both to astrochemistry and to astrobiology has been found, showing that new molecular species are synthesized by ion irradiation at a low temperature.Methods.Pure formamide were deposited at 20 K and IR transmission spectra measured for different ice thicknesses. The ice thickness was derived by looking at the interference pattern (intensity versus time) of a He-Ne laser beam reflected at an angle of 45 deg by the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Samples of formamide ice were irradiated with 200 keV H+ ions and IR spectra recorded at different ion fluences.Results.New molecules were synthesized among which are CO, CO2, N2O, isocyanic acid (HNCO), and ammonium cyanate (NH4^+OCN^-). Some of these species remain stable after warming up to room temperature.

  14. Comparison of Deuterium Retention for Ion-irradiated and Neutron-irradiated Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhisa Oya; Masashi Shimada; Makoto Kobayashi; Takuji Oda; Masanori Hara; Hideo Watanabe; Yuji Hatano; Pattrick Calderoni; Kenji Okuno

    2011-12-01

    The behavior of D retention for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten with a damage of 0.025-3 dpa was compared with that for neutron-irradiated tungsten with 0.025 dpa. The D{sub 2} thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) spectra for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten consisted of two desorption stages at 450 and 550 K, while that for neutron-irradiated tungsten was composed of three stages and an addition desorption stage was found at 750 K. The desorption rate of the major desorption stage at 550K increased as the displacement damage increased due to Fe{sup 2+} irradiation increasing. In addition, the first desorption stage at 450K was found only for damaged samples. Therefore, the second stage would be based on intrinsic defects or vacancy produced by Fe{sup 2+} irradiation, and the first stage should be the accumulation of D in mono-vacancy and the activation energy would be relatively reduced, where the dislocation loop and vacancy is produced. The third one was found only for neutron irradiation, showing the D trapping by a void or vacancy cluster, and the diffusion effect is also contributed to by the high full-width at half-maximum of the TDS spectrum. Therefore, it can be said that the D{sub 2} TDS spectra for Fe{sup 2+}-irradiated tungsten cannot represent that for the neutron-irradiated one, indicating that the deuterium trapping and desorption mechanism for neutron-irradiated tungsten is different from that for the ion-irradiated one.

  15. Effect of irradiation spectrum on the microstructure of ion-irradiated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Polycrystalline samples of alpha-alumina have been irradiated with various ions ranging from 3.6 MeV Fe{sup +} to 1 MeV H{sup +} ions at 650 C. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the depth-dependent microstructure of the irradiated specimens. The microstructure following irradiation was observed to be dependent on the irradiation spectrum. In particular, defect cluster nucleation was effectively suppressed in specimens irradiated with light ions such as 1 MeV H{sup +} ions. On the other hand, light ion irradiation tended to accelerate the growth rate of dislocation loops. The microstructural observations are discussed in terms of ionization enhanced diffusion processes.

  16. Understanding the effects of ion irradiation using nanoindentation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Christopher D.; Roberts, Steve G.; Bushby, Andy J.

    2015-07-01

    The effects of ion irradiation in materials for research are usually limited to a shallow surface layer of the order of one micrometre in depth. Determining the mechanical properties of such irradiated materials requires techniques with high spatial resolution. Nanoindentation is a relatively simple method for investigating these shallow layers with the advantage that statistically rich data sets for elastic and plastic property values can be generated. However, interpretation of the results requires and understanding of the material response, including the extent of the plastic zone with respect to the irradiated layer, pile-up or sink-in of material around the indentation site that affect the calculated contact area and hence derived mechanical property values. An Fe+ self-irradiated Fe12%Cr alloy was investigated with three different indenter tip geometries, a cube corner, Berkovich and 10 ?m radius indenter. Sharp indenters provide sufficiently small plastic zones to be contained within the irradiated layer but pop-in events and pile-up need to be taken into account for correct interpretation of the mechanical properties of the irradiated material.

  17. Magnetization and susceptibility of ion-irradiated granular magnetite films

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; McCloy, J. S.; Lea, A. S.; Sundararajan, J. A.; Yao, Q.; Qiang, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Porous granular films of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with grains of {approx}3 nm in size were prepared using a state-of-the-art nanocluster deposition system. The films are initially superparamagnetic but become magnetized following Si{sup 2+} ion irradiation. A significant increase in the grain size and a dramatic change in the microstructure are observed. There are dipolar interactions between the nanoparticles in both the unirradiated and irradiated films. The in-phase alternating current magnetic susceptibility of the unirradiated film shows a blocking temperature of {approx}150 K, depending on frequency. A broadened Verwey transition for the irradiated film occurs at {approx}75 K, above which the susceptibility exhibits unusual behavior: a nearly linear decrease with decreasing temperature. There are irreversible domain rotations in the irradiated film during zero-field cooling and warming cycles between 10 and 300 K. The observed behavior of the irradiated granular films is quite distinct from that of metallic nanostructures after irradiation, and is due to the dramatic change in microstructures.

  18. Magnetic properties of graphite irradiated with MeV ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, M. A.; Munoz-Martin, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Esquinazi, P.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.

    2010-06-01

    We have studied the change in the magnetic properties produced on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite samples by irradiation of H, C, and N ions in the mega-electron-volt energy range. The use of specially made sample holders for the magnetic measurements provided high reproducibility allowing us to obtain directly the irradiation effects without any corrections or subtractions. Our results show that three magnetic phenomena are triggered by the defects produced by the irradiation, namely, Curie-type paramagnetism, ferromagnetism and an anomalous paramagnetic state that appears as precursor of the magnetic ordered state. Using SRIM simulations to estimate the amount of vacancies produced by the irradiation, the Curie-type paramagnetic response indicates an effective Bohr magneton number per nominally produced vacancy p=0.27+-0.02mu{sub B}. Direct measurements of the surface sample temperature during irradiation and the decrease in the (as-received) paramagnetic as well as ferromagnetic contributions after irradiation indicate that self-heating is one of the causes for small yield of ferromagnetism. Taking into account the hydrogen distribution in the virgin samples, the obtained results indicate that the induced ferromagnetism appears when the average vacancy distance is {approx}2 nm in the near surface region.

  19. Metastable hydronium ions in UV-irradiated ice

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Eui-Seong; Kang, Heon

    2012-11-28

    We show that the irradiation of UV light (10-11 eV) onto an ice film produces metastable hydronium (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) ions in the ice at low temperatures (53-140 K). Evidence of the presence of metastable hydronium ions was obtained by experiments involving adsorption of methylamine onto UV-irradiated ice films and hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) isotopic exchange reaction. The methylamine adsorption experiments showed that photogenerated H{sub 3}O{sup +} species transferred a proton to the methylamine arriving at the ice surface, thus producing the methyl ammonium ion, which was detected by low energy sputtering method. The H{sub 3}O{sup +} species induced the H/D exchange of water, which was monitored through the detection of water isotopomers on the surface by using the Cs{sup +} reactive ion scattering method. Thermal and temporal stabilities of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and its proton migration activity were examined. The lifetime of the hydronium ions in the amorphized ice was greater than 1 h at {approx}53 K and decreased to {approx}5 min at 140 K. Interestingly, a small portion of hydronium ions survived for an extraordinarily long time in the ice, even at 140 K. The average migration distance of protons released from H{sub 3}O{sup +} in the ice was estimated to be about two water molecules at {approx}54 K and about six molecules at 100 K. These results indicate that UV-generated hydronium ions can be efficiently stabilized in low-temperature ice. Such metastable hydronium ions may play a significant role in the acid-base chemistry of ice particles in interstellar clouds.

  20. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion irradiation on rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue; Liu, Binmei; Zhang, Lili; Wu, Yuejin

    2012-11-01

    Three varieties of rice seeds were subjected to irradiation using low-energy and medium-energy ions. The damage and mutations induced by the ions were examined. In addition, genetic analysis and gene mapping of spotted leaf (spl) mutants were performed. Low-energy ions had no significant influence on germination, survival or seedling height, except for the survival of Nipponbare. Medium-energy ions had a significant influence on germination and survival but had no significant effect on seedling height. In the low-energy group, among 60,000 M2 plants, 2823 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 4.71%. In the medium-energy group, 3132 putative morphological mutants were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.22%. Five spl mutants (spl29-spl33) were obtained by ion irradiation, and the heredity of the spl mutants was stable. The characteristics of the spl mutants were found, by genetic analysis and preliminary mapping, to be controlled by a single recessive gene, and spl30 and spl33 were found to be new lesion-mimic mutants.

  1. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations.

    PubMed

    Crespillo, M L; Graham, J T; Zhang, Y; Weber, W J

    2016-02-01

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of -170 to 900?C using a 10 MeV Au(3+) ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 10(12) cm(-2) s(-1). Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggests that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. A simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beam analysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect. PMID:26931879

  2. Temperature measurements during high flux ion beam irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespillo, M. L.; Graham, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Weber, W. J.

    2016-02-01

    A systematic study of the ion beam heating effect was performed in a temperature range of -170 to 900 °C using a 10 MeV Au3+ ion beam and a Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sample at a flux of 5.5 × 1012 cm-2 s-1. Different geometric configurations of beam, sample, thermocouple positioning, and sample holder were compared to understand the heat/charge transport mechanisms responsible for the observed temperature increase. The beam heating exhibited a strong dependence on the background (initial) sample temperature with the largest temperature increases occurring at cryogenic temperatures and decreasing with increasing temperature. Comparison with numerical calculations suggests that the observed heating effect is, in reality, a predominantly electronic effect and the true temperature rise is small. A simple model was developed to explain this electronic effect in terms of an electrostatic potential that forms during ion irradiation. Such an artificial beam heating effect is potentially problematic in thermostated ion irradiation and ion beam analysis apparatus, as the operation of temperature feedback systems can be significantly distorted by this effect.

  3. Net sputtering rate due to hot ions in a Ne-Xe discharge gas bombarding an MgO layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.; Tamakoshi, T.; Ikeda, M.; Mikami, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2011-04-15

    An analytical method is developed for determining net sputtering rate for an MgO layer under hot ions with low energy (<100 eV) in a neon-xenon discharge gas at near-atmospheric pressure. The primary sputtering rate is analyzed according to spatial and energy distributions of the hot ions with average energy, E{sup h}{sub i}, above a threshold energy of sputtering, E{sub th,i}, multiplied by a yield coefficient. The threshold energy of sputtering is determined from dissociation energy required to remove an atom from MgO surface multiplied by an energy-transfer coefficient. The re-deposition rate of the sputtered atoms is calculated by a diffusion simulation using a hybridized probabilistic and analytical method. These calculation methods are combined to analyze the net sputtering rate. Maximum net sputtering rate due to the hot neon ions increases above the partial pressure of 4% xenon as E{sup h}{sub Ne} becomes higher and decreases near the partial pressure of 20% xenon as ion flux of neon decreases. The dependence due to the hot neon ions on partial pressure and applied voltage agrees well with experimental results, but the dependence due to the hot xenon ions deviates considerably. This result shows that the net sputtering rate is dominated by the hot neon ions. Maximum E{sup h}{sub Ne} (E{sup h}{sub Ne,max} = 5.3 - 10.3 eV) is lower than E{sub th,Ne} (19.5 eV) for the MgO layer; therefore, weak sputtering due to the hot neon ions takes place. One hot neon ion sputters each magnesium and each oxygen atom on the surface and distorts around a vacancy. The ratio of the maximum net sputtering rate is approximately determined by number of the ions at E{sup h}{sub i,max} multiplied by an exponential factor of -E{sub th,i}/E{sup h}{sub i,max}.

  4. He ion irradiation damage in Al/Nb multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Li Nan; Anderoglu, O.; Zhang, X.; Martin, M. S.; Shao, L.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.

    2009-06-15

    We investigate the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter-deposited Al/Nb multilayers with miscible fcc/bcc type interface and individual layer thickness, h, of 1-200 nm, subjected to helium ion irradiations: 100 keV He{sup +} ions and a fluence of 6x10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}. Helium bubbles, 1-2 nm in diameter, are observed. When h is greater than 25 nm, hardnesses of irradiated multilayers barely change, whereas radiation hardening is more significant at smaller h. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a thin layer of Nb{sub 3}Al intermetallic phase along the Al/Nb interface as a consequence of radiation induced intermixing. The dependence of radiation hardening on h is interpreted by using a composite model considering the formation of the hard Nb{sub 3}Al intermetallic layer.

  5. He ion irradiation damage in Al /Nb multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Martin, M. S.; Anderoglu, O.; Misra, A.; Shao, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter-deposited Al /Nb multilayers with miscible fcc/bcc type interface and individual layer thickness, h, of 1-200nm, subjected to helium ion irradiations: 100keV He+ ions and a fluence of 61016/cm2. Helium bubbles, 1-2nm in diameter, are observed. When h is greater than 25nm, hardnesses of irradiated multilayers barely change, whereas radiation hardening is more significant at smaller h. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a thin layer of Nb3Al intermetallic phase along the Al /Nb interface as a consequence of radiation induced intermixing. The dependence of radiation hardening on h is interpreted by using a composite model considering the formation of the hard Nb3Al intermetallic layer.

  6. Tunable nanometer electrode gaps by MeV ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Cheang-Wong, J.-C.; Narumi, K.; Schrmann, G. M.; Aziz, M. J.; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of MeV ion-irradiation-induced plastic deformation of amorphous materials to fabricate electrodes with nanometer-sized gaps. Plastic deformation of the amorphous metal Pd80Si20 is induced by 4.64 MeV O2+ ion irradiation, allowing the complete closing of a sub-micrometer gap. We measure the evolving gap size in situ by monitoring the field emission current-voltage (I-V) characteristics between electrodes. The I-V behavior is consistent with Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. We show that using feedback control on this signal permits gap size fabrication with atomic-scale precision. We expect this approach to nanogap fabrication will enable the practical realization of single molecule controlled devices and sensors. PMID:22550357

  7. He ion irradiation damage to Al/Nb multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit; Li, Nan; Martin, M S; Anderoglu, Osman; Shao, L; Wang, H; Zhang, X

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter-deposited Al/Nb multilayers with individual layer thickness, h, of 1-200 nm, subjected to helium ion irradiations: 100 keV He{sup +} ions with a dose of 6 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}. Helium bubbles, 1-2 nm in diameter, were observed. When h is greater than 25 nm, hardnesses of irradiated multilayers barely change, whereas radiation hardening is more significant at smaller h. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a thin layer of Nb{sub 3}Al intermetallic along the Al/Nb interface as a consequence of radiation induced intermixing. The dependence of radiation hardening on h is interpreted by using a composite model considering the formation of the hard Nb{sub 3}Al intermetallic layer.

  8. Grain boundary and interface kinetics during ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, H. A.

    Proposed here is renewed support of a research program focused on interface motion and phase transformation during ion irradiation, with emphasis on elemental semiconductors. Broadly speaking, the aims of this program are to explore defect kinetics in amorphous and crystalline semiconductors, and to relate defect dynamics to interface motion and phase transformations. Over the last three years, we initiated a program under DOE support to explore crystallization and amorphization of elemental semiconductors under irradiation. This research has enabled new insights about the nature of defects in amorphous semiconductors and about microstructural evolution in the early stages of crystallization. In addition, we have demonstrated almost arbitrary control over the relative rates of crystal nucleation and crystal growth in silicon. As a result, the impinged grain microstructure of thin (100 nm) polycrystalline films crystallized under irradiation can be controlled with grain sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers, which may have interesting technological implications.

  9. Track Structure in DNA Irradiated with Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Michael K.; Becker, David; Sevilla, Michael D.; Zimbrick, John D.

    2005-04-01

    The spatial properties of trapped radicals produced in heavy ion-irradiated solid DNA at 77 K have been probed using pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER) techniques. Salmon testes DNA hydrated to twelve water molecules per nucleotide was irradiated with 40Ar ions of energy 100 MeV/nucleon and LET ranging from 300 to 400 keV/?. Irradiated samples were maintained at cryogenic temperature at all times. PELDOR measurements were made using a refocused echo detection sequence that allows dipolar interaction between trapped radicals to be observed. The EPR spectrum is attributed to electron loss/gain DNA base radicals and neutral carbon-centered radicals that likely arise from sugar damage. We find a radical concentration of 13.5*1018 cm-3 in the tracks and a track radius of 6.79 nm. The cross section of these tracks is 144 nm2 yielding a lineal radical density of 2.6 radicals/nm. Based upon the yields previously determined for particles having calculated LET values of 300-400 keV/mm and our measured lineal density, we obtain an LET of 270 keV/mm, which is in good agreement with the calculated range of values. These measurements of radical density and spatial extent provide the first direct experimental determination of track characteristics in irradiated DNA.

  10. Development of an ion beam alignment system for real-time scanning tunneling microscope observation of dopant-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, Takefumi; Sato, Kou; Kazama, Yutaka; Watanabe, Takanobu; Ohdomari, Iwao

    2008-07-15

    An ion beam alignment system has been developed in order to realize real-time scanning tunneling microscope (STM) observation of 'dopant-ion' irradiation that has been difficult due to the low emission intensity of the liquid-metal-ion-source (LMIS) containing dopant atoms. The alignment system is installed in our original ion gun and STM combined system (IG/STM) which is used for in situ STM observation during ion irradiation. By using an absorbed electron image unit and a dummy sample, ion beam alignment operation is drastically simplified and accurized. We demonstrate that sequential STM images during phosphorus-ion irradiation are successfully obtained for sample surfaces of Si(111)-7x7 at room temperature and a high temperature of 500 deg. C. The LMIS-IG/STM equipped with the developed ion beam alignment system would be a powerful tool for microscopic investigation of the dynamic processes of ion irradiation.

  11. In-situ observation of atomic self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuishi, K.; Song, M.; Furuya, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Allen, C. W.; Donnelly, S. E.

    1998-03-10

    Self-organization processes in Xe nanocrystals embedded in Al are observed with in-situ high-resolution electron microscopy. Under electron irradiation, stacking fault type defects are produced in Xe nanocrystals. The defects recover in a layer by layer manner. Detailed analysis of the video reveals that the displacement of Xe atoms in the stacking fault was rather small for the Xe atoms at boundary between Xe and Al, suggesting the possibility of the stacking fault in Xe precipitate originating inside of precipitate, not at the Al/Xe interface.

  12. Hardening behavior of molybdenum by low energy He and D ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakiri, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.

    1998-10-01

    Hardening of Mo by He and D ion irradiation with fusion relevant energy was examined by means of nanoindentation technique and TEM. Steep initial increase of load/displacement-displacement plots and following pop-in movement of the indenter indicate that the subsurface region where the ion-induced damage occurs is hardened. In the early stage of irradiation the hardness increases by about a factor of two due to the formation of dense dislocation loops and saturates for D ion irradiation and He ion irradiation at high temperature. For D ion irradiation, however, one order of higher displacement damage is required to cause similar hardening. In the case of He ion irradiation at 300 K the hardness increases by a factor of four at dose of 1.0 10 22 ions/m 2, where a high-density of He bubbles is formed. These results indicate that the irradiation effects of He are much stronger than that of D.

  13. Manipulation of the graphene surface potential by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochedowski, O.; Kleine Bussmann, B.; Schleberger, M.; Ban d'Etat, B.; Lebius, H.

    2013-04-15

    We show that the work function of exfoliated single layer graphene can be modified by irradiation with swift (E{sub kin}=92 MeV) heavy ions under glancing angles of incidence. Upon ion impact individual surface tracks are created in graphene on silicon carbide. Due to the very localized energy deposition characteristic for ions in this energy range, the surface area which is structurally altered is limited to Almost-Equal-To 0.01 {mu}m{sup 2} per track. Kelvin probe force microscopy reveals that those surface tracks consist of electronically modified material and that a few tracks suffice to shift the surface potential of the whole single layer flake by Almost-Equal-To 400 meV. Thus, the irradiation turns the initially n-doped graphene into p-doped graphene with a hole density of 8.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} holes/cm{sup 2}. This doping effect persists even after heating the irradiated samples to 500 Degree-Sign C. Therefore, this charge transfer is not due to adsorbates but must instead be attributed to implanted atoms. The method presented here opens up a way to efficiently manipulate the charge carrier concentration of graphene.

  14. Defect production and accumulation under hydrogen and helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinnan; Zhao, Xinjie; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Wen; Chu, Fengmin

    1997-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel (316L SS) is a candidate material for the first wall of a fusion reactor, which will be irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons and escaped ions. This will produce helium and hydrogen in the matrix, which come both from the transmutation production and escaped ions of the plasma. The synergistic action of high-energy cascades and helium induces important damage, such as swelling, blistering and helium embrittlement. The hydrogen combines with the radiation defects to produce dense tiny bubbles (or voids) and substitutes for gaseous impurities (such as soluted oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus) which react with other composites Fe, Cr, Ni and Mo to form new phases, such as Cr 2O 3, (CrFe) 2O 3, (Fe 5C 2)28N, (CrMo)N, (Fe 2Mo)12H and (FeNi) 9S 8. These induce mechanical property changes. The hydrogen combined with helium and high energy cascades will induce more serious damage than that of helium alone. To exhibit the synergistic action of helium and hydrogen, the 316L SS specimens were bombarded with helium, hydrogen and mixed ion beam with energy ranging from 27 to 38 keV to a dose of 10 17-8 10 18 ions/cm 2 at 573 K. The results indicate that (a) for the helium ion irradiation, the threshold dose for blistering in the energy range 27-100 keV is higher than that for the 1.0 MeV helium ion irradiation. The surface effects play an important role in the blistering. (b) When specimens bombarded with the mixed beam of helium and hydrogen ions of 27 keV reached the same helium dose (6.4 10 17 He +/cm 2), the diameter and density of bubble on surface increase at a ratio of the hydrogen to helium increase. The more hydrogen ions implanted, the easier and more serious the blister is. (c) When the kinetic energy of the mixed beam decreases in the range 10-30 keV, the action of hydrogen ions on the blistering appears more evident. It seems that the hydrogen plays an important role in bubble formation and growth.

  15. Light ion irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Linstadt, D.; Castro, J.R.; Phillips, T.L.; Petti, P.L.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.; Schoethaler, R.; Rayner, A.

    1990-09-01

    Between 1978 and 1989, 32 patients with unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma underwent light ion (helium, neon) irradiation with curative intent at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The tumors were located in the trunk in 22 patients and head and neck in 10. Macroscopic tumor was present in 22 at the time of irradiation. Two patients had tumors apparently induced by previous therapeutic irradiation. Follow-up times for surviving patients ranged from 4 to 121 months (median 27 months). The overall 3-year actuarial local control rate was 62%; the corresponding survival rate was 50%. The 3-year actuarial control rate for patients irradiated with macroscopic tumors was 48%, while none of the patients with microscopic disease developed local recurrence (100%). The corresponding 3-year actuarial survival rates were 40% (macroscopic) and 78% (microscopic). Patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma did notably well; the local control rate and survival rate were 64% and 62%, respectively. Complications were acceptable; there were no radiation related deaths, while two patients (6%) required operations to correct significant radiation-related injuries. These results appear promising compared to those achieved by low -LET irradiation, and suggest that this technique merits further investigation.

  16. Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Cannon, W. Roger; Lessing, Paul A.; Avci, Recep; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Wolfenden, Mark; Akers, Doug W.; Jewell, J. Keith; Zuck, Larry D.

    2013-02-01

    Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uranium-plutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H2O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the C-O and C-C bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with Hrad and OHrad . Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp2 carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H2O or a H2O-methanol solution, and hence the bulk of the material could not be analyzed using electrospray. However a series of oligomers was leached from the bulk material that produced ion series in the ESI-MS analyses that were identified octylphenyl ethoxylate oligomers. Upon Li ion bombardment, these shifted to a lower average molecular weight, but more importantly showed the emergence of three new ion series that are being formed as a result of radiation damage. Surface analysis of the paraffinic polymers using SIMS produced spectra that were wholly dominated by hydrocarbon ion series, and no difference was observed between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The studies demonstrate that for the PEG-based polymers, direct evidence for radiolytic scission can be observed using ESI-MS, and suggests that both radiolytic pathways and efficiencies as a function of dose should be measurable by calibrating instrument response to the small oligomeric degradation products.

  17. Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; W. Roger Cannon; Paul A. Lessing; Recep Avci; Muhammedin Deliorman; Mark Wolfenden; Doug W. Akers; J. Keith Jewell

    2013-02-01

    Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uranium–plutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H2O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the C–O and C–C bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with Hradical dot and OHradical dot. Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp2 carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H2O or a H2O–methanol solution, and hence the bulk of the material could not be analyzed using electrospray. However a series of oligomers was leached from the bulk material that produced ion series in the ESI-MS analyses that were identified octylphenyl ethoxylate oligomers. Upon Li ion bombardment, these shifted to a lower average molecular weight, but more importantly showed the emergence of three new ion series that are being formed as a result of radiation damage. Surface analysis of the paraffinic polymers using SIMS produced spectra that were wholly dominated by hydrocarbon ion series, and no difference was observed between unirradiated and irradiated samples. The studies demonstrate that for the PEG-based polymers, direct evidence for radiolytic scission can be observed using ESI-MS, and suggests that both radiolytic pathways and efficiencies as a function of dose should be measurable by calibrating instrument response to the small oligomeric degradation products.

  18. Ion irradiation damage in ilmenite under cryogenic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.N.; Yu, N.; Devanathan, R.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.A.; Nord, G.L. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    A natural single crystal of ilmenite was irradiated at 100 K with 200 keV Ar{sup 2+}. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and ion channeling with 2 MeV He{sup +} ions were used to monitor damage accumulation in the surface region of the implanted crystal. At an irradiation fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 15} Ar{sup 2+} cm{sup {minus}2}, considerable near-surface He{sup +} ion dechanneling was observed, to the extent that ion yield from a portion of the aligned crystal spectrum reached the yield level of a random spectrum. This observation suggests that the near-surface region of the crystal was amorphized by the implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction on this sample confirmed the presence of a 150 mm thick amorphous layer. These results are compared to similar investigations on geikielite (MgTiO{sub 3}) and spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) to explore factors that may influence radiation damage response in oxides.

  19. Ion irradiation damage in ilmenite at 100 K

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.N.; Yu, N.; Devanathan, R.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.A.; Nord, G.L. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    A natural single crystal of ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) was irradiated at 100 K with 200 keV Ar{sup 2+}. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and ion channeling with MeV He{sup +} ions were used to monitor damage accumulation in the surface region of the implanted crystal. At an irradiation fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 15} Ar{sup 2+} cm{sup {minus}2}, considerable near-surface He{sup +} ion dechanneling was observed, to the extent that ion yield from a portion of the aligned crystal spectrum reached the yield level of a random spectrum. This observation suggests that the near-surface region of the crystal was amorphized by the implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction on this sample confirmed the presence of a 150 nm thick amorphous layer. These results are compared to similar investigations on geikielite (MgTiO{sub 3}) and spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) to explore factors that may influence radiation damage response in oxides.

  20. Ion irradiation damage in ilmenite at 100 K

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, J.N.; Yu, N.; Devanathan, R.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.A.; Nord, G.L., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A natural single crystal of ilmenite (FeTiO3) was irradiated at 100 K with 200 keV Ar2+. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and ion channeling with 2 MeV He+ ions were used to monitor damage accumulation in the surface region of the implanted crystal. At an irradiation fluence of 1 ?? 1015 Ar2+/cm2, considerable near-surface He+ ion dechanneling was observed, to the extent that ion yield from a portion of the aligned crystal spectrum reached the yield level of a random spectrum. This observation suggests that the near-surface region of the crystal was amorphized by the implantation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction on this sample confirmed the presence of a 150 nm thick amorphous layer. These results are compared to similar investigations on geikielite (MgTiO3) and spinel (MgAl2O4) to explore factors that may influence radiation damage response in oxides.

  1. Shrinkage effects of polyimide film under ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. L.; Yuehui, Yu; Zixin, Lin; Lizhi, Chen; Fang, Fang; Zuyao, Zhou; Shichang, Zou; Gendi, Du; Guanqun, Xia

    1991-07-01

    Ion beam induced electrical conduction of ion implanted polyimide film could find potential applications for encapsulation of microelectronic devices and gate-transistor fabrication. One of the important problems to be solved is the shrinkage effect of polyimide film under ion beam irradiation. In this work the shrinkage effects of B +-implanted polyimide film under different implantation conditions were investigated by using different techniques (IR reflection interference spectra, surface profile measuring system, and automatic spreading resistance measurements). According to the previous results of ASR measurement a multilayer model of the implanted polyimide film was proposed for the computer simulation of infrared reflection interference spectra. The shrinkage and depth profile of the refraction index of the implanted polyimide films will be discussed.

  2. Study of ion-irradiated tungsten in deuterium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, B. I.; Gureev, V. M.; Koidan, V. S.; Kornienko, S. N.; Latushkin, S. T.; Petrov, V. B.; Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.; Stolyarova, V. G.; Danelyan, L. S.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Zatekin, V. V.; Unezhev, V. N.

    2013-07-01

    Experimental study aimed at investigation of neutron induced damage influence on fusion reactor plasma facing materials is reported. Displacement damage was produced in tungsten by high-energy helium and carbon ions at 3-10 MeV. The reached level of displacement damage ranged from several dpa to 600 dpa. The properties of the irradiated tungsten were studied in steady-state deuterium plasma on the LENTA linear divertor simulator. Plasma exposures were made at 250 eV of ion energy to fluence 1021-1022 ion/?m2. Erosion dynamics of the damaged layer and deuterium retention were observed. Surface microstructure modifications and important damage of the 5 ?m layer shown. Deuterium retention in helium-damaged tungsten (ERD) showed its complex behavior (increase or decrease) depending on implanted helium quantity and the structure of the surface layer.

  3. Reflection properties of hydrogen ions at helium irradiated tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, K.; Tawada, Y.; Lee, H. T.; Kato, S.; Tanaka, N.; Sasao, M.; Kisaki, M.; Nishiura, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Wada, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yamaoka, H.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured W surfaces prepared by He bombardment exhibit characteristic angular distributions of hydrogen ion reflection upon injection of 1 keV H+ beam. A magnetic momentum analyzer that can move in the vacuum chamber has measured the angular dependence of the intensity and the energy of reflected ions. Broader angular distributions were observed for He-irradiated tungsten samples compared with that of the intrinsic polycrystalline W. Both intensity and energy of reflected ions decreased in the following order: the polycrystalline W, the He-bubble containing W, and the fuzz W. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations based on Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target code suggests that lower atom density near the surface can make the reflection coefficients lower due to increasing number of collisions.

  4. The Irradiation Performance and Microstructural Evolution in 9Cr-2W Steel Under Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Pasebani, Somayeh

    2016-02-01

    Grade 92 steel (9Cr-2W) is a ferritic-martensitic steel with good mechanical and thermal properties. It is being considered for structural applications in Generation IV reactors. Still, the irradiation performance of this alloy needs more investigation as a result of the limited available data. The irradiation performance investigation of Grade 92 steel would contribute to the understanding of engineering aspects including feasibility of application, economy, and maintenance. In this study, Grade 92 steel was irradiated by iron ion beam to 10, 50, and 100 dpa at 30 and 500 °C. In general, the samples exhibited good radiation damage resistance at these testing parameters. The radiation-induced hardening was higher at 30 °C with higher dislocation density; however, the dislocation density was less pronounced at higher temperature. Moreover, the irradiated samples at 30 °C had defect clusters and their density increased at higher doses. On the other hand, dislocation loops were found in the irradiated sample at 50 dpa and 500 °C. Further, the irradiated samples did not show any bubble or void.

  5. Low-energy N+ ion irradiation induced synthesis of nitrogenous compound from solid organic sodium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangqin; Yu, Zengliang

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, samples of solid organic sodium salts (sodium formate, sodium acetate and sodium benzoate) were irradiated by low-energy N+ ions. The induced damage was detected by infrared (FT-IR). It is shown that a new cyano group (-CN) and amino group (-NH2) were formed in the irradiated sodium carbroxylic sample with N+ ion irradiation. The experimental results examined the effect of N+ ion irradiation by reacting with sodium salt molecules, and presented a new way for the synthesis of nitrogenous compound by low-energy ion irradiation.

  6. Origins of ion irradiation-induced Ga nanoparticle motion on GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, H. Y.; Thornton, K.; Goldman, R. S.; Sofferman, D. L.; Department of Physics, Adelphi University, Garden City, New York 11530-0701 ; Beskin, I.

    2013-08-12

    We have examined the origins of ion irradiation-induced nanoparticle (NP) motion. Focused-ion-beam irradiation of GaAs surfaces induces random walks of Ga NPs, which are biased in the direction opposite to that of ion beam scanning. Although the instantaneous NP velocities are constant, the NP drift velocities are dependent on the off-normal irradiation angle, likely due to a difference in surface non-stoichiometry induced by the irradiation angle dependence of the sputtering yield. It is hypothesized that the random walks are initiated by ion irradiation-induced thermal fluctuations, with biasing driven by anisotropic mass transport.

  7. Observation of Visible and Near-UV M1 Transitions from Highly Charged Kr, Mo and Xe Ions in LHD and its Prospect to Impurity Spectroscopy for D-T Burning Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katai, Ryuji; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi

    Magnetic dipole (M1) transitions from highly charged heavy impurities have been surveyed in visible and near-UV wavelength ranges longer than 2500 using a 1.33 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for use in future visible impurity spectroscopy of D-T burning plasmas. The M1 transitions of KrXXII (Kr21+: P-like) 3s23p3 2D3/2-2D5/2 3463.75 0.05 , KrXXIII (Kr22+: Si-like) 3s23p2 3P1-3P2 3841.07 0.03 , MoXXIX (Mo28+: Si-like) 3s23p2 3P1-3P2 2842.10 0.05 , XeXXXIII (Xe32+: Ti-like) 3d4 5D3-5D2 4139.01 0.02 have been successfully observed using an external puff of Kr and Xe and an impurity pellet injection of Mo. As a result, the identication of the Ti-like XeXXXIII M1 transition, as observation for the first time in laboratory fusion plasmas, strongly suggests that the visible impurity spectroscopy of tungsten ions using Ti-like WLIII (W52+: 3626 ) instead of the conventionally used EUV spectroscopy is possible in future D-T burning plasmas.

  8. Microstructure of RERTR DU-Alloys Irradiated with Krypton Ions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; D. Wachs; B. Miller; T. Allen; M. Kirk; J. Rest

    2009-11-01

    Fuel development for reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in many research and test reactors worldwide. Radiation stability of the interaction product formed at fuel-matrix interface has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast that consist of the following 5 phases of interest to be investigated: U(Si,Al)3, (U,Mo)(Si,Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4. Irradiation of TEM disc samples with 500 keV Kr ions at 200?C to high doses up to ~100 dpa were conducted using an intermediate voltage electron microscope equipped with an ion accelerator. The irradiated microstructure of the 5 phases is characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results will be presented and the implication of the observed irradiated microstructure on the fuel performance will be discussed.

  9. Heavy ion irradiation effects of brannerite-type ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Wang, L. M.; Lumpkin, G. R.; Ewing, R. C.

    2002-05-01

    Brannerite, UTi 2O 6, occurs in polyphase Ti-based, crystalline ceramics that are under development for plutonium immobilization. In order to investigate radiation effects caused by ?-decay events of Pu, a 1 MeV Kr + irradiation on UTi 2O 6, ThTi 2O 6, CeTi 2O 6 and a more complex material, composed of Ca-containing brannerite and pyrochlore, was performed over a temperature range of 25-1020 K. The ion irradiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transformation was observed in all brannerite samples. The critical amorphization temperatures of the different brannerite compositions are: 970 K, UTi 2O 6; 990 K, ThTi 2O 6; 1020 K, CeTi 2O 6. The systematic increase in radiation resistance from Ce-, Th- to U-brannerite is related to the difference of mean atomic mass of A-site cation in the structure. As compared with the pyrochlore structure-type, brannerite phases are more susceptible to ion irradiation-induced amorphization. The effects of structure and chemical compositions on radiation resistance of brannerite-type and pyrochlore-type ceramics are discussed.

  10. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: I. shape transformation and dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2014-09-24

    We report on the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation of embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs), which change from spheres to prolate spheroids to rods upon irradiation. Using a broad range of ion irradiation energies and NC mean sizes we demonstrate that the elongation and dissolution processes are energy and size dependent, attaining comparable levels of shape transformation and dissolution upon a given energy density deposited in the matrix. The NC shape transformation remains operative despite discontinuous ion tracks in the matrix and exhibits a constant threshold size for elongation. In contrast, for ion irradiations in which the ion tracks are continuous, the threshold size for elongation is clearly energy dependent.

  11. Ion mixing in film-substrate systems under polyenergetic Ar{sup +} ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalin, B.A.; Volkov, N.V.; Gladkov, B.P.; Sabo, S.E.; Atalikova, I.H.; Altuhov, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The results of alloying Al, Fe, and Mo surfaces by Be, Al, Ni, Sn under polyenergetic Ar{sup +} ion beam irradiation with a mean energy of 10 keV have been presented. It has been shown that along with film and substrate materials sputtering there takes place the penetration of film atoms into substrate materials at depth which is significantly greater (by a factor of 3...10) than the projective range of ions in the given materials. The analysis of possible alloying depths with regard to different models (pure radiation range for monoenergetic ion beams; when the decrease of concentration is approximated by the exponential dependence; when the internal forcing out stresses are taken into account) for equal irradiation dose shows that the model, in which the migration of implanted atoms in the fields of forcing out stresses are considered, gives most close agreement between the calculated data and experimental ones.

  12. Chlorine diffusion in uranium dioxide under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipon, Y.; Brerd, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Peaucelle, C.; Toulhoat, N.; Jaffrzic, H.; Raimbault, L.; Sainsot, P.; Carlot, G.

    2007-04-01

    The radiation enhanced diffusion of chlorine in UO2 during heavy ion irradiation is studied. In order to simulate the behaviour of 36Cl, present as an impurity in UO2, 37Cl has been implanted into the samples (projected range 200 nm). The samples were then irradiated with 63.5 MeV 127I at two fluxes and two temperatures and the chlorine distribution was analyzed by SIMS. The results show that, during irradiation, the diffusion of the implanted chlorine is enhanced and slightly athermal with respect to pure thermal diffusion. A chlorine gain of 10% accumulating near the surface has been observed at 510 K. This corresponds to the displacement of pristine chlorine from a region of maximum defect concentration. This behaviour and the mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient found for the implanted chlorine, around 2.5 10-14 cm2 s-1, reflect the high mobility of chlorine in UO2 during irradiation with fission products.

  13. The change in permeability spectra due to ion irradiation in the Co-based amorphous ribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Park, D. G.; Song, H.; Cheong, Y. M.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2009-04-01

    The Ar ion has been irradiated by an ion implanter with energy of 50, 70, and 100 keV and an ion dosage was set to 1.0x10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} at a beam flux of 3.7 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The ion irradiation decreased the initial permeability and increased the relaxation frequency, and the behavior of permeability spectra due to ion irradiation was explained with damped harmonic model of domain wall on the general basis of magnetization mechanism. The ion irradiation gives rise to a significant change on the restoring force of domain wall but minor effect on the spin rotation. The enhancement in the permeability of the amorphous ribbon upon ion irradiation leads to a parallel improvement of giant magneto impedance response of the material, which is of practical use for sensing applications.

  14. Production and irradiation of ionic liquid cluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, Gikan H.; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Ueda, Ryo

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a field-emission-type of cluster ion source using ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). The current obtained was stable by placing a porous cap around the emitter. Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement showed that the peak mass number was approximately 5000 for positive and negative BMIM-PF6 ion beams. This indicated that BMIM-PF6 clusters with a size of a few tens of molecules were produced. With regard to the surface modification by BMIM-PF6 ion beams, positive and negative cluster ion beams were used to irradiate Si(1 0 0) and glass substrates. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observations showed that the surface roughness of substrates increased. Furthermore, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement showed that the composition ratio of layers deposited by positive or negative cluster ion beams was similar to that of BMIM-PF6 solvent.

  15. Self-aligned nanostructures created by swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Nix, Anne-Katrin; Hofsaess, Hans; Krauser, Johann; Trautmann, Christina; Weidinger, Alois

    2010-05-15

    In tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) swift heavy ions create conducting tracks of about 8 nm in diameter. To apply these nanowires and implement them into nanodevices, they have to be contacted and gated. In the present work, we demonstrate the fabrication of conducting vertical nanostructures in ta-C together with self-aligned gate electrodes. A multilayer assembly is irradiated with GeV heavy ions and subsequently exposed to several selective etching processes. The samples consist of a Si wafer as substrate covered by a thin ta-C layer. On top is deposited a SiN{sub x} film for insulation, a Cr layer as electrode, and finally a polycarbonate film as ion track template. Chemical track etching opens nanochannels in the polymer which are self-aligned with the conducting tracks in ta-C because they are produced by the same ions. Through the pores in the polymer template, the Cr and SiN{sub x} layers are opened by ion beam sputtering and plasma etching, respectively. The resulting structure consists of nanowires embedded in the insulating carbon matrix with a built in gate electrode and has potential application as gated field emission cathode.

  16. Radiation stability of iron nanoparticles irradiated with accelerated iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, V. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Kvasov, N. T.; Safronov, I. V.; Shymanski, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    In the present work the dynamic processes occurring in a nanoscale iron particle exposed to irradiation with iron ions of different energies are studied in detailed. It is shown that the elastic and thermoelastic crystal lattice responses to irradiation form force factors affecting the evolution of defect-impurity system, which, in turn, leads to a decrease in the number of structural defects. Quantitative estimations of the spatial distribution of defects resulting in their migration to the surface were obtained. Such self-organization of nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation can be used as a basis for the production of radiation-resistant nanostructured materials capable of sustaining a long-term radiation influence.

  17. QUB Low Energy Ion-Ices Irradiation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, A.; Field, T.; Hunniford, A.; McCullough, B.; Konanoff, J.; Millar, T.

    2011-05-01

    Ion processing plays an important role in the chemical and physical modification of ice surfaces in astrophysical environments. This experimental project supported by the LASSIE ITN, led by Dr Tom Field, will investigate irradiation of astrophysical ice analogues by singly and multiply charged ion analogues of cosmic rays. Singly or multiply charged ions of either gaseous or solid elements are produced by a compact permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source attached to a ''floating beamline'' accelerator. Charge (q) to mass analysed ion beams in the energy range from a few 100 eV to 5xq keV are directed into a dedicated experimental chamber containing a temperature controlled (6K - 300K) cryostatically cooled sample of an astrophysical ice analogue. Current diagnostics include a differentially pumped, high resolution, quadrupole mass spectrometer mounted in ''line of sight'' of the ion impact area of the ice sample In a preliminary collaborative experiment with the groups of Prof Nigel Mason (Open University, UK) and Prof Elisabetta Palumbo (INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania. Italy) and using a cryostat and FTIR spectrometer provided by Prof Nigel Mason we studied the interaction of 4 keV C+ and C2+ ions with H2O ices at 30K AND 90K. The most significant species formed in these interactions was 13CO2, the yield of which, with singly charged ions, could be explained by the competition between a formation and a destruction mechanism. In the case of doubly charged ions, explanation of the CO2 yield required additional formation and destruction mechanisms which were considered to be a result of the additional potential energy possessed by the projectile ions. These results also showed the influence of sample temperature and morphology. It is clear that for both singly and doubly charged projectile ions, the yield of 13CO2 was greater at 30K than at 90K. This effect has been observed elsewhere and has been assigned to the greater porosity of the 30K ice which leads to increased surface area on which reactions may occur.

  18. High-energy ion tracks in polyimide: I. Properties of polyimide irradiated with high-energy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenskii, A.I.; Oleinikov, V.A.; Mchedlishvili, B.V.

    1994-07-01

    Properties of polyimide irradiated with high-energy Ar and Kr ions (energies 40 and 210 Mev, respectively) are discussed. Irradiation resulted in the degradation of imide rings followed by the formation of amido groups and crosslinks. Circular dichroism of the polyimide IR absorption bands and the dependence of the chemical stability of the polymer on ion fluences were studied.

  19. Systematic Ion Irradiation Experiments to Olivine: Comparison with Space Weathered Rims of Itokawa Regolith Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Watanabe, N.; Yasuda, K.; Miyake, A.; Nakauchi, Y.; Okada, T.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Uesugi, M.; Karouji, Y.; Nakato, A.; Hashiguschi, M.; Kumagai, K.

    2015-11-01

    We performed H and He ion irradiation experiments using olivine fragments, in order to reveal formation time-scales of space weathered rims and formation processes of blisters by solar wind irradiation.

  20. Defect recovery and damage reduction in borosilicate glasses under double ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, A. H.; Peuget, S.; Toulemonde, M.; Bulot, P.; Jegou, C.; Miro, S.; Bouffard, S.

    2015-11-01

    A sodium borosilicate glass was irradiated sequentially and simultaneously with alpha particles and gold ions. Alpha particles induced partial recovery of the network damage and mechanical properties in the gold pre-irradiated glass, while no such recovery effect was observed during gold irradiation of the alpha pre-irradiated glass. The damage capacity of the gold ions was significantly reduced during simultaneous irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions. These results highlight that the irradiation sequence of the ions plays an important role in controlling the final damage level; and if properly employed, irradiation can be employed to induce defect recovery. Such results are of paramount importance to understand the radiation damage in nuclear reactor components and in nuclear waste glass matrices which are subjected to multiple particle irradiations.

  1. Uniform behavior of insulators irradiated by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szenes, G.

    2015-07-01

    Ion induced Re track radii are derived from a universal relation ?(r) without involving any materials parameter apart from the melting point Tm. The effect is related to the formation of identical ion-induced temperature distributions in track forming insulators for =Se / N = constant, where Se, and N are the electronic stopping power and the atomic density. Based on ?(r), an Re2 - / (Tm -Tir) plot is applied where the experimental curves coincide for various insulators without adjustable parameters (Tir - temperature of irradiation). The analysis extends to all track-forming insulators studied up until now. The application of the equilibrium value of Tm is justified in thermal spike calculations. The physical meaning of the condition =Se / N = constant is discussed. ?(r) may be valid in those insulators as well in which tracks are not induced. The Fourier equation is not valid under spike conditions.

  2. Behavior of nuclear materials irradiated with a dual ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, Lionel; Veli?a, Gihan; Debelle, Aurlien; Miro, Sandrine; Garrido, Frdrico; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2014-05-01

    Synergistic effects of nuclear (Sn) and electronic (Se) energy losses are investigated by comparing the damage accumulated in selected oxide (c-ZrO2, MgO, Gd2Ti2O7) and carbide (SiC) single crystals irradiated with single and dual low and high energy ion beams. Channeling results show that the Sn/Se synergy induces a strong decrease of the damage in MgO and SiC (where amorphization is prevented) and almost no effects in c-ZrO2 and Gd2Ti2O7. Raman and TEM results confirm this statement. The healing of defects generated by nuclear collisions in MgO and SiC is due to the electronic excitation produced in the wake of swift ions. These results present a strong interest for technological applications in the nuclear industry where expected cooperative Sn/Se effects may preserve the integrity of nuclear materials.

  3. Neovascular glaucoma after helium ion irradiation for uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.K.; Char, D.H.; Castro, J.L.; Saunders, W.M.; Chen, G.T.; Stone, R.D.

    1986-02-01

    Neovascular glaucoma developed in 22 of 169 uveal melanoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Most patients had large melanomas; no eyes containing small melanomas developed anterior segment neovascularization. The mean onset of glaucoma was 14.1 months (range, 7-31 months). The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization increased with radiation dosage; there was an approximately three-fold increase at 80 GyE versus 60 GyE of helium ion radiation (23% vs. 8.5%) (P less than 0.05). Neovascular glaucoma occurred more commonly in larger tumors; the incidence was not affected by tumor location, presence of subretinal fluid, nor rate of tumor regression. Fifty-three percent of patients had some response with intraocular pressures of 21 mmHg or less to a combination of antiglaucoma treatments.

  4. Application of ion scattering spectroscopy to measurement of surface potential of MgO thin film under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagatomi, T.; Kuwayama, T.; Takai, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Morita, Y.; Kitagawa, M.; Nishitani, M.

    2008-02-25

    An experimental approach was proposed for the measurement of the surface potential (SP) induced on an insulator surface during ion irradiation by ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS). The resultant ISS spectra obtained for a MgO thin film of 600 nm thickness on a Si substrate under 950 eV He{sup +} irradiation revealed that the surface is positively charged by approximately 230 V. In addition, the onset energy of a secondary ion peak indicated a SP of approximately 205 V. The present results confirmed that ISS is an effective technique for measuring the SP during ion irradiation.

  5. The change of microstructure and thermal properties in ion irradiated carbon nanotube mats as a function of ion penetration depth

    SciTech Connect

    Aitkaliyeva, A.; Shao, L.; Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843

    2013-02-11

    A stack of three carbon nanotube (CNT) mats was irradiated with 3 MeV He ions. The change in structural and thermal properties of individual mats as a function of ion penetration depth was characterized using electron microscopy and laser flash techniques. Ion irradiation can enhance thermal conductivity of the mats by introducing inter-tube displacements, which improve phonon transport across adjacent nanotubes. The enhancement, however, is reduced at higher damage levels due to the increasing phonon-defect scattering within the tubes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ion irradiation to manipulate thermal transport in carbon nanotubes.

  6. The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tengfei; Taylor, Caitlin A.; Kong, Shuyan; Wang, Chenxu; Zhang, Yanwen; Huang, Xuejun; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

  7. Simulations of Xe and U diffusion in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders D.; Vyas, Shyam; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Millett, Paul

    2012-09-10

    Diffusion of xenon (Xe) and uranium (U) in UO{sub 2} is controlled by vacancy mechanisms and under irradiation the formation of mobile vacancy clusters is important. Based on the vacancy and cluster diffusion mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we derive continuum thermodynamic and diffusion models for Xe and U in UO{sub 2}. In order to capture the effects of irradiation, vacancies (Va) are explicitly coupled to the Xe and U dynamics. Segregation of defects to grain boundaries in UO{sub 2} is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with models of the interaction between Xe atoms and vacancies with grain boundaries, which were derived from atomistic calculations. The diffusion and segregation models were implemented in the MOOSE-Bison-Marmot (MBM) finite element (FEM) framework and the Xe/U redistribution was simulated for a few simple microstructures.

  8. Modifications of optical properties of PC/ABS by dual ions beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Won; Lee, Jae-Sang; Lee, Byung-hoon; Kim, Min-kyu; Moon, Byung-Sik; Lee, Chan-Young; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Polycarbonate (PC)/acrylonitrile butadien styrene (ABS) blends used in the inner parts of automobiles require a glossy and metallic colored optical property. Such a surface can be produced by ion beam irradiation, but the surface treated by a single ion species irradiation tends to be degraded upon a long term exposure under UV and visible lights, which includes the loss of glossiness and the delamination of the irradiated layer. Such degradations can be prevented or greatly reduced by a combined irradiation of heavy and light ions such as N and He ions. This may be attributable to a graded interface between the irradiation affected layer and the base materials by overlapping penetration depths of the heavy and light ions. This work is motivated by an effort to substitute the conventional Cr plating process with the ion beam process in the automobile industry.

  9. Electronic spectroscopy of I(2)-Xe complexes in solid Krypton.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, Eero; Ahokas, Jussi; Lindgren, Johan; Myllyperki, Pasi; Pettersson, Mika

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied ion-pair states of matrix-isolated I(2) with vacuum-UV absorption and UV-vis-NIR emission, where the matrix environment is systematically changed by mixing Kr with Xe, from pure Kr to a more polarizable Xe host. Particular emphasis is put on low doping levels of Xe that yield a binary complex I(2)-Xe, as verified by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements. Associated with interaction of I(2) with Xe we can observe strong new absorption in vacuum-UV, redshifted 2400 cm(-1) from the X ? D transition of I(2). Observed redshift can be explained by symmetry breaking of ion-pair states within the I(2)-Xe complex. Systematic Xe doping of Kr matrices shows that at low doping levels, positions of I(2) ion-pair emissions are not significantly affected by complexation with Xe, but simultaneous increase of emissions from doubly spin-excited states indicates non-radiative relaxation to valence states. At intermediate doping levels ion-pair emissions shift systematically to red due to change in the average polarizability of the environment. We have conducted spectrally resolved ultrafast pump-probe ion-pair emission studies with pure and Xe doped Kr matrices, in order to reveal the influence of Xe to I(2) dynamics in solid Kr. Strikingly, relaxed emission from the ion-pair states shows no indication of complex presence. It further indicates that the complex escapes detection due to a non-radiative relaxation. PMID:22583243

  10. Electronic spectroscopy of I2-Xe complexes in solid Krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulkko, Eero; Ahokas, Jussi; Lindgren, Johan; Myllyperki, Pasi; Pettersson, Mika

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied ion-pair states of matrix-isolated I2 with vacuum-UV absorption and UV-vis-NIR emission, where the matrix environment is systematically changed by mixing Kr with Xe, from pure Kr to a more polarizable Xe host. Particular emphasis is put on low doping levels of Xe that yield a binary complex I2-Xe, as verified by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements. Associated with interaction of I2 with Xe we can observe strong new absorption in vacuum-UV, redshifted 2400 cm-1 from the X ? D transition of I2. Observed redshift can be explained by symmetry breaking of ion-pair states within the I2-Xe complex. Systematic Xe doping of Kr matrices shows that at low doping levels, positions of I2 ion-pair emissions are not significantly affected by complexation with Xe, but simultaneous increase of emissions from doubly spin-excited states indicates non-radiative relaxation to valence states. At intermediate doping levels ion-pair emissions shift systematically to red due to change in the average polarizability of the environment. We have conducted spectrally resolved ultrafast pump-probe ion-pair emission studies with pure and Xe doped Kr matrices, in order to reveal the influence of Xe to I2 dynamics in solid Kr. Strikingly, relaxed emission from the ion-pair states shows no indication of complex presence. It further indicates that the complex escapes detection due to a non-radiative relaxation.

  11. Ion-chain interaction in keV ion-beam-irradiated polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.; Licciardello, A.; Puglisi, O.

    1987-09-21

    Molecular weight distribution has been measured in monodisperse polystyrene film (MW = 9 000 amu) after ion bombardment, in the ion fluence range 10/sup 11/--10/sup 13/ ions/cm/sup 2/. The chosen beams are 100 keV He, 200 keV Ne, and 400 keV Ar. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of a simple statistical model for cross-links. The chemical yield is found to be very high and equal to 0.30, about a factor of 10 higher than the values given in the literature for gamma irradiation (M. Dole, in The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules (Academic, New York, 1973), Vol. 2, Chap. 5, p. 57).

  12. Energetic Ion and Electron Irradiation of the Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Johnson, Robert E.; Mauk, Barry H.; Garrett, Henry B.; Gehrels, Neil

    2001-01-01

    Galileo Orbiter measurements of energetic ions (20 keV to 100 MeV) and electrons (20-700 keV) in Jupiter's magnetosphere are used, in conjunction with the JPL electron model (less than 40 MeV), to compute irradiation effects in the surface layers of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Significant elemental modifications are produced on unshielded surfaces to approximately centimeter depths in times of less than or equal to 10(exp 6) years, whereas micrometer depths on Europa are fully processed in approximately 10 years. Most observations of surface composition are limited to optical depths of approximately 1 mm, which are indirect contact with the space environment. Incident flux modeling includes Stormer deflection by the Ganymede dipole magnetic field, likely variable over that satellite's irradiation history. Delivered energy flux of approximately 8 x 10(exp 10) keV/square cm-s at Europa is comparable to total internal heat flux in the same units from tidal and radiogenic sources, while exceeding that for solar UV energies (greater than 6 eV) relevant to ice chemistry. Particle energy fluxes to Ganymede's equator and Callisto are similar at approximately 2-3 x 10(exp 8) keV/square cm-s with 5 x 10(exp 9) at Ganymede's polar cap, the latter being comparable to radiogenic energy input. Rates of change in optical reflectance and molecular composition on Europa, and on Ganymede's polar cap, are strongly driven by energy from irradiation, even in relatively young regions. Irradiation of nonice materials can produce SO2 and CO2, detected on Callisto and Europa, and simple to complex hydrocarbons. Iogenic neutral atoms and meteoroids deliver negligible energy approximately 10(exp 4-5) keV/square cm-s but impacts of the latter are important for burial or removal of irradiation products. Downward transport of radiation produced oxidants and hydrocarbons could deliver significant chemical energy into the satellite interiors for astrobiological evolution in putative sub-surface oceans.

  13. Magnetic strip patterns induced by focused ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, D.; Tibus, S.; Rettner, C. T.; Thomson, T.; Terris, B. D.; Schrefl, T.; Albrecht, M.

    2008-03-15

    Focused ion beam exposure was used to locally alter the magnetic properties of a continuous Co/Pd multilayer film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and magnetic anisotropy of the films can be tuned by Ga irradiation depending on exposure dose. As a result, a periodic strip pattern consisting of 80 nm wide exposed strips which are magnetically soft, separated by 170 nm wide magnetically hard, unexposed areas was created. Due to strong magnetostatic coupling between the strips, a number of magnetic domain configurations could be stabilized and these have been observed by magnetic force microscopy and magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements. The magnetic domain configurations and their reversal behavior were investigated by micromagnetic simulations as a function of exposure dose and strip period.

  14. Sympathetic ophthalmia complicating helium ion irradiation of a choroidal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, P.D.; Char, D.H.; Crawford, J.B.; Waterhouse, W.

    1987-11-01

    Sympathetic ophthalmia was diagnosed 49 months after helium ion irradiation of a left choroidal melanoma. The patient maintained good vision until 18 months after therapy, when she developed neovascular glaucoma. This complication required multiple therapeutic procedures, including topical anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous drops, 360 degrees peripheral panretinal cryoblation, and a single 180 degrees application of inferior cyclocryotherapy over a 2 1/2-year period. Four weeks after the cyclocryotherapy, inflammation was noted in both eyes, and, one month later, enucleation of the left sympathogenic eye was performed. Serial histopathologic sections showed a full-thickness, fibrovascular, scleral scar and tantalum marker ring suture without uveal incarceration. Penetrating surgical trauma, a uveal melanoma, and multiple nonpenetrating treatments resulted in the development of sympathetic ophthalmia.

  15. Damage in crystalline silicon by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmani, O.; Alzaher, I.; Peters, T.; Ban d'Etat, B.; Cassimi, A.; Lebius, H.; Monnet, I.; Medvedev, N.; Rethfeld, B.; Schleberger, M.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied damage of crystalline Si surfaces induced by electronic energy loss of swift heavy ions with an electronic stopping power of up to Se = 12 keV/nm. Scanning tunneling microscope images of the surface after irradiation under perpendicular as well as glancing angles of incidence showed no surface damage. We have performed theoretical calculations for the damage threshold within the two temperature model, resulting in Seth = 8 keV/nm as the minimum stopping power to create a molten zone. We investigate the respective influence of the electron-phonon coupling, of the criterion at which the damage occurs and a possible effect of ballistic electrons. We show that the latter has the strongest effect on the calculated damage threshold.

  16. Ion irradiation effects on high strength, high conductivity copper alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitznagel, J. A.; Doyle, N. J.; Choyke, W. J.; Greggi, J. G.; McGruer, J. N.; Davis, J. W.

    1986-06-01

    Microstructural effects in a solid solution cold work strengthened copper alloy (Cu-0.15 wt.% Zr), a precipitation strengthened alloy (beryllium copper) and a dispersion hardened alloy (Cu-0.6 wt.% Al as Al 2O 3 particles) after high energy ion irradiation at fluences from 1 dpa to 20 dpa at temperatures from 523 K to 773 K have been characterized by detailed TEM investigation. Atomic displacement processes result in texture-dependent accelerated recovery by dislocation climb and glide in the Cu-0.15 wt.% Zr alloy. Coarsening (or disappearance) of GP zones and accelerated growth of CuBe precipitates are observed in the beryllium copper alloy. Microstructural evolution in the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy entails progressive amorphization and dissolution of the Al 2O 3 particles.

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of organic materials irradiated with gas cluster ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagiri, Motohiro; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2011-01-07

    Irradiation effect of gas cluster ion beams (GCIB) on organic materials were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy by comparison to that with Ar-monomer ions. In the case of polyimide, the intensity of both N-C = O and -C-O- bond decreased with 500 eV Ar monomer ion irradiation. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the XPS spectra after Ar-GCIB irradiation. From the size-selected GCIB irradiation study, the damages in polyimide decreased with increasing the cluster size owing to the reduction of energy per atoms.

  18. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced texturing in NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, P.; Agarwal, D. C.; Rath, Chandana; Biswal, R.; Behera, D.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Satyam, P. V.; Mishra, N. C.

    2008-07-01

    NiO thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) substrate by electron beam evaporation and sintered at 500 and 700 C were irradiated with 120 MeV Au 9+ ions. The FCC structure of the sintered films was retained up to the highest fluence (3 10 13 ions cm -2) of irradiation. In the low fluence (?1 10 13 ions cm -2) regime however, the evolution of the XRD pattern with fluence showed a wide variation, critically depending upon their initial microstructure. Though irradiation is known to induce disorder in the structure, we observe improvement in crystallization and texturing at intermediate fluences of irradiation.

  19. Effect of 120 MeV Ag9+ ion irradiation of YCOB single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, R.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystals of yttrium calcium oxy borate (YCOB) grown from boron-tri-oxide flux were subjected to swift heavy ion irradiation using silver Ag9+ ions from the 15 UD Pelletron facility at Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi. The crystals were irradiated at 1 1013, 5 1013 and 1 1014 ions/cm2 fluences at room temperature and with 5 1013 ions/cm2 fluence at liquid nitrogen temperature. The pristine and the irradiated samples were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence studies. From the characterization studies performed on the samples, it is inferred that the crystals irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature had fewer defects compared to the crystals irradiated at room temperature and the defects increased when the ion fluence was increased at room temperature.

  20. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakrajang, K.; Jeynes, J. C. G.; Merchant, M. J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N.; Thopan, P.; Yu, L. D.

    2013-07-01

    As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  1. Stability of embedded indium nanoclusters in silica under thermal treatment and ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Raman, P Santhana; Nair, K G M; Ghatak, Jay; Bhatta, Umananda M; Satyam, P V; Kalavathi, S; Panigrahi, B K; Ravichandran, V

    2010-02-01

    The stability of embedded Indium (In) nanoclusters (NCs) in silica under thermal annealing and ion irradiation was investigated. The In NCs were prepared by implantation of 890 keV indium ions in silica matrix at room temperature. Post implantation annealing resulted in the shifting of the size distribution to higher side. On the other hand 140 keV Nitrogen ion irradiation at elevated temperature resulted in the reduction of NCs size, with significant narrowing of the size distribution. The paper discusses the results of the study in the light of the models pertaining to the stability of NCs under ion irradiation conditions. PMID:20352714

  2. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  3. Secondary particle tracks generated by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) procedure is a powerful complementary tool to include the effect of low energy electrons and positrons in medical applications of radiation. In particular, for ion-beam cancer treatments provides a detailed description of the role of the secondary electrons abundantly generated around the Bragg peak as well as the possibility of using transmuted positron emitters (C11, O15) as a complement for ion-beam dosimetry. In this study we present interaction probability data derived from IAM-SCAR corrective factors for liquid environments. Using these data, single electron and positron tracks in liquid water and pyrimidine have been simulated providing information about energy deposition as well as the number and type of interactions taking place in any selected ``nanovolume'' of the irradiated area. In collaboration with Francisco Blanco, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Antonio Mu noz, Centro de Investigaciones Energticas Medioambientales y Tecnolgicas and Diogo Almeida, Filipe Ferreira da Silva, Paulo Lim ao-Vieira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Supported by the Spanish and Portuguese governments.

  4. Modifications of the magnetic properties of ferrites by swift heavy ion irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Studer, Francis; Peuzin, Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Single crystal plates of ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet (111)-YIG:Si (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 4.94}Si{sub 0.06}O{sub 12}) and barium hexaferrite (00.1)-BaM (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) or (00.1)-BaM:Co,Ti (BaFe{sub 9.1}Co{sub 1.4}Ti{sub 1.5}O{sub 19}) are irradiated with swift heavy ions (3.8 GeV {sup 129}Xe or 6.0 GeV {sup 208}Pb) in the electronic slowing down regime, above the threshold ({approximately}20 keV nm{minus}1) of formation of continuous and homogeneous cylindrical amorphous tracks. The modifications of the magnetic properties are studied by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and ac magnetic permeability measurements versus ion fluence. In the doped crystals having a planar magnetic anisotropy (YIG:Si and BaM:Co,Ti), the room-temperature Moessbauer spectra show that the magnetization is flipped perpendicularly to the sample plane at a critical amorphous fraction around 30% in both compounds. This corresponds to a 90% drop of the measured in-plane magnetic permeability. No such effect is seen in the undoped BaM samples with the axial [00.1] anisotropy. These data are interpreted by a magnetomechanical effect generated by the stress field induced by the amorphous tracks in the sample plane which flips the magnetization along the track-axis direction when the stress-induced anisotropy constant surpasses the pristine crystal anisotropy constant at the critical amorphous fraction. In the case of YIG:Si single crystal, a track-induced anisotropy field around 0.1 T is deduced from the Moessbauer spectra under a magnetic field applied in the sample (111) plane which rotates the magnetization back to the easy {l_angle}111{r_angle} magnetization axis lying near the sample (111) plane in a reversible manner. The magnetic ordering of amorphous YIG:Si below 70 K is also studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy under high magnetic field (5 T). A two-dimensional Bruggeman model used for the calculation of the permeability of the crystal+amorphous track composites yields track-core radii larger by about 40% than the values previously obtained for both compounds by Moessbauer spectroscopy. We think that such discrepancies show that the samples cannot be treated like standard two-phase composites since the undamaged crystal undergoes a variable stress field depending on the damaged fraction. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Response of nanostructured ferritic alloys to high-dose heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, Chad M.; White, Ryan M.; LeBeau, James M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-02-01

    A latest-generation aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to study heavy-ion-irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Results are presented for STEM X-ray mapping of NFA 14YWT irradiated with 10 MeV Pt to 16 or 160 dpa at -100 C and 750 C, as well as pre-irradiation reference material. Irradiation at -100 C results in ballistic destruction of the beneficial microstructural features present in the pre-irradiated reference material, such as Ti-Y-O nanoclusters (NCs) and grain boundary (GB) segregation. Irradiation at 750 C retains these beneficial features, but indicates some coarsening of the NCs, diffusion of Al to the NCs, and a reduction of the Cr-W GB segregation (or solute excess) content. Ion irradiation combined with the latest-generation STEM hardware allows for rapid screening of fusion candidate materials and improved understanding of irradiation-induced microstructural changes in NFAs.

  6. Formation of TiO{sub 2} nanorods by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, X. D.; Ren, F. Cai, G. X.; Hong, M. Q.; Xiao, X. H.; Wu, W.; Liu, Y. C.; Li, W. Q.; Ying, J. J.; Jiang, C. Z.

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam irradiation is a powerful method to fabricate and tailor the nanostructured surface of materials. Nanorods on the surface of single crystal rutile TiO{sub 2} were formed by N{sup +} ion irradiation. The dependence of nanorod morphology on ion fluence and energy was elaborated. With increasing ion fluence, nanopores grow in one direction perpendicular to the surface and burst finally to form nanorods. The length of nanorods increases with increasing ion energy under same fluence. The development of the nanorod structure is originated from the formation of the nanopores while N{sub 2} bubbles and aggregation of vacancies were responsible for the formation of nanopores and nanorods. Combining C{sup +} ion irradiation and post-irradiation annealing experiments, two qualitative models are proposed to explain the formation mechanism of these nanorods.

  7. Structural modifications of low-energy heavy-ion irradiated germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, T.; Wernecke, J.; Wesch, W.; Kluth, P.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation of crystalline germanium (c-Ge) results in the formation of a homogeneous amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layer at the surface. This a-Ge layer undergoes structural modification such as a strong volume expansion accompanied by drastic surface blackening with further ion irradiation. In the present paper we investigate the mechanism of this ion-induced structural modification in a-Ge basically for the irradiation with I ions (3 and 9 MeV) at room and low temperature as a function of ion fluence for the ion incidence angles of {Theta}=7 deg. and {Theta}=45 deg. For comparison, Ag- and Au-ion irradiations were performed at room temperature as a function of the ion fluence. At fluences two orders of magnitude above the amorphization threshold, morphological changes were observed for all irradiation conditions used. Over a wide range of ion fluences we demonstrate that the volume expansion is caused by the formation of voids at the surface and in the depth of the projected ion range. At high ion fluences the amorphous layer transforms into a porous structure as established by cross section and plan view electron microscopy investigations. However, the formation depth of the surface and buried voids as well as the shape and the dimension of the final porous structure depend on the ion fluence, ion species, and irradiation temperature and will be discussed in detail. The rate of the volume expansion (i.e., porous layer formation) depends linearly on the value of {epsilon}{sub n}. This clearly demonstrates that the structural changes are determined solely by the nuclear energy deposited within the amorphous phase. In addition, at high ion fluences all perpendicular ion irradiations lead to a formation of a microstructure at the surface, whereas for nonperpendicular ion irradiations a nonsaturating irreversible plastic deformation (ion hammering) without a microstructure formation is observed. For the irradiation with ion energies of several MeV, the effect of plastic deformation shows a linear dependence on the ion fluence. Based on these results, we provide an explanation for the differences in surface morphology observed for different angles of incidence of the ion beam will be discussed in detail.

  8. Shallow BF2 implants in Xe-bombardment-preamorphized Si: The interaction between Xe and F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; van den Berg, J. A.; Armour, D. G.; Carter, G.; Feudel, T.; Herden, M.; Bersani, M.; Giubertoni, D.; Ottaviano, L.; Bongiorno, C.; Mannino, G.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.

    2005-04-01

    Si(100) samples, preamorphized to a depth of ˜30nm using 20 keV Xe ions to a nominal fluence of 2×1014cm-2 were implanted with 1 and 3 keV BF2 ions to fluences of 7×1014cm-2. Following annealing over a range of temperatures (from 600 to 1130 °C) and times the implant redistribution was investigated using medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). MEIS studies showed that for all annealing conditions leading to solid phase epitaxial regrowth, approximately half of the Xe had accumulated at depths of 7 nm for the 1 keV and at 13 nm for the 3 keV BF2 implant. These depths correspond to the end of range of the B and F within the amorphous Si. SIMS showed that in the preamorphized samples, approximately 10% of the F migrates into the bulk and is trapped at the same depths in a ˜1:1 ratio to Xe. These observations indicate an interaction between the Xe and F implants and a damage structure that becomes a trapping site. A small fraction of the implanted B is also trapped at this depth. EXTEM micrographs suggest the development of Xe agglomerates at the depths determined by MEIS. The effect is interpreted in terms of the formation of a volume defect structure within the amorphized Si, leading to F stabilized Xe agglomerates or XeF precipitates.

  9. Detection of high-energy heavy ions using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Takechi, Seiji; Morinaga, Shin-ya; Kurozumi, Atsuma; Miyachi, Takashi; Fujii, Masayuki; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Shibata, Hiromi; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio; Okada, Nagaya

    2009-04-15

    The characteristics of a radiation detector fabricated with stacks of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) elements were studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam for various beam pulse durations. This detector is referred to as the multilayered detector (MD). To understand the production mechanism behind the output voltage obtained from the MD, measurement of the spatial distribution of the output signals generated in the MD was attempted. It was found that the amplitude observed was dependent on the number of Xe ions per unit time and the amount of ionization loss energy of Xe ions in PZT.

  10. Area-selective formation of Si nanocrystals by assisted ion-beam irradiation during dual-ion-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Kwon; Cha, Kyu Man; Kang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yong; Yi, Jae-Yel; Chung, Tae Hun; Bark, Hong Jun

    2004-08-30

    We investigate the effect of Ar-ion-beam irradiation during the deposition of SiO{sub x} films by dual-ion-beam deposition system. Ion-beam irradiation effectively increases the oxygen content, x, in SiO{sub x} films indicative of the preferential sputtering of Si phase as compared to SiO{sub 2} phase in SiO{sub x} films. We observe the intense photoluminescence from nonirradiated sample after postdeposition annealing at 1100 deg. C indicating the formation of Si nanocrystals as shown by a cross-sectional transmission electron microscope. However, the increased oxygen content in ion-beam-irradiated sample results in small optical volume of small Si nanocrystals not sufficient for yielding appreciable photoluminescence intensity after postdeposition annealing. The property is utilized for achieving the area-selective formation of Si nanocrytals by inserting a shadow mask in assist ion beam during deposition.

  11. Behaviour of P, Si, Ni impurities and Cr in self ion irradiated Fe-Cr alloys - Comparison to neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareige, C.; Kuksenko, V.; Pareige, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an atom probe tomography study of phase transformation and solute segregation in Fe-Cr alloys of low purity under self-ion irradiation. Fe-9%Cr and Fe-12%Cr were irradiated at 100 C, 300 C and 420 C at a dose of 0.5 dpa. Homogeneously distributed clusters enriched in Cr, P, Si and Ni are shown to form at 300 C and 420 C but not at 100 C. Study of the evolution of the segregation intensities of Cr, Si and P in the clusters with temperature under ion irradiation indicates that they form by a radiation induced mechanism. No ?? clusters were observed whatever the irradiation temperature whereas they were observed in the same alloys after neutron irradiation at 300 C at 0.6 dpa. Comparison of the solute cluster composition after ion irradiation and neutron irradiation, suggests that P atoms could play an important role in the appearance of the solute clusters by stabilizing point defect clusters that could later be enriched in Ni, Si and Cr.

  12. Formation of ion-irradiation-induced atomic-scale defects on walls of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Nordlund, K.; Sirviö, M.; Salonen, E.; Keinonen, J.

    2001-06-01

    Recent experiments on irradiated carbon nanotubes provide evidence that ion bombardment gives rise to nanotube amorphization and dramatic dimensional changes. Using an empirical potential along with molecular dynamics, we study structure and formation probabilities of atomic-scale defects produced by low-dose irradiation of nanotubes with Ar ions. For this, we simulate impact events over a wide energy range of incident ions. We show that the maximum damage production occurs for a bombarding ion energy of about 600 eV, and that the most common defects produced at all energies are vacancies, which at low temperatures are metastable but long-lived defects. Employing the tight-binding Green's function technique, we also calculate scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of irradiated nanotubes. We demonstrate that irradiation-induced defects may be detected by STM and that isolated vacancies may look like bright spots in atomically resolved STM images of irradiated nanotubes.

  13. Structural damage in InGaN induced by MeV heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. M.; Fadanelli, R. C.; Hu, P.; Zhao, J. T.; Wang, T. S.; Zhang, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    In0.18Ga0.82N films were irradiated with 4 MeV 84Kr and 8.9 MeV 209Bi ions to various fluences at room temperature. The irradiated films were analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/C) and high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The RBS/C measurements show that under the irradiation conditions, the relative lattice disorder in the films, obtained from the normalized backscattering yield, exhibits a rapid increase in the range from ?2% to 68%. There is also an increasing lattice expansion of the films with increasing ion fluence, as determined by the HRXRD measurements. At a comparable level of lattice disorder, the Kr irradiation leads to a more pronounced lattice expansion than the Bi irradiation. This may be attributed to a larger portion of the single interstitials in the films produced by the lighter Kr ion irradiation.

  14. Effect of irradiation mode on the microstructure of self-ion irradiated ferritic-martensitic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getto, E.; Jiao, Z.; Monterrosa, A. M.; Sun, K.; Was, G. S.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructures of ferritic-martensitic alloys HT9 and T91 were characterized following 5MeVFe++ ion irradiation to 140displacements per atom (dpa) at 440C with either a raster-scanned or defocused beam. Alloys were pre-implanted with 0-100appm He and then subjected to either a raster-scanned beam or a defocused beam. Relative to the defocused beam, a raster-scanned beam suppressed microstructural evolution, evidenced by decreased diameter and number densities of voids, loop and precipitates, which lead to decreased void swelling, precipitate volume fraction and total dislocation loop line density. These results were consistent with the Fully Dynamic Rate Theory (FDRT) model which predicts that raster-scanning should lead to a decrease in defect population and suppression of nucleation and growth processes.

  15. High Temperature Ion-Irradiation Effects on Microstructural Evolution in {beta}-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sosuke; Park, Keyong Hwan; Katoh, Yutai; Kohyama, Akira

    2003-07-15

    High temperature and high dose irradiation effects on microstructural evolution in high purity {beta}-SiC was studied by Single- and dual-ion irradiation, where 5.1 MeV Si{sup 2+} ions for displacement damage and 1 MeV He{sup +} ions for (n, {alpha}) simulation were implanted at 1673 K. From a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) study of the {beta}-SiC irradiated with single-ion up to a dose of 100 dpa, high density dislocation loops were observed. Sizes and concentrations of the loops are dependant on displacement damage level. In the dual-ion irradiated specimen, dislocation network was observed through the dual-ion irradiated region. At the same time, cavities were formed in both the grain and grain boundary. In front of the irradiated surface, localized growth of the cavities was observed. TEM micrographs demonstrate that the helium had a large mobility on grain boundary and dislocation network under high temperature irradiation. It is clarified that helium largely contributes to the development of irradiation-induced microstructural defects. The formation mechanisms of microstructural defects were also discussed.

  16. Evaluation of irradiation hardening of ion-irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti and V-4Cr-4Ti-0.15Y alloys by nanoindentation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Takuya; Kasada, Ryuta; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Muroga, Takeo; Watanabe, Hideo; Yamamoto, Takuya; Nogami, Shuhei; Hatakeyama, Masahiko

    2014-12-01

    Irradiation hardening behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti and V-4Cr-4Ti-0.15Y alloys after Cu-ion beam irradiation were investigated with a combination between nanoindentation techniques and finite element method (FEM) analysis. The ion-irradiation experiments were conducted at 473 K with 2.4 MeV Cu2+ ions up to 7.6 dpa. For the unirradiated materials, the increase in nanoindentation hardness with decreasing indentation depth, so-called indentation size effect (ISE), was clearly observed. After irradiation, irradiation hardening in the measured depth was identified. Hardening behavior of bulk-equivalent hardness for V-4Cr-4Ti-0.15Y alloy was similar to that for V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Y addition has little effect on irradiation hardening at 473 K. Adding the concept of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) to constitutive equation of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, the ISE was simulated. A constant value of ? = 0.5 was derived as an optimal value to simulate nanoindentation test for ion-irradiated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Adding the term of irradiation hardening ??irrad. to constitutive equation with ? = 0.5, FEM analyses for irradiated surface of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were carried out. The analytic data of FEM analyses based on neutron-irradiation hardening equivalent to 3.0 dpa agreed with the experimental data to 0.76 dpa. The comparison indicates that irradiation hardening by heavy ion-irradiation is larger than that by neutron-irradiation at the same displacement damage level. Possible mechanisms for extra hardening by heavy ion-irradiation are the processes that the injected Cu ions could effectively produce irradiation defects such as interstitials compared with neutrons, and that higher damage rate of ion-irradiation enhanced nucleation of irradiation defects and hence increased the number density of the defects compared with neutron-irradiation.

  17. Investigation of O7+ swift heavy ion irradiation on molybdenum doped indium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokulakrishnan, V.; Parthiban, S.; Elangovan, E.; Jeganathan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2012-06-01

    Molybdenum (0.5 at%) doped indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique were irradiated by 100 MeV O7+ ions with different fluences of 5×1011, 1×1012 and 1×1013 ions/cm2. Intensity of (222) peak of the pristine film was decreased with increase in the ion fluence. Films irradiated with the maximum ion fluence of 1×1013 ions/cm2 showed a fraction of amorphous nature. The surface microstructures on the surface of the film showed that increase in ion fluence decreases the grain size. Mobility of the pristine molybdenum doped indium oxide films was decreased from ˜122 to 48 cm2/V s with increasing ion fluence. Among the irradiated films the film irradiated with the ion fluence of 5×1011 ions/cm2 showed relatively low resistivity of 6.7×10-4 Ω cm with the mobility of 75 cm2/V s. The average transmittance of the as-deposited IMO film is decreased from 89% to 81% due to irradiation with the fluence of 5×1011 ions/cm2.

  18. The potential application of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films for heavy ion irradiation detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Shih-Show; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin; Lee, Chi-Young; Guo, Jinghua

    2013-06-15

    The potential of utilizing the ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) films for detecting the Au-ion irradiation was investigated. When the fluence for Au-ion irradiation is lower than the critical value (f{sub c}= 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the turn-on field for electron field emission (EFE) process of the UNCD films decreased systematically with the increase in fluence that is correlated with the increase in sp{sup 2}-bonded phase ({pi}{sup *}-band in EELS) due to the Au-ion irradiation. The EFE properties changed irregularly, when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation exceeds this critical value. The transmission electron microscopic microstructural examinations, in conjunction with EELS spectroscopic studies, reveal that the structural change preferentially occurred in the diamond-to-Si interface for the samples experienced over critical fluence of Au-ion irradiation, viz. the crystalline SiC phase was induced in the interfacial region and the thickness of the interface decreased. These observations implied that the UNCD films could be used as irradiation detectors when the fluence for Au-ion irradiation does not exceed such a critical value.

  19. Deuterium ion irradiation induced precipitation in Fe-Cr alloy: Characterization and effects on irradiation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P. P.; Yu, R.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhao, M. Z.; Bai, J. W.; Wan, F. R.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-04-01

    A new phase was found to precipitate in a Fe-Cr model alloy after 58 keV deuterium ion irradiation at 773 K. The nanoscale radiation-induced precipitate was studied systematically using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), image simulation and in-situ ultrahigh voltage transmission electron microscopy (HVEM). B2 structure is proposed for the new Cr-rich phase, which adopts a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with regard to the Fe matrix. Geometric phase analysis (GPA) was employed to measure the strain fields around the precipitate and this was used to explain its characteristic 1-dimensional elongation along the <1 0 0> Fe direction. The precipitate was stable under subsequent electron irradiation at different temperatures. We suggest that the precipitate with a high interface-to-volume ratio enhances the radiation resistance of the material. The reason for this is the presence of a large number of interfaces between the precipitate and the matrix, which may greatly reduce the concentration of point defects around the dislocation loops. This leads to a significant decrease in the growth rate.

  20. Nanohole pattern formation on germanium induced by focused ion beam and broad beam Ga{sup +} irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, Monika; Muecklich, Arndt; Facsko, Stefan

    2012-05-28

    Hexagonally ordered nanohole patterns were produced on Ge(100) surfaces by focused Ga{sup +} ion beam and broad Ga{sup +} ion beam irradiations with 5 keV energy under normal incidence. Identical patterns were obtained by irradiations with a scanning focused ion beam under different irradiation conditions and with a broad Ga{sup +} beam without scanning and five orders of magnitude smaller ion flux. Thus, we could demonstrate that nanohole pattern formation is independent of ion flux over several orders of magnitude and scanning of a focused ion beam under appropriate conditions is identical to broad ion beam irradiation.

  1. First multicharged ion irradiation results from the CUEBIT facility at Clemson University

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, R.; Kulkarni, D. D.; Field, D. A.; Srinadhu, E. S.; Harriss, J. E.; Cutshall, D. B.; Harrell, W. R.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-01-09

    A new electron beam ion trap (EBIT) based ion source and beamline were recently commissioned at Clemson University to produce decelerated beams of multi- to highly-charged ions for surface and materials physics research. This user facility is the first installation of a DREEBIT-designed superconducting trap and ion source (EBIS-SC) in the U.S. and includes custom-designed target preparation and irradiation setups. An overview of the source, beamline, and other facilities as well as results from first measurements on irradiated targets are discussed here. Results include extracted charge state distributions and first data on a series of irradiated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device targets. For the MOS devices, we show that voltage-dependent capacitance can serve as a record of the electronic component of ion stopping power for an irradiated, encapsulated oxide target.

  2. First multicharged ion irradiation results from the CUEBIT facility at Clemson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, R.; Kulkarni, D. D.; Field, D. A.; Srinadhu, E. S.; Cutshall, D. B.; Harrell, W. R.; Harriss, J. E.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    A new electron beam ion trap (EBIT) based ion source and beamline were recently commissioned at Clemson University to produce decelerated beams of multi- to highly-charged ions for surface and materials physics research. This user facility is the first installation of a DREEBIT-designed superconducting trap and ion source (EBIS-SC) in the U.S. and includes custom-designed target preparation and irradiation setups. An overview of the source, beamline, and other facilities as well as results from first measurements on irradiated targets are discussed here. Results include extracted charge state distributions and first data on a series of irradiated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device targets. For the MOS devices, we show that voltage-dependent capacitance can serve as a record of the electronic component of ion stopping power for an irradiated, encapsulated oxide target.

  3. Modification of phase transitions in swift heavy ion irradiated and MMA- grafted ferroelectric fluoropolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersohn, Eleonora; Betz, Natacha; Le Mol, Alain

    1995-11-01

    Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (? PVDF) and copolymers of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF/TrFE)) were irradiated with swift heavy ions and post-irradiation grafted with methyl methacrylate (MMA). We have studied the influence of irradiation parameters such as the ion fluence, the type of ion and the electronic stopping power, on the melting and crystallisation temperatures and on the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition, by DSC measurements. Irradiation with swift heavy ions lowers the phase transition temperatures. Ion track grafting with MMA reveals two separate PMMA-phases. The grafting process affects the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition in P(VDF/TrFE) and leads to a strong amorphization of the polymer films. The melting temperature of PMMA-grafted ? PVDF is diminished.

  4. In-situ observations of the development of heavy-ion damage in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, M. L.; Chandler, T. J.; Robertson, L. M.; Kirk, M. A.

    In situ observations on ion beam induced amorphisation of GaAs, GaP and Si are reported. Direct impact amorphisation was found to occur in GaAs irradiated with 100-keV Xe(+) ions to low doses at low temperature (approx. 40K) in contrast to previous room temperature irradiations. In GaP and in silicon, where heavy projectiles do cause direct impact amorphisation at room temperature, the evolution of the damage structure with ion dose was studied. The defect yield both in GaP irradiated with 100-keV Kr(+) ions and in Si irradiated with 100-keV Xe(+) ions was found to decrease monotonically with increasing dose over the dose range 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 17th power ions m(-).

  5. Structure evolution of mesoporous silica SBA-15 and MCM-41 under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Y.; Toquer, G.; Dourdain, S.; Rey, C.; Grygiel, C.; Simeone, D.; Deschanels, X.

    2015-12-01

    Two types of mesoporous silica pellets, SBA-15 and MCM-41, were prepared and irradiated by 20Ne 278 MeV (max. fluence = 2.5 1014 ion/cm2) and 36Ar 493 MeV beams (max. fluence = 1 1013 ion/cm2). Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, small angle X-ray scattering, and infrared spectrometry. The different behaviours of the two materials under different conditions are observed and discussed. We point out that SBA-15 is more robust than MCM-41 under irradiation.

  6. Heterogeneous amorphization of Si during ion irradiation: dependence of amorphous Si nucleation kinetics on defect energy and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, H. A.; Im, J. S.; Brown, W. L.

    1991-07-01

    During irradiation of polycrystalline Si thin films by 1.5 MeV Xe + ions, amorphous Si is nucleated heterogeneously at internal interfaces, such as grain boundaries and stacking faults in the temperature range of 150-225C. The heterogeneous nucleation kinetics of amorphous Si are strongly dependent on grain boundary structure and energy. Nucleation kinetics of amorphous Si and grain boundary structure have been characterized experimentally using high-resolution electron microscopy. The strong dependence of the heterogeneous nucleation rate of amorphous Si on defect structure suggests that diffusive kinetic processes after the "prompt" part of the cascade are important in determining the rate of amorphization. Comparison of the heterogeneous nucleation kinetics of amorphous Si with tight binding, semiempirical and continuum theory estimates of grain boundary energies for particular boundary structures suggests that gram boundary-mediated amorphization is a thermodynamically limited process, and is analogous to grain boundary melting of the solid at the equilibrium temperature than to mechanical deformation.

  7. Fabrication of a TEM sample of ion-irradiated material using focused ion beam microprocessing and low-energy Ar ion milling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Shin, Chansun; Kwon, Junhyun

    2010-01-01

    Cross-section-view TEM samples of ion-irradiated material are successfully fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and low-energy Ar ion milling. Ga ion-induced damages in FIB processing are reduced remarkably by the means of low-energy Ar ion milling. There are optimized ion milling conditions for the reduction and removal of the secondary artifacts such as defects and ripples. Incident angles and accelerated voltages are especially more important factors on the preservation of a clean surface far from secondary defects and surface roughing due to Ga and Ar ion bombardment. PMID:20484144

  8. In-situ observation and atomic resolution imaging of the ion irradiation induced amorphisation of graphene

    PubMed Central

    Pan, C.-T.; Hinks, J. A.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Greaves, G.; Bangert, U.; Donnelly, S. E.; Haigh, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation has been observed to induce a macroscopic flattening and in-plane shrinkage of graphene sheets without a complete loss of crystallinity. Electron diffraction studies performed during simultaneous in-situ ion irradiation have allowed identification of the fluence at which the graphene sheet loses long-range order. This approach has facilitated complementary ex-situ investigations, allowing the first atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images of ion-irradiation induced graphene defect structures together with quantitative analysis of defect densities using Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25284688

  9. Effect of ion irradiation on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Shahbaz; Bashir, Shazia; Ali, Nisar; Umm-i-Kalsoom; Yousaf, Daniel; Faizan-ul-Haq; Naeem, Athar; Ahmad, Riaz; Khlaeeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2014-04-01

    Modifications to the surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass after ion irradiation have been investigated. Brass targets were bombarded by carbon ions of 2 MeV energy from a Pelletron linear accelerator for various fluences ranging from 56 1012 to 26 1013 ions/cm2. A scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer were utilized to analyze the surface morphology and crystallographic structure respectively. To explore the mechanical properties e.g., yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness of irradiated brass, an universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were used. Scanning electron microscopy results revealed an irregular and randomly distributed sputter morphology for a lower ion fluence. With increasing ion fluence, the incoherently shaped structures were transformed into dendritic structures. Nano/micro sized craters and voids, along with the appearance of pits, were observed at the maximum ion fluence. From X-ray diffraction results, no new phases were observed to be formed in the brass upon irradiation. However, a change in the peak intensity and higher and lower angle shifting were observed, which represents the generation of ion-induced defects and stresses. Analyses confirmed modifications in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass. The yield stress, ultimate tensile strength and hardness initially decreased and then increased with increasing ion fluence. The changes in the mechanical properties of irradiated brass are well correlated with surface and crystallographic modifications and are attributed to the generation, augmentation, recombination and annihilation of the ion-induced defects.

  10. Incoherent twin boundary migration induced by ion irradiation in Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Misra, A.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Serruys, Y.; Nastasi, M.

    2013-01-14

    Grain boundaries can act as sinks for radiation-induced point defects. The sink capability is dependent on the atomic structures and varies with the type of point defects. Using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we observed that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} incoherent twin boundary (ITB) in Cu films migrates under Cu{sup 3+} ion irradiation. Using atomistic modeling, we found that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB has the preferred sites for adsorbing interstitials and the preferential diffusion channels along the Shockley partial dislocations. Coupling with the high mobility of grain boundary Shockley dislocations within {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB, we infer that {Sigma}3{l_brace}112{r_brace} ITB migrates through the collective glide of grain boundary Shockley dislocations, driven by a concurrent reduction in the density of radiation-induced defects, which is demonstrated by the distribution of nearby radiation-induced defects.

  11. Divacancy acceptor levels in ion-irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, B. G.; Mohadjeri, B.; Halln, A.; Svensson, J. H.; Corbett, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    High-purity n-type silicon samples have been irradiated with mega-electron-volt ions (1H+, 4He2+, 16O4+, 32S7+, 79Br8+, and 127I10+), and the two divacancy-related acceptor levels ~0.23 and ~0.42 eV below the conduction band (Ec), respectively, have been studied in detail using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Depth concentration profiles show identical values for the two levels at shallow depths, while in the region close to the damage peak large deviations from a one-to-one proportionality are found. These deviations increase with ion dose and also hinge strongly on the density of energy deposited into elastic collisions per incoming ion. Evidence for a model of the two levels is presented and, in particular, the model invokes excited states caused by motional averaging and lattice strain associated with damaged regions. The divacancy center is known to exhibit a pronounced Jahn-Teller distortion at low temperatures (<=20 K), and three equivalent electronic distortion directions exist. However, at higher temperatures (>=30 K) reorientation (bond switching) from one distortion direction to another takes place; in a perfect lattice the reorientation rate ultimately becomes so high that the defect does not relax in the distorted configurations, and a motionally averaged state with an effective point-group symmetry of D3d appears. At the temperatures where the DLTS peaks at Ec-0.23 and Ec-0.42 eV are observed, the reorientation time for bond switching is several orders of magnitude smaller than the time for electron emission from the two levels. This implies strongly that the levels originate from the motionally averaged state and not from the distorted state. Consequently, a clear distinction must be made between these DLTS peaks and the charge-state transitions observed in low-temperature studies where the divacancy is frozen in one of the three equivalent distorted configurations. Finally, the association of electronic energy levels with motionally averaged states is expected to apply not only for the divacancy but also for other defects where dynamic effects occur, e.g., the monovacancy and the E center.

  12. The effect of electron beam irradiation on silver-sodium ion exchange in silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Alexander I.; Prosnikov, Mikhail A.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown experimentally that electron irradiation of sodium-silicate glasses makes possible the control of the subsequent ion exchange Ag+ ↔ Na+ process in a salt melt. The reason of this effect is the negatively charged regions formation in a glass volume during electron irradiation. The electric field, produced by these regions in glass volume, results in positive Na+ ions field migration into them. The spatial redistribution of Na+ ions results in the decrease of the ion exchange efficiency, or the ion exchange can be even blocked. This led to the decrease of the luminescence intensity of neutral silver molecular clusters in the irradiated zone, and effect on the silver nanoparticles formation during the subsequent thermal treatment. The observed effects can be used for the control of ion exchange processes during integrated optics devices fabrication, and for the electron-beam recording of optical information.

  13. Ion irradiation effects on amorphization and thermal crystallization in Zr Al Ni Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, S.; Higashi, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Toh, K.; Shikama, T.; Takahiro, K.; Ozaki, K.; Kawatusra, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Inouye, A.

    2007-04-01

    Structural modification and primary precipitates in the Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 alloy caused by rradiation with 300-500 keV H, Ag, Cu and Au ions has been studied. A metastable primary phase was formed in the ion irradiated alloys followed by the heat treatment, while no difference was observed just after the ion irradiation at room temperature. The deposited energy dependence of the precipitation behavior indicated an increase of the nucleation sites by the implanted metal atoms, simultaneously with a decrease of the growth rate by higher energy deposition density. Ion-induced amorphization was found in the alloys containing crystalline phases by Au ion irradiation at room temperature. Thermal precipitation of the Zr2Ni type crystalline phase in the alloy was effectively suppressed with higher incident Au ion fluence.

  14. Microstructural evolution in nickel alloy C-276 after Ar-ion irradiation at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuoxue; He, Xinfu; Li, Tiecheng; Ma, Shuli; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2012-10-15

    In present work, the irradiation damage in nickel-base alloy C-276 irradiated with Ar-ions was studied. Specimens of C-276 alloy were subjected to an irradiation of Ar-ions (with 120 keV) to dose levels of 6 and 10 dpa at 300 and 550 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The size distributions and densities of dislocation loops caused by irradiation were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation hardening due to the formation of the loops was calculated using the dispersed barrier-hardening model, showing that irradiation hardening was greatest at 300 Degree-Sign C/6 dpa. The microstructure evolution induced by Ar-ion irradiation (0-10 dpa) in nickel-base alloy C-276 has been studied using a multi-scale modeling code Radieff constructed based on rate theory, and the size of dislocation loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High density of dislocation loops appeared after Ar ions irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation hardening due to the formation of loops was calculated by the DBH model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size of loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment.

  15. Surface patterning of GaAs under irradiation with very heavy polyatomic Au ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, L.; Bttger, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Facsko, S.; Pilz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Self-organization of surface patterns on GaAs under irradiation with heavy polyatomic Au ions has been observed. The patterns depend on the ion mass, and the substrate temperature as well as the incidence angle of the ions. At room temperature, under normal incidence the surface remains flat, whereas above 200 C nanodroplets of Ga appear after irradiation with monatomic, biatomic as well as triatomic Au ions of kinetic energies in the range of 10-30 keV per atom. In the intermediate temperature range of 100-200 C meander- and dot-like patterns form, which are not related to Ga excess. Under oblique ion incidence up to 45 from the surface normal, at room temperature the surface remains flat for mon- and polyatomic Au ions. For bi- and triatomic ions in the range of 60 ? ? ? 70 ripple patterns have been found, which become shingle-like for ? ? 80, whereas the surface remains flat for monatomic ions.

  16. Dielectric and transport properties of magnetic insulators irradiated with GeV heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, J.M.; Salvetat, J.P.; Brisard, F.

    1997-11-01

    The dielectric and ac/dc transport properties of single crystals of yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si), and barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 1 9}:Co,Ti) were investigated after irradiations with Xe and Pb ions in the GeV range. In the virgin n-type samples (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si and BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}:Co,Ti), the strong dielectric relaxation below 100 kHz is found to correspond to a space-charge polarization at the blocking metal/insulator contacts yielding a nonohmic dc conductivity. The relaxation frequency decreases with increasing amorphization yield in relation to the decrease of the insulators bulk dc conductivity which becomes ohmic in the amorphous phases. The ac conductivity data of both crystalline and amorphous Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si above 100 kHz and for 100K{lt}T{lt}300K exhibit two contributions: (i) that of carrier transport in a disordered or inhomogeneous medium varying as {nu}{sup s}, with s{approx_equal}0.8, (ii) and that of a two-site polaron hopping process of charge transfer between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with an activation energy of 0.29 eV for T{gt}180K. The dc conductivity data of crystalline Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Si for 80K{lt}T{lt}300K are discussed on the basis of a small polaron hopping conduction mechanism between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with an activation energy around 0.28 eV for T{gt}125K, in agreement with the activation energy around 0.28 eV of the space-charge dielectric relaxation frequency for T{gt}180K. All amorphous phases data are consistent with the picture of hopping conduction between gap states in a disordered medium with (i) an {nu}{sup s} dependence for the ac conductivity above a critical frequency proportional to the dc conductivity, (ii) and an exp({minus}T{sup {minus}1/4}) law for the dc conductivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Spectroscopic study of energetic helium-ion irradiation effects on nuclear graphite tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Wan; Lee, K. W.; Choi, D. M.; Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2016-02-01

    Helium ion-irradiation effects on the nuclear graphite tiles were studied in order to understand the structural modifications and damages that can be produced by fusion reaction in tokamaks. The surface morphological changes due to increasing dose of the irradiation were examined by the field-effect scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy elucidated the changes in the shallow surface bonding configurations caused by the energetic irradiation. Raman spectroscopy revealed the structural defects and diamond-like carbon sites that increased with increasing irradiation dose, and the average inter-defect distance was found from the Raman peak intensities as a function of the irradiation dose.

  18. Ultraviolet photolysis studies on XeO4 in noble-gas and F2 matrices and the formation and characterization of a new Xe(VIII) oxide, (?(2) -O2 )XeO3.

    PubMed

    Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Goettel, James T; Schrobilgen, Gary J; Riedel, Sebastian

    2015-07-27

    The photolytic behavior of the thermochemically unstable xenon(VIII) oxide XeO4 was investigated by UV irradiation in noble-gas and F2 matrices. Photolysis of Xe(16) O4 or Xe(18) O4 in noble-gas matrices at 365?nm yielded XeO3 and a new xenon(VIII) oxide, namely, (?(2) -O2 )XeO3 , which, along with XeO4 , was characterized by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. Calculations of the UV spectrum showed that the photodecomposition is induced by an n??* transition, but the nature of the excitation differs when different light sources are used. There is strong evidence for the formation of mobile (1) D excited O atoms in the case of excitation at 365?nm, which led to the formation of (?(2) -O2 )XeO3 by reaction with XeO4 . Matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy in Ne and Ar matrices afforded the natural-abundance xenon isotopic pattern for the ?3 (T2 ) stretching mode of Xe(16) O4 , and (18) O enrichment provided the (16) O/(18) O isotopic shifts of XeO4 and (?(2) -O2 )XeO3 . PMID:26095795

  19. Grain growth and size distribution in ion-irradiated chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Spinella, C.; Lombardo, S.; Campisano, S. U.

    1989-07-10

    The amorphous to polycrystal transition in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) amorphous silicon has been studied at 450 /degree/C under Kr ion beam irradiation. The average grain size increases linearly with the ion dose, and the grain size distribution is very narrow compared to thermally grown grains. These results are consistent with the presence of crystal seeds in CVD material. All these seeds can grow simultaneously under ion beam irradiation. For layers completely preamorphized by Ge/sup +/ implantation, no ion beam induced nucleation is observed.

  20. Effect of 100MeV oxygen ion irradiation on silicon NPN power transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M. Vinay; Krishnakumar, K. S.; Dinesh, C. M.; Krishnaveni, S.; Ramani

    2012-06-05

    The radiation response of npn Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has been examined for 100 MeV O{sup 7+} ion. Key electrical properties like Gummel characteristics, dc current gain and capacitance-voltage of 100MeV O{sup 7+} ion irradiated transistor were studied before and after irradiation. The device was decapped and the electrical characterizations were performed at room temperature. Base current is observed to be more sensitive than collector current and gain appears to be degraded with ion fluence, also considerable degradation in C-V characteristics is observed and doping concentration is found to be increased along with the increase in ion fluence.

  1. Nano-porosity in GaSb induced by swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, P. Schnohr, C. S.; Giulian, R.; Araujo, L. L.; Lei, W.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Afra, B.; Bierschenk, T.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sullivan, J.; Weed, R.; Li, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2014-01-13

    Nano-porous structures form in GaSb after ion irradiation with 185 MeV Au ions. The porous layer formation is governed by the dominant electronic energy loss at this energy regime. The porous layer morphology differs significantly from that previously reported for low-energy, ion-irradiated GaSb. Prior to the onset of porosity, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy indicates the formation of small vacancy clusters in single ion impacts, while transmission electron microscopy reveals fragmentation of the GaSb into nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix. Following this fragmentation process, macroscopic porosity forms, presumably within the amorphous phase.

  2. Irradiation of tungsten with metallic diatomic molecular ions: atomic-resolution observations of depleted zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, D.; Seidman, D.N.

    1982-08-01

    Direct evidence, on an atomic scale, is presented for the enhancement of damage production per projectile ion in diatomic metallic molecular ion (dimer) irradiations of tungsten as compared to monatomic metallic ion (monomer) irradiations. Irradiations were performed in situ at less than or equal to 10 K, in a field-ion microscope, employing 20 keV Ag/sup +/ or W/sup +/ monomer ions and the results are compared with 40 keV W/sub 2//sup +/ or Ag/sub 2//sup +/ dimer ion bombardments; the average energy per ion was 20 keV. First, in the near-surface region the depleted zones produced by the W/sub 2//sup +/ dimer ions give rise to void-like contrast effects. The W/sup +/ monomer ions do not produce this void-like damage. The existence of voids was explained employing a nucleation and diffusion-limited growth model which suggests that the growth can occur on a time scale < 10/sup -9/s, if the effective diffusivity of an atom in the fully-developed collision cascade is > 3 x 10/sup -4/cm/sup 2/s/sup -1/. Second, by counting the number of vacancies in individual depleted zones, produced by the different ions, it was demonstrated that the number of vacancies produced per incoming ion of the dimer is 1.55 times greater than the number of vacancies produced per monomer ion.

  3. Investigation of Current Spike Phenomena During Heavy Ion Irradiation of NAND Flash Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Berg, Melanie; Friendlich, Mark; Wilcox, Ted; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Irom, Farokh; Buchner, Steven P.; McMorrow, Dale; Mavis, David G.; Eaton, Paul H.; Castillo, James

    2011-01-01

    A series of heavy ion and laser irradiations were performed to investigate previously reported current spikes in flash memories. High current events were observed, however, none matches the previously reported spikes. Plausible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Effect of Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation on Lithium Zinc Silicate Glasses: A Photoluminescence Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jogad, M. S.; Jogad, R. M.; Sudarsan, V.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2011-07-15

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses with and without copper were prepared by melt-quench method and their luminescence characteristics after swift heavy ion irradiation has been investigated. Based on these studies it is established that both these glasses contain colour centres and the luminescence from such centres get significantly quenched once these samples get irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy Ag{sup +} ions with a fluence of 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Trapping of the charge carriers by the increased defect concentration brought about by irradiation is responsible for the decrease in the luminescence intensity from the irradiated samples. Copper in these glasses mainly exists as Cu{sup +} ions as revealed by the broad emission around 500 nm.

  5. Evolution of surface morphology of NiO thin films under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, P.; Rath, Chandana; Majumder, S.; Biswal, R.; Agarwal, D. C.; Varma, Shikha; Avasthi, D. K.; Satyam, P. V.; Mishra, N. C.

    2009-10-01

    NiO nanoparticle thin films grown on Si substrates were irradiated by 107 MeV Ag 8+ ions. The films were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Ag ion irradiation was found to influence the shape and size of the nanoparticles. The pristine NiO film consisted of uniform size (100 nm along major axis and 55 nm along minor axis) elliptical particles, which changed to also of uniform size (63 nm) circular shape particles on irradiation at a fluence of 3 10 13 ions cm -2. Comparison of XRD line width analysis and AFM data revealed that the particles in the pristine films are single crystalline, which turn to polycrystalline on irradiation with 107 MeV Ag ions.

  6. Effect of Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation on Lithium Zinc Silicate Glasses: A Photoluminescence Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogad, M. S.; Jogad, R. M.; Sudarsan, V.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2011-07-01

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses with and without copper were prepared by melt-quench method and their luminescence characteristics after swift heavy ion irradiation has been investigated. Based on these studies it is established that both these glasses contain colour centres and the luminescence from such centres get significantly quenched once these samples get irradiated with 100 MeV swift heavy Ag+ ions with a fluence of 1013ions/cm2 at room temperature. Trapping of the charge carriers by the increased defect concentration brought about by irradiation is responsible for the decrease in the luminescence intensity from the irradiated samples. Copper in these glasses mainly exists as Cu+ ions as revealed by the broad emission around 500 nm.

  7. Photoabsorption spectrum of the Xe@C60 endohedral fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, A. Z.

    2012-07-01

    Photoabsorption spectrum of the Xe@C60 endohedral fullerene has been studied using the time-dependent-density-functional-theory (TDDFT), which represents the dynamical polarizability of an interacting electron system by an off-diagonal matrix element of the resolvent of the Liouvillian superoperator and solves the problem with the Lanczos algorithm. The method has been tested with the photoabsorption spectra for the free Xe atom and C60 fullerene. The result of the Xe atom encapsulated inside C60 confirms the three main peaks observed in the recent measurement in the energy region of the Xe 4 d giant resonance and indicates the possibility that the Auger decay of the Xe+ has been greatly suppressed if the ion is encapsulated inside C60. It is suggested to use the current theoretical result around 22 eV to check this possibility.

  8. Damage accumulation in gallium nitride irradiated with various energetic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. H.; Song, Y.; Sun, Y. M.; Chen, H.; Yang, Y. T.; Zhou, L. H.; Jin, Y. F.

    2007-03-01

    In this work a study of damage production in gallium nitride via elastic collision process (nuclear energy deposition) and inelastic collision process (electronic energy deposition) using various heavy ions is presented. Ordinary low-energy heavy ions (Fe+ and Mo+ ions of 110 keV), swift heavy ions (208Pb27+ ions of 1.1 MeV/u) and slow highly-charged heavy ions (Xen+ ions of 180 keV) were employed in the irradiation. Damage accumulation in the GaN crystal films as a function of ion fluence and temperature was studied with RBS-channeling technique, Raman scattering technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). For ordinary low-energy heavy ion irradiation, the temperature dependence of damage production is moderate up to about 413 K resulting in amorphization of the damaged layer. Enhanced dynamic annealing of defects dominates at higher temperatures. Correlation of amorphization with material decomposition and nitrogen bubble formation was found. In the irradiation of swift heavy ions, rapid damage accumulation and efficient erosion of the irradiated layer occur at a rather low value of electronic energy deposition (about 1.3 keV/nm3), which also varies with irradiation temperature. In the irradiation of slow highly-charged heavy ions (SHCI), enhanced amorphization and surface erosion due to potential energy deposition of SHCI was found. It is indicated that damage production in GaN is remarkably more sensitive to electronic energy loss via excitation and ionization than to nuclear energy loss via elastic collisions.

  9. Application of ion beam irradiated ePTFE to repair small vessel injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, N.; Suzuki, Y.; Ujiie, H.; Hori, T.; Iwaki, M.; Yamada, T.

    2007-04-01

    In surgery, bleeding from small injured vessels often requires prompt hemostasis without occlusion. This study evaluated the usefulness of 0.06 mm thick ion beam irradiated ePTFE sheets to repair small holes in vessels. Both surfaces of ePTFE sheets were irradiated with a 150 keV-Ar+ beam with fluences of 5 1014 ions/cm2. A small hole up to 2 mm in diameter was created in the common carotid artery of a rabbit. The defect was wrapped with an ion beam irradiated or non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Fibrin glue was used to fix the ePTFE sheets to the common carotid artery. Hemostasis was instantly obtained with ion beam irradiated ePTFE but was rather difficult when using a non-irradiated ePTFE sheet. Three weeks after implantation, no occlusion was observed. Histological examination showed that the ePTFE sheets functioned as a scaffold for vessel wall regeneration. Thin ion beam irradiated ePTFE would be useful in vascular surgery.

  10. Oxide shell reduction and magnetic property changes in core-shell Fe nanoclusters under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; McCloy, John S.

    2014-05-07

    Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}N. These NC films were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ∼0.5 μm using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5 MeV Si{sup 2+} ions to ion fluences of 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization or growth of Fe{sub 3}N. The film retained its Fe-core and its ferromagnetic properties after irradiation. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeO + Fe{sub 3}N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

  11. The change in the surface topography of magnesium under high-flux C ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyomkin, G. V.; Ligachev, A. E.; Zhidkov, M. V.; Kolobov, Y. R.; Remnev, G. E.; Y Gazizova, M.; Bozhko, S. A.; Pavlov, S. K.

    2015-11-01

    The topography of the surface of the magnesium sample after irradiation by the high-intensity pulsed ion beam of a TEMP-4M accelerator was studied. The irradiation causes the formation of a regular comb structure and the creation of craters, their depth reaches 1-1.5 μm.

  12. Electrical properties of irradiated PVA film by using ion/electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, M. M.; Osman, M.; Hashhash, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ion/electron beam bombardment has shown great potential for improving the surface properties of polymers. Low-energy charged (ion/electron) beam irradiation of polymers is a good technique to modify properties such as electrical conductivity, structural behavior, and their mechanical properties. This paper reports on the effect of nitrogen and electron beam irradiation on the electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films. PVA films of 4 mm were exposed to a charged (ion/electron) beam for different treatment times (15, 30, and 60 minutes); the beam was produced from a dual beam source using nitrogen gas with the other ion/electron source parameters optimized. The dielectric loss tangent tan δ , electrical conductivity σ , and dielectric constant \\varepsilon ^' } in the frequency range 100 Hz-100 kHz were measured at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant and loss tangent as a function of frequency was also studied at room temperature. The dielectric constant was found to be strongly dependent on frequency for both ion and electron beam irradiation doses. The real (\\varepsilon ^' }) and imaginary (\\varepsilon ^' ' }) parts of the dielectric constant decreased with frequency for all irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The AC conductivity showed an increase with frequency for all samples under the influence of both ion and electron irradiation for different times. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral changes were also studied. The formation of clusters and defects (which serve as non-radiative centers on the polymer surface) is confirmed by the decrease in the PL intensity.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of APT Specimens from High Dose Heavy Ion Irradiated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael K; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-01-01

    The next generations of advanced energy systems will require materials that can withstand high doses of irradiation at elevated temperatures. Therefore, a methodology has been developed for the fabrication of high-dose ion-irradiated atom probe tomography specimens at a specific dose with the use of a focused ion beam milling system. The method also enables the precise ion dose of the atom probe tomography specimen to be estimated from the local concentration of the implanted ions. The method has been successfully applied to the characterization of the distribution of nanoclusters in a radiation-tolerant 14YWT nanostructured ferritic steel under ion irradiation to doses up to 400 displacements per atom.

  14. Low energy Ar+ ion beam irradiation effects on Si ripple pattern.

    PubMed

    Pahlovy, Shahjada A; Yanagimoto, Kazuma; Miyamoto, Iwao

    2011-02-01

    Etching of surfaces by ion beam sputtering is widely used to pattern surfaces. Recent studies using the high-spatial-resolution capability of the scanning tunneling microscope, atomic force microscope and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) disclose in fact that ion bombardment creates repetitive structures at micro-nanometre scale, waves (ripples), checkerboards or pyramids. The phenomenon is related to the interaction between ion erosion and diffusion of adatoms (vacancies), which causes surface re-organization. In this paper we investigated the ripple pattern formation on Si substrates by low energy Ar+ ion bombardment and the dose effect on ripple size. We also briefly discussed the irradiation effects (at normal incidence) on ripple pattern for different irradiation time. Finally, based on Bradley and Harper (BH) theory we proposed a model to understand the mechanism of ripple pattern change due to Ar+ ion beam irradiation. PMID:21456140

  15. Structural and morphological properties of Ag ion irradiated SnO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhirami, K. M.; Matheswaran, P.; Gokul, B.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Asokan, K.

    2015-02-01

    SnO2 thin films of thickness 300 nm were prepared by reactive thermal evaporation and subjected to sintering at 600 C for 2 hr. The annealed films were irradiated using silver (Ag) ions with energy of 120 MeV at different fluences (11011, 51011, 11012, 51012 and 11013 ions/cm2). The effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on structural, morphological and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-visible spectrophotometer. XRD studies showed formation of tin oxide with tetragonal structure. Morphology analysis revealed uniform deposition of the material with increase in grain size after irradiation upto 11012 ions/cm2 and beyond that size tends to decrease. In addition, agglomeration of nanocrystalline grains was observed after Ag ion bombardment with varying fluence. The transmittance decreases from 90% to 80% as the fluence increases.

  16. KeV-MeV ion irradiation of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Ciavola, G.; Percolla, R.; Benyaich, F.

    1996-08-01

    Semicrystalline polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films have been irradited with different ion beams and energies ranging between 0.1 keV/amu and 6 MeV/amu. Polymer modifications induced by the ion irradiation, for electronic and nuclear energy stopping, have been investigated in situ by a highly sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ion irradiation of PVDF produced ejection of H 2 and HF molecules with a high chemical yield. Switching on the ion beam, the measured yields show a prompt (for H 2) and a slow (for HF) component of the molecular emission, which depends on the ion energy, ion fluence and polymer temperature. Along the ion track, the energy deposition produces a high density of active species, which give rise to desorbed molecules, to cross-linking processes and to a very stable residual carboneous film. At room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of HF molecules measured in irradiated PVDF is of the order of 10 -8 cm 2/s. The structural modifications of the irradiated films have been investigated ex situ by X-ray diffraction and optical absorption. The ion energy deposition along the ion track can be useful to realize active bio-membranes through the polymer grafting process.

  17. Expansion and melting of Xe nanocrystals in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Agata R.; Zontone, Federico; Li, Boquan; Petrov, Ivan

    2006-12-15

    Xe agglomerates confined in a Si matrix by ion implantation were synthesized with different size depending on the implantation process and/or the thermal treatment. At low temperature Xe nanocrystals are formed, whose expansion and melting were studied in the range 15-300 K. Previous high resolution x-ray diffraction spectra were corroborated with complementary techniques such as two-dimensional imaging plate patterns and transmission electron microscopy. We detected fcc Xe nanocrystals whose properties were size dependent. The experiments showed that in annealed samples epitaxial condensation of small Xe clusters, on the cavities of the Si matrix, gave in fact expanded and oriented Xe, suggesting a possible preferential growth of Xe (311) planes oriented orthogonally to the Si[02-2] direction. On the contrary, small Xe clusters in an amorphous Si matrix have a fcc lattice contracted as a consequence of surface tension. Furthermore, a solid-to-liquid phase transition size dependent was found. Expansion of fcc Xe lattice was accurately determined as a function of the temperature. Overpressurized nanocrystals and/or binary size distributions were disproved.

  18. Scanning removal of ion-implanted novolak resist by using a laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Tomosumi; Kuroki, Yuta; Kiriyama, Takuya; Muraoka, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Harada, Yoshiyuki; Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Horibe, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    Novolak resists which are implanted with B, P, and As ions, respectively, were irradiated with a pulsed 532nm laser. Regardless of the implanted ion species and density, more than 74 % of the laser power was found to absorb into the Si wafer surface. For the laser irradiation of 1 pulse, the ion-implanted resist with a density of 5.0x1013 atoms/cm2 was completely stripped in the same way as that of a non-implanted resist. The optical absorption of the resist surface increased as the density of the ion-implantation increased. In case of the ion-implanted resist with a density of 5.0x1015 atoms/cm2, the resist was stripped by 20 pulses irradiation without occurring laser-induced surface damage. A scanning removal of the highly ion-implanted resist was also successfully stripped by using an optimized irradiation condition. A highly ion-implanted resist was continuously stripped by the scanning laser irradiation with 20 pulses.

  19. Anisotropic dislocation loop nucleation in ion-irradiated MgAl sub 2 O sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polycrystalline disks of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were irradiated with 2 MeV Al{sup +} ions at 650{degrees}C and subsequently analyzed in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial dislocation loops were observed on 110 and 11 habit planes. The population of loops on both sets of habit planes was strongly dependent on their orientation with respect to the ion beam direction. The density of loops with habit plane normals nearly perpendicular to the ion beam direction much higher than loops with habit plane normals nearly parallel to the ion beam direction. On the other hand, the loop size was nearly independent of habit plane orientation. This anisotropic loop nucleation does not occur in ion-irradiated metals such as copper. An additional anomaly associated with ion-irradiated spinel is that the loops on 111 planes were partially unfaulted with a Burgers vector of b = a/4<110>. Previous neutron irradiation studies have never reported unfaulted loops in stoichiometric spinel. Possible cause of the unusual response of spinel to ion irradiation are discussed. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Enhancement of band gap and photoconductivity in gamma indium selenide due to swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sreekumar, R.; Jayakrishnan, R.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-01-15

    {gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films prepared at different annealing temperatures ranging from 100 to 400 deg. C were irradiated using 90 MeV Si ions with a fluence of 2x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction analysis proved that there is no considerable variation in structural properties of the films due to the swift heavy ion irradiation. However, photosensitivity and sheet resistance of the samples increased due to irradiation. It was observed that the sample, which had negative photoconductivity, exhibited positive photoconductivity, after irradiation. The negative photoconductivity was due to the combined effect of trapping of photoexcited electrons, at traps 1.42 and 1.26 eV, above the valence band along with destruction of the minority carriers, created during illumination, through recombination. Photoluminescence study revealed that the emission was due to the transition to a recombination center, which was 180 meV above the valence band. Optical absorption study proved that the defects present at 1.42 and 1.26 eV were annealed out by the ion beam irradiation. This allowed photoexcited carriers to reach conduction band, which resulted in positive photoconductivity. Optical absorption study also revealed that the band gap of the material could be increased by ion beam irradiation. The sample prepared at 400 deg. C had a band gap of 2 eV and this increased to 2.8 eV, after irradiation. The increase in optical band gap was attributed to the annihilation of localized defect bands, near the conduction and valence band edges, on irradiation. Thus, by ion beam irradiation, one could enhance photosensitivity as well as the optical band gap of {gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, making the material suitable for applications such as window layer in solar cells.

  1. Low-energy D{sup +} and H{sup +} ion irradiation effects on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kue Park, Jun; Won Lee, Kyu; Hee Han, Jun; Jung Kweon, Jin; Kim, Dowan; Eui Lee, Cheol; Lim, Sun-Taek; Kim, Gon-Ho; Noh, S. J.; Kim, H. S.

    2013-12-07

    We have investigated the low-energy (100 eV) D{sup +} and H{sup +} ion irradiation effects on the structural and chemical properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Structural disorder due to the ion irradiation was identified by the Raman spectroscopy, the D{sup +} irradiation giving rise to greater structural disorder than the H{sup +} irradiation. Only sp{sup 2} bonding was identified in the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the D{sup +}-irradiated HOPG, indicating no change in the surface chemical structure. The H{sup +} irradiation, on the other hand, gave rise to sp{sup 3} bonding and ???{sup *} transition, the sp{sup 3} bonding increasing with increasing irradiation dose. It is thus shown that the chemical properties of the HOPG surface may be sensitively modified by the low-energy H{sup +} ion irradiation, but not by the low-energy D{sup +} ion irradiation.

  2. Micro-Raman spectroscopy characterization of silicon with different structures irradiated with energetic Bi-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yabin; Yao, Cunfeng; Wang, Ji; Zhu, Huiping; Shen, Tielong; Gao, Xing; Sun, Jianrong; Wei, Kongfang; Wang, Dong; Sheng, Yanbin; Wang, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Researches of irradiation effects on silicon possess not only fundamental interests but also potential application prospects. Comparison studies about structural modification of silicon materials with different structures under identical irradiation conditions can reveal the irradiation mechanisms for amorphous and crystalline phases of silicon. For this purpose, amorphous silicon (a-Si) and nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) films as well as mono-crystalline silicon (c-Si) samples were irradiated with 6.0 MeV Bi-ions at room temperature. The ion fluences are 1.0 1013, 5.0 1013 and 1.0 1014 ions/cm2. All samples were analyzed by using a Raman spectrometer. The obtained results show that the crystalline fraction of c-Si and nc-Si decrease with increasing fluence, which indicates that the irradiation induces the amorphization of nc-Si and c-Si samples. In addition, the variation in Raman frequency of crystalline peak after irradiation reveals that the irradiation also results in the increased stress in crystalline phase of c-Si and nc-Si samples. As the fluence increases, the bond angle deviation and the ratio of TA to TO mode of amorphous network of a-Si and nc-Si films initially increase and then decrease by a diminishing degree, while the bond angle deviation and the ratio of TA to TO mode of amorphous network of c-Si samples increase continuously. This gives the dependence of short-range structural order of amorphous network of a-Si, nc-Si and c-Si samples on the ion fluence, which is related with the irradiation induced variation of local free energy. It is considered that the irradiation induced structural modification of silicon samples is mainly attributed to the nuclear energy loss. The irradiation effects of energetic heavy-ions on crystalline and amorphous phases of silicon have been discussed, respectively.

  3. Ordered arrangement of irradiation-induced defects of polycrystalline tungsten irradiated with low-energy hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Weiyuan; Yang, Qi; Fan, Hongyu; Liu, Lu; Berthold, Tobias; Benstetter, Günther; Liu, Dongping

    2015-09-01

    Low-energy (20-520 eV) hydrogen ion irradiations were performed at W surface temperature of 373-1073 K and a fluence ranging from 5.0 × 1023 to 1.0 × 1025/m2. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a nondestructive analytical technique was successfully used to detect irradiation-induced defects in polycrystalline W. The size and density of these nanometer-sized defects were strongly dependent on the fluence of hydrogen ions. Both ion energy (E) and temperature (T) play a crucial role in determining the ordering of nanometer-sized defects. Ordered arrangements were formed at relatively high E and T. This can be attributed to the stress-driven ripple effect of defect growth at crystal grains, resulting in the movement of W lattice along one certain crystal planes.

  4. Fragmentation of biomolecules using slow highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehlicke, C.; Schneider, D.; Balhorn, R.; DuBois, R.

    1996-11-01

    We present first results of biomolecular fragmentation studies with slow highly charged ions (HCI). A layer of the tripeptide RVA was deposited on gold targets and irradiated with slow (few 100 keV) ions, e.g. Xe{sup 50+} and Xe{sup 15+}, extracted from the LLNL EBIT (electron beam ion trap). The secondary ions released upon ion impact were mass analyzed via Time-Of-Flight Secondary-Ion-Mass-Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The results show a strong dependence of the positive and negative ion yields on the charge state of the incident ion. We also found that incident ions with high charge states cause the ejection of fragments with a wide mass range as well as the intact molecule (345 amu). The underlying mechanisms are not yet understood but electron depletion of the target due to the high incident charge is likely to cause a variety of fragmentation processes. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Controlled optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods by Ar ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panigrahy, Bharati; Bahadur, D.; Aslam, M.

    2011-05-02

    Herein we report a controlled defect-related emission and magnetization properties of zinc oxide nanorods using low energy (2-5 keV) Ar ion irradiation. The ratio of the defect related emission to the excitonic emission decreases by an order magnitude due to the ion bombardment. The hysteresis loops of pristine and irradiated nanorods show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. A sharp decrease in the value of magnetization is due to an enhancement of irradiation time and energy. Combining with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, a direct link between the magnetization and defect-emission of ZnO nanorods is established.

  6. Evolution of precipitate in nickel-base alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Luo, Fengfeng; Ma, Shuli; Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2013-07-01

    Alloy 718 is a nickel-base superalloy whose strength derives from γ'(Ni3(Al,Ti)) and γ″(Ni3Nb) precipitates. The evolution of the precipitates in alloy 718 irradiated with argon ions at elevated temperature were examined via transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated superlattice spots disappeared after argon ion irradiation, which showing that the ordered structure of the γ' and γ″ precipitates became disordered. The size of the precipitates became smaller with the irradiation dose increasing at 290 °C.

  7. Novel microstructures on the surfaces of single crystal silicon irradiated by intense pulsed ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jie; Yu, Xiao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhong, Haowen; Zhang, Jie; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Gaolong; Zhang, Xiaofu; Le, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    An ion beam treatment of high purity single crystal silicon specimens was performed with different shots by the irradiation of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB), which were generated by an accelerating voltage of 350 kV and with the current density of 130 A/cm2. As the result of irradiation, the formation of various microstructures caused by the irradiation effect, especially the thermal effect is confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis, and the corresponding processes are described and related explanations are given.

  8. Magnetic patterning using ion irradiation for highly ordered CoPt alloys with perpendicular anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Abes, M.; Venuat, J.; Muller, D.; Carvalho, A.; Schmerber, G.; Beaurepaire, E.; Dinia, A.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.

    2004-12-15

    We used a combination of ion irradiation and e-beam lithography to magnetically pattern an ordered CoPt alloy with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Ion irradiation disorders the alloy and strongly reduces the magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic force microscopy showed a regular array of 1 {mu}m{sup 2} square dots with perpendicular anisotropy separated by 1 {mu}m large ranges with in-plane anisotropy. This is further confirmed by magnetic measurements, which showed that arrays protected by a 200 nm Pt layer present the same coercive field and the same perpendicular anisotropy as before irradiation. This is promising for applications in magnetic recording technologies.

  9. Creation of surface nanostructures in Al2O3 by slow highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Facsko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Al2O3 single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged Xe ions of various charge states from an EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap) source at the Dresden two source facility. The irradiations were performed at room temperature and under normal incidence. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) was utilized to investigate the topography of the irradiated surfaces. The measurements showed that above a potential energy threshold, each ion creates a nanohillock protruding from the surface. These structures are compared to those created by swift heavy ions (SHI). The results are discussed in terms of potential energy deposition of highly charged ions (HCI) and electronic energy loss of SHI.

  10. Dislocation loops in spinel crystals irradiated successively with deep and shallow ion implants

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, R.X.; Cooper, E.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Nastasi, M.; Bordes, N.; Ewing, R.C.

    1993-12-31

    This study examines the influence of microstructural defects on irradiation damage accumulation in the oxide spinel. Single crystals of the compound MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with surface normal [111] were irradiated under cryogenic temperature (100K) either with 50 keV Ne ions (fluence 5.0 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}), 400 keV Ne ions (fluence 6.7 {times} 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}) or successively with 400 keV Ne ions followed by 50 keV Ne ions. The projected range of 50 keV Ne ions in spinel is {approximately}50 mn (``shallow``) while the projected range of 400 keV Ne ions is {approximately}500 mn (``deep``). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine dislocation loops/defect clusters formed by the implantation process. Measurements of the dislocation loop size were made using weak-beam imaging technique on cross-sectional TEM ion-implanted specimens. Defect clusters were observed in both deep and shallow implanted specimens, while dislocation loops were observed in the shallow implanted sample that was previously irradiated by 400 keV Ne ions. Cluster size was seen to increase for shallow implants in crystals irradiated with a deep implant (size {approximately}8.5 nm) as compared to crystals treated only to a shallow implant (size {approximately}3.1 nm).

  11. Irradiation effects of swift heavy ions in actinide oxides and actinide nitrides: Structure and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Iacconi, Philibert

    2006-09-01

    Actinide oxides have been used as nuclear fuels in the majority of power reactors working in the world and actinide nitrides are under investigation for the fuels of the future fast neutron fission reactors developed in Forum Generation IV. Radiation damage in actinide oxides UO 2, (U 0.92Ce 0.08)O 2, and actinide nitride UN has been characterized after irradiation with swift heavy ions. Fluences up to 3 10 13 ions/cm 2 of heavy ions (Kr 740 Mev, Cd 1 GeV) available at the CIRIL/GANIL facility were used to simulate irradiation in reactors by fission products and by neutrons. The macroscopic effects of irradiation remains very weak compared with those seen in other ceramic oxides irradiated in the same conditions: practically no swelling can be measured and no change in colour can be observed on the irradiated part of a polished face of sintered disks. The point defects in irradiated actinide compounds have been characterized by optical absorption spectroscopy in the UV-Vis-NIR wavelength range. The absorption spectra before and after irradiation are compared, and unexpected stability of optical properties during irradiation is shown. This result confirms the low rate of formation of point defects in actinide oxides and actinide nitrides under irradiation. Actinide oxides and nitrides studied are >40% ionic, and oxidation state of the actinides seems to be stable during irradiation. The small amount of point defects produced by radiation (<10 16 cm -2) has been identified from differences between the absorption spectrum before irradiation and the one after irradiation: point defects in oxygen or nitrogen lattices can be observed respectively in oxides and nitrides (F centres), and small amounts of U 5+ would be present in all compounds.

  12. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-09

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing the ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.

  13. Ion irradiation induced defect evolution in Ni and Ni-based FCC equiatomic binary alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-09

    In order to explore the chemical effects on radiation response of alloys with multi-principal elements, defect evolution under Au ion irradiation was investigated in the elemental Ni, equiatomic NiCo and NiFe alloys. Single crystals were successfully grown in an optical floating zone furnace and their (100) surfaces were irradiated with 3 MeV Au ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 5 × 1015 ions cm–2 at room temperature. The irradiation-induced defect evolution was analyzed by using ion channeling technique. Experiment shows that NiFe is more irradiation-resistant than NiCo and pure Ni at low fluences. With continuously increasing themore » ion fluences, damage level is eventually saturated for all materials but at different dose levels. The saturation level in pure Ni appears at relatively lower irradiation fluence than the alloys, suggesting that damage accumulation slows down in the alloys. Here, under high-fluence irradiations, pure Ni has wider damage ranges than the alloys, indicating that defects in pure Ni have high mobility.« less

  14. Study of thickness dependent sputtering in gold thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, P.; Sahoo, P. K.; Solanki, V.; Singh, U. B.; Avasthi, D. K.; Mishra, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Gold thin films of varying thickness (10-100 nm) grown on silica substrates by e-beam evaporation method were irradiated by 120 MeV Au ions at 3 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions cm-2 fluences. Irradiation induced modifications of these films were probed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Irradiation didn't affect the structure, the lattice parameter or the crystallite size, but modified the texturing of grains from [1 1 1] to [2 2 0]. RBS indicated thickness dependent sputtering on irradiation. The sputtering yield was found to decrease with increasing thickness. AFM indicated increase of roughness with increasing irradiation fluence for films of all thickness. In agreement with the AFM observation, the gold nanostructures on the surface of 20 nm thick film were found to increase the SERS signal of acridine orange dye attached to these structures. The SERS peaks were amplified by many fold with increasing ion fluence. The effect of 120 MeV Au ion irradiation on the grain texture, surface morphology and SERS activity in addition to the thickness dependent sputtering in gold thin films are explained by the thermal spike model of ion-matter interaction.

  15. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Jiang, Weilin; McCloy, John S.; Qiang, You

    2014-02-12

    Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe3O4/FeO. These NC films were were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ~0.5 micrometers using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5 MeV Si2+ ions to ion fluences of 1015 and 1016 ions/cm2. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization of Fe3N. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe3O4 and FeO+Fe3N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

  16. Influence of irradiation spectrum and implanted ions on the amorphization of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    Polycrystalline Al2O3, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), MgO, Si3N4, and SiC were irradiated with various ions at 200-450 K, and microstructures were examined following irradiation using cross-section TEM. Amorphization was not observed in any of the irradiated oxide ceramics, despsite damage energy densities up to {similar_to}7 keV/atom (70 displacements per atom). On the other hand, SiC readily amorphized after damage levels of {similar_to}0.4 dpa at room temperature (RT). Si3N4 exhibited intermediate behavior; irradiation with Fe{sup 2+} ions at RT produced amorphization in the implanted ion region after damage levels of {similar_to}1 dpa. However, irradiated regions outside the implanted ion region did not amorphize even after damage levels > 5 dpa. The amorphous layer in the Fe-implanted region of Si3N4 did not appear if the specimen was simultaneoulsy irradiated with 1-MeV He{sup +} ions at RT. By comparison with published results, it is concluded that the implantation of certain chemical species has a pronounced effect on the amorphization threshold dose of all five materials. Intense ionizing radiation inhibits amorphization in Si3N4, but does not appear to significantly influence the amorphization of SiC.

  17. Highly Charged Ion Bombardment of Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabia, Jason E.; Goldie, Scott N.; Ratliff, Laura P.; Goldner, Lori S.; Gillaspy, John D.

    2003-08-01

    Visible photoluminescence from Si(100) surfaces irradiated by highly charged ions has recently been reported [1]. In an attempt to reproduce these results, highly charged ion-irradiated silicon samples were prepared at the Electron Beam Ion Trap at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two highly sensitive fluorescence detection schemes were employed, both using ultraviolet light from an argon-ion laser for excitation. In the first detection scheme, the Xe44+-Si(100) samples were excited by the ultraviolet light while a spectrograph equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device camera detected the fluorescence. The second detection scheme was a high throughput laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a photon-counting photomultiplier tube. We characterized the sensitivities in each detection scheme, allowing the assessment of the photoluminescence efficiency of Xe44+-Si(100). No photoluminescence was detected in either setup.

  18. Highly Charged Ion Bombardment of Silicon Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabia, Jason E.; Goldie, Scott N.; Ratliff, Laura P.; Goldner, Lori S.; Gillaspy, John D.

    2003-08-26

    Visible photoluminescence from Si(100) surfaces irradiated by highly charged ions has recently been reported [1]. In an attempt to reproduce these results, highly charged ion-irradiated silicon samples were prepared at the Electron Beam Ion Trap at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Two highly sensitive fluorescence detection schemes were employed, both using ultraviolet light from an argon-ion laser for excitation. In the first detection scheme, the Xe44+-Si(100) samples were excited by the ultraviolet light while a spectrograph equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device camera detected the fluorescence. The second detection scheme was a high throughput laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a photon-counting photomultiplier tube. We characterized the sensitivities in each detection scheme, allowing the assessment of the photoluminescence efficiency of Xe44+-Si(100). No photoluminescence was detected in either setup.

  19. Ion microbeam irradiation for radiobiology and radical chemistry: status and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodja, H.

    2011-01-01

    Ion microbeams are commonly used to study local irradiation effects in living cells, as it has been established that ion beam irradiations can lead to deleterious changes in cells that are not struck directly by the microbeam. Such changes, which take place over distances long compared to the size of the irradiation spot and for times long compared to the time of irradiation, are collectively termed radiation-induced bystander effect or RIBE. Free-radical chemistry is frequently invoked to explain the RIBE but no unified model is available at present. Ion microbeams when coupled with advanced methods for observing free radicals are the tools of choice for investigating the chemistry and biological processes governing RIBE.

  20. Grain growth and crack formation in NiO thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, P.; Biswal, R.; Rath, Chandana; Agarwal, D. C.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Satyam, P. V.; Mishra, N. C.

    2010-03-01

    NiO thin films grown on Si(1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation and sintered at 700 C, were irradiated by 120 MeV Au 9+ ions. Though irradiation is known to induce lattice disorder and suppression of crystallinity, we observe grain growth at some fluences of irradiation. Associated with the growth of grains, the films develop cracks at a fluence of 3 10 12 ions cm -2. The width of the cracks increased at higher fluences. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced atomic diffusion and strain relaxation in nanoparticle thin films, which are not in thermodynamic equilibrium, seem to be responsible for the observed grain growth. This phenomenon along with the tensile stress induced surface instability lead to crack formation in the NiO thin films.

  1. Tailoring nonlinear optical properties of Bi2Se3 through ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Guo, Zhinan; Shang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Böttger, Roman; Zhou, Shengqiang; Shao, Jundong; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical property of topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is found to be well-tailored through ion irradiation by intentionally introducing defects. The increase of the optical modulation depth sensitively depends on the careful selection of the irradiation condition. By implementing the ion irradiated Bi2Se3 film as an optical saturable absorber device for the Q-switched wave-guide laser, an enhanced laser performance has been obtained including narrower pulse duration and higher peak power. Our work provides a new approach of tailoring the nonlinear optical properties of materials through ion irradiation, a well-developed chip-technology, which could find wider applicability to other layered two-dimensional materials beyond topological insulators, such as graphene, MoS2, black phosphours etc. PMID:26888223

  2. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Devgan, Kusum; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2012-11-01

    The swift heavy irradiation induced changes taking place in ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene (E-CTFE) copolymer films were investigated in correlation with the applied doses. Samples were irradiated in vacuum at room temperature by lithium (50 MeV), carbon (85 MeV), nickel (120 MeV) and silver (120 MeV) ions with the fluence in the range of 11011-31012 ions cm-2. Structural and thermal properties of the irradiated as well as pristine E-CTFE films were studied using FTIR, UV-visible, TGA, DSC and XRD techniques. Swift heavy ion irradiation was found to induce changes in E-CTFE depending upon the applied doses.

  3. Tailoring nonlinear optical properties of Bi2Se3 through ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yang; Guo, Zhinan; Shang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Böttger, Roman; Zhou, Shengqiang; Shao, Jundong; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical property of topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is found to be well-tailored through ion irradiation by intentionally introducing defects. The increase of the optical modulation depth sensitively depends on the careful selection of the irradiation condition. By implementing the ion irradiated Bi2Se3 film as an optical saturable absorber device for the Q-switched wave-guide laser, an enhanced laser performance has been obtained including narrower pulse duration and higher peak power. Our work provides a new approach of tailoring the nonlinear optical properties of materials through ion irradiation, a well-developed chip-technology, which could find wider applicability to other layered two-dimensional materials beyond topological insulators, such as graphene, MoS2, black phosphours etc. PMID:26888223

  4. Tailoring nonlinear optical properties of Bi2Se3 through ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yang; Guo, Zhinan; Shang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Böttger, Roman; Zhou, Shengqiang; Shao, Jundong; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear optical property of topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is found to be well-tailored through ion irradiation by intentionally introducing defects. The increase of the optical modulation depth sensitively depends on the careful selection of the irradiation condition. By implementing the ion irradiated Bi2Se3 film as an optical saturable absorber device for the Q-switched wave-guide laser, an enhanced laser performance has been obtained including narrower pulse duration and higher peak power. Our work provides a new approach of tailoring the nonlinear optical properties of materials through ion irradiation, a well-developed chip-technology, which could find wider applicability to other layered two-dimensional materials beyond topological insulators, such as graphene, MoS2, black phosphours etc.

  5. Fabrication of Pt nanoparticle incorporated polymer nanowires by high energy ion and electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takahasi, Ryouta; Seki, Shu; Sugimoto, Masaki; Idesaki, Akira; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid nanowires were fabricated by high energy ion beam irradiation to PVP thin films including H2PtCl6. Single ion hitting caused crosslinking reactions of PVP and reduction of Pt ions within local cylindrical area along an ion trajectory (ion track); therefore, the PVP nanowires including Pt NPs were formed and isolated on Si substrate after wet-development procedure. The number of Pt NPs was easily controlled by the mixed ratio of PVP and H2PtCl6. However, increasing the amount of H2PtCl6 led to decreasing the radial size and separation of the hybrid nanowires during the wet-development. Additional electron beam irradiation after ion beam improved separation of the nanowires and controlled radial sizes due to an increase in the density of crosslinking points inner the nanowires.

  6. Lattice expansion and microstructure evaluation of Ar ion-irradiated titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jia-Xiang; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Xu, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Wang, Xin-Gang; Peng, Shu-Ming; Long, Xing-Gui

    2013-08-01

    Fully dense titanium nitride (TiN) ceramic was irradiated using a 100 keV Ar ion beam at 600 C and at target fluences of 3 1017 ions cm-2, corresponding to 115 displacements per atom (dpa). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the irradiation damage in the TiN. The lattice parameter increased and the lattice expanded by 0.19% after irradiation due to interstitial atoms and vacancies in Ar-irradiated TiN. Hills, bubbles and dislocations were observed. It is noteworthy that many TiN grains pulled out after irradiation and that amorphization of oxide grain boundaries was observed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which indicates that the oxygen-containing impurities are potentially fatally dangerous to the radiation resistance property of TiN and other candidate materials.

  7. Enhancement of impact-induced mechanoluminescence by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, T. Z.; Xu, C. N.; Yamada, H.; Terasawa, Y.; Zhang, L.; Iwase, H.; Kawai, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we report a strategy using swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation to enhance the impact-induced mechanoluminescence (ML) in ML materials. The impact-induced ML intensity of CaSrAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ was enhanced by about one order of magnitude by using SHI irradiation. Furthermore, the enhancement was found to depend on electronic stopping power and irradiation fluence. The density of traps of a type suitable for impact-induced ML is considered to be increased by the SHI irradiation, resulting in the impact-induced ML enhancement.

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline tin oxide thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, T; Satyam, P V; Kanjilal, D

    2006-08-01

    Nanocrystals of tin oxide were formed in e-beam evaporated films by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The nucleation of nanocrystals occurred due to electronic excitation by swift heavy ion. Nanophase thin films are characterized systematically by HRTEM, GAXRD, EDX, and UV/NIS absorption techniques. Nanocrystals having size of 8 nm radius are synthesized in different substrates during swift heavy ion irradiation and without subsequent annealing. SHI induced nanocrystallization could be achieved in both crystalline and non-crystalline substrates. PMID:17037871

  9. Mechanism of the Defect Formation in Supported Graphene by Energetic Heavy Ion Irradiation: the Substrate Effect

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weisen; Wang, Xinwei; Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Duan, Huiling; Xue, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Although ion beam technology has frequently been used for introducing defects in graphene, the associated key mechanism of the defect formation under ion irradiation is still largely unclear. We report a systematic study of the ion irradiation experiments on SiO2-supported graphene, and quantitatively compare the experimental results with molecular dynamic simulations. We find that the substrate is, in fact, of great importance in the defect formation process, as the defects in graphene are mostly generated through an indirect process by the sputtered atoms from the substrate. PMID:25927476

  10. Ion-irradiation-induced densification of zirconia sol-gel thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, T.E.; Giannelis, E.P.; Kodali, P.; Tesmer, J.; Nastasi, M.; Mayer, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    We have investigated the densification behavior of sol-gel zirconia films resulting from ion irradiation. Three sets of films were implanted with neon, krypton, or xenon. The ion energies were chosen to yield approximately constant energy loss through the film and the doses were chosen to yield similar nuclear energy deposition. Ion irradiation of the sol-gel films resulted in carbon and hydrogen loss as indicated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and forward recoil energy spectroscopy. Although the densification was hypothesized to result from target atom displacement, the observed densification exhibits a stronger dependence on electronic energy deposition.

  11. New Ion Beam Materials Laboratory for Materials Modification and Irradiation Effects Research

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Crespillo, Miguel L; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Chen, Chien-Hung; Fontana, Cristiano L; Graham, Dr. Joseph T.; Weber, William J

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  12. New ion beam materials laboratory for materials modification and irradiation effects research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Crespillo, M. L.; Xue, H.; Jin, K.; Chen, C. H.; Fontana, C. L.; Graham, J. T.; Weber, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  13. Strain-dependent Damage in Mouse Lung After Carbon Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moritake, Takashi; Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba ; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Yanagisawa, Mitsuru; Nakawatari, Miyako; Imadome, Kaori; Nakamura, Etsuko; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To examine whether inherent factors produce differences in lung morbidity in response to carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation, and to identify the molecules that have a key role in strain-dependent adverse effects in the lung. Methods and Materials: Three strains of female mice (C3H/He Slc, C57BL/6J Jms Slc, and A/J Jms Slc) were locally irradiated in the thorax with either C-ion beams (290 MeV/n, in 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) or with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays as a reference beam. We performed survival assays and histologic examination of the lung with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. In addition, we performed immunohistochemical staining for hyaluronic acid (HA), CD44, and Mac3 and assayed for gene expression. Results: The survival data in mice showed a between-strain variance after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. The median survival time of C3H/He was significantly shortened after C-ion irradiation at the higher dose of 12.5 Gy. Histologic examination revealed early-phase hemorrhagic pneumonitis in C3H/He and late-phase focal fibrotic lesions in C57BL/6J after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Pleural effusion was apparent in C57BL/6J and A/J mice, 168 days after C-ion irradiation with 10 Gy. Microarray analysis of irradiated lung tissue in the three mouse strains identified differential expression changes in growth differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), which regulates macrophage function, and hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1), which plays a role in HA metabolism. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of CD44-positive cells, a surrogate marker for HA accumulation, and Mac3-positive cells, a marker for macrophage infiltration in irradiated lung, varied significantly among the three mouse strains during the early phase. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a strain-dependent differential response in mice to C-ion thoracic irradiation. Our findings identified candidate molecules that could be implicated in the between-strain variance to early hemorrhagic pneumonitis after C-ion irradiation.

  14. Enhancement of SPHK1 in vitro by carbon ion irradiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Higo, Morihiro; Uzawa, Katsuhiro . E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Kawata, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshikuni; Kouzu, Yukinao; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Shibahara, Takahiko; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Ito, Hisao; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2006-07-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells after carbon ion irradiation. Methods and Materials Three OSCC cell lines (HSC2, Ca9-22, and HSC3) were irradiated with accelerated carbon ion beams or X-rays using three different doses. The cellular sensitivities were determined by clonogenic survival assay. To identify genes the expression of which is influenced by carbon ion irradiation in a dose-dependent manner, we performed Affymetrix GeneChip analysis with HG-U133 plus 2.0 arrays containing 54,675 probe sets. The identified genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool to investigate the functional network and gene ontology. Changes in mRNA expression in the genes were assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results We identified 98 genes with expression levels that were altered significantly at least twofold in each of the three carbon-irradiated OSCC cell lines at all dose points compared with nonirradiated control cells. Among these, SPHK1, the expression of which was significantly upregulated by carbon ion irradiation, was modulated little by X-rays. The function of SPHK1 related to cellular growth and proliferation had the highest p value (p = 9.25e-7 to 2.19e-2). Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significantly elevated SPHK1 expression levels after carbon ion irradiation (p < 0.05), consistent with microarray data. Clonogenic survival assay indicated that carbon ion irradiation could induce cell death in Ca9-22 cells more effectively than X-rays. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SPHK1 helps to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and processes underlying the biologic response to carbon ion beams in OSCC.

  15. Depth-dependent phase change in Gd2O3 epitaxial layers under ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejai, N.; Debelle, A.; Thom, L.; Sattonnay, G.; Gosset, D.; Boulle, A.; Dargis, R.; Clark, A.

    2015-09-01

    Epitaxial Gd2O3 thin layers with the cubic structure were irradiated with 4-MeV Au2+ ions in the 1013-1015 cm-2 fluence range. X-ray diffraction indicates that ion irradiation induces a cubic to monoclinic phase change. Strikingly, although the energy-deposition profile of the Au2+ ions is constant over the layer thickness, this phase transformation is depth-dependent, as revealed by a combined X-ray diffraction and ion channeling analysis. In fact, the transition initiates very close to the surface and propagates inwards, which can be explained by an assisted migration process of irradiation-induced defects. This result is promising for developing a method to control the thickness of the rare-earth oxide crystalline phases.

  16. Ion irradiation of carbonaceous chondrites as a simulation of space weathering on C-complex asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Bachelet, C.; Baklouti, D.; Bourois, J.; Dartois, E.; Duprat, J.; Duret, P.; Engrand, C.; Godard, M.; Ledu, D.; Mivumbi, O.; Fornasier, S.

    2015-10-01

    We are investigating the effects of space weathering on primitive asteroids using ion irradiation on their meteoritic analogs. To do so, we exposed several carbonaceous chondrites (CV Allende, COs Lanc and Frontier Mountain 95002, CM Mighei, CI Alais, and ungrouped Tagish Lake) to 40 keV He+ ions as a simulation of solar wind irradiation using fluences up to 6.1016 ions/cm2 (implantation platform IRMA at CSNSM Orsay). As a test for our new experimental setup, we also studied samples of olivine and diopside. We confirm the reddening and darkening trends on S-type objects, but carbonaceous chondrites present a continuum of behaviors after ion irradiation as a function of the initial albedo and carbon content: from red to blue and from dark to bright.

  17. Pattern-induced magnetic anisotropy in FePt thin films by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaafar, M.; Sanz, R.; McCord, J.; Jensen, J.; Schaefer, R.; Vazquez, M.; Asenjo, A.

    2011-03-01

    The magnetic properties of FePt thin films have been modified by exposing the samples to irradiation of 4 MeV Cl{sup 2+} ions. Patterned magnetic films, without modified topographical profile, were fabricated by irradiating the films through a shadowing micrometric mask. The structural changes, ascribed to the ion-beam-induced amorphization of the thin films, promote the modification of the magnetic anisotropy. In particular, the out-of-plane component of the magnetization decreases simultaneously with an enhancement of in-plane anisotropy by increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the nonirradiated regions present unexpected anisotropic behavior owing to the stray field of the irradiated regions. The control of this effect, which can have unwished consequences for the patterning of magnetic properties by ion bombardment, needs to be suitably addressed.

  18. Etch-free Formation of Porous Silicon by High-energy Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Naab, Fabian U.; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Lumin M.

    2011-03-15

    In this study, porous silicon was fabricated without any chemical etching by self-ion implantation of crystalline Si performed at high temperature and at high fluences. The irradiated silicon samples, which remained crystalline under high temperature ion irradiation, exhibited an increased porous fraction with increasing sample temperature at a given fluence, up to the maximum tested temperature of 650 C. Extremely high ion fluences of at least 2 x 10? ions/cm were necessary to produce significant void growth. Comparisons between the porous silicon structures and irradiation-induced porous networks in Ge, GaSb, and InSb are made, and differences in the formation conditions for these porous networks are discussed.

  19. Etch-free formation of porous silicon by high-energy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bergquist, Dr. Alejandro G.; Naab, Fabian U.; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Prof. Lumin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, porous silicon was fabricated without any chemical etching by self-ion implantation of crystalline Si performed at high temperature and at high fluences. The irradiated silicon samples, which remained crystalline under high temperature ion irradiation, exhibited an increased porous fraction with increasing sample temperature at a given fluence, up to the maximum tested temperature of 650 C. Extremely high ion fluences of at least 2 1018 ions/cm2 were necessary to produce significant void growth. Comparisons between the porous silicon structures and irradiation-induced porous networks in Ge, GaSb, and InSb are made, and differences in the formation conditions for these porous networks are discussed.

  20. Three-stage structural modification of carbon nanotubes by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeet, Kiran; Jindal, V. K.; Bharadwaj, L. M.; Bhandari, Rajiv; Dharamvir, Keya

    2012-08-01

    A study on the structural evolution of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHIs) of widely varying electronic energy loss (Se) values is presented. The control over Se is exercised through the choice of ion species used for irradiation. The ion beams used are those of nickel and gold with energies 60 and 120 MeV, respectively. Structural changes in CNTs were investigated qualitatively using Raman spectroscopy. Results of irradiation indicate that the structural modifications of CNTs can be broadly divided in three stages. At very low fluences the process of healing occurs; at intermediate fluences damage to the surface of CNTs predominates and nano-graphitic formations are seen; at very high fluences, of the order of 1 1014 ions/cm2, the system becomes amorphous. The stable nature of single walled carbon nanotubes compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, is also established from the Raman spectroscopy results.

  1. n-Selective Single Capture Following Xe{sup 18+} And Xe{sup 54+} Impact On Na(3s) And Na*(3p)

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.; Hasan, V. G.; Hoekstra, R.

    2011-06-01

    State selective single charge exchange n-level cross sections are calculated for collisions of Xe18+ and Xe54+ ions with Na(3s) and Na*(3p) over the energy range of 0.1 to 10.0 keV/amu. The CTMC method is used which includes all two-body interactions. Experimental state-selective cross sections and their corresponding transverse momentum spectra for Xe18+ are found to be in reasonable accord with the calculations.

  2. 84 MeV C-ions irradiation effects on Zr-45Ti-5Al-3V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weipeng; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Chonghong

    2014-09-01

    Newly developed Zr-45Ti-5Al-3V alloy were irradiated by 84 MeV carbon ions with doses of 4 * 1015 ions/cm2 and 12 * 1015 ions/cm2, respectively. XRD, SEM, TEM, SAD and tensile tests were performed to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties modification upon high energy carbon ion irradiation. XRD patterns show no phase change while the diffraction peak position and intensity vary with irradiation doses. Tensile tests verify monotonic change of alloy strengths and elongations upon irradiation. Microstructure observations of the irradiated samples reveal the irradiation-induced precipitation of (Zr,Ti)3C2, which was believed contributing to the alloy hardening. Superlattice was discovered by the SAD patterns of original and irradiated samples and the high energy C-ions implantation was demonstrated to promote the disorder-order transition by introducing lattice defects.

  3. Intense XUV radiation driven explosions of Xe clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B.; Hoffmann, K.; Belolipetski, A.; Bernstein, A.; Keto, J.; Ditmire, T.; Artyukov, I.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the explosions of large xenon clusters subject to irradiation by high intensity extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light with wavelength near 38 nm. To do this we generated high order harmonics by focusing the output of the 20 TW, 40 fs, 800nm wavelength THOR laser into a jet of argon gas. To select a single harmonic we then employed a Sc/Si short focal length multilayer mirror optimized for the 21st harmonic at 38.1 nm at near normal incidence. This harmonic is focused onto a jet of xenon gas. We characterized the XUV focal spot by scanning a knife edge across an XUV photodiode and determined that our peak XUV intensity was 2x10^10 Wcm-2. Fast ion time-of-flight spectra reveal high ion charge states well above single photon ionization thresholds. These ions exhibit low kinetic energies consistent with hydrodynamic cluster expansion rather than Coulomb explosion. We also measured the electron spectra from these Xe cluster explosions and have observed moderate energy electrons ejected from the clusters.

  4. Influence of 100 MeV oxygen ion irradiation on Ni/n-Si (100) Schottky barrier characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sandeep; Katharria, Y. S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-02-15

    The influences of high energy ion irradiation on the Ni/n-Si Schottky barrier are discussed as a function of irradiation fluence. The variations in Schottky diode parameters are studied by using in situ current-voltage characterization in a fluence range between 1x10{sup 9} and 1x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion irradiation results in an increase of Schottky barrier height from a value of 0.59 eV for unirradiated diode to 0.68 eV after irradiation at a fluence of 1x10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. A decrease of the leakage current by about two orders of magnitude was observed after ion irradiation. These results are interpreted in terms of the ion irradiation induced defects inside the materials.

  5. MeV Au ion irradiation in silicon and nanocrystalline zirconia film deposited on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Philip D.; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Overestimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  6. MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Philip D.; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions inmatter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Over-estimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  7. MeV Au Ion Irradiation in Silicon and Nanocrystalline Zirconia Film Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yongqin; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Weber, William J

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zirconia (ZrO2) film with thickness of 305 nm deposited on a silicon substrate was irradiated with 2 MeV Au ions to different fluences at different temperatures. The implanted ion profiles were measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and simulated using the stopping and range of ions in matter (SRIM) code, respectively. The experimental results show that a large fraction of the incident Au ions penetrates through the ZrO2 film and are deposited into the Si substrate. At the interface of ZrO2 and Si, a sudden decrease of Au concentration is observed due to the much larger scattering cross section of Au in ZrO2 than in Si. The depth profile of the Au ions is measured in both the ZrO2 films and the Si substrates, and the results show that the Au distribution profiles do not exhibit a dependence on irradiation temperature. The local Au concentration increases proportionally with the irradiation fluence, suggesting that no thermal or irradiation-induced redistribution of the implanted Au ions. However, the Au concentration in the ZrO2 films, as determined by SIMS, is considerably lower than that predicted by the SRIM results, and the penetration depth from the SIMS measurements is much deeper than that from the SRIM predictions. These observations can be explained by an overestimation of the electronic stopping power, used in the SRIM program, for heavy incident ions in light targets. Overestimation of the heavy-ion electronic stopping power may lead to errors in local dose calculation and underestimation of the projected range of slow heavy ions in targets that contain light elements. A quick estimate based on a reduced target density may be used to compensate the overestimation of the electronic stopping power in the SRIM program to provide better ion profile prediction.

  8. In-situ Fe+ Ion Irradiation of an Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, V.; Briceno, M.; Jenkins, M. L.; Kirk, M.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Roberts, S. G.

    2014-06-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic steels are promising candidate materials for structural components of both nuclear fission and fusion reactors. However, when irradiated with energetic particles, they may suffer changes on their microstructures that degrade their mechanical performance. In-situ transmission electron microscopy studies on ion-irradiated ODS steels can give remarkable insights into fundamental aspects of radiation damage allowing dynamic observations of defect formation, mobilities, and interactions during irradiation. In this investigation, a commercially available PM2000 ODS steel was in-situ irradiated with 150 KeV Fe+ at room temperature and 700C. These experiments showed that the oxide nanoparticles in these steels remain stable up to the higher irradiation dose (~ 1.5 dpa), and that these particles seem to be effective sinks for irradiation induced defects.

  9. Microstructural evolution of RPV steels under proton and ion irradiation studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Y. C.; Liu, X. B.; Wang, R. S.; Nagai, Y.; Inoue, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Toyama, T.

    2015-03-01

    The microstructural evolution of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels induced by proton and heavy ion irradiation at low temperature (∼373 K) has been investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), atom probe tomography (APT), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation. The PAS results indicated that both proton and heavy ion irradiation produce a large number of matrix defects, which contain small-size defects such as vacancies, vacancy-solute complexes, dislocation loops, and large-size vacancy clusters. In proton irradiated RPV steels, the size and number density of vacancy cluster defects increased rapidly with increasing dose due to the migration and agglomeration of vacancies. In contrast, for Fe ion irradiated steels, high density, larger size vacancy clusters can be easily induced at low dose, showing saturation in PAS response with increasing dose. No clear precipitates, solute-enriched clusters or other forms of solute segregation were observed by APT. Furthermore, dislocation loops were observed by TEM after 1.0 dpa, 240 keV proton irradiation, and an increase of the average nanoindentation hardness was found. It is suggested that ion irradiation produces many point defects and vacancy cluster defects, which induce the formation of dislocation loops and the increase of nanoindentation hardness.

  10. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-12-31

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos and lambda phage induction), sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called `hooks` observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only.

  11. Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Vidya

    2015-09-01

    Surface modifications caused by a swift heavy ion irradiation on crystalline p-type gallium antimonide crystal have been reported. Single crystal, 1 0 0> orientations and ?500 ?m thick p-type GaSb samples with carrier concentration of 3.30 1017 cm-3 were irradiated at 100 MeV Fe7+ ions. We have used 15UD Pelletron facilities at IUAC with varying fluences of 5 1010-1 1014 ions cm-2. The effects of irradiation on these samples have been investigated using, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible-NIR spectroscopy techniques. Ellipsometry parameters, psi (?) and delta (?) for the unirradiated sample and samples irradiated with different fluences were recorded. The data were fit to a three phase model to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient. The refractive index and extinction coefficient for various fluences in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared, regimes were evaluated. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study these surface modifications. In order to have more statistical information about the surface, we have plotted the height structure histogram for all the samples. For unirradiated sample, we observed the Gaussian fitting. This result indicates the more ordered height structure symmetry. Whereas for the sample irradiated with the fluence of 1 1013, 5 1013 and 1 1014 ions cm-2, we observed the scattered data. The width of the histogram for samples irradiated up to the fluence of 1 1013 ion cm-2 was found to be almost same however it decreased at higher fluence. UV reflectance spectra of the sample irradiated with increasing fluences exhibit three peaks at 292, 500 and 617 nm represent the high energy GaSb; E1, E1 + ? and E2 band gaps in all irradiated samples.

  12. Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions

    PubMed Central

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation damage following the ionising radiation of tissue has different scenarios and mechanisms depending on the projectiles or radiation modality. We investigate the radiation damage effects due to shock waves produced by ions. We analyse the strength of the shock wave capable of directly producing DNA strand breaks and, depending on the ion's linear energy transfer, estimate the radius from the ion's path, within which DNA damage by the shock wave mechanism is dominant. At much smaller values of linear energy transfer, the shock waves turn out to be instrumental in propagating reactive species formed close to the ion's path to large distances, successfully competing with diffusion. PMID:23411473

  13. Physical and biological properties of the ion beam irradiated PMMA-based composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthini, G. M.; Martin, Catherine Ann; Sakthivel, N.; Veerla, Sarath Chandra; Elayaraja, K.; Lakshmi, B. S.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Kalkura, S. Narayana

    2015-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and PMMA-hydroxyapatite (PMMA-HAp) composite films, prepared by the solvent evaporation method were irradiated with 100 MeV Si7+ ions. Crystallographic, morphological and the functional groups of the pristine and irradiated samples were studied using glancing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) respectively. SEM reveals the creation of pores, along with an increase in porosity and cluster size on irradiation. Decrease in crystalline nature and crystallite size with an increase in ion fluence was observed from GIXRD patterns. The surface roughness and the wettability of the material were also enhanced, which could favour the cell-material interaction. The irradiated samples adsorbed significantly greater amount of proteins than pristine. Also, irradiation does not produce any toxic byproducts or leachants, and maintains the viability of 3T3 cells. The response of the irradiated samples towards biomedical applications was demonstrated by the improved antimicrobial activity, haemocompatibility and cytocompatibility. Swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) could be an effective tool to modify and engineer the surface properties of the polymers to enhance the biocompatibility.

  14. Buried amorphous layers by electronic excitation in ion-beam irradiated lithium niobate: Structure and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, J.; Garcia-Navarro, A.; Garcia, G.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Garcia-Cabanes, A.; Carrascosa, M.

    2007-02-01

    The formation of buried heavily damaged and amorphous layers by a variety of swift-ion irradiations (F at 22 MeV, O at 20 MeV, and Mg at 28 MeV) on congruent LiNbO{sub 3} has been investigated. These irradiations assure that the electronic stopping power S{sub e}(z) is dominant over the nuclear stopping S{sub n}(z) and reaches a maximum value inside the crystal. The structural profile of the irradiated layers has been characterized in detail by a variety of spectroscopic techniques including dark-mode propagation, micro-Raman scattering, second-harmonic generation, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling. The growth of the damage on increasing irradiation fluence presents two differentiated stages with an abrupt structural transition between them. The heavily damaged layer reached as a final stage is optically isotropic (refractive index n=2.10, independent of bombarding ion) and has an amorphous structure. Moreover, it has sharp profiles and its thickness progressively increases with irradiation fluence. The dynamics under irradiation of the amorphous-crystalline boundaries has been associated with a reduction of the effective amorphization threshold due to the defects created by prior irradiation (cumulative damage). The kinetics of the two boundaries of the buried layer is quite different, suggesting that other mechanisms aside from the electronic stopping power should play a role on ion-beam damage.

  15. Grain Growth and Phase Stability of Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chongmin; Namavar, Fereydoon; Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Fei; Lian, Jie; Weber, William J

    2010-01-01

    Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized cubic zirconia (NSZ) are investigated under 2 MeV Au ion bombardment at 160 and 400 K to doses up to 35 displacements per atom (dpa). The NSZ films are produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique at room temperature with an average grain size of 7.7 nm. The grain size increases with dose, and follows a power law (n=6) to a saturation value of ~30 nm that decreases with temperature. Slower grain growth is observed under 400 K irradiations, as compared to 160 K irradiations, indicating that the grain growth is not thermally activated and irradiation-induced grain growth is the dominating mechanism. While the cubic structure is retained and no new phases are identified after the high-dose irradiations, oxygen reduction in the irradiated NSZ films is detected. The ratio of O to Zr decreases from ~2.0 for the as-deposited films to ~1.65 after irradiation to ~35 dpa. The loss of oxygen suggests a significant increase of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline zirconia under ion irradiation. The oxygen deficiency may be essential in stabilizing the cubic phase to larger grain sizes.

  16. Morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa L. (cultivar MR219) to ion beam irradiation*

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Ung, Ying Chian; Hussein, Sobri; Harun, Abdul Rahim; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yoshihiro, Hase

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Heavy ion beam, which has emerged as a new mutagen in the mutation breeding of crops and ornamental plants, is expected to result in the induction of novel mutations. This study investigates the morphological and biochemical responses of Oryza sativa toward different doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. Methods: In this study, the dry seeds of O. sativa were irradiated at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 Gy, followed by in-vitro germination under controlled conditions. Morphological and biochemical studies were conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological responses of O. sativa towards ion beam irradiation. Results: The study demonstrated that low doses (10 Gy) of ion beam have a stimulating effect on the height, root length, and fresh weight of the plantlets but not on the number of leaves. Meanwhile, doses higher than 10 Gy caused reductions in all the morphological parameters studied as compared to the control samples. The highest total soluble protein content [(2.110.47) mg/g FW] was observed in plantlets irradiated at 20 Gy. All irradiated plantlets were found to have 0.85% to 58.32% higher specific activity of peroxidase as compared to the control samples. The present study also revealed that low doses of ion beam (10 and 20 Gy) had negligible effect on the total chlorophyll content of O. sativa plantlets while 40 Gy had a stimulating effect on the chlorophyll content. Plantlets irradiated between 40 to 120 Gy were shown to be 0.38% to 9.98% higher in total soluble nitrogen content which, however, was not significantly different from the control samples. Conclusions: Carbon ion beam irradiation administered at low to moderate doses of 10 to 40 Gy may induce O. sativa mutants with superior characteristics. PMID:24302713

  17. Damages in ceramics for nuclear waste transmutation by irradiation with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Thiriet-Dodane, Catherine; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Inert matrices are proposed for advanced nuclear fuels or for the transmutation of the actinides that is an effective solution for the nuclear waste management. The behaviour of inert matrix ceramics like MgO, MgAl2O4 and cubic ZrO2 oxides under irradiation is presented in this study. The alumina Al2O3 has been also studied as a reference for the ceramic materials. These oxides have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at CIRIL/GANIL to simulate the fragment fission effects. The irradiations with the different heavy ions (from S to Pb) with energy between 91 and 820 MeV, have been realised at room temperature or 500 C. The fluencies were between 5 1010 and 5 1015 ions/cm2. The polished faces of sintered polycrystalline disks or single crystal slices have been characterized before and after irradiation by X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The apparent swelling evaluated from surface profile measurements after irradiation is very important for spinel and zirconia, comparatively with those of magnesia or alumina. The amorphisation seems to be at the origin of this swelling, and the electronic stopping power of the ions is the most influent parameter for the irradiation damages. The point defects characterized by optical spectroscopy show a significant amount of damage on the oxygen sub-lattice in the irradiated oxides. F+ centres are present in all irradiated oxides. However, new absorption bands are observed and cation clusters cannot be excluded in magnesia and spinel after irradiation.

  18. Effects of high energy ion irradiation on crystallization of amorphous germanium films deposited on calcium fluoride substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, Setsuo; Saitoh, Kazuo; Ikeyama, Masami; Niwa, Hiroaki; Tanemura, Seita; Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Soji

    1996-12-31

    Amorphous (a-) Ge films were deposited on air-cleaved CaF{sub 2} (111) substrates at different deposition temperatures (Td). The films were irradiated with 0.9 MeV Ge or Si ions at low ion current intensity (Ic) 100 nA/cm{sup 2}. Their structural changes were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS)-channeling technique and thin film x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement. It was found that films were epitaxially crystallized by Ge and Si ion irradiation although they included randomly oriented grains. Ge ion irradiation was more effective for the crystallization than Si ion irradiation. However, the amount of the randomly oriented grains was slightly higher when using Ge ions. On the other hand, ion irradiation to the films prepared at high Td also exhibited higher incidence of randomly oriented grains.

  19. Modification of magnetic anisotropy induced by swift heavy ion irradiation in cobalt ferrite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nongjai, Razia; Khan, Shakeel; Ahmed, Hilal; Khan, Imran; Annapoorni, S.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Lin, Hong-Ji; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Hwa Chae, Keun; Asokan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the modification of magnetic anisotropy in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) thin films induced by swift heavy ion irradiations of 200 MeV Ag-ion beams. The study reveals that both magnetizations and coercive field are sensitive to Ag-ions irradiation and to the fluences. The magnetic anisotropy enhanced at low fluence of Ag-ions due to domain wall pinning at defect sites created by ion bombardment and at high fluence, this magnetic anisotropy ceases and changes to isotropic behavior which is explained based on the significant structural and morphological changes. An X-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies confirms the inverse spinel structure of these compounds.

  20. Space Plasma Ion Processing of Ilmenite in the Lunar Soil: Insights from In-Situ TEM Ion Irradiation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2007-01-01

    Space weathering on the moon and asteroids results largely from the alteration of the outer surfaces of regolith grains by the combined effects of solar ion irradiation and other processes that include deposition of impact or sputter-derived vapors. Although no longer considered the sole driver of space weathering, solar ion irradiation remains a key part of the space weathering puzzle, and quantitative data on its effects on regolith minerals are still in short supply. For the lunar regolith, previous transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies performed by ourselves and others have uncovered altered rims on ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains that point to this phase as a unique "witness plate" for unraveling nanoscale space weathering processes. Most notably, the radiation processed portions of these ilmenite rims consistently have a crystalline structure, in contrast to radiation damaged rims on regolith silicates that are characteristically amorphous. While this has tended to support informal designation of ilmenite as a "radiation resistant" regolith mineral, there are to date no experimental data that directly and quantitatively compare ilmenite s response to ion radiation relative to lunar silicates. Such data are needed because the radiation processed rims on ilmenite grains, although crystalline, are microstructurally and chemically complex, and exhibit changes linked to the formation of nanophase Fe metal, a key space weathering process. We report here the first ion radiation processing study of ilmenite performed by in-situ means using the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope- Tandem Irradiation facility (IVEM-Tandem) at Argonne National Laboratory. The capability of this facility for performing real time TEM observations of samples concurrent with ion irradiation makes it uniquely suited for studying the dose-dependence of amorphization and other changes in irradiated samples.

  1. Temperature-Ramped 129Xe Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode 129Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) “hot”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) “warm”—where the 129Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) “cool”—where hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ∼1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant γSEOP of 62.5 ± 3.7 × 10–3 min–1 vs 29.9 ± 1.2 × 10–3 min–1) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 ± 0.8% vs 90.1% ± 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading—corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ∼3.1 × 105 and ∼2.32 × 108 at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP 129Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle “dead” time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of 129Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation—making this approach beneficial for improving the overall 129Xe production rate in clinical settings. PMID:25008290

  2. Temperature-ramped (129)Xe spin-exchange optical pumping.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Coffey, Aaron M; Barlow, Michael J; Rosen, Matthew S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-08-19

    We describe temperature-ramped spin-exchange optical pumping (TR-SEOP) in an automated high-throughput batch-mode (129)Xe hyperpolarizer utilizing three key temperature regimes: (i) "hot"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization rate is maximal, (ii) "warm"-where the (129)Xe hyperpolarization approaches unity, and (iii) "cool"-where hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is transferred into a Tedlar bag with low Rb content (<5 ng per ?1 L dose) suitable for human imaging applications. Unlike with the conventional approach of batch-mode SEOP, here all three temperature regimes may be operated under continuous high-power (170 W) laser irradiation, and hyperpolarized (129)Xe gas is delivered without the need for a cryocollection step. The variable-temperature approach increased the SEOP rate by more than 2-fold compared to the constant-temperature polarization rate (e.g., giving effective values for the exponential buildup constant ?SEOP of 62.5 3.7 10(-3) min(-1) vs 29.9 1.2 10(-3) min(-1)) while achieving nearly the same maximum %PXe value (88.0 0.8% vs 90.1% 0.8%, for a 500 Torr (67 kPa) Xe cell loading-corresponding to nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging (NMR/MRI) enhancements of ?3.1 10(5) and ?2.32 10(8) at the relevant fields for clinical imaging and HP (129)Xe production of 3 T and 4 mT, respectively); moreover, the intercycle "dead" time was also significantly decreased. The higher-throughput TR-SEOP approach can be implemented without sacrificing the level of (129)Xe hyperpolarization or the experimental stability for automation-making this approach beneficial for improving the overall (129)Xe production rate in clinical settings. PMID:25008290

  3. Effect of irradiation parameters on defect aggregation during thermal annealing of LiF irradiated with swift ions and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C.; Volkov, A. E.; Sorokin, M. V.

    2010-10-01

    Absorption spectroscopy were performed to study the effects of thermal annealing on the aggregation of color centers in LiF crystals irradiated with different ions between carbon and uranium of megaelectron volt-gigaelectron volt energy. The beam parameters such as energy, energy loss, and fluence have a pronounced influence on the initial defect composition and concentration as well as their evolution upon thermal annealing. A distinct phenomenon was observed, viz., the enhancement of F{sub n} centers for annealing temperatures between 500 and 700 K, followed by Li colloid formation above 700 K. The phenomenon requires specific irradiation conditions whereas the formation of Mg colloids from Mg impurities occurs in all irradiated crystals. The mechanisms of annealing and colloid formation are discussed.

  4. Effect of irradiation parameters on defect aggregation during thermal annealing of LiF irradiated with swift ions and electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, K.; Volkov, A. E.; Sorokin, M. V.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C.

    2010-10-01

    Absorption spectroscopy were performed to study the effects of thermal annealing on the aggregation of color centers in LiF crystals irradiated with different ions between carbon and uranium of megaelectron volt-gigaelectron volt energy. The beam parameters such as energy, energy loss, and fluence have a pronounced influence on the initial defect composition and concentration as well as their evolution upon thermal annealing. A distinct phenomenon was observed, viz., the enhancement of Fn centers for annealing temperatures between 500 and 700 K, followed by Li colloid formation above 700 K. The phenomenon requires specific irradiation conditions whereas the formation of Mg colloids from Mg impurities occurs in all irradiated crystals. The mechanisms of annealing and colloid formation are discussed.

  5. Heavy ion irradiation induced dislocation loops in AREVA's M5 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengstler-Eger, R. M.; Baldo, P.; Beck, L.; Dorner, J.; Ertl, K.; Hoffmann, P. B.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Kirk, M. A.; Petry, W.; Pikart, P.; Rempel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) Zr-based alloy structural materials show creep and growth under neutron irradiation as a consequence of the irradiation induced microstructural changes in the alloy. A better scientific understanding of these microstructural processes can improve simulation programs for structural component deformation and simplify the development of advanced deformation resistant alloys. As in-pile irradiation leads to high material activation and requires long irradiation times, the objective of this work was to study whether ion irradiation is an applicable method to simulate typical PWR neutron damage in Zr-based alloys, with AREVA's M5 alloy as reference material. The irradiated specimens were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), positron Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at different dose levels and temperatures. The irradiation induced microstructure consisted of - and -type dislocation loops with their characteristics corresponding to typical neutron damage in Zr-based alloys; it can thus be concluded that heavy ion irradiation under the chosen conditions is an excellent method to simulate PWR neutron damage.

  6. Response of nanostructured ferritic alloys to high-dose heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M.; White, Ryan M.; LeBeau, James M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-02-01

    A latest-generation aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to study heavy-ion-irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Results are presented for STEM X-ray mapping of NFA 14YWT irradiated with 10 MeV Pt to 16 or 160 dpa at -100°C and 750°C, as well as pre-irradiation reference material. Irradiation at -100°C results in ballistic destruction of the beneficial microstructural features present in the pre-irradiated reference material, such as Ti-Y-O nanoclusters (NCs) and grain boundary (GB) segregation. Irradiation at 750°C retains these beneficial features, but indicates some coarsening of the NCs, diffusion of Al to the NCs, and a reduction of the Cr-W GB segregation (or solute excess) content. Ion irradiation combined with the latest-generation STEM hardware allows for rapid screening of fusion candidate materials and improved understanding of irradiation-induced microstructural changes in NFAs.

  7. A review of colour center and nanostructure creation in LiF under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, K.; Maniks, J.; Manika, I.

    2015-09-01

    A study of radiation damage in LiF crystals under irradiation with MeV-GeV energy ions, from 12C to 238U, at temperatures varying from 8 to 300 K, depending on the ion energy, energy loss and irradiation temperature, is presented. For light ions (12C, 14N) at low fluences, it is mainly color centers that are created. Increasing the fluence leads to the overlapping of tracks and the creation of more complex color centers, defect aggregates and dislocations. For ions with an energy loss above a threshold value (dE/dx = 10 keV nm-1) the tracks exhibit a central core damage region with a radius of 1-2 nm, surrounded by an extended halo which mainly contains single color centers. In this case, ion-induced nanostructuring is observed. Novel effects of radiation damage creation under ion irradiation at 8 K are observed. The role of energy loss and irradiation temperature in damage creation is discussed.

  8. Mechanical response to swift ion irradiation-induced nano-tracks in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramo, ngel R.; Sordo, F.; Garoz, D.; Pea-Rodrguez, O.; Prada, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M. L.; Perlado, J. M.; Rivera, A.

    2015-06-01

    Ion irradiation on dielectric materials produces several processes, such ionization and defect formation followed by a decay governed by thermal processes such as heat diffusion and atomic rearrangement. Finally in the irradiated region the mechanical properties are altered, strain and stress fields appear, a densification takes places and other properties such as the refractive index are affected. In order to simulate the mechanical response of silica to swift ion irradiation we use a methodology based on molecular dynamics (MD) and finite element methods (FEM). We use information from MD to obtain the local densification generated by an incoming swift ion. Finally we calculate the densification in the ion track using FEM. This method provides information on the strain and stress field along the material as a function of ion irradiation fluence. For this work an experimental campaign using Br ions from 5 to 50 MeV has been done at CMAM accelerator (Madrid). We measured the refractive index and we observe that for high fluences the refractive index decreases. The effect of the strain field on the density could explain the decrease in the refractive index. We check this hypothesis using our methodology coupling MD and FEM.

  9. Dynamical response of helium bubble motion to irradiation with high-energy self-ions in aluminum at high temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, K.; Miyamoto, M.; Arakawa, K.; Birtcher, R. C.; Materials Science Division; Shimane Univ.; Osaka Univ.

    2009-02-21

    Brownian-type motion of helium bubbles in aluminum and its dynamical response to irradiation with 100-keV Al{sup +} ions at high temperatures has been studied using in situ irradiation and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that, for most bubbles, the Brownian-type motion is retarded under irradiation, while the mobility returns when the irradiation is stopped. In contrast, under irradiation, a small number of bubbles display exceptionally rapid motion associated with the change in bubble size. These effects are discussed in terms of the dynamical interaction of helium bubbles with cascade damage formed by the high-energy self-ion irradiation.

  10. Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H(+)/D(+) ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility).

    PubMed

    Shinto, K; Senée, F; Ayala, J-M; Bolzon, B; Chauvin, N; Gobin, R; Ichimiya, R; Ihara, A; Ikeda, Y; Kasugai, A; Kitano, T; Kondo, K; Marqueta, A; Okumura, Y; Takahashi, H; Valette, M

    2016-02-01

    Ion species ratio of high current positive hydrogen/deuterium ion beams extracted from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator was measured by the Doppler shift Balmer-α line spectroscopy. The proton (H(+)) ratio at the middle of the low energy beam transport reached 80% at the hydrogen ion beam extraction of 100 keV/160 mA and the deuteron (D(+)) ratio reached 75% at the deuterium ion beam extraction of 100 keV/113 mA. It is found that the H(+) ratio measured by the spectroscopy gives lower than that derived from the phase-space diagram measured by an Allison scanner type emittance monitor. The H(+)/D(+) ratio estimated by the emittance monitor was more than 90% at those extraction currents. PMID:26931945

  11. Measurement of ion species in high current ECR H+/D+ ion source for IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinto, K.; Senée, F.; Ayala, J.-M.; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Gobin, R.; Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Kasugai, A.; Kitano, T.; Kondo, K.; Marqueta, A.; Okumura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Valette, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ion species ratio of high current positive hydrogen/deuterium ion beams extracted from an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility accelerator was measured by the Doppler shift Balmer-α line spectroscopy. The proton (H+) ratio at the middle of the low energy beam transport reached 80% at the hydrogen ion beam extraction of 100 keV/160 mA and the deuteron (D+) ratio reached 75% at the deuterium ion beam extraction of 100 keV/113 mA. It is found that the H+ ratio measured by the spectroscopy gives lower than that derived from the phase-space diagram measured by an Allison scanner type emittance monitor. The H+/D+ ratio estimated by the emittance monitor was more than 90% at those extraction currents.

  12. Characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salguero, N. G.; del Grosso, M. F.; Durn, H.; Peruzzo, P. J.; Amalvy, J. I.; Arbeitman, C. R.; Garca Bermdez, G.

    2012-02-01

    In view of their application as biomaterials, there is an increasing interest in developing new methods to induce controlled cell adhesion onto polymeric materials. The critical step in all these methods involves the modification of polymer surfaces, to induce cell adhesion, without changing theirs degradation and biocompatibility properties. In this work two biodegradable polymers, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly- L-lactide acid (PLLA) were irradiated using carbon and sulfur beams with different energies and fluences. Pristine and irradiated samples were degradated by immersion in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and then characterized. The analysis after irradiation and degradation showed a decrease in the contact angle values and changes in their crystallinity properties.

  13. Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Kang-Min; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Young-Hwan; Han, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Min; Lee, Sang-Keuk; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2008-09-15

    The surface modification characteristics of liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers irradiated with various argon (Ar) ion beam (IB) energies were investigated as a substitute for rubbing technology. Various pretilt angles were created on the IB-irradiated polyimide (PI) surfaces after IB irradiation, but the Ar ions did not alter the morphology on the PI surface, indicating that the pretilt angle was not due to microgrooves. The chemical bonding states of the IB-irradiated PI surfaces were analyzed in detail by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the compositional behavior for the LC alignment. Chemical structure analysis showed that the alignment ability of LCs was due to the preferential reorientation of the carbon network due to the breaking of C=O double bonds in the imide ring parallel to the incident IB direction. The potential of applying nonrubbing technology to display devices was further supported by the superior electro-optical characteristics compared to rubbed PI.

  14. Fabrication of Nano-Columnar Tungsten Films and Their Deuterium and Helium Ion Irradiation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ya-Nan; Han, Wen-Jia; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Jian-Gang; Feng, Hong-Li; Zhu, Kai-Gui

    2014-12-01

    We fabricate nano-columnar tungsten (W) films on polycrystalline silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering using a grazing angle deposition technique. The deposition process is performed at a base pressure of 510-4 Pa. The intersection angle between the direction of the incident beam and the normal direction of the substrate is set as 85. Separate as well as synergetic irradiations of 30/50 keV deuterium ions and 60 keV helium ions are carried out for the nano-columnar W. Samples of normal structure W are also irradiated under the same conditions as a comparison. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction are used to characterize the structure of the as-prepared as well as the irradiated samples. The experimental results show that blisters are difficult to form on the surface of nano-columnar W under the irradiation conditions in this work, which could be due to the particular structure.

  15. High energy ion irradiation effects on mechanical properties of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, H.; Sasuga, T.; Seguchi, T.

    1996-11-01

    The authors prepared ion irradiation system to study irradiation effect on polymer materials, and irradiated carbon/glass fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP, GFRP), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and cellulose tri-acetate (CTA), with high energy ions using cyclotron under vacuum at room temperature. Flexural strength in bending test or elongation at break in tensile test decreased with absorbed dose, but the behavior to the dose was the same as that in gamma or 2 MeV electron irradiation. We have found that there is little LET effect for polymers used in terms of change in mechanical properties within the LET range in this work. However, the change in molecular weight for PMMA and optical density for CTA in UV region showed a clear LET dependence above a certain LET, which probably means overlapping between spurs.

  16. Drastic structure changes in pre-damaged GaAs crystals irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, F.; Uglov, V.; Vlasukova, L.; Didyk, A.; Zlotski, S.; Yuvchenko, V.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied structural transformations in pre-damaged GaAs crystals irradiated with high-energy Bi ions (710 MeV, 4.3 × 1012 cm-2). The pre-damage has been created via irradiation with swift electrons (4 MeV, 4 × 1017 cm-2). A structural disorder in irradiated samples has been investigated by means of selective chemical etching (SCE) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with the material layer-by-layer removal. Character of lattice deformation in the double-irradiated sample gives an evidence of subsurface region's swelling. Strong lattice distortion has been found in the region of Bi ion ranges at the depth of about 30 μm. The nature of this effect is discussed.

  17. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6) Repair genotype substantially influences the radiation induced mutagenesis. Different mechanisms of mutation induction and/or different types of biologically significant lesions in wild type cells compared to repair deficient strains are a likely explanation.

  18. Automatic system for single ion/single cell irradiation based on Cracow microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, O.; Polak, W.; Lekki, J.; Stachura, Z.; Lebed, K.; Stycze?, J.; Ugenskiene, R.

    2006-05-01

    Recently, the Cracow ion microprobe has found its new application as a single ion hit facility (SIHF), allowing precise irradiations of living cells by a controlled number of ions. The instrument enables a broad field of research, such as survival studies, adaptive response investigations, bystander effect, inverse dose-rate effect, low-dose hypersensitivity, etc. This work presents principles of construction and operation of the SIHF based on the Cracow microprobe. We discuss some crucial features of optical, positioning, and blanking systems, including self-developed software responsible for semiautomatic cell recognition, for precise positioning of cells, and for controlling the irradiation process. We also show some tests carried out to determine the efficiency of the whole system and of its segments. In addition, we present results of the first irradiation measurements performed with living cells.

  19. Ion irradiation effects on the optical properties of tungsten oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, S.; Fujita, H.; Inouye, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Tsuchiya, B.; Shikama, T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical changes in amorphous WO 3 film prepared by reactive RF sputtering and irradiated by 200-800 keV oxygen ions were measured to study the relationship between coloration and energy deposition. The color centers were effectively created by ion irradiation with contributions from nuclear collisions and electronic energy loss. The increase in the absorption coefficient was reasonably explained by a first order reaction, whose production rate depended roughly on the total deposited energy. During heat treatment in air atmosphere, transmittance recovery started at 400 K and completed at 550 K. No significant difference was found among films irradiated by different incident energies; therefore indicating that the ion-induced damage structure is not strongly influenced by the type of energy loss.

  20. Protective effects of shikonin on brain injury induced by carbon ion beam irradiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Wang, Zhen Hua; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Rong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Yang; Si, Jing; Liu, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Zhen Guo

    2015-02-01

    Radiation encephalopathy is the main complication of cranial radiotherapy. It can cause necrosis of brain tissue and cognitive dysfunction. Our previous work had proved that a natural antioxidant shikonin possessed protective effect on cerebral ischemic injury. Here we investigated the effects of shikonin on carbon ion beam induced radiation brain injury in mice. Pretreatment with shikonin significantly increased the SOD and CAT activities and the ratio of GSH/GSSG in mouse brain tissues compared with irradiated group (P<0.01), while obviously reduced the MDA and PCO contents and the ROS levels derived from of the brain mitochondria. The shikonin also noticeably improved the spatial memory deficits caused by carbon ion beam irradiation. All results demonstrated that shikonin could improve the irradiated brain injury which might resulted from its modulation effects on the oxidative stress induced by the 12C6+ ion beam. PMID:25716567

  1. Pulsed laser irradiation-induced microstructures in the Mn ion implanted Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Muneyuki; Yamada, Ryo; Machida, Nobuya; Koshiba, Yusuke; Sugimura, Akira; Aoki, Tamao; Umezu, Ikurou

    2015-12-01

    We have examined microstructures induced by pulsed-laser-melting for the Mn ion implanted Si using transmission electron microscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) wafers were irradiated with 65 keV and 120 keV Mn ions to a fluence of 1.0 1016/cm2 at room temperature. The ion beam-induced amorphous layers in the as-implanted samples were melted and resolidified by pulsed YAG laser irradiation. After laser irradiation with appropriate laser fluence, the surface amorphous layers recrystallize into the single crystalline Si. The Mn concentration becomes higher in the near-surface region with increasing the number of laser shots. The migrated Mn atoms react with Si atoms and form the amorphous Mn-Si in the Si matrix.

  2. Manipulation of transport hysteresis on graphene field effect transistors with Ga ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quan; Liu, Shuai; Ren, Naifei

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the effect of Ga ion irradiation on the controllable hysteretic behavior of graphene field effect transistors fabricated on Si/SO2 substrates. The various densities of defects in graphene were monitored by Raman spectrum. It was found that the Dirac point shifted to the positive gate voltage constantly, while the hysteretic behavior was enhanced first and then weakened, with the dose of ion irradiation increasing. By contrasting the trap charges density induced by dopant and the total density of effective trap charges, it demonstrated that adsorbate doping was not the decisive factor that induced the hysteretic behavior. The tunneling between the defect sites induced by ion irradiation was also an important cause for the hysteresis.

  3. Effects of O 7+ swift heavy ion irradiation on indium oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokulakrishnan, V.; Parthiban, S.; Elangovan, E.; Ramamurthi, K.; Jeganathan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2011-08-01

    Indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis were irradiated by 100 MeV O 7+ ions with different fluences of 5 × 10 11, 1 × 10 12 and 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure of indium oxide with cubic bixbyite. The strongest (2 2 2) orientation observed from the as-deposited films was shifted to (4 0 0) after irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity of the (4 0 0) orientation was decreased with increasing fluence together with an increase in (2 2 2) intensity. Films irradiated with maximum fluence exhibited an amorphous component. The mobility of the as-deposited indium oxide films was decreased from ˜78.9 to 43.0 cm 2/V s, following irradiation. Films irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 showed a better combination of electrical properties, with a resistivity of 4.57 × 10 -3 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 2.2 × 10 19 cm -3 and mobility of 61.0 cm 2/V s. The average transmittance obtained from the as-deposited films decreased from ˜81% to 72%, when irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 10 11 ions/cm 2. The surface microstructures confirmed that the irregularly shaped grains seen on the surface of the as-deposited films is modified as "radish-like" morphology when irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 10 11 ions/cm 2.

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation and fish tail magnetization in NBCO films - the cause and effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, Sanghamitra; Mishra, P. K.; Kulkarni, D. G.; Kumar, Ravi; John, J.; Sahni, V. C.; Pinto, R.

    2000-03-01

    NBCO films, prepared by pulsed laser ablation, were irradiated by 200 MeV Au ions. The magnetization curve shows a shoulder/fish tail peak effect (FTPE) in the irradiated film while the pristine or as-grown film does not have any such signature. The absence of FTPE in the preirradiated film and its appearance in the postirradiated film are explained in the context of compositional variation of spatial density of defects and the concomitant vortex mobility .

  5. Localized dose delivering by ion beam irradiation for experimental trial of establishing brain necrosis model.

    PubMed

    Takata, Takushi; Kondo, Natsuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kume, Kyo; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    Localized dose delivery techniques to establish a brain radiation necrosis model are described. An irradiation field was designed by using accelerated protons or helium ions with a spread-out Bragg peak. Measurement of the designed field confirmed that a high dose can be confined to a local volume of an animal brain. The irradiation techniques described here are very useful for establishing a necrosis model without existence of extraneous complications. PMID:26454176

  6. Comprehensive identification of mutations induced by heavy-ion beam irradiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomonari; Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Ohbu, Sumie; Shirakawa, Yuki; Abe, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Heavy-ion beams are widely used for mutation breeding and molecular biology. Although the mutagenic effects of heavy-ion beam irradiation have been characterized by sequence analysis of some restricted chromosomal regions or loci, there have been no evaluations at the whole-genome level or of the detailed genomic rearrangements in the mutant genomes. In this study, using array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) and resequencing, we comprehensively characterized the mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana genomes irradiated with Ar or Fe ions. We subsequently used this information to investigate the mutagenic effects of the heavy-ion beams. Array-CGH demonstrated that the average number of deleted areas per genome were 1.9 and 3.7 following Ar-ion and Fe-ion irradiation, respectively, with deletion sizes ranging from 149 to 602,180 bp; 81% of the deletions were accompanied by genomic rearrangements. To provide a further detailed analysis, the genomes of the mutants induced by Ar-ion beam irradiation were resequenced, and total mutations, including base substitutions, duplications, in/dels, inversions, and translocations, were detected using three algorithms. All three resequenced mutants had genomic rearrangements. Of the 22 DNA fragments that contributed to the rearrangements, 19 fragments were responsible for the intrachromosomal rearrangements, and multiple rearrangements were formed in the localized regions of the chromosomes. The interchromosomal rearrangements were detected in the multiply rearranged regions. These results indicate that the heavy-ion beams led to clustered DNA damage in the chromosome, and that they have great potential to induce complicated intrachromosomal rearrangements. Heavy-ion beams will prove useful as unique mutagens for plant breeding and the establishment of mutant lines. PMID:25690092

  7. Damage and helium migration induced in fluorapatite sinters by swift heavy ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miro, S.; Costantini, J. M.; Haussy, J.; Chateigner, D.; Balanzat, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have studied the damage induced in fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) sinters after 70-MeV Kr, 120 MeV I and 163-MeV Au ion irradiations at room temperature. On the basis of X-ray powder diffraction data we conclude that fluorapatite is not completely amorphized due to ion-induced recrystallization. This recrystallization of the amorphous phase is greatly enhanced for Au ions with a high electronic stopping power. We also have used the 3He(d, p) 4He nuclear reaction to study the migration of implanted 3-MeV 3He ions after swift heavy ion irradiations. The proton yield curves versus deuteron energy for irradiated samples exhibit two bumps for high fluences. These excitation curves are deconvoluted by using a computer code based on a two-diffusion equation model of helium atoms in two accumulation zones. Optimizations of the model parameters give access to the diffusion coefficients and helium depth profiles in the two zones. This yields two broad peaks in the helium depth profiles, the first one is near the end-of-range region and the second one is shifted at about half way between the surface and the first peak. This shift is interpreted as a Radiation-Enhanced Diffusion (RED) effect which is found to increase with fluence for Kr ions, and with electronic stopping power from Kr to Au ions.

  8. Low energy Ar+ ion irradiation induced surface modification in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report on modifications in structural, stoichiometry, and optical properties of cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) crystals due to 1 keV Ar+ ion irradiation as a function of ion fluence, using ion flux of 1.7 1017 ions cm-2 s-1. The CdZnTe crystals were irradiated at normal incidence, using fluence range of 8 1017-3 1019 ions cm-2. Atomic force microscopy studies show sequential change in surface structure as a function of ion fluence, from homogeneously populated nano-hole to micron sized holes on the entire CZT crystal surface. These holes are well geometrically defined and most of them are rectangular in shape. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show a reduction in Zn at % while Raman and photoluminescence studies show almost complete depletion of Te inclusions and slight red shifts, respectively, due to ion irradiations. Schottky diode radiation detectors fabricated from such defect free CZT crystals will show significantly higher energy resolution.

  9. Activated Ion Electron Capture Dissociation (AI ECD) of proteins: synchronization of infrared and electron irradiation with ion magnetron motion.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Victor A; Cooper, Helen J

    2009-05-01

    Here, we show that to perform activated ion electron capture dissociation (AI-ECD) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer equipped with a CO(2) laser, it is necessary to synchronize both infrared irradiation and electron capture dissociation with ion magnetron motion. This requirement is essential for instruments in which the infrared laser is angled off-axis, such as the Thermo Finnigan LTQ FT. Generally, the electron irradiation time required for proteins is much shorter (ms) than that required for peptides (tens of ms), and the modulation of ECD, AI ECD, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) with ion magnetron motion is more pronounced. We have optimized AI ECD for ubiquitin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin; however the results can be extended to other proteins. We demonstrate that pre-ECD and post-ECD activation are physically different and display different kinetics. We also demonstrate how, by use of appropriate AI ECD time sequences and normalization, the kinetics of protein gas-phase refolding can be deconvoluted from the diffusion of the ion cloud and measured on the time scale longer than the period of ion magnetron motion. PMID:19200749

  10. Effect of swift heavy ion irradiation on bare and coated ZnS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, S. Hussain, A.M.P.; Ahmed, G.A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Choudhury, A.

    2008-12-01

    The present study compares structural and optical modifications of bare and silica (SiO{sub 2}) coated ZnS quantum dots under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Bare and silica coated ZnS quantum dots were prepared following an inexpensive chemical route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the dielectric host matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the samples show the formation of almost spherical ZnS quantum dots. The UV-Vis absorption spectra reveal blue shift relative to bulk material in absorption energy while photoluminescence (PL) spectra suggests that surface state and near band edge emissions are dominating in case of bare and coated samples, respectively. Swift heavy ion irradiation of the samples was carried out with 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} ion beam with fluences 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Size enhancement of bare quantum dots after irradiation has been indicated in XRD and TEM analysis of the samples which has also been supported by optical absorption spectra. However similar investigations on irradiated coated quantum dots revealed little change in quantum dot size and emission. The present study thus shows that the coated ZnS quantum dots are stable upon SHI irradiation compared to the bare one.

  11. Phase stability in thermally-aged CASS CF8 under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meimei; Miller, Michael K.; Chen, Wei-Ying

    2015-07-01

    The stability of the microstructure of a cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS), before and after heavy ion irradiation, was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT). A CF8 ferrite-austenite duplex alloy was thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h. After this treatment, APT revealed nanometer-sized G-phase precipitates and Fe-rich α and Cr-enriched α‧ phase separated regions in the ferrite. The thermally-aged CF8 specimen was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr ions to a fluence of 1.88 × 1019 ions/m2 at 400 °C. After irradiation, APT analysis revealed a strong spatial/dose dependence of the G-phase precipitates and the α-α‧ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite. For the G-phase precipitates, the number density increased and the mean size decreased with increasing dose, and the particle size distribution changed considerably under irradiation. The inverse coarsening process can be described by recoil resolution. The amplitude of the α-α‧ spinodal decomposition in the ferrite was apparently reduced after heavy ion irradiation.

  12. Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chong M.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Fei; Lian, Jie; Weber, William J.

    2010-11-10

    Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized zirconia (NSZ) in pure cubic phase are investigated under 2 MeV Au ion bombardment at 160 and 400 K to doses up to 35 displacements per atom (dpa). The NSZ films are produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique at room temperature with an average grain size of 7.7 nm. The grain size increases with dose, and follows a power law (n=6) to a saturation value of ~30 nm that decreases with temperature. Slower grain growth is observed under 400 K irradiations, as compared to 160 K irradiations, indicating that thermal grain growth is not activated and defect-stimulated grain growth is the dominating mechanism. While cubic phase is perfectly retained and no new phases are identified after the high-dose irradiations, reduction of oxygen in the irradiated NSZ films is detected. The ratio of O to Zr decreases from ~2.0 for the as-deposited films to ~1.65 after irradiation to ~35 dpa. Significant increase of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline zirconia suggests substantially enhanced oxygen diffusion under ion irradiation, a materials behavior far from equilibrium. The oxygen deficiency may be essential in stabilizing cubic phase to larger grain sizes.

  13. Microstructure evolution of metallic nanocrystalline thin-films under ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaoumi, Djamel

    The microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline metallic thin-films under ion irradiation, especially grain growth and second-phase precipitation, was studied with detailed in situ experiments, and a theoretical model was developed to explain the results of grain-growth. Free-standing Zr, Pt, Cu and Au, Cu-Fe, and Zr-Fe nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sputter deposition were irradiated in-situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with Ar and Kr ions to fluences in excess of 1016 ion/cm2 at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructural evolution of the thin-films was followed in situ by systematically recording bright field images and diffraction patterns at successive ion-irradiation doses. Grain growth was observed as a result of irradiation in all samples at all irradiation temperatures. The results suggest the existence of three regimes with increasing irradiating temperature: a low temperature regime (below about 0.15 to 0.22 Tm) where grain-growth does not depend on the irradiation temperature, a thermally assisted regime where both the grain-growth rate and the final grain size increase with increasing irradiation temperature, and a thermal regime where thermal effects dominate ion beam effects. Similarly to thermal grain growth, the ion-irradiation induced grain growth curves could be best fitted with curves of the type: Dn-Dn0=KF with n3 in the low temperature regime. The effect of solute addition on grain-growth was investigated using Zr(Fe) and Cu(Fe) supersaturated solid-solutions. In the case of Zr-Fe, Zr2Fe precipitates formed during irradiation (with the dose-to-precipitation of Zr2Fe decreasing with increasing irradiation temperature), whereas Cu-Fe remained as a solid-solution. The grain-growth rate and final size decreased in both alloys with respect to the pure metallic films as a result of second-phase particle pinning (Zener drag) (Zr-Fe), and solute drag (Cu-Fe). The grain-growth rate was found to depend on material and on irradiation conditions. In particular, neither grain-growth nor precipitation occurred under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Combined with rate-theory calculations, this shows that long range diffusion does not play a role in the process. A model of grain-growth under ion irradiation in the temperature-independent regime was developed, based on direct impact of irradiation-induced thermal spikes on grain-boundaries. Grain-boundary migration occurs by atomic jumps within the thermal spike biased by the grain-boundary curvature driving force. The model incorporates cascade structure features such as subcascade formation, and the probability of subcascades occurring at grain-boundaries. This results in a power law expression relating the average grain-size with the ion dose, where the exponent is 3 in agreement with the experimental data. In the thermally assisted regime, the increased grain-growth is explained within the framework of the same model, by the increased thermal spike size with higher substrate temperature. At the highest temperatures, other effects such as subcascade overlap and point defect migration to sinks may also enhance the process.

  14. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  15. Formation of nanoparticles by ion beam irradiation of thin films.

    PubMed

    Baji, Z; Szanyo, A; Molnr, G; Tth, A L; Peto, G; Frey, K; Kotai, E; Kaptay, G

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of fabricating nanoparticles by ion bombardment was investigated by the ion bombardment of indium films on oxide covered Si and Cr surfaces. The different masses of implanting specimen ensured the different energy transfer while the same Si substrate ensured the same thermal conductivity for the In and Cr layers. Chromium served as a reference for the effect of ion bombardment and as a substrate as well. The SRIM program was used to simulate the ion surface interaction process. The nanoparticles were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that the melting of the In layer results in the formation of nanoparticles of 50-300 nm diameter and 5-10 nm height. This method can be promising for nanoparticle formation of materials with low melting point. PMID:22905568

  16. The effect of He and swift heavy ions on nanocrystalline zirconium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Vuuren, A.; Neethling, J. H.; Skuratov, V. A.; Uglov, V. V.; Petrovich, S.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that swift heavy ion irradiation may significantly modulate hydrogen and helium behaviour in some materials. This phenomenon is of considerable practical interest for ceramics in general and also for candidate materials for use as inert matrix fuel hosts. These materials will accumulate helium via (n, ?) reactions and will also be subjected to irradiation by fission fragments. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to study nanocrystalline ZrN irradiated with 30 keV He to fluences between 1016 and 5 1016 cm-2, 167 MeV Xe to fluences between 5 1013 and 1014 cm-2 and also 695 MeV Bi to a fluence of 1.5 1013 cm-2. He/Bi and He/Xe irradiated samples were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1000 C and were analysed using SEM, XTEM and selected area diffraction. The results indicated that post irradiation heat treatment induces exfoliation at a depth that corresponds to the end-of-range of 30 keV He ions. SEM and XTEM analysis of He/Xe irradiated samples revealed that electronic excitation effects, due to Xe ions, suppress helium blister formation and consequently the exfoliation processes. He/Bi samples however do not show the same effects. This suggests that nanocrystalline ZrN is prone to the formation of He blisters which may ultimately lead material failure. These effects may however be mitigated by electronic excitation effects from certain SHIs.

  17. Electron-irradiation- and ion-beam-induced amorphization of coesite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Wang, L. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Zhang, J.

    1996-08-01

    Electron-irradiation-induced amorphization in coesite was observed in situ as a function of temperature (15-750 K) at an incident electron energy of 1.0 MeV by transmission electron microscopy. Amorphization induced by ion-beam irradiation (1.5 MeV Kr+) in coesite was studied in situ as a function of temperature (15-875 K) using the high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM) Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Electron-irradiation-induced amorphization in coesite was also observed at 200 keV and 300 K. Previously, the effect of temperature on amorphization was considered to only result in annealing, that is recovery of the damaged region. In this study, we show that temperature has an enhancing effect on amorphization and may even play a dominant role in the radiation-induced amorphization of some crystalline materials. The effect of temperature in enhancing amorphization was first theoretically and experimentally recognized in electron- and ion-beam-irradiation-induced amorphization of coesite. Coesite has a melting temperature, Tm (875 K), below its glass transition temperature, Tg (1480 K). A thermodynamic analysis has been made to model the critical amorphization dose-temperature dependencies of electron- and ion-beam irradiations. We propose that the thermodynamic contributions to amorphization include the free-energy increase due to defect accumulation caused by irradiation and chemical disordering, ?Gdef and ?Gdis, and a thermal contribution, ?Gtherm. The thermodynamic condition for amorphization is generalized by the expression ?Gtotal=?Gtherm+?Gdef+?Gdis>=?Gam , where ?Gtotal> is the total free-energy increase for the irradiated crystal, and ?Gam is the free-energy level required for solid-state amorphization. Coesite provides a good example of the dominance of the thermal contribution in amorphization. Solid-state amorphization of coesite induced by electron and ion irradiations is an irradiation-enhanced thermodynamic melting process below the glass transition temperature, Tg. The competition among thermally created dynamic displacements, irradiation-induced static displacements, and the increased annealing rate at elevated temperatures, determines the critical amorphization dose-temperature dependencies of electron- and ion-irradiated coesite.

  18. Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Funayama, Tomoo; Yokota, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In general, a radiation-induced bystander response is known to be a cellular response induced in non-irradiated cells after receiving bystander signaling factors released from directly irradiated cells within a cell population. Bystander responses induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at low fluence are an important health problem for astronauts in space. Bystander responses are mediated via physical cell-cell contact, such as gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and/or diffusive factors released into the medium in cell culture conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known major initiator/mediator of intercellular signaling within culture medium during bystander responses. In this study, we investigated the NO-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by high-LET argon (Ar)-ion microbeam irradiation of normal human fibroblasts. Foci formation by DNA double-strand break repair proteins was induced in non-irradiated cells, which were co-cultured with those irradiated by high-LET Ar-ion microbeams in the same culture plate. Foci formation was suppressed significantly by pretreatment with an NO scavenger. Furthermore, NO-mediated reproductive cell death was also induced in bystander cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt were induced during NO-mediated bystander signaling in the irradiated and bystander cells. However, the activation of these proteins depended on the incubation time after irradiation. The accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of NO and NF-κB, was observed in the bystander cells 6 h after irradiation but not in the directly irradiated cells. Our findings suggest that Akt- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways involving COX-2 play important roles in NO-mediated high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander responses. In addition, COX-2 may be used as a molecular marker of high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander cells to distinguish them from directly irradiated cells, although this may depend on the time after irradiation. PMID:26256626

  19. Thermal stability of embedded metal nanoparticles elongated by swift heavy ion irradiation: Zn nanoparticles in a molten state but preserving elongated shapes.

    PubMed

    Amekura, Hiro; Sele, Marta Lill; Ishikawa, Norito; Okubo, Nariaki

    2012-03-01

    Solid Zn and V nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were elongated by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with 200 MeV Xe(14+) ions to a fluence of 5.0 10(13) ions cm(-2). Isochronal annealing was carried out in a vacuum from 200 to 1000 C in steps of 100 C for 10 min each. The degree of shape elongation was evaluated at room temperature (RT) by two different optical methods: linear dichroism spectroscopy and birefringence spectroscopy. In the as-irradiated state, the samples showed an absorption band at 5 eV due to radiation-induced defects in the silica in addition to the anisotropic absorption due to the elongated metal NPs. After annealing at 400 C the defect band had completely disappeared, while the degree of shape elongation was almost unchanged or rather slightly increased in both the Zn and V NPs. The elongation of the Zn NPs slightly decreased but maintained a certain value after annealing at 500 C, which is much higher than the melting point (MP) of Zn NPs (~420 C). This observation indicates that shape elongation is mostly maintained even if the Zn NPs are in the molten state to some extent during annealing. The elongation of the Zn NPs was almost eliminated after annealing at 600 C. In the case of the V NPs, elongation was maintained up to 800 C but mostly eliminated at 900 C. Since the recovery temperature of 900 C from the elongated to the spherical shape is much lower than the MP of bulk V (1890 C), we consider that the elongation is eliminated without melting of V NPs, i.e. via solid state mass transportation. The melting of NPs is not the key factor for the recovery to the spherical shape. PMID:22322542

  20. Thermal stability of embedded metal nanoparticles elongated by swift heavy ion irradiation: Zn nanoparticles in a molten state but preserving elongated shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekura, Hiro; Lill Sele, Marta; Ishikawa, Norito; Okubo, Nariaki

    2012-03-01

    Solid Zn and V nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in silica were elongated by swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation with 200 MeV Xe14+ ions to a fluence of 5.0 1013 ions cm-2. Isochronal annealing was carried out in a vacuum from 200 to 1000?C in steps of 100?C for 10 min each. The degree of shape elongation was evaluated at room temperature (RT) by two different optical methods: linear dichroism spectroscopy and birefringence spectroscopy. In the as-irradiated state, the samples showed an absorption band at 5 eV due to radiation-induced defects in the silica in addition to the anisotropic absorption due to the elongated metal NPs. After annealing at 400?C the defect band had completely disappeared, while the degree of shape elongation was almost unchanged or rather slightly increased in both the Zn and V NPs. The elongation of the Zn NPs slightly decreased but maintained a certain value after annealing at 500?C, which is much higher than the melting point (MP) of Zn NPs (420?C). This observation indicates that shape elongation is mostly maintained even if the Zn NPs are in the molten state to some extent during annealing. The elongation of the Zn NPs was almost eliminated after annealing at 600?C. In the case of the V NPs, elongation was maintained up to 800?C but mostly eliminated at 900?C. Since the recovery temperature of 900?C from the elongated to the spherical shape is much lower than the MP of bulk V (1890?C), we consider that the elongation is eliminated without melting of V NPs, i.e. via solid state mass transportation. The melting of NPs is not the key factor for the recovery to the spherical shape.

  1. Grain growth kinetics during ion beam irradiation of chemical vapor deposited amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Spinella, C.; Lombardo, S. ); Campisano, S.U. )

    1990-08-06

    The amorphous to polycrystal transition during Kr ion beam irradiation of chemical vapor deposited silicon layers has been studied in the temperature range 320--480 {degree}C. At each irradiation temperature the average grain diameter increases linearly with the Kr dose, while the grain density remains constant within the experimental accuracy. The growth rate follows a complex behavior which can be described by dynamic defect generation and annihilation. The absolute value of the grain growth rate is equal to that of the ion-assisted epitaxial layer by layer crystallization in the silicon (111) orientation. This result can be related to the crystal grain structure and morphology.

  2. Application of WAXS diffraction in studies of crystallinity changes in heavy-ion-irradiated polyester films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesla, Krystyna

    2000-09-01

    WAXS diffraction was applied in studies of the effect of heavy ion irradiation on the content of crystalline phase in poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and poly(butyleneterephthalate)(PBT) films. A decrease of the crystalline phase content in PET and PBT films under the effect of heavy ions irradiation was discovered. The phenomenon was observed in the biaxially oriented 19 (mu) m thick PET film as well as in the non-oriented 90-100 (mu) m thick PET and PBT films. The amorphization of the films was confirmed by SAXS, DSC, and FTIR methods as well as by density measurements.

  3. Optical waveguides in Yb:SBN crystals fabricated by swift C3+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiyuan; Dong, Ningning; Wang, Jun; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of optical planar waveguides supporting both the TE and TM confinements in Yb:SBN crystal by swift C3+ ions irradiation. A combination of the micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman investigations have evidenced the presence of lattice distortion, damage and disordering of the SBN network along the ion irradiation path, with these effects being at the basis of the refractive index modification. The enhanced micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman intensity in the waveguide volumes show the potential application of the obtained waveguides as active laser gain media.

  4. Hardness enhancement and crosslinking mechanisms in polystyrene irradiated with high energy ion-beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Surface hardness values several times larger than steel were produced using high energy ion beams at several hundred keV to MeV. High LET is important for crosslinking. Crosslinking is studied by analyzing hardness variations in response to irradiation parameter such as ion species, energy, and fluence. Effective crosslinking radii at hardness saturation are derived base on experimental data for 350 keV H{sup +} and 1 MeV Ar{sup +} irradiation of polystyrene. Saturation value for surface hardness is about 20 GPa.

  5. Fabricating high-density magnetic storage elements by low-dose ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Neb, R.; Sebastian, T.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.; Pofahl, S.; Schaefer, R.; Reuscher, B.

    2012-09-10

    We fabricate magnetic storage elements by irradiating an antiferromagnetically coupled ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayer by a low-dose ion beam. The irradiated areas become ferromagnetically coupled and are capable of storing information if their size is small enough. We employ Fe/Cr/Fe trilayers and a 30 keV focused Ga{sup +}-ion beam to demonstrate the working principle for a storage array with a bit density of 7 Gbit/in.{sup 2}. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that bit densities of at least two magnitudes of order larger should be possible.

  6. Combined High Pressure and Heavy-Ion Irradiation: a Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, M.; Zhang, F; Lian, J; Trautmann, C; Neumann, R; Ewing, R

    2009-01-01

    Swift heavy-ion irradiations of a wide variety of materials have been used to modify and manipulate the properties of solids at the nanoscale. Recently, these high-energy irradiations have been successfully combined with high-pressure experiments. Based on results obtained for zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), this paper introduces this new experimental approach involving diamond anvil cells and large ion-accelerator facilities. This technique provides a wide spectrum of geoscience applications from nanoscale simulations of fission-track formation under crustal conditions to phase transitions of radiation-damaged minerals resulting from meteorite impact.

  7. Xe isotopic fractionation in a cathodeless glow discharge. [for carbonaceous meteoritic composition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Fahey, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported on the isotopic composition of Xe processed in cathodeless glow discharges in rarefied air at pressures of 20-40 microns Hg, in the presence of activated charcoal and in empty pyrex containers. Residual gas phase Xe and trapped Xe were found to be fractionated, with the trapped Xe fractionated up to 1 percent per amu. A model is presented for the fractionating process in which Xe ions are simultaneously implanted and sputtered from substrate material, with a mass dependence favoring retention of the heavy isotopes in the substrate. Results of the investigation show that plasma synthesis of carbonaceous material is unnecessary for producing Xe fractionations, and that the fractionations observed in previous synthesis experiments are probably due to implantation of ions into the synthesized material.

  8. Evaluation of surface damage on organic materials irradiated with Ar cluster ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ichiki, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Matsuo, J.; Seki, T.; Aoki, T.

    2011-01-07

    The sputtering yields of organic materials under large cluster ion bombardment are much higher than those under conventional monomer ion bombardment. The sputtering rate of arginine remains constant with fluence for an Ar cluster ion beam, but decreases with fluence for Ar monomer. Additionally, because Ar cluster etching induces little damage, Ar cluster ion can be used to achieve molecular depth profiling of organic materials. In this study, we evaluated the damage to poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and arginine samples irradiated with Ar atomic and Ar cluster ion beams. Arginine samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and PMMA samples were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The chemical structure of organic materials remained unchanged after Ar cluster irradiation, but was seriously damaged. These results indicated that bombardment with Ar cluster ions induced less surface damage than bombardment with Ar atomic ion. The damage layer thickness with 5 keV Ar cluster ion bombardment was less than 1 nm.

  9. Damage Profiles and Ion Distribution in Pt-irradiated SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhu, Zihua; Zhang, Weiming; Bae, In-Tae; Weber, William J.

    2012-09-01

    Single crystalline 6H-SiC samples were irradiated at 150 K with 2 MeV Pt ions. The local volume swelling was determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and a nearly sigmoidal dependence on irradiation dose is observed. The disorder profiles and ion distribution were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), transmission electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Since the volume swelling reaches 12% over the damage region at high ion fluence, the effect of lattice expansion is considered and corrected for in the analysis of RBS spectra to obtain depth profiles. Projectile and damage profiles are estimated by SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter).When compared with the measured profiles, the SRIM code predictions of ion distribution and the damage profiles are underestimated due to significant overestimation of the electronic stopping power for the slow heavy Pt ions. By utilizing the reciprocity method, which is based on the invariance of the inelastic energy loss in ion-solid collisions against interchange of projectile and target atom, a much lower electronic stopping power is deduced. A simple approach, based on reducing the density of SiC target in SRIM simulation, is proposed to compensate the overestimated SRIM electronic stopping power values, which results in improved agreement between predicted and measured damage profiles and ion ranges.

  10. Formation and coarsening of Ga droplets on focused-ion-beam irradiated GaAs surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. H.; Ye, W.; Cardozo, B. L.; Saltzman, D.; Sun, K.; Sun, H.; Mansfield, J. F.; Goldman, R. S.

    2009-10-12

    We have investigated the formation and coarsening of Ga droplets on focused-ion-beam (FIB) irradiated GaAs surfaces. To separately examine formation and coarsening, Ga droplets were fabricated by Ga{sup +} FIB irradiation of GaAs substrates with and without pre-patterned holes. We determined the droplet growth rate and size distribution as a function of FIB energy following irradiation. The data suggest a droplet formation mechanism that involves Ga precipitation from a Ga-rich layer, followed by droplet coarsening via a combination of diffusion and Ostwald ripening or coalescence via droplet migration (dynamic coalescence)

  11. Photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Anu Sridharbabu, Y. Quamara, J. K.

    2014-10-15

    The photoinduced currents in pristine and ion irradiated kapton-H polyimide have been investigated for different applied electric fields at 200°C. Particularly the effect of illumination intensity on the maximum current obtained as a result of photoinduced polarization has been studied. Samples were irradiated by using PELLETRON facility, IUAC, New Delhi. The photo-carrier charge generation depends directly on intensity of illumination. The samples irradiated at higher fluence show a decrease in the peak current with intensity of illumination. The secondary radiation induced crystallinity (SRIC) is responsible for the increase in maximum photoinduced currents generated with intensity of illumination.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and domain patterning of amorphous films by He-ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, Jeffrey; Gemming, Thomas; Schultz, Ludwig; Fassbender, Juergen; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Frommberger, Michael; Quandt, Eckhard

    2005-04-18

    The magnetic anisotropy in amorphous soft magnetic FeCoSiB films was modified by He-ion irradiation. A rotation of uniaxial anisotropy depending on the applied field direction in the irradiated areas is observed by magnetometry and complementary domain observation by Kerr microscopy. No significant degradation in magnetic properties relative to the as-deposited state is found from the magnetization loops on nonpatterned films. Using irradiation together with photolithography, the films were treated locally, resulting in 'anisotropy patterned' structures. Complicated periodic domain patterns form due to the locally varying anisotropy distribution. Overall magnetic properties and domain patterns are adjusted.

  13. Ion irradiation induced enhancement of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co films

    SciTech Connect

    Mazalski, P.; Kurant, Z.; Maziewski, A.; Liedke, M. O.; Fassbender, J.; Baczewski, L. T.; Wawro, A.

    2013-05-07

    Ga{sup +} or He{sup +} irradiated MBE grown ultrathin films of sapphire/Pt/Co(d{sub Co})/Pt(d{sub Pt}) were studied using polar Kerr effect in wide ranges of both cobalt d{sub Co} and platinum d{sub Pt} thicknesses as well as ion fluences F. Two branches of increased magnetic anisotropy and enhanced Kerr rotation angle induced by Ga{sup +} or He{sup +} irradiation are clearly visible in two-dimensional (d{sub Co}, LogF) diagrams. Only Ga{sup +} irradiation induces two branches of out-of-plane magnetization state.

  14. Diamond light emitting diode activated with Xe optical centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, A. M.; Bergman, A. A.; Gorokhovsky, A. A.; Huang, Mengbing

    2006-02-01

    A diamond light emitting diode (LED) activated with Xe-related optical centres is reported. The device was made on a high quality single crystal CVD diamond substrate using B+ and Li+ ion implantation, subsequent implantation by Xe+ ions and vacuum annealing to 1400 °C. A diode behaviour with the rectification ratio of 105 at 100 V was achieved. The electroluminescence (EL) of the device was found to concentrate at the B+ ion doped p-type area likely as a result of dominating injection of holes. The room temperature EL spectrum in the range 450 to 850 nm was presented by a narrow band emission of the zero phonon lines 812.5 nm and 794 nm of the Xe centre on a low emission background of the 575 nm nitrogen-related centre.

  15. Swift heavy ion irradiation and annealing effects in Fe/Si multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, Pratima; Gupta, Ajay; Chaudhari, S. M.; Phase, D. M.; Avasthi, D. K.

    Effects of 200 MeV silver ion irradiation and thermal annealing in Fe/Si multilayers with overall composition Fe 50Si 50 have been studied. Two multilayers with Fe layer thickness of 19 and 62 have been studied. While in the first case Fe layer is amorphous in structure, in the second case it has a crystalline bcc structure. X-ray reflectivity study shows that, at this composition both thermal annealing and heavy ion irradiation result in significant interdiffusion between the Fe and Si layers. However, while the products of thermal annealing depend upon the initial structure of the Fe layer, in the case of swift heavy ion irradiation the final phases formed are similar in the two multilayers. The results of heavy ion irradiation can be understood in terms of the thermal spike model with the conjecture that in the wake of the 200 MeV Ag ions the temperature rises to a value at which the effect of the initial structure of Fe layer on the mutual diffusivities of Fe and Si becomes insignificant.

  16. Amorphization of nanocrystalline monoclinic ZrO2 by swift heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fengyuan; Wang, Jianwei; Lang, Maik; Toulemonde, Marcel; Namavar, Fereydoon; Trautmann, Christina; Zhang, Jiaming; Ewing, Rodney C; Lian, Jie

    2012-09-21

    Bulk ZrO(2) polymorphs generally have an extremely high amorphization tolerance upon low energy ion and swift heavy ion irradiation in which ballistic interaction and ionization radiation dominate the ion-solid interaction, respectively. However, under very high-energy irradiation by 1.33 GeV U-238, nanocrystalline (40-50 nm) monoclinic ZrO(2) can be amorphized. A computational simulation based on a thermal spike model reveals that the strong ionizing radiation from swift heavy ions with a very high electronic energy loss of 52.2 keV nm(-1) can induce transient zones with temperatures well above the ZrO(2) melting point. The extreme electronic energy loss, coupled with the high energy state of the nanostructured materials and a high thermal confinement due to the less effective heat transport within the transient hot zone, may eventually be responsible for the ionizing radiation-induced amorphization without transforming to the tetragonal polymorph. The amorphization of nanocrystalline zirconia was also confirmed by 1.69 GeV Au ion irradiation with the electronic energy loss of 40 keV nm(-1). These results suggest that highly radiation tolerant materials in bulk forms, such as ZrO(2), may be radiation sensitive with the reduced length scale down to the nano-metered regime upon irradiation above a threshold value of electronic energy loss. PMID:22858872

  17. Erosion and deuterium retention in ion-irradiated tungsten under plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khripunov, B.; Gureev, V.; Koidan, V.; Kornienko, S.; Latushkin, S.; Petrov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Semenov, E.; Stolyarova, V.; Danelyan, L.; Kulikauskas, V.; Zatekin, V.; Unezhev, V.

    2015-08-01

    Effect of radiation damage on tungsten response to plasma exposure is examined. Samples of tungsten W 99.95 wt% were irradiated with fast 12C3+ ions at 10 MeV to fluence of (1-2) 1017 ion/cm2 to produce damage in the range 1-40 dpa relevant to the level of interest for fusion research. Exposure of the irradiated tungsten to deuterium plasma on linear simulator in erosion condition provided D-ion total fluence (1-3) 1021 D+/cm2 at ion energy 250 eV. Swelling effect has been observed, and important changes in the structure of the irradiated material have been found (SEM). Erosion of the damaged layer was evaluated at Yd-w ? (3-5) ? 10-3 at/ion. The retained deuterium profiles have been taken by ERDA, maximal deuterium concentration reached 6-8 at.% in the layer ?30 nm deep corresponding to 2-3 dpa. Comparison of D-retention was made for C- and He-irradiated tungsten for this level of damage.

  18. Microstructural stability of a self-ion irradiated lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Burns, Jatuporn; Alsagabi, Sultan; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.; Price, Lloyd M.; Shao, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Thermally stable nanofeatures with high number density are expected to impart excellent high temperature strength and irradiation stability in nanostructured ferritic steels (NFSs) which have potential applications in advanced nuclear reactors. A lanthana-bearing NFS (14LMT) developed via mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering was used in this study. The sintered samples were irradiated by Fe2+ ions to 10, 50 and 100 dpa at 30 °C and 500 °C. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of the irradiated samples were studied using different microscopy techniques and nanoindentation, respectively. Overall morphology and number density of the nanofeatures remained unchanged after irradiation. Average radius of nanofeatures in the irradiated sample (100 dpa at 500 °C) was slightly reduced. A notable level of irradiation hardening and enhanced dislocation activity occurred after ion irradiation except at 30 °C and ≥50 dpa. Other microstructural features like grain boundaries and high density of dislocations also provided defect sinks to assist in defect removal.

  19. The amplification of the UV radiation due to the interconfigurational 5d-4f transition in Ce(3+) ions in BaY2F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Kochubei, S. A.; Naumochkin, K. N.; Pestriakov, E. V.; Trunov, V. I.

    1989-03-01

    The spectral-luminescent properties of a Ce(3+) ion in a BeY2F8 crystal were studied. The amplification of the coherent radiation due to an interconfigurational transition was obtained upon its excitation by the XeCl laser radiation (a wavelength of 0.308 microns). The absorption spectrum of Ce:BaY2F8 before and after irradiation by an XeCl laser (0.308 micron) is presented.

  20. Irradiation of ionic liquid ion beams on silicon and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Hamaguchi, Takuya; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2013-11-01

    Irradiation of an ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) ion beam on borosilicate glass and single crystalline Si(100) surface was demonstrated by using an ionic liquid ion source we developed. Surface smoothing on the glass substrates was produced by the irradiations at an acceleration voltage of 4 kV with both positive and negative ion beams, which include cation-anion pairs attached to a single ion of either polarity. Water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the surface smoothing was probably caused by surface modification involving nano-ordered chemical etching by Si-F reaction, implantation and deposition of P, N and C.

  1. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm‑1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  2. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic (84)Kr and (197)Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm(-1) in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles. PMID:26902734

  3. Experimental Studies of Defects, Implants, and Their Processes in Ion-Irradiated Silicon Carbide Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.

    2003-11-17

    This chapter reviews the experimental results, obtained by the authors, on the disorder accumulation, disorder recovery, and behavior of implants in ion-irradiated 6H silicon carbide (6H-SiC) single crystals. The disorder on both the Si and C sublattices has been studied using a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis in channeling geometry. Damage states have been analyzed based on multiaxial channeling along different orientations. The surface morphologies and damage states have been examined using electron microscopy. Damage accumulation has been investigated as a function of ion fluence, irradiation temperature, ion species, and dose rate. The results of both isochronal and isothermal annealing, as well as dynamic recovery induced by energetic ion beams are summarized. In addition, the behavior of noble-metal implants and gas species in SiC are discussed.

  4. Chemi-luminescence measurements of hyperthermal Xe{sup +}/Xe{sup 2+}+ NH{sub 3} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, Benjamin D.; Steiner, Colby P.; Chiu, Yu-Hui

    2012-04-14

    Luminescence spectra are recorded for the reactions of Xe{sup +}+ NH{sub 3} and Xe{sup 2+}+ NH{sub 3} at energies ranging from 11.5 to 206 eV in the center-of-mass (E{sub cm}) frame. Intense features of the luminescence spectra are attributed to the NH (A {sup 3}{Pi}{sub i}-X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}), hydrogen Balmer series, and Xe I emission observable for both primary ions. Evidence for charge transfer products is only found through Xe I emission for both primary ions and NH{sup +} emission for Xe{sup 2+} primary ions. For both primary ions, the absolute NH (A-X) cross section increases with collision energy before leveling off at a constant value, approximately 9 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}, at about 50 eV while H-{alpha} emission increases linearly with collision energy. The nascent NH (A) populations derived from the spectral analysis are found to be independent of collision energy and have a constant rotational temperature of 4200 K.

  5. Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of He and H ion irradiated 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Q.; Li, L.; Cheng, F. F.; Bin, R.; Fa, T.; Fu, E.; Yao, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    6H-SiC single crystal wafers were irradiated by 200 keV He ions, 100 keV H ions, and 200 keV He ions followed by 100 keV H ions, with the radiation fluences in the range of 1016 ions cm-2, respectively. After ion irradiation, the samples were annealed at 1273 K in N2 atmosphere. XRD, RBS/C, and nano-indentation measurements were carried out to evaluate the damage of the irradiated samples. XRD results show that new diffraction peaks from radiation damage appear at lower angles next to the main diffraction peaks, which indicates that radiation process caused the increase of lattice parameter in the damage region. RBS/C results show that complete amorphization does not occur even under 6 1016 cm-2 He ions followed by 8 1016 cm-2 H ions irradiation indicated by ?min = 17.63%. Damage produced by He ion irradiation at a fluence of 6 1016 ions cm-2 is greater than that produced by 3 1016 cm-2 He ions and followed by 4 1016 cm-2 H ions irradiation, which implied that He ions irradiation effect plays a dominant role in the process of damage producing. The nano-indentation measurements show that hardness variation depends on the irradiation fluences: high fluence radiation leads to the decrease of the hardness while low fluence radiation leads to the increase of the hardness. After annealing, the hardness of all the irradiated samples increases. Possible mechanisms are discussed for explaining these phenomena.

  6. Irradiation effects of graphene and thin layer graphite induced by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jian; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Xia; Zhai, Peng-Fei; Yao, Hui-Jun; Duan, Jing-Lai; Guo, Hang; Hou, Ming-Dong; Sun, You-Mei

    2015-08-01

    Graphene and thin graphite films deposited on SiO2/Si are irradiated by swift heavy ions (209Bi, 9.5 MeV/u) with the fluences in a range of 1011 ions/cm2-1012 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Both pristine and irradiated samples are investigated by Raman spectroscopy. For pristine graphite films, the “blue shift” of 2D bond and the “red shift” of G bond with the decrease of thickness are found in the Raman spectra. For both irradiated graphene and thin graphite films, the disorder-induced D peak and D‧ peak are detected at the fluence above a threshold Φth. The thinner the film, the lower the Φth is. In this work, the graphite films thicker than 60 nm reveal defect free via the absence of a D bond signal under the swift heavy ion irradiation till the fluence of 2.6 × 1012 ions/cm2. For graphite films thinner than 6 nm, the area ratios between D peak and G peak increase sharply with reducing film thickness. It concludes that it is much easier to induce defects in thinner films than in thicker ones by swift heavy ions. The intensities of the D peak and D‧ peak increase with increasing ion fluence, which predicts the continuous impacting of swift heavy ions can lead to the increasing of defects in samples. Different defect types are detected in graphite films of different thickness values. The main defect types are discussed via the various intensity ratios between the D peak and D‧ peak (HD/HD‧). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11179003, 10975164, 10805062, 11005134, and 11275237).

  7. Atomic resolution observations of nonlinear depleted zones in tungsten irradiated with metallic diatomic molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pramanik, D.; Seidman, D.N.

    1983-11-01

    Direct evidence, on an atomic scale, is presented for the enhancement of damage production per projectile ion in metallic diatomic molecular ion (dimer) irradiations of tungsten as compared to monatomic ion (monomer) irradiations. Irradiations were performed in situ at < or approx. =10 K, in a field-ion microscope, employing 20 keV Ag/sup +/ and W/sup +/ ions and the results are compared with 40 keV W/sup +//sub 2/ and Ag/sup +//sub 2/ ion bombardments; the average energy per ion is 20 keV. The energy and mass of the dimers are such that the collision cascades are nonlinear. By directly counting the number of vacancies in individual depleted zones, produced by the different ions, it was demonstrated that the number of vacancies produced per incoming ion of the dimer is 1.55 times greater than the number of vacancies produced per monomer. The depleted zones produced in the near-surface region, by the W/sup +//sub 2/ dimers, give rise to void-like contrast effects. Whereas the W/sup +/ monomers do not produce the void-like contrast of the W/sup +//sub 2/ ions. This result can only be understood if significant rearrangement of vacancies had occurred after the dynamic development of the collision cascade. The presence of voids is explained employing a nucleation and growth model. The average diameter () of the depleted zones created by 20 keV Ag/sup +/ and W/sup +/ monomers is 17.5 A, while is 28.5 A for the Ag/sup +//sub 2/ and W=/sub 2/ dimers. Thus the depleted zones created by the dimers are larger than those produced by the monomers, but not twice as large.

  8. Simulation of neutron-induced damage in tungsten by irradiation with energetic self-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Gann, V.

    2015-05-01

    A direct comparison of the deuterium (D) decoration of radiation-induced damage in polycrystalline tungsten irradiated with self-ions [present work] and neutrons in the high-flux isotope reactor (HFIR) (Hatano et al., 2013) shows a reasonably good agreement at least up to 0.3 displacement per atom indicating that MeV heavy ions can be a good proxy to simulate neutron-produced damage at room temperature and low dpa. The coefficient of similarity between two kinds of irradiation was obtained experimentally to be Kexp ∼ 0.65 ± 0.1 in the case of the deuterium decoration of both kinds of radiation-induced defects with low and high de-trapping energies for deuterium. We introduced the theoretical estimation for coefficient of similarity between neutron- and self-ion-irradiations, which is a fraction of common area under the curves of two overlapping damage energy spectra of primary knock-on atom (PKA) produced in tungsten by these two types of irradiation. In other words, Ksim is a part of displaced atoms produced in the similar conditions under two different types of irradiation. The theoretical values of Ksim = 0.34 and Ksim = 0.29 were obtained for tungsten target irradiated with 20 MeV self-ions in comparison to irradiation with neutrons in HFIR reactor (>0.1 MeV) and 14 MeV neutrons, respectively. The theoretical value of Ksim = 0.34 is about two times less than the experimental value of Kexp = 0.65. It means that high energy PKAs can play more important role in the production of similar damage structure by irradiation with self-ions and neutrons which is responsible for deuterium retention. The model assuming that all cascades with an energy higher than Tc = 150 keV split into identical sub-cascades gives the value of Ksim = 0.64 ± 0.01 for the coefficient of similarity between HFIR-neutron and 20 MeV self-ion irradiations that is in an agreement with experimental value of Kexp = 0.65 ± 0.1. Consequently, splitting of high-energy part of cascades might take place in W that results in a reduction of the effective PKA spectrum and a change of types and density of post-radiation defects.

  9. Ion Irradiation of Asphaltite: Optical Effects and Implications for Trans-Neptunian Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, L. V.; Baratta, G.; Distefano, E.; Strazzulla, G.; Starukhina, L. V.; Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs show remarkable colour variations in the visual and near-infrared spectral regions. Surface alteration processes such as space weathering (e.g., bombardment with ions) and impact resurfacing may play an important role in the colour diversity of such bodies. Ion irradiation of hydrocarbon ices and their mixtures with water ice transforms neutral (grey) surface colours of ices to red and further to grey. Along with the ices, TNOs and Centaurs probably contain complex carbonaceous compounds, in particular, complex hydrocarbons. Unlike ices, such refractory organic materials have originally low visual albedos and red colours in the visible and near-infrared ranges. Here we present the first results of ion irradiation experiments on asphaltite. Asphaltite is a natural complex hydrocarbon material. The reflectance spectra of asphaltite in the 0.4-0.8 μm range have been recorded before irradiation and after each irradiation step. We demonstrate that irradiation of this red dark material with 30 keV H+ and 15 keV N+ ions gradually transforms its colour from red to grey as a result of carbonization. A moderate increase in the visual albedo has been observed. These results may imply that the surfaces of primitive red objects optically dominated by complex refractory organics may show a similar space weathering trend. Our laboratory results were compared with published colours of TNOs and Centaurs. A broad variety of spectral colours observed for TNOs and Centaurs may be reproduced by various spectra of irradiated organics corresponding to different ion fluences. However, such objects probably also contain ices and silicate components which show different space weathering trends. This fact, together with a lack of information about albedos, may explain difficulties to reveal correlations between surface colours within TNO and Centaur populations and their other properties, such as absolute magnitudes and orbital parameters.

  10. Polymer surfaces graphitization by low-energy He+ ions irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geworski, A.; Lazareva, I.; Gieb, K.; Koval, Y.; Mller, P.

    2014-08-01

    The electrical and optical properties of surfaces of polyimide and AZ5214e graphitized by low-energy (1 keV) He+ irradiation at different polymer temperatures were investigated. The conductivity of the graphitized layers can be controlled with the irradiation temperature within a broad range and can reach values up to 1000 S/cm. We show that the electrical transport in low-conducting samples is governed by thermally activated hopping, while the samples with a high conductivity show a typical semimetallic behavior. The transition from thermally activated to semimetallic conductance governed by the irradiation temperature could also be observed in optical measurements. The semimetallic samples show an unusually high for graphitic materials carrier concentration, which results in a high extinction coefficient in the visible light range. By analyzing the temperature dependence of the conductance of the semimetallic samples, we conclude that the scattering of charge carriers is dominated by Coulomb interactions and can be described by a weak localization model. The transition from a three to two dimensional transport mechanism at low temperatures consistently explains the change in the temperature dependence of the conductance by cooling, observed in experiments.

  11. Recrystallization of ion-irradiated germanium due to intense electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Som, T.; Ghatak, J.; Sivakumar, R.; Sinha, O. P.; Kanjilal, D.

    2008-06-15

    Germanium single crystals were irradiated at room temperature by 1.5 MeV energy germanium ions and high energy silver ions of 100 MeV. Based on the transmission and high-resolution electron microscopic investigations, we present the experimental evidence of complete recrystallization of the amorphized germanium layer, formed by the self-ion-implantation, due to intense electronic excitations generated by the swift Ag ions. This phenomenon is observed at room temperature--far below the solid phase epitaxial growth temperature and that at which low energy ion beam induced epitaxial crystallization takes place. The results are explained in the light of local transient melting due to a high rate of energy deposition by the silver ions and its subsequent cooling. Based on the calculations on thermal spike concept in combination with the nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we obtain a reasonably good estimate for the experimental observation.

  12. Effect of low energy oxygen ion beam irradiation on ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Manjunatha, H. Kumaraswamy, G. N.; Damle, R.

    2014-04-24

    Over the past three decades, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have drawn significant attention of researchers due to their prospective commercial applications in high energy-density batteries, electrochemical sensors and super-capacitors. The optimum conductivity required for such applications is about 10{sup ?2} 10{sup ?4} S/cm, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is known that the increase in the concentration of salt in the host polymer results in a continuous increase in the ionic conductivity. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity decreases due to formation of ion pairs with no net charge. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO: RbBr. We have attempted to modify microstructure of the host polymer matrix by low energy ion (Oxygen ion, O{sup +1} with energy 100 keV) irradiation. Ionic conductivity measurements in these systems were carried out using Impedance Spectroscopy before and after irradiation to different fluencies of the oxygen ion. It is observed that the conductivity increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains. The study reveals the importance of ion irradiation as an effective tool to enhance conductivity in SPEs.

  13. Ion irradiation of the Murchison meteorite: Visible to mid-infrared spectroscopic results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Dartois, E.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Godard, M.; Ledu, D.; Quirico, E.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The goal of this study is to simulate space weathering processes on primitive bodies. We use ion implantation as a simulation of solar wind irradiation, which has been suggested by several authors to be the major component of space weathering on main belt asteroids. The laboratory analogs we irradiate and analyze are carbonaceous chondrites; we started the study with the Allende CV meteorite and in this companion paper we present results on the Murchison CM meteorite. Methods: We performed irradiations on pressed pellets of Murchison with 40 keV He+ and Ar+ ions using fluences up to 3 1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiation in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4-16 ?m). A Raman analysis was also performed to investigate the modifications of the aromatic carbonaceous component. Results: Our results indicate that spectral variations after irradiation within the visible range are smaller than spectral variations due to sample grain size or viewing geometry of the Murchison meteorite. The aqueous alteration band profile near 3 ?m changes after irradiation, as adsorbed water is removed, and phyllosilicates are affected. Raman spectroscopy highlights the insoluble organic matter (IOM) modification under irradiation. We observe a shift of the silicates band at 9.9 ?m, probably due to a preferential loss of Mg (compared to Fe, the lighter Mg is more easily sputtered backward) and/or amorphization of Mg-rich materials. We compare our results to previous experiments on organic-rich materials (like asphaltite or carbonaceous chondrites), and on ordinary chondrites and olivine grains. We find that the reddening/darkening trend observed on silicate-rich surfaces is not valid for all carbonaceous chondrites, and that the spectral modifications after irradiation are a function of the initial albedo.

  14. Metastable phases in Zr-Excel alloy and their stability under heavy ion (Kr2+) irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbing; Zhang, Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Kirk, Mark A.; Long, Fei; Daymond, Mark R.

    2016-02-01

    Zr-Excel alloy (Zr-3.5Sn-0.8Nb-0.8Mo, wt.%) has been proposed as a candidate material of pressure tubes in the CANDU-SCWR design. It is a dual-phase alloy containing primary hcp α-Zr and metastable bcc β-Zr. Metastable hexagonal ω-Zr phase could form in β-Zr as a result of aging during the processing of the tube. A synchrotron X-ray study was employed to study the lattice properties of the metastable phases in as-received Zr-Excel pressure tube material. In situ heavy ion (1 MeV Kr2+) irradiations were carried out at 200 °C and 450 °C to emulate the stability of the metastable phase under a reactor environment. Quantitative Chemi-STEM EDS analysis was conducted on both un-irradiated and irradiated samples to investigate alloying element redistribution induced by heavy ion irradiation. It was found that no decomposition of β-Zr was observed under irradiation at both 200 °C and 450 °C. However, ω-Zr particles experienced shape changes and shrinkage associated with enrichment of Fe at the β/ω interface during 200 °C irradiation but not at 450 °C. There is a noticeable increase in the level of Fe in the α matrix after irradiation at both 200 °C and 450 °C. The concentrations of Nb, Mo and Fe are increased in the ω phase but decreased in the β phase at 200 °C. The stability of metastable phases under heavy ion irradiation associated with elemental redistribution is discussed.

  15. Microstructural evolution of CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750 under in situ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Judge, Colin; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    Work on Inconel®Inconel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.1 X-750 spacers removed from CANDU®CANDU® is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited standing for ''CANada Deuterium Uranium''.2 reactors has shown that they become embrittled and there is development of many small cavities within the metal matrix and along grain boundaries. In order to emulate the neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes, heavy ion irradiations (1 MeV Kr2+ ions) were performed while observing the damage evolution using an intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM) operating at 200 kV. The irradiations were carried out at various temperatures 60-400 °C. The principal strengthening phase, γ‧, was disordered at low doses (˜0.06 dpa) during the irradiation. M23C6 carbides were found to be stable up to 5.4 dpa. Lattice defects consisted mostly of stacking fault tetrahedras (SFTs), 1/2<1 1 0> perfect loops and small 1/3<1 1 1> faulted Frank loops. The ratio of SFT number density to loop number density for each irradiation condition was found to be neither temperature nor dose dependent. Under the operation of the ion beam the SFT production was very rapid, with no evidence for further growth once formed, indicating that they probably formed as a result of cascade collapse in a single cascade. The number density of the defects was found to saturate at low dose (˜0.68 dpa). No cavities were observed regardless of the irradiation temperature between 60 °C and 400 °C for doses up to 5.4 dpa. In contrast, cavities have been observed after neutron irradiation in the same material at similar doses and temperatures indicating that helium, produce during neutron irradiation, may be essential for the nucleation and growth of cavities.

  16. Application of ion-beam-analysis techniques to the study of irradiation damage in zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, L. M.; Phillips, D.; Zou, H.; Forster, J.; Siegele, R.; Davies, J. A.; Motta, A. T.; Faldowski, J. A.; Okamoto, P. R.

    1996-09-01

    Ion-beam-analysis techniques are being used to provide an understanding of the nature of collision cascades, irradiation-induced phase changes, lattice location of solute atoms and defect-solute atom interactions in various zirconium alloys. In zirconium intermetallic compounds, such as Zr 3Fe, Zr 2Fe, ZrFe 2, and Zr 3(Fe x,Ni 1 - x), electron and ion irradiations have been used to obtain detailed information on the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation occurring during the irradiation. Transmission-electron-microscopy (TEM) observations have provided information on the nature of the damage produced in individual cascades, the critical dose required for amorphization, and the critical temperature for amorphization. In a study on the electron-energy dependence of amorphization in Zr 3Fe, Zr 2Fe and ZrCr 2 in situ high-voltage-electron-microscope investigations were combined with high-energy forward-elastic-recoil measurements to yield information on the threshold displacement energies for Zr and Fe or Cr in these lattices, as well as the role of secondary displacements of lattice atoms by recoil impurities (C,O) at low electron energies. In Zr implanted with 56Fe ions and subsequently bombarded with 40Ar ions at 723 K, subsequent secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry (SIMS) analyses were used to monitor the effect of irradiation on the migration of Fe in the Zr lattice. In addition, ion-channeling investigations have been used to determine the lattice sites of solute atoms in Zr as well as the details of the interaction between the solute atoms and the irradiation-produced defects.

  17. Evolution of Crystallinity and Texturing on 120 MeV Au Ion Irradiation on NiO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, P.; Rath, Chandana; Agarwal, D. C.; Biswal, R.; Behera, D.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Satyam, P. V.; Mishra, N. C.

    2008-10-01

    NiO thin films grown on Si(100) substrate by electron beam evaporation and sintered at 500 C and 700 C were irradiated with 120 MeV 197Au9+ ions. The FCC structure of the sintered films was retained up to the highest fluence (3 l013 ions.cm-2) of irradiation. As against the expected amorphization due to ion irradiation when electronic energy loss exceeds certain threshold value, we observe an improvement of crystallinity and grain orientation at certain fluences of irradiation.

  18. Evolution of Crystallinity and Texturing on 120 MeV Au Ion Irradiation on NiO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, P.; Rath, Chandana; Agarwal, D. C.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.; Biswal, R.; Mishra, N. C.; Behera, D.; Satyam, P. V.

    2008-10-23

    NiO thin films grown on Si(100) substrate by electron beam evaporation and sintered at 500 deg. C and 700 deg. C were irradiated with 120 MeV {sup 197}Au{sup 9+} ions. The FCC structure of the sintered films was retained up to the highest fluence (3 x l0{sup 13} ions.cm{sup -2}) of irradiation. As against the expected amorphization due to ion irradiation when electronic energy loss exceeds certain threshold value, we observe an improvement of crystallinity and grain orientation at certain fluences of irradiation.

  19. Helium ion irradiation behavior of Ni-1wt.%SiCNP composite and the effect of ion flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X. L.; Huang, H. F.; Xie, R.; Thorogood, G. J.; Yang, C.; Li, Z. J.; Xu, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Silicon carbide nanoparticle-reinforced nickel metal (Ni-SiCNP composite) samples were bombarded by helium ions with fluences of 1 × 1016 and 3 × 1016 ions/cm2 at two different fluxes. The microstructural and mechanical changes were characterized via TEM and nanoindentation. Nano-scaled helium bubbles in the shape of spheres were observed in the samples irradiated at high flux and polygons at low flux. The number of helium bubbles increased with the fluence, whereas their mean size remained unaffected. In addition, the nanohardness of the damage layer also increased as the fluence increased. In addition this study suggests that a higher flux results in a higher number of smaller helium bubbles, while showing no obvious effect on the irradiation-induced hardening of the materials.

  20. Charge-exchange EUV spectroscopy in collisions of Xe{sup q+} (q=7-9) with rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Kato, D.; Murakami, I.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.

    2011-10-15

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission spectra have been measured in charge exchange collisions between Xe{sup q+} (q=7--9) and rare gases at an energy of 20 q keV. We have observed 4, 22, and 39 lines in collisions of Xe{sup 7+}, Xe{sup 8+}, and Xe{sup 9+}. Of these emission lines, four lines of Xe vii, eight lines of Xe viii, and nine lines of Xe ix correspond to newly observed transitions. The identification procedure is described in detail. The aim of this work is to obtain spectroscopic data for multiply charged Xe ions. In addition, the electron capture mechanism is also discussed using the crude classical over-the-barrier model to understand the target dependence of the emission spectra.

  1. Ne2+ Ion Irradiation Induced Swelling Effects in Pyrochlore Ho2Ti2O7 by Using a GIXRD Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Hong; Xu, Chun-Ping; Gao, Chao; Wang, Zhi-Guang

    2011-06-01

    We carry out 400 keV Ne2+ ion irradiation damage experiments at cryogenic temperature (about 77 K) on polycrystalline Ho2Ti2O7 pyrochlore. The irradiation fluences range from 2 1014 to 1.3 1015 ions/cm2, corresponding to the peak ballistic displacement damage of 0.075-0.487 in units of displacement per atom (dpa). The value indicates the statistical average of the fractional number of lattice atoms which have experienced a lattice displacement. Irradiation-induced structural evolution is examined by using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) at x-ray angles ? = 0.25 and 3. It is found that the irradiated layer is volumetrically swelled as compared with the underlying non-irradiated substrate and the volume increase in the irradiated layer is contributed mainly to the irradiated ion fluence.

  2. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Kovarik, Libor; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry

    2014-06-24

    Radionuclide 137Cs is one of the major fission products that dominate heat generation in spent fuels over the first 300 hundred years. A durable waste form for 137Cs that decays to 137Ba is needed to minimize its environmental impact. Aluminosilicate pollucite CsAlSi2O6 is selected as a model waste form to study the decay-induced structural effects. While Ba-containing precipitates are not present in charge-balanced Cs0.9Ba0.05AlSi2O6, they are found in Cs0.9Ba0.1AlSi2O6 and identified as monoclinic Ba2Si3O8. Pollucite is susceptible to electron irradiation induced amorphization. The threshold density of the electronic energy deposition for amorphization is determined to be ~235 keV/nm3. Pollucite can be readily amorphized under F+ ion irradiation at 673 K. A significant amount of Cs diffusion and release from the amorphized pollucite is observed during the irradiation. However, cesium is immobile in the crystalline structure under He+ ion irradiation at room temperature. The critical temperature for amorphization is not higher than 873 K under F+ ion irradiation. If kept at or above 873 K all the time, the pollucite structure is unlikely to be amorphized; Cs diffusion and release are improbable. A general discussion regarding pollucite as a potential waste form is provided in this report.

  3. Production and evolution of carbonaceous material by ion irradiation in space.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, G; Baratta, G A; Spinella, F

    1995-03-01

    We review recent experimental studies concerning the evolution, driven by ion irradiation, of carbonaceous material from frozen gas to a refractory molecular solid. Under further irradiation the latter changes to a polymer-like material and ultimately to amorphous carbon. Most of the results have been obtained by "in situ" and remote IR and Raman spectroscopy. The results have been applied to demonstrate that molecular solids may be easily formed by irradiation of frozen mantles in dense interstellar clouds. Polymer-like material and amorphous carbons may result by further irradiation of organic mantles on grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. Those grains, during the aggregation to form extended bodies like comets (T-Tau phase of the Sun), are further modified. These latter are also irradiated, after the comet formation, during their long stay in the Oort cloud. In particular it has been suggested that comet may develop an ion-produced cometary organic crust that laboratory evidences show to be stable against temperature increases experienced during passages near the Sun. The comparison between the Raman spectra of some IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) and the Raman spectra of some ion-produced amorphous carbons, is also discussed. PMID:11539252

  4. Structural modifications in FexCo1-x/Cu multilayers induced by ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, I. L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Amaral, L.; Alves, M. C. Martins; Flores, W. H.

    2004-08-01

    The structural evolution of Fe30Co70/Cu multilayers under ion irradiation is investigated in detail using x-ray techniques. The samples were irradiated with two different ions, 50keV of He+ and 600keV of Kr+, at room temperature. No substantial changes were observed after He+ irradiation; the He+ ions promote some disorder in the FeCo layers, an increase of the Cu (111) texture, and grain size. After Kr+ irradiation a structural phase transition from bcc to fcc occurs in the FeCo layers. A very pronounced increase of the Cu (111) texture and grain size is also observed. According to the equilibrium phase diagrams such fcc phase is not expected for the FeCo alloy at the composition of Fe30Co70. This fcc phase is imposed by the Cu fcc structure of the adjacent layers, which induce the regrowth of the FeCo layers structure from bcc to fcc during the relaxation period of the atomic collision cascades. Also, after the Kr+ irradiation a multilayer structure still persists, as showed by the x-ray reflectivity.

  5. Atomistic modeling of nanoscale patterning of L1{sub 2} order induced by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jia; Li Youhong; Averback, Robert; Zuo Jianmin; Bellon, Pascal

    2010-09-15

    Theoretical predictions indicate that ordered alloys can spontaneously develop a steady-state nanoscale microstructure when irradiated with energetic particles. This behavior derives from a dynamical competition between disordering in cascades and thermally activated reordering, which leads to self-organization of the chemical order parameter. We test this possibility by combining molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. We first generate realistic distributions of disordered zones for Ni{sub 3}Al irradiated with 70 keV He and 1 MeV Kr ions using MD and then input this data into KMC to obtain predictions of steady state microstructures as a function of the irradiation flux. Nanoscale patterning is observed for Kr ion irradiations but not for He ion irradiations. We illustrate, moreover, using image simulations of these KMC microstructures, that high-resolution transmission electron microscopy can be employed to identify nanoscale patterning. Finally, we indicate how this method could be used to synthesize functional thin films, with potential for magnetic applications.

  6. Ion irradiation of Fe-Fe oxide core-shell nanocluster films: Effect of interface on stability of magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Jiang, Weilin; Droubay, Timothy C.; Varga, Tamas; Kovarik, Libor; Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You; Burks, Edward; Liu, Kai

    2013-08-23

    A cluster deposition method was used to produce films of loosely aggregated nanoclusters (NC) of Fe core-Fe3O4 shell or fully oxidized Fe3O4. Films of these NC on Si(100) or MgO(100)/Fe3O4(100) were irradiated to 1016 Si2+/cm2 near room temperature using an ion accelerator. Ion irradiation creates structural change in the NC film with corresponding chemical and magnetic changes which depend on the initial oxidation state of the cluster. Films were characterized using magnetometry (hysteresis, first order reversal curves), microscopy (transmission electron, helium ion), and x-ray diffraction. In all cases, the particle sizes increased due to ion irradiation, and when a core of Fe is present, irradiation reduces the oxide shells to lower valent Fe species. These results show that ion irradiated behavior of the nanocluster films depends strongly on the initial nanostructure and chemistry, but in general saturation magnetization decreases slightly.

  7. Temperature dependence of the absorption saturation relaxation time in light- and heavy-ion-irradiated bulk GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, J.; Stelmakh, N.; Aniel, F.; Boucaud, P.; Lourtioz, J.-M.

    2002-06-01

    The absorption saturation relaxation time in light- and heavy-ion-irradiated GaAs saturable absorbers has been measured as a function of the temperature in the range from 7 to 300 K. For both types of samples, the relaxation time is shorter than 4 ps at 7 K. A regular increase of this time with temperature is observed for light-ion-irradiated samples, a value of 9.5 ps being reached at room temperature. In contrast, an almost temperature-independent relaxation time is found for heavy-ion-irradiated samples. The results are interpreted on the basis of a simplified relaxation model accounting for capture and emission from defect levels. We suggest that light-ion irradiation creates shallow centers whereas heavy-ion irradiation creates deep centers.

  8. Switching of the natural nanostructure in Bi2Te3 materials by ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Aabdin, Zainul; Peranio, Nicola; Eibl, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    In Bi(2)Te(3) materials the natural nanostructure (nns) with a wavelength of 10 nm can be reproducibly switched ON and OFF by Ar(+) ion irradiation at 1.5 and 1 keV. Controlled formation of the nns in Bi(2)Te(3) materials has potential for reducing its thermal conductivity and could increase the thermoelectric figure of merit. PMID:22718358

  9. In-situ Study of Nanostructure and Electrical Resistance of Nanocluster Films Irradiated with Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Weilin; Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Varga, Tamas; Bowden, Mark E.; Qiang, You; McCloy, John S.; Henager, Charles H.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2014-08-11

    An in-situ study is reported on the structural evolution in nanocluster films under He+ ion irradiation using an advanced helium ion microscope. The films consist of loosely interconnected nanoclusters of magnetite or iron-magnetite (Fe-Fe3O4) core-shells. The nanostructure is observed to undergo dramatic changes under ion-beam irradiation, featuring grain growth, phase transition, particle aggregation, and formation of nanowire-like network and nano-pores. Studies based on ion irradiation, thermal annealing and election irradiation have indicated that the major structural evolution is activated by elastic nuclear collisions, while both electronic and thermal processes can play a significant role once the evolution starts. The electrical resistance of the Fe-Fe3O4 films measured in situ exhibits a super-exponential decay with dose. The behavior suggests that the nanocluster films possess an intrinsic merit for development of an advanced online monitor for neutron radiation with both high detection sensitivity and long-term applicability, which can enhance safety measures in many nuclear operations.

  10. Modification of PEEK model compounds and PEEK film by energetic heavy ion and ultraviolet irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-10-01

    To prepare nuclear track membranes from poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) film, we first determined the modifications induced by heavy ion and UV irradiations in this polymer and two of its model compounds, paraphenoxy benzophenone (PPB) and diphenoxy benzophenone (DPB). This article displays the first results obtained by SEC, HPLC, DSC, FTIR, UV and 13C NMR.

  11. Carbon Ion Irradiation Inhibits Glioma Cell Migration Through Downregulation of Integrin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Wuerth, Lena; Brons, Stephan; Mohr, Angela; Lindel, Katja; Weber, Klaus; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of carbon ion irradiation on glioma cell migration. Methods and Materials: U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were irradiated with photons and carbon ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after irradiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed in order to quantify surface expression of integrins. Results: Single photon doses of 2 Gy and 10 Gy enhanced {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 5} integrin expression and caused tumor cell hypermigration on both vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn). Compared to integrin expression in unirradiated cells, carbon ion irradiation caused decreased integrin expression and inhibited cell migration on both Vn and Fn. Conclusion: Photon radiotherapy (RT) enhances the risk of tumor cell migration and subsequently promotes locoregional spread via photon induction of integrin expression. In contrast to photon RT, carbon ion RT causes decreased integrin expression and suppresses glioma cell migration on both Vn and Fn, thus promising improved local control.

  12. The effect of Argon ion irradiation on the thickness and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon films synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) exhibit a layered structure consisting of a bottom (interface) and a top (surface) layer rich in sp2 atomic carbon bonding and a middle (bulk) layer of much higher sp3 content. Because of significant differences in the composition, structure, and thickness of these layers, decreasing the film thickness may negatively affect its properties. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to examine the effect of Ar+ ion irradiation on the structure and thickness of ultrathin films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) deposited by PECVD and FCVA, respectively. The TEM and EELS results show that 2-min ion irradiation decreases the film thickness without markedly changing the film structure and composition, whereas 4-min ion irradiation results in significant film thinning and a moderate decrease of the sp3 content of the bulk layer. This study demonstrates that Ar+ ion irradiation is an effective post-deposition process for reducing the thickness and tuning the structure of ultrathin carbon films. This capability has direct implications in the synthesis of ultrathin protective carbon overcoats for extremely high-density magnetic recording applications.

  13. The kinetics of point defects in metals under ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeeva, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Modeling an irradiation process of a copper plate for studying the formation and evolution of point defects, that are vacancies and interstitials, is presented in this work. The point defects formation energies were estimated for fcc Cu using molecular dynamics simulation. These values were applied at calculations of atomic concentrations of vacancies and interstitials by numerically decision of kinetic equations. The results of molecular dynamics simulation showed that the interstitial formation energy is more than the vacancy formation energy. These values are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The results of calculations of atomic concentrations of defects confirmed that interstitials are more mobile and their absorption by stocks is more intense.

  14. Theoretical simulation of electron-beam-excited xenon-chloride (XeCl) lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kannari, F.; Fujioka, T.; Obara, M.; Suda, A.

    1983-10-01

    By developing a comprehensive computer code for e-beam excited XeCl lasers, the authors studied mainly the effect of Ar and Ne diluents on the performance characteristics of XeCl lasers. According to the analysis of the XeCl* formation process, the XeCl* relaxation process, and the 308 nm absorption process, it is found that the XeCl* formation efficiency is determined mainly by the rate of the charge transfer process (from Ar/sup +/ and Ne/sup +/ diluent ions to Xe/sup +/); in other words, by the difference between ionic potentials of Xe and the diluent gas used. The extraction efficiency is found to be decided mainly by the quenching rate of a three-body reaction for a short-pulse (55 ns) and a high-excitation-rate (about 3 MW/cm/sup 3/) pumping, and by the absorption process for a long-pulse (500 ns) and a low-excitation-rate (about 0.2 MW/cm/sup 3/) pumping. However, no appreciable difference in the intrinsic efficiency is found between the Ar/Xe/HCl and Ne/Xe/HCl mixtures. The authors also analyzed the dependence of the intrinsic XeCl laser efficiency on the pumping pulse width and excitation rate for Ar/Xe/HCl and Ne/Xe/HCl mixtures. As a result, the same intrinsic efficiencies are obtainable for both Ar- and Ne-based mixtures although the optimum operating conditions are slightly different. The maximum intrinsic efficiency of 5 percent is obtainable both for the Ar/Xe/HCl mixture at 3 atm and with 1.5 MW/cm/sup 3/, 200 ns (FWHM) pumping and for the Ne/Xe/HCl mixture at 4 atm and with 2 MW/cm/sup 3/, 200 ns (FWHM) pumping.

  15. TEM investigation on the microstructural evolution of Hastelloy N induced by Ar? ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Lu, Yanling; Liu, Renduo; Zhou, Xingtai

    2014-02-01

    Hastelloy N alloy has been selected as the primary structure material for molten salt reactor. In this article, Hastelloy N alloy samples were irradiated to different doses at room temperature using 300 keV Ar(+) ions. The microstructural evolution was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Black dot defects emerged in sample irradiated at low dose (0.4 displacement per atom (dpa)), and they grew up with irradiation doses (0.4-2 dpa). A high density of small dislocation loops (nano meters in size) were observed in the sample irradiated to 4 dpa. When the ion dose increased to 12 dpa, complicated structures with defects (including dislocation lines, larger loops and smaller black dots) were observed. Dislocation networks were detected from high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) images. Larger dislocation loops (size: 30-80 nm) were visible in the sample irradiated to 40 dpa. Irradiation with dose of 120 dpa led to the formation of face-centered cubic nanocrystallites with preferred orientations. PMID:24285574

  16. Kr implantation into heavy ion irradiated monolithic U-Mo/Al systems: SIMS and SEM investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweifel, T.; Valle, N.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Beck, L.; Petry, W.

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, high performance research and material test reactors are aiming to convert their fuel from high enriched uranium towards low enriched ones. High density U-Mo/Al based nuclear fuels are considered as a promising candidate for this conversion. However, during in-pile test irradiations, the formation of an interdiffusion layer (IDL) between the U-Mo and the Al matrix is observed, caused by irradiation enhanced U-Al interdiffusion processes. This IDL accumulates fission gases at the IDL/matrix interfaces. Together, these two effects strongly reduce the performance of this new fuel type. Recently, the out-of-pile technique of heavy ion irradiation (127I) on U-Mo/Al layer systems proved to be an alternative to time-consuming in-pile test irradiations for certain fuel behaviour aspects. Here we present SIMS and SEM investigations of non-conventional 82Kr implantation into previously heavy ion irradiated U-Mo/Al layer systems. It is shown that Kr accumulates inside μm large porosities at the IDL/matrix interfaces. This critical accumulation of μm-sized large gas bubbles is directly related to the presence of the irradiation induced IDL. Without IDL no critical accumulation of fission gas bubbles occurs.

  17. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis

    2010-09-10

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  18. Effects of heavy-ion irradiations in K-doped BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, F.; Taen, T.; Pyon, S.; Tamegai, T.; Okayasu, S.; Kambara, T.; Kitamura, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report the effects of heavy-ion irradiation in (Ba0.6K0.4)Fe2As2 single crystals including its dose dependence. We found that the suppression of Tc is weak up to a certain dose of irradiation. Critical current density (Jc) under self-field is strongly enhanced up to 15 MA cm-2 at 2 K by the introduction of defects through irradiations with different energies and ion species. This upper limit is in agreement with the previous report for that in cuprate superconductors. The dose dependence of Jc follows BΦ1/2, which can be explained by the simple scenario on the interaction between a driven vortex and discontinuous columnar defects.

  19. Titanium nitride formation at low energy Ar ion bombardment and UV-light irradiation during deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, J.W.; Wengenmair, H.; Stritzker, B.; Rauschenbach, B.

    1996-12-31

    Titanium nitride films were produced by a newly developed photon and ion beam assisted deposition system (PHIBAD system). With an electron beam evaporator titanium was deposited on silicon substrates in a controlled nitrogen environment. The growing {delta}-TiN films were bombarded with argon ions and illuminated with UV-light. The results demonstrate that the impurity content, the nitrogen to titanium ratio of the films, the microstructure and the crystal alignment are changed using UV-light irradiation during ion assisted deposition.

  20. The first narrow-band XeCl-excilamp application for complex psoriasis curing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitruck, Vadim S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Obgol'tz, Irina A.

    2006-05-01

    Clinical efficiency estimation of XeCl-excilamp application for psoriasis curing in comparison with other methods of phototherapy for has been carried out for the first time. Curing psoriasis by XeCl-excilamp assistance is shown to be an effective and present-date method. Such a phototherapy advantages suggested are the good tolerance, and absence of intact skin irradiation. The use of chemicals is no longer relevant, and the total doze of irradiation happens to be rather low.

  1. In situ MeV ion beam analysis of ceramic surfaces modified by 100-400 keV ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.; Yu, N.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes use of the in situ ion beam analysis facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the study of irradiation effects in ceramic materials. In this facility, an analytical beamline of 3 MV tandem accelerator and an irradiation bean-dine of 200 kV ion implanter are connected at 60{degrees} to a common target chamber. This facility provides a fast, efficient, and quantitative measurement tool to monitor changes of composition and crystallinity of materials irradiated by 100-400 keV ions, through sequential measurement of backscattering events of MeV ions combined with ion channeling techniques. We will describe the details of the in situ ion beam analysis and ion irradiation and discuss some of the important issues and their solutions associated with the in situ experiment. These issues include (1) the selection of axial ion channeling direction for the measurement of radiation damage; (2) surface charging and charge collection for data acquisition; (3) surface sputtering during ion irradiation; (4) the effects of MeV analytical beam on the materials; and (5) the sample heating effect on ion beam analysis.

  2. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura (Ogawa), Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-07-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 ?A/cm2, protrusions were formed with a density between 2 107/cm2 and 2 108/cm2. However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 102/cm2. Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of Cdbnd C bonds as well as -COOH, -Cdbnd O, and -OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions.

  3. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I⩾1/2 nuclei is presented. PMID:21051249

  4. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant activity and biocompatibility of polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Konwar, B. K.

    2010-04-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers doped with HCl and CSA have been irradiated with 90 MeV O7 + ions with fluence of 3 1010, 3 1011 and 1 1012 ions cm - 2. TEM micrographs show a decrease in the fiber diameter with increasing irradiation fluence, which has been explained on the basis of the Coulomb explosion model. XRD analysis reveals a decrease in the crystalline domain length and an increase in the strain. The increase in d-spacing for the (100) reflection with increasing irradiation fluence is ascribed to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from micro-Raman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit blue-shift in the absorption bands attributed to ?-?* band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size after SHI irradiation; as also observed in TEM micrographs. Micro-Raman spectra also reveal a transition from the benzenoid to quinoid structures in the PAni chain as the fluence is increased. Although the quinoid unit has no hydrogen for DPPH scavenging, the antioxidant activity of PAni nanofibers is found to increase with increasing fluence. This has been attributed to the availability of more reaction sites as a result of fragmentation of the PAni nanofibers which compensates for the benzenoid to quinoid transition after irradiation. The biocompatibility of the PAni nanofibers is also found to increase with increasing irradiation fluence, indicating the possibility of employing swift heavy ion irradiation as an effective technique in order to modify conducting polymer nanostructures for biomedical applications.

  5. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced enhancement in the antioxidant activity and biocompatibility of polyaniline nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P; Konwar, B K

    2010-04-30

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers doped with HCl and CSA have been irradiated with 90 MeV O(7+) ions with fluence of 3 x 10(10), 3 x 10(11) and 1 x 10(12) ions cm(-2). TEM micrographs show a decrease in the fiber diameter with increasing irradiation fluence, which has been explained on the basis of the Coulomb explosion model. XRD analysis reveals a decrease in the crystalline domain length and an increase in the strain. The increase in d-spacing for the (100) reflection with increasing irradiation fluence is ascribed to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from micro-Raman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit blue-shift in the absorption bands attributed to pi-pi* band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size after SHI irradiation; as also observed in TEM micrographs. Micro-Raman spectra also reveal a transition from the benzenoid to quinoid structures in the PAni chain as the fluence is increased. Although the quinoid unit has no hydrogen for DPPH scavenging, the antioxidant activity of PAni nanofibers is found to increase with increasing fluence. This has been attributed to the availability of more reaction sites as a result of fragmentation of the PAni nanofibers which compensates for the benzenoid to quinoid transition after irradiation. The biocompatibility of the PAni nanofibers is also found to increase with increasing irradiation fluence, indicating the possibility of employing swift heavy ion irradiation as an effective technique in order to modify conducting polymer nanostructures for biomedical applications. PMID:20357408

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiation of a-Si/Fe/c-Si trilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, K.; Lieb, K. P.; Milinovic, V.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2006-09-01

    Si/Fe/Si trilayers, with 12 nm amorphous Si and 45 nm polycrystalline Fe films deposited on Si(100) wafers, were irradiated with 350 MeV Au{sup 26+} ions at fluences of (0.6-11.3)x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion-induced modifications of their structural and magnetic properties were characterized by means of Rutherford backscattering, glancing angle x-ray diffractometry, and the magneto-optical Kerr effect. The mixing rate at the upper a-Si/Fe interface was three times as high as that at the lower Fe/c-Si interface. A simple formula is proposed, which on the basis of (nuclear) thermal-spike mixing reproduces the observed (electronic) mixing rates. Ion irradiation at a moderate fluence (6.7x10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}) induced a magnetic anisotropy in the sample, which was magnetically isotropic after deposition. At the highest fluence, full interface mixing occurred and the magnetic anisotropy almost disappeared. The results are compared with those obtained in Fe/Si and Ni/Si bilayers ion irradiated in the regimes of nuclear and electronic stopping.

  7. Amorphization and recrystallization of single-crystalline hydrogen titanate nanowires by N{sup +} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Akshaya K.; Bandyopadyay, Malay K.; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Facsko, Stefan; Das, Siddhartha

    2014-06-21

    We report on the phase transformation of hydrogen titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}) nanowires induced by 50?keV N{sup +} ion irradiation at room temperature with fluences of 1??10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1??10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Using transmission electron microscopy, the internal structure of the ion irradiated nanowires is analyzed. At low fluence, a transformation from crystalline H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} to amorphous TiO{sub 2} is observed. However, at higher fluence, a remarkable crystalline-amorphous TiO{sub 2} core-shell structure is formed. At this higher fluence, the recrystallization occurs in the core of the nanowire and the outer layer remains amorphous. The phase transformation and formation of core-shell structure are explained using the thermal spike model, radiation enhanced diffusion, and classical theory of nucleation and growth under non-equilibrium thermodynamics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering reveal further insight into the structure of the nanowires before and after ion irradiation.

  8. Oxygen diffusion and oxide phase formation in iron under swift heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roller, Tobias; Bolse, Wolfgang

    2007-02-01

    While irradiating thin iron films deposited on silicon wafers with swift heavy ions in the energy range of a few MeV/amu, we have observed that the iron surface oxidizes due to the residual oxygen in the irradiation chamber, induced by the energy deposition by the ion. We have investigated these processes in detail using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. We found that two different types of oxidation processes were active, depending on the electronic energy loss of the incident ions. Irradiations above the track formation threshold S{sub ec}{sup Fe} of iron resulted in diffusion-controlled dissolution of oxygen in the iron bulk. Below S{sub ec}{sup Fe}, but above the track formation threshold of iron oxide, chemical reaction and homogeneous oxide phase formation took place in a surface layer, while almost no oxygen diffusion into the iron bulk could be observed anymore. These phenomena are discussed in terms of the oxygen mobility in the excited ion tracks in iron and iron oxide. The effective diffusion constant estimated for swift heavy ion induced oxygen diffusion in iron is larger by a factor of 100-1000 than the one reported for thermally activated oxygen diffusion in molten iron.

  9. Planar patterned media fabricated by ion irradiation into CrPt{sub 3} ordered alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Iwata, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Tsunashima, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Morikawa, T.; Ozaki, K.

    2009-04-01

    Planar patterned media using CrPt{sub 3} ordered alloy films were fabricated by Ar{sup +} or Kr{sup +} ion irradiation through nanoimprinted or electron beam lithography made masks. CrPt{sub 3} ordered alloy film on fused quartz substrate exhibits a large perpendicular anisotropy of 5x10{sup 6} erg/cc and a large coercivity of 12 kOe, and we found that its magnetic order (magnetization) was completely suppressed by a quite low Ar{sup +} or Kr{sup +} ion dose of about 1-2x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. Magnetic force microscope image of the ion-beam patterned CrPt{sub 3} with a bit size of 90x90 nm showed clear magnetic contrast in nonirradiated regions, while no magnetic contrast in irradiated regions. The read-back waveform taken from an ion-beam patterned CrPt{sub 3} disk with 600 nm patterning pitch showed sharp signal transition between irradiated and nonirradiated regions, which indicates the possibility of high-density planar patterned media using CrPt{sub 3} ordered alloy.

  10. Irradiation response in titanium modified austenitic stainless steels prepared by rapid solidification processing. Part II: Dual ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, C. H.; Imeson, D.; Megusar, J.; Vander Sande, J. B.; Grant, N. J.; Harling, O. K.

    1984-05-01

    Dual ion irradiations have been performed on Path A PCA and other alloys with increased titanium and carbon content, prepared by rapid solidification processing. Comparison with the neutron response shows many points of similarity. The effect of the amount of Ti and C included, and its initial distribution, is investigated, as is the difference between fully processed material, including consolidation by hot-extrusion, and the as-rapidly-solidified alloy. It is shown that increased TiC content can be effective in controlling swelling both directly, and by increasing the microstructural stability.

  11. Observation of c-component dislocation structures formed in pure Zr and Zr-base alloy by self-ion accelerator irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Susumu; Kameyama, Takanori

    2012-03-01

    The microstructures of pure Zr and Zr-base alloy (Zircaloy-2) irradiated with Zr ions (self-ions) were studied by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the c-component dislocation structures formed in neutron-irradiated Zircaloy-2 can also be obtained by self-ion irradiation. This technique can be used to simulate neutron irradiation and is thus expected to deepen our understanding of irradiation damage in pure Zr and Zr-base alloys.

  12. Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L.; Zhao, Z. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Yuan, Y.; Morgan, T. W.; Guo, L. P.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Lu, G. H.

    2016-02-01

    Impurity seeding of noble gases is an effective way of decreasing the heat loads onto the divertor targets in fusion devices. To investigate the effect of noble gases on deuterium retention, tungsten targets have been implanted by different noble gas ions and subsequently exposed to deuterium plasma. Irradiation induced defects and deuterium retention in tungsten targets have been characterized by positron annihilation Doppler broadening and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Similar defect distributions are observed in tungsten irradiated by neon and argon, while it is comparatively low in the case of helium. The influence of helium pre-irradiation on deuterium trapping is found to be small based on the desorption spectrum compared with that of the pristine one. Neon and argon pre-irradiation leads to an enhancement of deuterium trapping during plasma exposure. The influence on deuterium retention is found to be argon > neon > helium when comparing at a similar crystal damage level.

  13. Ion beam irradiation of embedded nanoparticles: Toward an in situ control of size and spatial distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Rizza, G.; Cheverry, H.; Gacoin, T.; Lamasson, A.; Henry, S.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix promotes the formation of a halo of satellites around the original cluster. We show that the complete dissolution of the nanoparticles (NC) results in the formation of a narrow size distribution of small precipitates with a mean size of 2 nm and a standard deviation of 0.4 nm. By combining the chemical synthesis of the nanoparticles and the irradiation to induce their dissolution and precipitation, we give a guideline method for overcoming the difficulty of controlling the size and spatial distribution of the embedded NC associated with ion implantation technique. In particular, we showed that the irradiation can be used to tailor the size of the already formed NC. Moreover, we establish that the satellites cluster evolution under irradiation can be described by a two step process. These two steps are discussed in terms of classical and inverse Ostwald ripening mechanisms.

  14. Inactivation, DNA double strand break induction and their rejoining in bacterial cells irradiated with heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M.; Zimmermann, H.; Schmitz, C.

    1994-01-01

    Besides inactivation one of the major interests in our experiments is to study the primary damage in the DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after heavy ion irradiation. These damages lead not only to cell death but also under repair activities to mutations. In further experiments we have investigated the inactivation with two different strains of Deinococcus radiodurans (R1, Rec 30) and the induction of DSB as well as the rejoining of DSB in stationary cells of E. coli (strain B/r) irradiated with radiations of different quality. In the latter case irradiations were done so that the cell survival was roughly at the same level. We measured the DSB using the pulse field gelelectrophoresis which allows to separate between intact (circular) and damaged (linear) DNA. The irradiated cells were transferred to NB medium and incubated for different times to allow rejoining.

  15. Formation and evolution of ripples on ion-irradiated semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, M.; Wu, J. H.; Ye, W.; Jiang, Y.; Robb, E. A.; Chen, C.; Goldman, R. S.

    2014-02-03

    We have examined the formation and evolution of ripples on focused-ion-beam (FIB) irradiated compound semiconductor surfaces. Using initially normal-incidence Ga{sup +} FIB irradiation of InSb, we tuned the local beam incidence angle (?{sub eff}) by varying the pitch and/or dwell time. For single-pass FIB irradiation, increasing ?{sub eff} induces morphological evolution from pits and islands to ripples to featureless surfaces. Multiple-pass FIB irradiation of the rippled surfaces at a fixed ?{sub eff} leads to island formation on the ripple crests, followed by nanorod (NR) growth. This ripple-NR transition provides an alternative approach for achieving dense arrays of NRs.

  16. Inactivation, DNA double strand break induction and their rejoining in bacterial cells irradiated with heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, M.; Zimmermann, H.; Schmitz, C.

    1994-12-31

    Besides inactivation one of the major interests in the authors experiments is to study the primary damage in the DNA double strand breaks (DSB) after heavy ion irradiation. These damages lead not only to cell death but also under repair activities to mutations. In further experiments they have investigated the inactivation with two different strains of Deinococcus radiodurans (R1, Rec 30) and the induction of DSB as well as the rejoining of DSB in stationary cells of E. coli (strain B/r) irradiated with radiations of different quality. In the latter case irradiations were done so that the cell survival was roughly at the same level. The authors measured the DSB using the pulse field gelelectrophoresis which allows to separate between intact (circular) and damaged (linear) DNA. The irradiated cells were transferred to NB medium and incubated for different times to allow rejoining.

  17. Magnetic stability of He+ ion irradiated FeO+Fe3N granular films

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararajan, J. A.; Zhang, Dongtao; Qiang, You; Jiang, Weilin; McCloy, John S.

    2011-04-01

    Ion irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of FeO/Fe3N (Iron oxide/Iron Nitride) nanoparticles are investigated in this study. The FeO/Fe3N nanoparticles were prepared using a nanocluster deposition system. The x-ray diffraction data confirms the presence of FeO and Fe3N compounds in the prepared nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization (30 emu/g), coercivity (87.9 Oe) and remanence (3.2 emu/g) of these nanoparticles remain unaltered after irradiation with 2 MeV He+ ions to a fluence of 3E15 ions/cm2 at room temperature, indicating that the magnetic properties of these nanoparticles are not affected in a highly radioactive environment. This unique property of the magnetic stability may provide promising applications for advanced data storage.

  18. Effects of ion beam irradiation on the crystallization of copper films

    SciTech Connect

    Hishita, Shunichi; Oyoshi, Keiji; Suehara, Shigeru; Aizawa, Takashi

    1996-12-31

    Radiation effects of 2 MeV Ar{sup +} ions on the crystallization of copper films were investigated with or without oxygen adsorption. Metal copper films of 1--5 nm thickness deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} (100) at 300 K by evaporation consisted of fine crystals with random orientation. The crystals were grown without epitaxial relationship to the substrate by ion irradiation. The epitaxial growth of copper crystals was achieved by the combined use of oxygen adsorption and ion irradiation. The epitaxial relationship between the film and the substrate was determined Cu (100){parallel}SrTiO{sub 3} (100) and Cu [001]{parallel}SrTiO{sub 3} [001].

  19. Formation of carbon nanostructures containing single-crystalline cobalt carbides by ion irradiation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yusop, Zamri; Ghosh, Pradip; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a diameter of 17 nm, and carbon nanoneedles (CNNs) with sharp tips have been synthesized on graphite substrates by ion irradiation of argon ions with the Co supplies rate of 1 and 3.4 nm/min, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, combined with selected area electron diffraction patterns has been used to identify the chemical composition and crystallinity of these carbon nanostructures. The CNFs were found to be amorphous in nature, while the structures of the CNNs consisted of cubic CoCx, orthorhombic Co2C and Co3C depending on the cobalt content in the CNNs. The diameter of the carbide crystals was almost as large as the diameter of the CNN. Compared to the ion-induced nickel carbides and iron carbides, the formation of single-crystalline cobalt carbides might be due to the high temperature produced by the irradiation.

  20. Energy spike induced effects in MeV ion-irradiated nanoislands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpati, B.; Goswami, D. K.; Vaishnav, U. D.; Som, T.; Dev, B. N.; Satyam, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have been used to study the modification of Au nanoislands, grown on silicon substrates under high vacuum condition by MeV self-ion irradiation. Upon irradiation with 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ions, interesting observations were found for the nanoislands in comparison with continuous films: (i) higher probability of crater formation, (ii) larger sputtered particle size as well as coverage and (iii) enhanced sputtering yield. Crater formation has been studied as a function of impact angle at a fluence of 1 10 14 ions cm -2 and we found that crater formation is prominent at high impact angles (i.e. at glancing angle geometry). AFM has been used to determine the crater formation, TEM to study the sputtered particles as well as craters and RBS has been used to determine the sputtering yield from the nanoisland and continuous films.

  1. Mechanisms of nanorod growth on focused-ion-beam-irradiated semiconductor surfaces: Role of redeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J. H.; Goldman, R. S.

    2012-01-30

    We have examined the formation and evolution of irradiation-induced nanorod (NR) growth through a comparison of focused-ion-beam irradiation of InSb wafers and InSb/GaAs heterostructures. Above a critical ion dose, cone-shaped NRs capped with In islands form on both InSb surfaces. For InSb wafers, the NR base diameter increases with ion energy. In the case of InSb/GaAs heterostructures, as the milled depth approaches the InSb/GaAs interface, the cone-shaped NRs transition to capless NRs with a truncated cone shape. These results suggest a growth mechanism in which both the NR cap and body are supplied by redeposition of atoms sputtered from InSb.

  2. Influence of dispersion of ion irradiation D + on distribution of deuterium in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopova, G. A.; Arbuzov, V. L.

    2016-02-01

    In single crystals of titanium was studied deuterium segregation induced by ion irradiation. Segregation created at room temperature deuterium ion implantation energy of 700 keV and analyzed by the nuclear reaction D (d, p) T. During the experiment changed the duration of continuous exposure and the duration of stops. It was found that with increasing radiation dose continuous average concentration of the implant in the irradiated volume gradually increases. It has been found that a long interruption of ion bombardment leads to an abrupt increase of the concentration. Analysis of the depth distribution of deuterium showed that during stopping the accumulation of radiation near the surface of the implant due to the redistribution of the target volume. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the evolution of the defect structure of the target in the course of continuous exposure and stop time of implantation.

  3. Reorientation of the crystalline planes in confined single crystal nickel nanorods induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Abha; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Rai, Padmnabh; Misra, D. S.; Ghatak, Jay; Satyam, P. V.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2006-08-01

    In a recent letter Tyagi et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253110 (2005)] have reported the special orientation of nickel planes inside multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with respect to the tube axis. Heavy ion irradiation has been performed with 1.5MeV Au2+ and 100MeV Au7+ ions on these nickel filled MWCNTs at fluences ranging from 1012to1015ions/cm2 at room temperature. Ion-induced modifications have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diffraction pattern and the lattice imaging showed the presence of ion-induced planar defects on the tube walls and completely amorphized encapsulated nickel nanorods. The results are discussed in terms of thermal spike model.

  4. Temporal evolution of nanoporous layer in off-normally ion irradiated GaSb

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, D. P.; Garg, S. K.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sahoo, P. K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-03-28

    Room temperature irradiation of GaSb by 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ions at an oblique incidence of 60° leads to simultaneous formation of a nanoporous layer and undulations at the interface with the underlying substrate. Interestingly, with increasing ion fluence, a gradual embedding of the dense nanoporous layer takes place below ridge-like structures (up to the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}), which get extended to form a continuous layer (at fluences ≥4 × 10{sup 17} ions cm{sup −2}). Systematic compositional analyses reveal the co-existence of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the surface layer. The results are discussed in terms of a competition between ion-induced defect accumulation and re-deposition of sputtered atoms on the surface.

  5. Photosynthetic Effect in Selenastrum capricornutum Progeny after Carbon-Ion Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Li, Xin; Lu, Dong; Du, Yan; Ma, Liang; Li, Wenjian; Chen, Jihong; Li, Fuli; Fan, Yong; Hu, Guangrong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of mutants with altered pigment features have been obtained via exposure to heavy-ion beams, a technique that is efficient for trait improvement in the breeding of plants and algae. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which the photosynthetic pigments are altered by heavy-ion irradiation. In our study, the photosynthetic characteristics of progenies from carbon-ion irradiated Selenastrum capricornutum were investigated. Five progenies deficient in chlorophyll a were isolated after carbon-ion exposure. Photosynthetic characteristics, photoprotection capacity and gene expression of the light-harvesting complex in these progenies were further characterized by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ?PSII, NPQ, ETR), the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, the amount of lutein and quantitative real-time PCR. High maximum quantum yield of photosystem II at day 10 and high thermal dissipation ability were observed in progenies #23 and #37 under normal culture condition. Progenies #18, #19 and #20 showed stronger resistance against high levels of light steps than the control group (612-1077 ?mol photons m -2 s -1, p< 0.05). The progenies #20 and #23 exhibited strong photoprotection by thermal dissipation and quenching of 3Chl* after 24 h of high light treatment. The mRNA levels of Lhcb5, Lhcbm5 and Lhcbm1 of the light-harvesting complex revealed markedly differential expression in the five progenies irradiated by carbon-ion beams. This work indicates that photosynthetic efficiency, photoprotection ability and the expression of light-harvesting antennae in unicellular green algae can be markedly influenced by irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in the photosynthetic pigments of green algae after treatment with carbon-ion beams. PMID:26919351

  6. Photosynthetic Effect in Selenastrum capricornutum Progeny after Carbon-Ion Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Li, Xin; Lu, Dong; Du, Yan; Ma, Liang; Li, Wenjian; Chen, Jihong; Li, Fuli; Fan, Yong; Hu, Guangrong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of mutants with altered pigment features have been obtained via exposure to heavy-ion beams, a technique that is efficient for trait improvement in the breeding of plants and algae. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which the photosynthetic pigments are altered by heavy-ion irradiation. In our study, the photosynthetic characteristics of progenies from carbon-ion irradiated Selenastrum capricornutum were investigated. Five progenies deficient in chlorophyll a were isolated after carbon-ion exposure. Photosynthetic characteristics, photoprotection capacity and gene expression of the light-harvesting complex in these progenies were further characterized by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ФPSII, NPQ, ETR), the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, the amount of lutein and quantitative real-time PCR. High maximum quantum yield of photosystem II at day 10 and high thermal dissipation ability were observed in progenies #23 and #37 under normal culture condition. Progenies #18, #19 and #20 showed stronger resistance against high levels of light steps than the control group (612–1077 μmol photons m -2 s -1, p< 0.05). The progenies #20 and #23 exhibited strong photoprotection by thermal dissipation and quenching of 3Chl* after 24 h of high light treatment. The mRNA levels of Lhcb5, Lhcbm5 and Lhcbm1 of the light-harvesting complex revealed markedly differential expression in the five progenies irradiated by carbon-ion beams. This work indicates that photosynthetic efficiency, photoprotection ability and the expression of light-harvesting antennae in unicellular green algae can be markedly influenced by irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in the photosynthetic pigments of green algae after treatment with carbon-ion beams. PMID:26919351

  7. XeCl laser treatment of polyethersulfone membrane in the air and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Panah, A.; Pazokian, H.; Mollabashi, M.; Barzin, J.

    2015-03-01

    XeCl laser irradiation of Polyethersulfone membranes in air and water were done. The irradiated surface were modified chemically or morphologically depends on the laser parameters and the mediums in which irradiation is done. The results in improving the surface hydrophilicity and biocompatibility for the biological applications were compared.

  8. Microstructural evolution of P92 ferritic/martensitic steel under argon ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, S.X.; Guo, L.P.; Yang, Z.; Fu, D.J.; Liu, C.S.; Tang, R.; Liu, F.H.; Qiao, Y.X.; Zhang, H.D.

    2011-01-15

    Microstructural evolution of P92 ferritic/martensitic steel irradiated by Ar{sup +} ion beams at doses from 0.6 to 230 displacements per atom (dpa) at room temperature was investigated with conventional transmission electron microscope technique. Selected-area electron diffraction combined with bright-field and dark-field contrast image indicated that carbide/matrix interfaces were more easily damaged. The carbide peripheries became partly amorphous at irradiation dose of 2.3 dpa and were almost complete amorphous at the dose of 11.5 dpa. The small carbides would re-precipitate in matrices at 34.5 dpa. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed that segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides occurred under irradiation. With the irradiation dose increasing, the irradiation induced segregation and depletion became more severe, which would influence mechanical properties of the steel. - Research Highlights: {yields} Carbide/matrix interfaces in P92 ferritic/martensitic steel were easily damaged. {yields} Small carbides re-precipitated in matrices after higher dose irradiation. {yields} Segregation of Cr and W and depletion of Fe in carbides occurred after irradiation.

  9. A reorbiter for large GEO debris objects using ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Shoji; Hayakawa, Yukio; Kawamoto, Satomi

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, space debris problems have become very serious. The worst case occurs in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region, where debris-to-debris collisions generate new debris. The situation in the geostationary orbit (GEO) region is not as bad as that in the LEO. The debris problem in the GEO region, however, should not be left as it is because the GEO is unique and has few debris-cleansing modes. Thus, we proposed a concept for a reorbiter to reorbit large GEO debris objects such as satellites and rocket upper stages left in orbit after the ends of their missions. This concept is based on the idea of thrusting a debris object by irradiating it with an ion beam. The reorbiter, equipped with two ion engines, approaches a debris object, and the ion beam exhausted from one of the ion engines irradiates and thrusts it to change its orbit. The other engine on the opposite side is operated so that the reorbiter follows the debris object. Their orbits are raised in a spiral to a disposal orbit approximately 300 km higher. After that, the reorbiter returns to GEO to approach another debris object. This system can operate without catching debris objects; thus, it can be applied to a wide range of debris objects without regard to their shapes or rotations. A mission scenario was made to conduct efficient maneuvers. In the GEO region, a number of debris objects are distributed on orbit planes close to each other, and they can be reorbited one after another using a single reorbiter. For a typical model mission, the mission time and the total impulse of the ion engines were calculated. The results show that six debris objects can be reorbited in 170 days. The reorbiter has a targeted launch mass of 2500 kg and 6.9 kW of total power. The ion beam convergence, the effects of ion beam irradiation, and non-cooperative rendezvous were recognized as the critical issues of this system. A highly converged beam is required to make efficient debris irradiation. Numerical calculations and basic experiments gave a feasibility of the required irradiation efficiency of over 25%. The irradiation of debris objects may cause sputtering of their surfaces and depositions of the back-sputtered materials on the reorbiter surface. The data were obtained experimentally to evaluate the effects of the depositions, especially on solar cells. The results indicated no serious contamination problems. Preliminary studies were conducted on the approach to an uncollaborative object and the maintenance of the separation distance.

  10. Phase transformations in Ln2O3 materials irradiated with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Cameron L.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-11-01

    Phase transformations induced in the cubic C-type lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = Sm, Gd, Ho, Tm, and Lu), by dense electronic excitation are investigated. The structural modifications resulting from exposure to beams of 185 MeV Xe and 2246 MeV Au ions are characterized using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The formation of a B-type polymorph, an X-type nonequilibrium phase, and an amorphous phase are observed. The specific phase formed and the transformation rate show dependence on the material composition, as well as the ion beam mass and energy. Atomistic mechanisms for these transformations are determined, indicating that formation of the B-type phase results from the production of anti-Frenkel defects and the aggregation of anion vacancies into planar clusters, whereas formation of the X-type and amorphous phases requires extensive displacement of both anions and cations. The observed variations in phase behavior with changing lanthanide ionic radius and deposited electronic energy density are related to the energetics of these transformation mechanisms.

  11. Xe-implanted zirconium oxycarbide studied by variable energy positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djourelov, N.; Gutierrez, G.; Marinov, H.; Popov, E.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Pipon, Y.; Ndlec, P.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of annealing on defects and the formation of Xe bubbles were investigated in zirconium oxycarbide implanted with 800-keV 136Xe 2+ ions at two fluences 1 10 15 and 1 10 16 Xe/cm 2. Doppler broadening technique combined with slow positron beam was used. The analysis of the S depth profiles and S- W maps revealed that in the as-implanted samples at both fluences Xe bubbles are not formed. The post-implantation annealing of the samples implanted at 1 10 16 Xe/cm 2 caused formation of Xe bubbles. The response of the lower implantation dose samples to this post implantation annealing was found rather complicated and is discussed.

  12. Effects of high energy Au-ion irradiation on the microstructure of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shih-Show; Chen, Huang-Chin; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lin, I-Nan; Chang, Ching-Lin; Lee, Chi-Young; Guo Jinghua

    2013-03-21

    The effects of 2.245 GeV Au-ion irradiation and subsequent annealing processes on the evolution of microstructure of diamond films with microcrystalline (MCD) or ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) granular structure were investigated, using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy loss spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopy. For MCD films, the Au-ion irradiation disintegrated some of the diamond grains, resulting in the formation of nano-sized carbon clusters embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon (a-C). The annealing process recrystallized the diamond grains and converted the a-C into nano-sized graphite particulates and, at the same time, induced the formation of nano-sized i-carbon clusters, the bcc structured carbon with a{sub 0} = 0.432 nm. In contrast, for UNCD films, the Au-ion irradiation transformed the grain boundary phase into nano-sized graphite, but insignificantly altered the crystallinity of the grains of the UNCD films. The annealing process recrystallized the materials. In some of the regions, the residual a-C phases were transformed into nano-sized graphites, whereas in other regions i-carbon nanoclusters were formed. The difference in irradiation-induced microstructural transformation behavior between the MCD and the UNCD films is ascribed to the different granular structures of the two types of films.

  13. Radiation damage effects in cubic-stabilized zirconia irradiated with 72 MeV I + ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickafus, Kurt E.; Matzke, Hansjoachim; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Chodak, Paul, III; Verrall, Richard A.; Lucuta, Petru G.; Andrews, H. Robert; Turos, Andrzej; Fromknecht, Rainer; Baker, Neil P.

    1998-05-01

    Cubic-stabilized zirconia single crystals were irradiated using 72 MeV I + ions in the TASSC accelerator facility at Chalk River Laboratory (to simulate a typical U or Pu fission fragment). Irradiations were performed over the fluence range 1 10 18-5 10 19 ions/m 2, at temperatures of 300, 770, and 1170 K. Damage accumulation was monitored using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and ion-channeling (RBS/C) techniques. At ambient temperature and at the highest I + fluence used in these experiments (5 10 19 I +/m 2), RBS/C measurements revealed a rather high degree of lattice disorder. Specifically, the dechanneling parameter ?min varied from 80% to greater than 90% over the depth probed by RBS/C (1 ?m). Nano-indentation measurements on the same sample indicated decreases in elastic modulus, E, and hardness, H (both by about 9%). These results suggest that an alteration in structure beyond simple defect accumulation occurs under these irradiation conditions. However, transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) observations and in particular microdiffraction measurements failed to reveal any structural transformations in the irradiated material.

  14. Effects of high energy Au-ion irradiation on the microstructure of diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Show; Chen, Huang-Chin; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I.-Nan; Guo, Jinghua; Chang, Ching-Lin

    2013-03-01

    The effects of 2.245 GeV Au-ion irradiation and subsequent annealing processes on the evolution of microstructure of diamond films with microcrystalline (MCD) or ultra-nanocrystalline (UNCD) granular structure were investigated, using near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy loss spectroscopy in transmission electron microscopy. For MCD films, the Au-ion irradiation disintegrated some of the diamond grains, resulting in the formation of nano-sized carbon clusters embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon (a-C). The annealing process recrystallized the diamond grains and converted the a-C into nano-sized graphite particulates and, at the same time, induced the formation of nano-sized i-carbon clusters, the bcc structured carbon with a0 = 0.432 nm. In contrast, for UNCD films, the Au-ion irradiation transformed the grain boundary phase into nano-sized graphite, but insignificantly altered the crystallinity of the grains of the UNCD films. The annealing process recrystallized the materials. In some of the regions, the residual a-C phases were transformed into nano-sized graphites, whereas in other regions i-carbon nanoclusters were formed. The difference in irradiation-induced microstructural transformation behavior between the MCD and the UNCD films is ascribed to the different granular structures of the two types of films.

  15. Magnetic modification at sub-surface of FeRh bulk by energetic ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, T.; Iwase, A.; Uno, H.; Sakane, H.; Sakamaki, M.; Amemiya, K.; Matsui, T.

    2015-05-07

    Ferromagnetic layered structure has been made at sub-surface of the antiferromagnetic FeRh bulk samples by high energy He ion beam irradiation. In accordance with the Transport of Ions in Matter simulation, such ion beam can effectively deposit the elastic collision energy in several μm regions in the depth from the surface. Measurement with a superconducting quantum interference device reveals the irradiated samples to be ferromagnetic. Assuming that only the part the energy deposited can be modified to be ferromagnetic, the corresponding irradiation induced magnetization is consistent with the data that we previously reported. On the other hand, the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra for the irradiated samples are totally unchanged as those for the unirradiated samples. Since XMCD signal in total emission yield method is considered to be surface sensitive with a typical probing depth of several nm, the surface magnetic state is maintained to be antiferromagnetic. By utilizing these phenomena, three-dimensional magnetic patterning of FeRh can be realized, which may potentially be used for future magnetic exchange device application such as nano-scale sensors and memories.

  16. In-situ observation of xenon nanocrystals in aluminum under electron and ion irradiation in transmission electron microscope.

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, K.

    1998-11-11

    In-situ ion irradiation in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is one of the unique techniques to investigate the structural evolution of materials induced by particle bombardments. In spite of many efforts to get clear results from in-situ ion irradiation, the results were sometimes unclear because of physical and technical problems associated with TEM and ion beam hardwares. This paper describes a newly developed ion beam interface with an ultra-high voltage TEM (HVTEM) for in-situ observation of ion implantation of metals and alloys in atomic scale.

  17. Structural Modification of Single Wall and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes under Carbon, Nickel and Gold Ion Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeet, Kiran; Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya; Bharadwaj, L. M.

    2011-12-12

    Thin film samples of carbon nanotubes were irradiated with ion beam of carbon, nickel and gold. The irradiation results were characterized using Raman Spectroscopy. Modifications of the disorder mode (D mode) and the tangential mode (G mode) under different irradiation fluences were studied in detail. Raman results of carbon ion beam indicate the interesting phenomenon of ordering of the system under irradiation. Under the effect of nickel and gold ion irradiation, the structural evolution of CNTs occurs in three different stages. At lower fluences the process of healing occurs; at intermediate fluences damages on the surface of CNTs occurs and finally at very high fluences of the order of 1x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} the system gets amorphised.

  18. Microstructure evolution and hardness change in ordered Ni3V intermetallic alloy by energetic ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Yoshizaki, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwase, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ni3V bulk intermetallic compounds with ordered D022 structure were irradiated with 16 MeV Au ions at room temperature. The irradiation induced phase transformation was examined by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurement (EXAFS) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD). We also measured the Vickers hardness for unirradiated and irradiated specimens. The TEM observation shows that by the Au irradiation, the lamellar microstructures and the super lattice spot in diffraction pattern for the unirradiated specimen disappeared. This TEM result as well as the result of XRD and EXAFS measurements means that the intrinsic D022 structure of Ni3V changes into the A1 (fcc) structure which is the lattice structure just below the melting point in the thermal equilibrium phase diagram. The lattice structure change from D022 to A1 (fcc) accompanies a remarkable decrease in Vickers microhardness. The change in crystal structure was discussed in terms of the thermal spike and the sequential atomic displacements induced by the energetic heavy ion irradiation.

  19. Irradiation effects in the storage and disposal of radioactive ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K.J.; Dodge, C.E.; Dayal, R.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Research is under way to characterize the effects of self-irradiation on radwastes which may be generated when organic ion-exchange media are used in water demineralization or decontamination operations at nuclear facilities. External factors affecting the relation between laboratory evaluations and field performance are emphasized. Initial experiments do not yet indicate substantial radiation dose-rate effects on radiolytic gas yields or acid product formation, when (fully swollen) sulfonic acid resins are irradiated in a sealed air environment. At the same time, oxygen gas is removed from the environment of irradiated resins. Interaction between mild steel coupons and acidic species produced in the irradiation induced decomposition of sulfonic acid resin results in irradiation enhanced corrosion. Corrosion rates depend on radiation dose rate, moisture content and resin chemical loading. In some cases, corrosion rates decrease with time, suggesting depletion of acidic species within the resin bed, or a synergistic interaction between resin and corrosion coupon. Implications of these and other results on evaluating field behavior of radwaste containing ion-exchange media are discussed. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Microstructure evolution and degradation mechanisms of reactor internal steel irradiated with heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, O. V.; Bryk, V. V.; Kalchenko, A. S.; Parkhomenko, A. A.; Shilyaev, B. A.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Voyevodin, V. N.

    2009-03-01

    Structure evolution and degradation mechanisms during irradiation of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel (material of VVER-1000 reactor internals are investigated). Using accelerator irradiations with Cr3+ and Ar+ ions allowed studying effects of dose rate, different initial structure state and implanted ions on features of structure evolution and main mechanisms of degradation including low temperature swelling and embrittlement of the 18Cr-10Ni-Ti steel. It is shown that differences in dose rate at most irradiation temperatures mainly exert their influence on the duration of the swelling transient regime. Calculations of possible transmutation products during irradiation of this steel in a VVER-1000 spectrum were performed. It is shown that gaseous atoms (He and H), which are generated simultaneously with radiation defects, stabilize the elements of radiation microstructure and influence the swelling. The nature of deformation under different temperatures of irradiation and of mechanical testing is investigated. It is shown that the temperature sensitivity of swelling behaviour in the investigated steel, with different initial structures can be connected with the dynamic behaviour of point defect sinks.