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Sample records for xenon dioxide molecule

  1. Photoionization of atoms and molecules. [of hydrogen, helium, and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review on the present state of knowledge in photoionization is presented. Various experimental techniques that have been developed to study photoionization, such as fluorescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, are examined. Various atoms and molecules were chosen to illustrate these techniques, specifically helium and xenon atoms and hydrogen molecules. Specialized photoionization such as in positive and negative ions, excited states, and free radicals is also treated. Absorption cross sections and ionization potentials are also discussed.

  2. Migration of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy clusters in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu; Sun, Xin

    2014-07-01

    The possible transition states, minimum energy paths and migration mechanisms of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy defect clusters in uranium dioxide have been investigated using the dimer and the nudged elastic-band methods. The nearby O atom can easily hop into the oxygen vacancy position by overcoming a small energy barrier, which is much lower than that for the migration of a uranium vacancy. A simulation for a vacancy cluster consisting of two oxygen vacancies reveals that the energy barrier of the divacancy migration tends to decrease with increasing the separation distance of divacancy. For an oxygen interstitial, the migration barrier for the hopping mechanism is almost three times larger than that for the exchange mechanism. Xe moving between two interstitial sites is unlikely a dominant migration mechanism considering the higher energy barrier. A net migration process of a Xe-vacancy pair containing an oxygen vacancy and a xenon interstitial is identified by the NEB method. We expect the oxygen vacancy-assisted migration mechanism to possibly lead to a long distance migration of the Xe interstitials in UO2. The migration of defect clusters involving Xe substitution indicates that Xe atom migrating away from the uranium vacancy site is difficult.

  3. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10−3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10−7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10−5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  4. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyoung S; Uhm, Han S; Hong, Yong C; Choi, Eun H

    2015-01-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10(-3), nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10(-7), nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10(-5), where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. PMID:26674957

  5. Disintegration of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in a Microwave Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Hyoung S.; Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Choi, Eun H.

    2015-12-01

    A pure carbon dioxide torch is generated by making use of 2.45 GHz microwave. Carbon dioxide gas becomes the working gas and produces a stable carbon dioxide torch. The torch volume is almost linearly proportional to the microwave power. Temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and thermocouple. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of relatively low-temperature zone. Study of carbon dioxide disintegration and gas temperature effects on the molecular fraction characteristics in the carbon dioxide plasma of a microwave plasma torch under atmospheric pressure is carried out. An analytical investigation of carbon dioxide disintegration indicates that substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules disintegrate and form other compounds in the torch. For example, the normalized particle densities at center of plasma are given by nCO2/nN = 6.12 × 10-3, nCO/nN = 0.13, nC/nN = 0.24, nO/nN = 0.61, nC2/nN = 8.32 × 10-7, nO2/nN = 5.39 × 10-5, where nCO2, nCO, nC, nO, nC2, and nO2 are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon and oxygen atom, carbon and oxygen molecule densities, respectively. nN is the neutral particle density. Emission profiles of the oxygen and carbon atom radicals and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch.

  6. Low energy decomposition of carbon dioxide and other molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamfiloff, Eugene

    2013-05-01

    Since the observation of elevating quantities of atmospheric greenhouse gases, finding a practical method other than the capture-and-sequestration scheme for the reduction and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been an important objective. Recently, an efficient low-energy process has been developed allowing the selective molecular decomposition of CO2, CO, and other molecules. Thus, CO2 can be broken down into C + O + O. This permits the O2 molecules to be stored or released while the clean carbon atoms can be bagged and utilized in various industries. For the control of carbon dioxide or other gas emissions at their source, it can be scaled up for power plants or down for smaller facilities. The process also allows the production of a beam of exclusively positive ions or exclusively negative ions and contrary to other devices, excludes the probability of beam contamination by plasma or neutral particles, making it ideal for electronic thin-films manufacturing and spectroscopy systems. Because the system allows the simultaneous production of ion beams containing selectable ratios of positive to negative ions, it simplifies construction of favored or complex molecules through varied ionic bonds. Also discussed are several methods to apply the new technology as an upgrade to spectrometers and other devices. For further information contact the author: epamfiloff@mattertech.com.

  7. Comment on ``Interplay of defect cluster and the stability of xenon in uranium dioxide from density functional calculations''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado, Boris; Amadon, Bernard; Jomard, Gérald; Freyss, Michel; Bertolus, Marjorie

    2011-09-01

    Geng [H. Y. Geng, Y. Chen, Y. Kaneta, M. Kinoshita, and Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.094106 82, 094106 (2010)] recently reported DFT+U calculations of xenon behavior in uranium dioxide UO2. One of the main conclusions of their work is that the quasiannealing (QA) procedure allowed them to avoid metastable states created by the DFT+U approximation. However, based on a comparison of total energies, they stated that an incomplete implementation of occupation matrix control (OMC) had been done in our previous work [B. Dorado, G. Jomard, M. Freyss, and M. Bertolus, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.035114 82, 035114 (2010)] and that we failed to reach the ground state of the perfect UO2 fluorite structure. In this Comment, we show that the discrepancy they observed does not stem from an incomplete implementation of OMC, but from the calculation of the compensation charge used in the projector augmented-wave formalism.

  8. Dynamical mean-field theory for transition metal dioxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Nan; Zgid, Dominika; Marianetti, Chris; Reichman, David; Millis, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    The utility of the dynamical mean-field approximation in quantum chemistry is investigated in the context of transition metal dioxide molecules including TiO2 and CrO2. The choice of correlated orbitals and correlations to treat dynamically is discussed. The dynamical mean field solutions are compared to state of the art quantum chemical calculations. The dynamical mean-field method is found to capture about 50% of the total correlation energy, and to produce very good results for the d-level occupancies and magnetic moments. We also present the excitation spectrum in these molecules which is inaccessible in many wave-function based methods. Conceptual and technical difficulties will be outlined and discussed.

  9. Radiochemical Reactions Between Tritium Molecule and Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, W.M.; O'Hira, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishi, M. F.

    2005-07-15

    To have better understanding of radiochemical reactions among oxygen baking products in a fusion reactor, reactions in equimolar tritium molecule (T{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were examined by laser Raman spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. After mixing them at room temperature, T{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased rapidly in the first 30 minutes and then the reactions between them became much slower. As the predominant products of the reactions, carbon monoxide (CO) and tritiated water (T{sub 2}O) were found in gaseous phase and condensed phase, respectively. However, there likely existed also some solid products that were thermally decomposed into CO, CO{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, T{sub 2}O, etc. during baking up to 523 K.

  10. Development of a functionalized Xenon biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Megan M.; Ruiz, E. Janette; Rubin, Seth M.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Winssinger, Nicolas; Schultz, Peter G.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-03-25

    NMR-based biosensors that utilize laser-polarized xenon offer potential advantages beyond current sensing technologies. These advantages include the capacity to simultaneously detect multiple analytes, the applicability to in vivo spectroscopy and imaging, and the possibility of remote amplified detection. Here we present a detailed NMR characterization of the binding of a biotin-derivatized caged-xenon sensor to avidin. Binding of functionalized xenon to avidin leads to a change in the chemical shift of the encapsulated xenon in addition to a broadening of the resonance, both of which serve as NMR markers of ligand-target interaction. A control experiment in which the biotin-binding site of avidin was blocked with native biotin showed no such spectral changes, confirming that only specific binding, rather than nonspecific contact, between avidin and functionalized xenon leads to the effects on the xenon NMR spectrum. The exchange rate of xenon (between solution and cage) and the xenon spin-lattice relaxation rate were not changed significantly upon binding. We describe two methods for enhancing the signal from functionalized xenon by exploiting the laser-polarized xenon magnetization reservoir. We also show that the xenon chemical shifts are distinct for xenon encapsulated in different diastereomeric cage molecules. This demonstrates the potential for tuning the encapsulated xenon chemical shift, which is a key requirement for being able to multiplex the biosensor.

  11. Intense-Field Photoionization of Molecules using Ultrashort Radiation Pulses: Carbon Disulfide and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Joshua; Uiterwaal, Cornelis

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally investigate the photoionization and photofragmentation of molecules using intense fields from an 800 nm, femtosecond laser source and an experimental method that eliminates the focal volume effect without the need for data deconvolution. Targets include carbon disulfide and carbon dioxide. We show that ionization is insignificant for intensities that maximize alignment of carbon disulfide, which validates ultrafast electron diffraction experiments from aligned carbon disulfide. For comparison, we also investigate the analogous molecule carbon dioxide. In this molecule the molecular bonding orbitals include the n = 2 atomic orbitals of the oxygen atom, while in carbon disulfide the n = 3 orbitals of the sulfur atom contribute to the bonding. Recent work will be presented. This work supported by U.S. Dept. of Education GAANN Grants Nos. P200A090156 and P200A120188 and National Science Foundation EPSCoR RII Track-2 CA Award No. IIA-1430519 (Cooperative Nebraska-Kansas Grant).

  12. Carbon Dioxide Influence on the Thermal Formation of Complex Organic Molecules in Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Duvernay, F.; Fray, N.; Bouilloud, M.; Chiavassa, T.; Cottin, H.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar ices are submitted to energetic processes (thermal, UV, and cosmic-ray radiations) producing complex organic molecules. Laboratory experiments aim to reproduce the evolution of interstellar ices to better understand the chemical changes leading to the reaction, formation, and desorption of molecules. In this context, the thermal evolution of an interstellar ice analogue composed of water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and formaldehyde is investigated. The ice evolution during the warming has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The formation of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and polymethylenimine (PMI) are observed in the organic refractory residue left after ice sublimation. A better understanding of this result is realized with the study of another ice mixture containing methylenimine (a precursor of HMT) with carbon dioxide and ammonia. It appears that carbamic acid, a reaction product of carbon dioxide and ammonia, plays the role of catalyst, allowing the reactions toward HMT and PMI formation. This is the first time that such complex organic molecules (HMT, PMI) are produced from the warming (without VUV photolysis or irradiation with energetic particles) of abundant molecules observed in interstellar ices (H2O, NH3, CO2, H2CO). This result strengthens the importance of thermal reactions in the ices’ evolution. HMT and PMI, likely components of interstellar ices, should be searched for in the pristine objects of our solar system, such as comets and carbonaceous chondrites.

  13. Systematization of published spectral data on sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronina, S. S.; Akhlestin, A. Yu.; Kozodoev, A. V.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Naumenko, O. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents a description of properties of published spectral data on spectral lines' parameters of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues. These data were acquired from more than 150 publications for a period of 50 years. Data properties as well as data sources classification according to validity and trust criteria are presented in a form of an ontological knowledge base on information resources. Data source properties values are computed during the assessment of validity and trust1. Published ro-vibrational transitions, energy levels, spectral lines' parameters, knowledge base on information resources of sulfur dioxide molecule and its isotopologues are available in the Internet accessible information system W@DIS (http://wadis.saga.iao.ru/).

  14. Core localization and {sigma}* delocalization in the O 1s core-excited sulfur dioxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Andreas; Kivimaeki, Antti; Sorensen, Stacey L.; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Burmeister, Florian; Naves de Brito, Arnaldo

    2008-03-21

    Electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements of sulfur dioxide at discrete resonances near the O 1s ionization edge are reported. The spectra are analyzed using a model based upon molecular symmetry and on the geometry of the molecule. We find clear evidence for molecular alignment that can be ascribed to symmetry properties of the ground and core-excited states. Configuration interaction (CI) calculations indicate geometry changes in accord with the measured spectra. For the SO{sub 2} molecule, however, we find that the localized core hole does not produce measurable evidence for valence localization, since the transition dipole moment is not parallel to a breaking {sigma}* O-S bond, in contrast to the case of ozone. The dissociation behavior based upon the CI calculations using symmetry-broken orbitals while fixing a localized core-hole site is found to be nearly equivalent to that using symmetry-adapted orbitals. This implies that the core-localization effect is not strong enough to localize the {sigma}* valence orbital.

  15. Chemically-bound xenon in fibrous silica.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Räsänen, Markku; Gerber, R Benny

    2014-06-21

    High-level quantum chemical calculations reported here predict the existence and remarkable stability, of chemically-bound xenon atoms in fibrous silica. The results may support the suggestion of Sanloup and coworkers that chemically-bound xenon and silica account for the problem of "missing xenon" (by a factor of 20!) from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. So far, the host silica was assumed to be quartz, which is in contradiction with theory. The xenon-fibrous silica molecule is computed to be stable well beyond room temperature. The calculated Raman spectra of the species agree well with the main features of the experiments by Sanloup et al. The results predict computationally the existence of a new family of noble-gas containing materials. The fibrous silica species are finite molecules, their laboratory preparation should be feasible, and potential applications are possible. PMID:24807740

  16. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  17. Is xenon eldest?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the solubility of noble gases in magmas decreases with increasing atomic weight. Xenon, the weightiest of the stable noble gases, is the least soluble atmospheric gas in magma. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the noble gases should have degassed from (or equilibrated with) a bubbling mantle in order of increasing solubility, such that xenon was the most rapidly degassed and helium the least. The apparent relative ages of the famous radiogenic noble gas isotopes agrees, at least qualitatively, with this premise. When atmospheric loss processes are assigned their proper place, several long-standing xenonological puzzles become added evidence for xenon's relative antiquity. Xenon being the afore-mentioned sense the oldest atmospheric gas, will have been most greatly subject to escape, be it impact-driven or EUV-driven. Nonradiogenic xenon's pronounced isotopic fractionation has already been attributed to escape; why it should be more fractionated than krypton would be assigned to xenon's greater atmospheric age. The small atmospheric inventory of xenon relative to the other nonradiogenic noblegases, known as the 'missing xenon' problem, could easily be explained by differential escape. The relatively tiny atmospheric inventories of the radiogenic daughter products of 129 Iodine and 244 Plutonium, both much smaller than would be expected from the inferred abundances of the parents in meteorites, offer a third and fourth data to support the hypothesis that Earth has lost most of its xenon.

  18. Is xenon eldest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K.

    It is well known that the solubility of noble gases in magmas decreases with increasing atomic weight. Xenon, the weightiest of the stable noble gases, is the least soluble atmospheric gas in magma. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the noble gases should have degassed from (or equilibrated with) a bubbling mantle in order of increasing solubility, such that xenon was the most rapidly degassed and helium the least. The apparent relative ages of the famous radiogenic noble gas isotopes agrees, at least qualitatively, with this premise. When atmospheric loss processes are assigned their proper place, several long-standing xenonological puzzles become added evidence for xenon's relative antiquity. Xenon being the afore-mentioned sense the oldest atmospheric gas, will have been most greatly subject to escape, be it impact-driven or EUV-driven. Nonradiogenic xenon's pronounced isotopic fractionation has already been attributed to escape; why it should be more fractionated than krypton would be assigned to xenon's greater atmospheric age. The small atmospheric inventory of xenon relative to the other nonradiogenic noblegases, known as the 'missing xenon' problem, could easily be explained by differential escape. The relatively tiny atmospheric inventories of the radiogenic daughter products of 129 Iodine and 244 Plutonium, both much smaller than would be expected from the inferred abundances of the parents in meteorites, offer a third and fourth data to support the hypothesis that Earth has lost most of its xenon.

  19. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  20. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  1. The incorporation and migration of a single xenon atom in ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yinbin; Chen, Wei-Ying; Oaks, Aaron; Mo, Kun; Stubbins, James F.

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of xenon gas is crucial for the performance of nuclear fuel materials. We report molecular statics calculation results for the characteristics of a single xenon atom in cerium oxide, a non-radioactive surrogate of uranium dioxide. A variety of possible xenon incorporation sites, including the octahedral interstitial position, single-Ce-vacancy clusters, and double-Ce-vacancy clusters were considered. The binding energies and corresponding xenon incorporation energies were computed to reveal the preferred xenon positions in ceria. Different migration mechanisms of single xenon atoms were found to be involved with various incorporation sites. The energy barriers of all possible migration pathways were calculated. Only the mobility of single xenon atoms in the double-Ce-vacancy sites, which is due to the vacancy-assisted xenon migration, can account for the xenon diffusivity implied by bubble formation observed in experiments. The results also validated the role of ceria as a reliable surrogate of uranium dioxide in studies involving xenon gas.

  2. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  3. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  4. Antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon.

    PubMed

    Spaggiari, Sabrina; Kepp, Oliver; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Chaba, Kariman; Adjemian, Sandy; Pype, Jan; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Lemaire, Marc; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-08-15

    Although chemically non-reactive, inert noble gases may influence multiple physiological and pathological processes via hitherto uncharacterized physical effects. Here we report a cell-based detection system for assessing the effects of pre-defined gas mixtures on the induction of apoptotic cell death. In this setting, the conventional atmosphere for cell culture was substituted with gas combinations, including the same amount of oxygen (20%) and carbon dioxide (5%) but 75% helium, neon, argon, krypton, or xenon instead of nitrogen. The replacement of nitrogen with noble gases per se had no effects on the viability of cultured human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Conversely, argon and xenon (but not helium, neon, and krypton) significantly limited cell loss induced by the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine, the DNA-damaging agent mitoxantrone and several mitochondrial toxins. Such cytoprotective effects were coupled to the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, as demonstrated by means of a mitochondrial transmembrane potential-sensitive dye and by assessing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In line with this notion, argon and xenon inhibited the apoptotic activation of caspase-3, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy coupled to automated image analysis. The antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon may explain their clinically relevant cytoprotective effects. PMID:23907115

  5. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy. PMID:26738558

  6. [Xenon light therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi

    2012-07-01

    The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength. PMID:22860297

  7. The formation of carbonic and silicon dioxide structured films through the decomposition of molecules on the surface of ionic crystals under the action of IR femtosecond laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanets, V. O.; Laptev, V. B.; Pigul’skii, S. V.; Ryabov, E. A.; Chekalin, S. V.; Blank, V. D.; Denisov, V. N.; Kravchuk, K. S.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    This study relates to the formation of carbon and silicon dioxide films that occurs as a result of the decomposition of organic and silicon-containing molecules on the surface of ionic crystals under IR femtosecond laser radiation of moderate intensity (~1011 W cm‑2) without molecular decomposition in the gas phase. We found that transparent graphite oxide films formed in the case of CO2 molecule decomposition.

  8. Separation and purification of xenon

    DOEpatents

    Schlea, deceased, Carl Solomon

    1978-03-14

    Xenon is separated from a mixture of xenon and krypton by extractive distillation using carbon tetrafluoride as the partitioning agent. Krypton is flushed out of the distillation column with CF.sub.4 in the gaseous overhead stream while purified xenon is recovered from the liquid bottoms. The distillation is conducted at about atmospheric pressure or at subatmospheric pressure.

  9. Scalability study of solid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2015-04-01

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employed a cryostat cooled by liquid nitrogen combined with a xenon purification and chiller system. A modified {\\it Bridgeman's technique} reproduces a large scale optically transparent solid xenon.

  10. A Molecular Dynamics Study on the Confinement of Carbon Dioxide Molecules in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazor, Meagan; Rende, Deniz; Baysal, Nihat; Ozisik, Rahmi

    2012-02-01

    The influence of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on global warming is considered as one of the primary environmental issues of the past two decades. The main source of CO2 emission is human activity, such as the use of fossil fuels in transportation and industrial plants. Following the release of Kyoto Protocol in 1997, effective ways of controlling CO2 emissions received much attention. As a result, various materials such as activated carbon, zeolites, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated for their CO2 adsorbing properties. CNTs were reported to have CO2 adsorption capability twice that of activated carbon, hence they received the most attention. In the current study, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were used as one dimensional nanoporous materials and their CO2 adsorption capacity was analyzed with Molecular Dynamics simulations. Results indicated that SWNTs are excellent CO2 adsorbers and their effectiveness increase at low CO2 concentrations. In addition, we showed that by varying temperature, CO2 can be removed from the SWNTs, providing a simple method to reuse SWNTs.

  11. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  12. Chemistry of sulfur-containing molecules on Au( 1 1 1 ): thiophene, sulfur dioxide, and methanethiol adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Rodriguez, José A.; Dvorak, Joseph; Hrbek, Jan; Jirsak, Tomas

    2002-05-01

    The interactions of three sulfur-containing molecules (C 4H 4S, SO 2, CH 3SH) with a clean Au(1 1 1) surface have been studied with a combination of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and synchrotron-based high-resolution soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption and reactivity of the three molecules on Au(1 1 1) are very different. Thiophene adsorbs molecularly on Au(1 1 1) at 100 K and desorbs completely below 330 K without further decomposition. In the submonolayer range, three different adsorption states for chemisorbed thiophene are identified in TDS. It is suggested that thiophene preferably adsorbs on the defect sites at the lowest exposure. After the defect sites are saturated, the change from a flat-lying geometry to a tilted adsorption configuration follows as the exposure increases. Sulfur dioxide also does not decompose on Au(1 1 1). For SO 2 adsorption at 100 K, in addition to the multilayer desorption feature (˜130 K), only one distinct monolayer peak with a tail extending to higher temperature appears in TDS. The desorption temperature difference between the SO 2 monolayer and multilayer is only 15 K, indicating a weak binding between SO 2 and Au. For methanethiol adsorption on Au(1 1 1) at 100 K, three desorption states appear in the submonolayer range for the parent thiol. All of them appear below 300 K. The only desorption products at higher temperature are methane or methyl radicals (˜540 K), and dimethyl disulfide (˜470 K). Apart from the intact methyl thiol molecule, which exists at low temperatures (⩽150 K), two inequivalent intermediate thiolates, are seen to coexist on Au(1 1 1) in the 150-400 K temperature range, with one of them existing as low as 100 K. Atomic sulfur is present on the surface from 200 to 950 K.

  13. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  14. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  15. Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on pyrite as a pathway for abiogenic formation of organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, M G; Ryzhkov, Y F; Alekseev, V A; Bogdanovskaya, V A; Otroshchenko, V A; Kritsky, M S

    2004-08-01

    A wide spectrum of electrode potentials of minerals that compose sulfide ores enables the latter, when in contact with hydrothermal solutions, to form galvanic pairs with cathode potentials sufficient for electrochemical reduction of CO2. The experiments performed demonstrated the increase of cathode current on the rotating pyrite disc electrode in a range of potentials more negative than -800 mV in presence of CO2. In high-pressure experiments performed in a specially designed electrochemical cell equipped with a pyrite cathode and placed into autoclave, accumulation of formate was demonstrated after 24 hr passing of CO2 (50 atm, room temperature) through electrolyte solution. The formation of this product started on increasing the cathode potential to -800 mV (with respect to saturated silver chloride electrode). The yield grew exponentially upon cathode potential increase up to -1200 mV. The maximum current efficiency (0.12%) was registered at cathode potentials of about -1000 mV. No formate production was registered under normal atmospheric pressure and in the absence of imposed cathode potential. Neither in experiments, nor in control was formaldehyde found. It is proposed that the electrochemical reduction of CO2 takes part in the formation of organic molecules in hydrothermal solutions accompanying sulfide ore deposits and in 'black smokers' on the ocean floor. PMID:15279170

  16. Molecular interaction between DNA molecules and nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with the structures of anatase and η-TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsev, M. G.; Kuz'micheva, G. M.; Obolenskaya, L. N.; Savinkina, E. V.

    2012-11-01

    The interaction of linear DNA molecules (hydrolysis products of Lambda phage DNA) with nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with anatase and η-TiO2 structures is studied. The photosensitization of adsorption and degradation processes of DNA under the effects of visible light is revealed. It is established that the anatase exhibits increased activity towards DNA in a low salt buffer, while η-TiO2 has a higher adsorption capacity in a buffer with high ionic strength. Recommendations on the practical application of nanoscale modifications of titanium dioxide with the structures of anatase and η-TiO2 are given.

  17. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek; Mahapatra, Rupak; Yoo, Jonghee

    2010-08-30

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  18. Solid Xenon Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Mahapatra, Rupak; Saab, Tarek; Yoo, Jonghee

    2010-08-01

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  19. Nuclear excited xenon flashlamp

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The optical emissions of nuclear excited Xenon plasmas were investigated to determine basic parameters important to photolytic pumping of lasers. Gas mixtures of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the steady state mode in the University of Florida Training Reactor at neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of approximately 3 milliwatts/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas were primarily due to Xe/sub 2/* band emission at 172 nm with a few Xell lines in the visible and ir. Energy transfer from the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction to the Xe/sub 2/* 172 nm band was 67.0% +- 10%. High pressure gas mixtures (4 atm.) of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the pulse mode (250 ..mu..s FWHM) at the fast burst reactor at the Aberdeen Pulsed Radiation Facility at thermal neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 17//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of about 1 kilowatt/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas extended from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible to the infrared, resembling a discharge excited lamp with a current density of about 1500 amp./cm/sup 2/. Such a lamp could pump a Neodymium YAG or liquid laser.

  20. Photoinduced conversion of carbon dioxide and water molecules to methanol on the surface of molybdenum oxide MoO x ( x < 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silaev, I. V.; Khubezhov, S. A.; Ramonova, A. G.; Grigorkina, G. S.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Demeev, Z. S.; Bliev, A. P.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray and UV photoelectron spectroscopic data are used to demonstrate that, when pulsed laser light with a photon energy of 6.4 eV acts on the surface of nonstoichiometric molybdenum oxide MoO x ( x < 2), methanol is effectively formed from adsorbed molecules of carbon dioxide and water. The processes in which CO2 and H2O molecules are adsorbed on substrate surface defects and their bonds are activated, enhanced under the effect of photons, should be regarded as the key factors.

  1. The XENON dark matter search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganoma, Junji

    2016-02-01

    The XENON experiment searches for xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of weakly interacting massive particles, using liquid/gas dual-phase xenon time projection chambers. The XENON100 experiment ended its science runs for the direct WIMP search. A ton-scale next phase detector, XENON1T, is currently at the commissioning phase. These proceedings focus on the technical challenges and status of the XENON1T experiment.

  2. Shear Thinning in Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

  3. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  4. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  5. Status of the XENON Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbini, Marco; XENON Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    Astronomical and cosmological observations indicate that a large amount of the energy content of the Universe is made of dark matter. The most promising dark matter candidates are the so-called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. The search for these particles is performed with various experimental approaches. The XENON Project, at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory, is devoted to the direct search of dark matter particles. It consists in operating a double-phase time projection chamber using ultra-pure liquid Xenon as both target and detection medium for dark matter particle interactions. The WIMPs can be indeed detected via their elastic scattering off Xenon nuclei. The XENON100 detector with 160 kg of liquid Xenon has reached in 2012 the sensitivity of 2×10-45 cm2 at 55 GeV/c 2 and 90% confidence level on spin-independent elastic WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section. The next generation XENON1T detector, that will host 3.3 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid Xenon, is in its final stage of construction and will likely start taking data by the end of 2015. The detector is designed to increase the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.

  6. Venus, Earth, Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Xenon has been regarded as an important goal of many proposed missions to Venus. This talk is intended to explain why. Despite its being the heaviest gas found in natural planetary atmospheres, there is more evidence that Xe escaped from Earth than for any element apart from helium: (i) Atmospheric Xe is very strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) from any known solar system source. This suggests fractionating escape that preferentially left the heavy Xe isotopes behind. (ii) Xe is underabundant compared to Kr, a lighter noble gas that is not strongly mass fractionated in air. (iii) Radiogenic Xe is strongly depleted by factors of several to ~100 compared to the quantities expected from radioactive decay of primordial solar system materials. In these respects Xe on Mars is similar to Xe on Earth, but with one key difference: Xe on Mars is readily explained by a simple process like hydrodynamic escape that acts on an initially solar or meteoritic Xe. This is not so for Earth. Earth's Xe cannot be derived by an uncontrived mass fractionating process acting on any known type of Solar System Xe. Earth is a stranger, made from different stuff than any known meteorite or Mars or even the Sun. Who else is in Earth's family? Comets? We know nothing. Father Zeus? Data from Jupiter are good enough to show that jovian Xe is not strongly mass-fractionated but not good enough to determine whether Jupiter resembles the Earth or the Sun. Sister Venus? Noble gas data from Venus are incomplete, with Kr uncertain and Xe unmeasured. Krypton was measured by several instruments on several spacecraft. The reported Kr abundances are discrepant and were once highly controversial. These discrepancies appear to have been not so much resolved as forgotten. Xenon was not detected on Venus. Upper limits were reported for the two most abundant xenon isotopes 129Xe and 132Xe. From the limited data it is not possible to tell whether Venus's affinities lie with the solar wind, or with

  7. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  8. [Concept of mechanisms of anesthetic and therapeutic properties of xenon].

    PubMed

    Burov, N E

    2011-01-01

    The molecular theory of L. Poling is a genius example of scientific prediction, made in the middle of 20th century, when the studies about clathrates and methods of roentgen structured analysis were doing their first steps. The views expressed in this message are some additions on the structure of xenon clathrates, function-free xenon water associates and the use of cameras in the liberated associates of the water molecules, for the process of supramolecular detoxification and attempts to develop this theory more widely, to better understand the mechanisms of xenon anesthesia and treatment for further justification of its therapeutic features as well as for the use of other inert gases (Ar, Kr) in modern medicine. PMID:21692221

  9. Liquid xenon purification, de-radonation (and de-kryptonation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pocar, Andrea

    2015-08-17

    Liquid xenon detectors are at the forefront of rare event physics, including searches for neutrino-less double beta decay and WIMP dark matter. The xenon for these experiments needs to be purified from chemical impurities such as electronegative atoms and molecules, which absorb ionization electrons, and VUV (178 nm) scintillation light-absorbing chemical species. In addition, superb purification from radioactive impurities is required. Particularly challenging are radioactive noble isotopes ({sup 85}Kr,{sup 39,42}Ar,{sup 220,222}Rn). Radon is a particularly universal problem, due to the extended decay sequence of its daughters and its ubiquitous presence in detector materials. Purification and de-radonation of liquid xenon are addressed with particular focus on the experience gained with the EXO-200 neutrino-less double beta decay detector.

  10. Solubilized xenon 133 lung scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-11-01

    Lung scanning using solubilized xenon 133 can provide important information concerning both pulmonary perfusion and ventilation. This technique proved valuable in establishing the diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema in a 7-month-old baby.

  11. A Decade of Xenon Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents reactions for the formation of xenon compounds and compounds of the other inert gases. Provides bonding and structure theories for noble gas compounds and speculates on possible applications. (GS)

  12. The XENON1T Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, Ran; Aprile, Elena; Choi, Bin; Contreras, Hugo; Goetzke, Luke; Lim, Kyungeun; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio; Persiani, Rino; Plante, Guillaume; Rizzo, Alfio; Shagin, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We present the results from a facility called the XENON1T Demonstrator at Columbia University, that has been designed and built as a prototype for the XENON1T cryogenic system and TPC. Its primary goal is to demonstrate that the high LXe purity (<1 part per billion O2 equivalent) required for electrons to drift freely over a distance of 1 meter, as in the XENON1T TPC, can be achieved and on a time scale of weeks. The approach adopted in all XENON detectors thus far is that of gas purification with continuous circulation with a diaphragm pump through a heated getter. We show results for high speed recirculation, above 100 slpm, the development of a high voltage feedthrough which is radio pure and the design and application of a prototype TPC to test the purity.

  13. Direct WIMP searches with XENON100 and XENON1T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredo Davide, Ferella

    2015-05-01

    The XENON100 experiment is the second phase of the XENON direct Dark Matter search program. It consists of an ultra-low background double phase (liquid-gas) xenon filled time projection chamber with a total mass of 161 kg (62 in the target region and 99 in the active shield), installed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). Here the results from the 224.6 live days of data taken between March 2011 and April 2012 are reported. The experiment set one of the most stringent limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section to date (2 × 10-45 cm2 for a 55 Gev/c2 WIMP mass at 90 % confidence level) and the most stringent on the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron interaction (3.5 × 10-40 for a 45 GeV/c2 WIMP mass). With the same dataset, XENON100 excludes also solar axion coupling to electrons at gAe > 7.7 × 10-12 for a mass of mAxion <1 keV/c2 and galactic axion couplings by gAe > 1 × 10-12 at a mass range of mAxion = 5-10 keV/c2 (both 90 % C.L.). Moreover an absolute spectral comparison between simulated and measured nuclear recoil distributions of light and charge signals from a 241AmBe source demonstrates a high level of detector and systematics understanding. Finally, the third generation of the XENON experiments, XENON1T, is the first tonne scale direct WIMP search experiment currently under construction. The commissioning phase of XENON1T is expected to start in early 2015 followed, a few months after, by the first science run. The experiment will reach sensitivities on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section down to 2 ×10-47 cm2 after two years of data taking.

  14. A technique for administering xenon gas anesthesia during surgical procedures in mice.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Arne Mathias; Schmidt, Michaela; Ludiro, Alessia; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Carrying out invasive procedures in animals requires the administration of anesthesia. Xenon gas offers advantages as an anesthetic agent compared with other agents, such as its protection of the brain and heart from hypoxia-induced damage. The high cost of xenon gas has limited its use as an anesthetic in animal experiments, however. The authors designed and constructed simple boxes for the induction and maintenance of xenon gas and isoflurane anesthesia in small rodents in order to minimize the amount of xenon gas that is wasted. While using their anesthesia delivery system to anesthetize pregnant mice undergoing caesarean sections, they measured the respiratory rates of the anesthetized mice, the survival of the pups and the percentages of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the system to confirm the system's safety. PMID:25333593

  15. Design and comparison of exchange spectroscopy approaches to cryptophane-xenon host-guest kinetics.

    PubMed

    Korchak, Sergey; Kilian, Wolfgang; Schröder, Leif; Mitschang, Lorenz

    2016-04-01

    Exchange spectroscopy is used in combination with a variation of xenon concentration to disentangle the kinetics of the reversible binding of xenon to cryptophane-A. The signal intensity of either free or crytophane-bound xenon decays in a manner characteristic of the underlying exchange reactions when the spins in the other pool are perturbed. Three experimental approaches, including the well-known Hyper-CEST method, are shown to effectively entail a simple linear dependence of the signal depletion rate, or of a related quantity, on free xenon concentration. This occurs when using spin pool saturation or inversion followed by free exchange. The identification and quantification of contributions to the binding kinetics is then straightforward: in the depletion rate plot, the intercept at the vanishing free xenon concentration represents the kinetic rate coefficient for xenon detachment from the host by dissociative processes while the slope is indicative of the kinetic rate coefficient for degenerate exchange reactions. Comparing quantified kinetic rates for hyperpolarized xenon in aqueous solution reveals the high accuracy of each approach but also shows differences in the precision of the numerical results and in the requirements for prior knowledge. Because of their broad range of applicability the proposed exchange spectroscopy experiments can be readily used to unravel the kinetics of complex formation of xenon with host molecules in the various situations appearing in practice. PMID:26896869

  16. Design and comparison of exchange spectroscopy approaches to cryptophane-xenon host-guest kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchak, Sergey; Kilian, Wolfgang; Schröder, Leif; Mitschang, Lorenz

    2016-04-01

    Exchange spectroscopy is used in combination with a variation of xenon concentration to disentangle the kinetics of the reversible binding of xenon to cryptophane-A. The signal intensity of either free or crytophane-bound xenon decays in a manner characteristic of the underlying exchange reactions when the spins in the other pool are perturbed. Three experimental approaches, including the well-known Hyper-CEST method, are shown to effectively entail a simple linear dependence of the signal depletion rate, or of a related quantity, on free xenon concentration. This occurs when using spin pool saturation or inversion followed by free exchange. The identification and quantification of contributions to the binding kinetics is then straightforward: in the depletion rate plot, the intercept at the vanishing free xenon concentration represents the kinetic rate coefficient for xenon detachment from the host by dissociative processes while the slope is indicative of the kinetic rate coefficient for degenerate exchange reactions. Comparing quantified kinetic rates for hyperpolarized xenon in aqueous solution reveals the high accuracy of each approach but also shows differences in the precision of the numerical results and in the requirements for prior knowledge. Because of their broad range of applicability the proposed exchange spectroscopy experiments can be readily used to unravel the kinetics of complex formation of xenon with host molecules in the various situations appearing in practice.

  17. Xenon porometry at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Lounila, Juhani; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Xenon porometry is a method in which porous material is immersed in a medium and the properties of the material are studied by means of Xe129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of xenon gas dissolved in the medium. For instance, the chemical shift of a particular signal (referred to as signal D) arising from xenon inside small pockets formed in the pores during the freezing of the confined medium is highly sensitive to the pore size. In the present study, we show that when naphthalene is used as the medium the pore size distribution of the material can be determined by measuring a single one-dimensional spectrum near room temperature and converting the chemical shift scale of signal D to the pore radius scale by using an experimentally determined correlation. A model has been developed that explains the curious behavior of the chemical shift of signal D as a function of pore radius. The other signals of the spectra measured at different temperatures have also been identified, and the influence of xenon pressure on the spectra has been studied. For comparison, Xe129 NMR spectra of pure xenon gas adsorbed to porous materials have been measured and analyzed.

  18. Vibrationally state selected ion molecule experimental and computational studies of both reactant charge states of [nitrogen dioxide + ethyne]+ and HOD+ with nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Jason M.

    2011-12-01

    Ion molecule studies have not only determined reactivity of systems that would have otherwise been unavailable, but also provide a perspective that improves the understanding of the mechanisms that drive reaction. Presented here are studies of three ion molecule systems one of which is accompanied by an extensive set of direct dynamics trajectory calculations. In the first system presented, NO2+ in six different vibrational states was reacted with C2H2 over the center-of-mass energy range from 0.03 to 3.3 eV. The effects of the symmetric bend overtone (0200) excitation are particularly strong (factor of 4) while the delta overtone (0220) effects are much weaker. A large set of quasi-classical trajectories were calculated at the PBE1PBE/6-311G** level of theory, in an attempt to understand the mechanistic origins of this observation. The trajectories reproduce experiment where comparable. Analysis of these trajectories resolves the mechanistic origins of this vibrational effect. Similar experimental measurements were made for the first excited electronic state of this system where the charge is localized on the acetylene. The C 2H2+ reactant was prepared in four distinct modes. Because both reactants have one unpaired electron, collisions can occur with either singlet or triplet coupling of these unpaired electrons, and the contributions the three channels (charge, O-, and O transfer) are separated based on distinct recoil dynamics. The effects of C2H 2+ vibration are modest, but mode specific. Integral cross sections and product recoil velocity distributions were also measured for reaction of HOD+ with NO2, in which the HOD+ reactant was prepared in its ground state, and with mode-selective excitation in the 001 (OH stretch), 100 (OD stretch) and bend (010) modes. In addition, we measured the 300 K thermal kinetics in a selected ion flow tube reactor and report product branching ratios different from previous measurements. Reaction is found to occur on both the

  19. Xenon Filled Silicon Germanium Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewinter, F.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that shows the desirability and feasibility of using a xenon fill in the initial stages of operation of a silicon-germanium radioisotope thermoelectric generator to be used in outer-planetary exploration. The xenon cover gas offers protection against oxidation and against material sublimation, and allows the generator to deliver required power throughout the prelaunch and launch phases. The protective mechanisms afforded by the xenon cover gas and the mechanization of a xenon supply system are also discussed.

  20. [Xenon: From rare gaz to doping product].

    PubMed

    Tassel, Camille; Le Daré, Brendan; Morel, Isabelle; Gicquel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Doping is defined as the use of processes or substances to artificially increase physical or mental performance. Xenon is a noble gas used as an anesthetic and recently as a doping agent. Xenon is neuroprotective as an antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors. Xenon stimulates the synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) by increase of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Xenon would be a new doping product, maintaining doping methods ahead of detection. PMID:26922993

  1. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (left) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  2. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  3. Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon.

    PubMed

    Bovill, J G

    2008-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia is said to have began with the successful demonstration of ether anaesthesia by William Morton in October 1846, even though anaesthesia with nitrous oxide had been used in dentistry 2 years before. Anaesthesia with ether, nitrous oxide and chloroform (introduced in 1847) rapidly became commonplace for surgery. Of these, only nitrous oxide remains in use today. All modern volatile anaesthetics, with the exception of halothane (a fluorinated alkane), are halogenated methyl ethyl ethers. Methyl ethyl ethers are more potent, stable and better anaesthetics than diethyl ethers. They all cause myocardial depression, most markedly halothane, while isoflurane and sevoflurane cause minimal cardiovascular depression. The halogenated ethers also depress the normal respiratory response to carbon dioxide and to hypoxia. Other adverse effects include hepatic and renal damage. Hepatitis occurs most frequently with halothane, although rare cases have been reported with the other agents. Liver damage is not caused by the anaesthetics themselves, but by reactive metabolites. Type I hepatitis occurs fairly commonly and takes the form of a minor disturbance of liver enzymes, which usually resolves without treatment. Type II, thought to be immune-mediated, is rare, unpredictable and results in a severe fulminant hepatitis with a high mortality. Renal damage is rare, and was most often associated with methoxyflurane because of excessive plasma fluoride concentrations resulting from its metabolism. Methoxyflurane was withdrawn from the market because of the high incidence of nephrotoxicity. Among the contemporary anaesthetics, the highest fluoride concentrations have been reported with sevoflurane, but there are no reports of renal dysfunction associated with its use. Recently there has been a renewed interest in xenon, one of the noble gases. Xenon has many of the properties of an ideal anaesthetic. The major factor limiting its more widespread is the high cost, about

  4. Viscosity of Xenon Examined in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    Why does water flow faster than honey? The short answer, that honey has a greater viscosity, merely rephrases the question. The fundamental answer is that viscosity originates in the interactions between a fluid s molecules. These interactions are so complicated that, except for low-density gases, the viscosity of a fluid cannot be accurately predicted. Progress in understanding viscosity has been made by studying moderately dense gases and, more recently, fluids near the critical point. Modern theories predict a universal behavior for all pure fluids near the liquid-vapor critical point, and they relate the increase in viscosity to spontaneous fluctuations in density near this point. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX) experiment tested these theories with unprecedented precision when it flew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-85) in August 1997. Near the critical point, xenon is a billion times more compressible than water, yet it has about the same density. Because the fluid is so "soft," it collapses under its own weight when exposed to the force of Earth s gravity - much like a very soft spring. Because the CVX experiment is conducted in microgravity, it achieves a very uniform fluid density even very close to the critical point. At the heart of the CVX experiment is a novel viscometer built around a small nickel screen. An oscillating electric field forces the screen to oscillate between pairs of electrodes. Viscosity, which dampens the oscillations, can be calculated by measuring the screen motion and the force applied to the screen. So that the fluid s delicate state near the critical point will not be disrupted, the screen oscillations are set to be both slow and small.

  5. Light emission spectra of molecules in negative and positive back discharges in nitrogen with carbon dioxide mixture at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Tadeusz; Sobczyk, Arkadiusz Tomasz; Jaworek, Anatol

    2015-10-01

    Results of spectroscopic investigations and current-voltage characteristics of back discharge generated in point-plane electrode geometry with plate covered fly ash layer in a mixture of N2 + CO2 at atmospheric pressure, for positive and negative polarity of the discharge electrode are presented in this paper. Point-plane electrode configuration was chosen in these studies in order to simulate the physical processes occurring in electrostatic precipitator. Three forms of back discharge for both polarities were investigated: glow, streamers and low-current back-arc. Diatomic reactions and dissociation products of N2 and CO2 (OH, NO, CN), atoms from fly ash layer (N, Ti, Na), free radicals, molecules or ions, which have unpaired valence electrons, and other active species, e.g., N2 (in C,B,A-state), N 2 + (B) were identified in the discharges by the method of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The measurements shown that atomic and molecular optical emission spectral lines from back discharge depend on the forms of discharge and the discharge current. In normal electrical discharges, the emission spectra are dominated by gaseous components, but in the case of back discharge, atomic lines belonging to chemical compounds of fly ash were also recorded and identified.

  6. Conversion of Carbon Dioxide by Methane Reforming under Visible-Light Irradiation: Surface-Plasmon-Mediated Nonpolar Molecule Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Meng, Xianguang; Dao, Thang Duy; Zhang, Huabin; Li, Peng; Chang, Kun; Wang, Tao; Li, Mu; Nagao, Tadaaki; Ye, Jinhua

    2015-09-21

    A novel CO2 photoreduction method, CO2 conversion through methane reforming into syngas (DRM) was adopted as an efficient approach to not only reduce the environmental concentration of the greenhouse gas CO2 but also realize the net energy storage from solar energy to chemical energy. For the first time it is reported that gold, which was generally regarded to be inactive in improving the performance of a catalyst in DRM under thermal conditions, enhanced the catalytic performance of Rh/SBA-15 in DRM under visible-light irradiation (1.7 times, CO2 conversion increased from 2100 to 3600 μmol g(-1) s(-1)). UV/Vis spectra and electromagnetic field simulation results revealed that the highly energetic electrons excited by local surface plasmon resonances of Au facilitated the polarization and activation of CO2 and CH4 with thermal assistance. This work provides a new route for CO2 photoreduction and offers a distinctive method to photocatalytically activate nonpolar molecules. PMID:26271348

  7. Investigation of xenon metastable atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2007-06-01

    The electron configuration of a xenon atom in its metastable state consists of tightly bound core electrons with a single missing electron in the 5P shell, and a loosely bound ``valence electron'' in the 6S shell. For our current work, we have been using pyrex cells with internal tungsten electrodes, filled with isotopically enriched Xe129 gas. Ti-sapphire laser is used to pump the metastable atom from 6S2 to 6P2 and 6P3 at 823nm and 882nm respectively. The absorption spectrum is able to resolve the hyperfine structure of Xe129 in 6S2, 6P2 and 6P3 state. The hyperfine coefficients for 6S2, 6P2 agree with previously reported measurements. And the hyperfine coefficient for 6P3 state has not been reported before. If the pumping wavelength is locked at any one of the hyperfine transitions of Xenon129 atom, zero-field magnetic resonances of metastable Xenon atoms could be observed by pumping with circularly polarized laser beam. Since relaxation between magnetic sublevels is very fast due to the big depolarization collisional cross section, the linewidth of the magnetic resonant signal is broad.

  8. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  9. Spectrum of carbonaceous-chondrite fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Estimations of the fission spectrum in xenon isotopes from the progenitor of the strange carbonaceous-chondrite xenon must take account of p-process nucleosynthesis if the latter is the source of anomalous Xe-124, 126. Sample calculations of the p-process yields illustrate the magnitude of the effect, which can greatly increase the estimated Xe-132 fission yield.

  10. Xenon fluoride solutions effective as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, H. H.; Quarterman, L. A.; Sheft, I.

    1967-01-01

    Solutions of xenon fluorides in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride have few disruptive effects and leave a residue consisting of gaseous xenon, which can be recovered and refluorinated. This mild agent can be used with materials which normally must be fluorinated with fluorine alone at high temperatures.

  11. A liquid xenon radioisotope camera.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaklad, H.; Derenzo, S. E.; Muller, R. A.; Smadja, G.; Smits, R. G.; Alvarez, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of gamma-ray camera is discussed that makes use of electron avalanches in liquid xenon and is currently under development. It is shown that such a radioisotope camera promises many advantages over any other existing gamma-ray cameras. Spatial resolution better than 1 mm and counting rates higher than one million C/sec are possible. An energy resolution of 11% FWHM has recently been achieved with a collimated Hg-203 source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing a Frisch grid.

  12. Xenon Gamma Detector Project Support

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier,P.E.; Forman, L.

    2008-04-01

    This project provided funding of $48,500 for part of one year to support the development of compressed xenon spectrometers at BNL. This report describes upgrades that were made to the existing detector system electronics during that period, as well as subsequent testing with check sources and Special Nuclear Materials. Previous testing of the equipment extended only up to the energy of 1.3 MeV, and did not include a spectrum of Pu-239. The new electronics allowed one-button activation of the high voltage ramp that was previously controlled by manual adjustments. Mechanical relays of the charging circuit were replaced by a tera-ohm resistor chain and an optical switch. The preamplifier and shaping amplifier were replaced by more modern custom designs. We found that the xenon purity had not been degraded since the chamber was filled 10 years earlier. The resulting spectra showed significantly better resolution than sodium iodide spectra, and could be analyzed quite effectively by methods using peak area templates.

  13. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, John K.

    1989-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0.degree. to 30.degree. C.

  14. High pressure xenon ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Markey, J.K.

    1989-11-14

    A method is provided for detecting ionization comprising allowing particles that cause ionization to contact high pressure xenon maintained at or near its critical point and measuring the amount of ionization. An apparatus is provided for detecting ionization, the apparatus comprising a vessel containing a ionizable medium, the vessel having an inlet to allow high pressure ionizable medium to enter the vessel, a means to permit particles that cause ionization of the medium to enter the vessel, an anode, a cathode, a grid and a plurality of annular field shaping rings, the field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another, the anode, cathode, grid and field shaping rings being electrically isolated from one another in order to form an electric field between the cathode and the anode, the electric field originating at the anode and terminating at the cathode, the grid being disposed between the cathode and the anode, the field shaping rings being disposed between the cathode and the grid, the improvement comprising the medium being xenon and the vessel being maintained at a pressure of 50 to 70 atmospheres and a temperature of 0 to 30 C. 2 figs.

  15. The atmosphere of Mars - Detection of krypton and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Biemann, K.; Biller, J. E.; Lafleur, A. L.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Krypton and xenon have been discovered in the Martian atmosphere with the mass spectrometer on the second Viking lander. Krypton is more abundant than xenon. The relative abundances of the krypton isotopes appear normal, but the ratio of xenon-129 to xenon-132 is enhanced on Mars relative to the terrestrial value for this ratio. Some possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Xenon spill distribution and room clearance.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, C A; Telepak, R J

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate actual xenon gas clearance times under different exhaust conditions, to compare them with the calculated clearance times, to observe the distribution of the xenon gas while it was being exhausted from the room, and to determine the cause of a stationary xenon cloud that appeared on some clinical images. Clearance times with and without a flexible exhaust hose placed next to a simulated 133Xe gas spill were compared with clearance times measured in a room with all exhaust closed off. Two gamma cameras were used to observe the transport and exhaust of xenon following a simulated spill. Clearance times with the flexible exhaust hose were less than one minute because the xenon gas was removed before it had a chance to disperse into the room. Conventional room clearance calculations based on uniform mixing and measured exhaust rates yielded a clearance time of 22 min. The source of an artifactual stationary cloud image was discovered to be a small amount of xenon trapped between the collimator and camera face. A negative pressure and dedicated exhaust can be even more effective in exhausting spilled xenon from a room than air transfer calculations predict. The authors believe the flexible hose should always be used. PMID:10524516

  17. Structures of xenon oxides at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth, Nicholas; Pickard, Chris; Needs, Richard; Dewaele, Agnes; Loubeyre, Paul; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    For many years, it was believed that noble gases such as xenon were entirely inert. It was only in 1962 that Bartlett first synthesized a compound of xenon. Since then, a number of other xenon compounds, including oxides, have been synthesized. Xenon oxides are unstable under ambient conditions but have been predicted to stabilize under high pressure. Here we present the results of a combined theoretical and experimental study of xenon oxides at pressures of 80-100 GPa. We have synthesized new xenon oxides at these pressures and they have been characterized with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Calculations were performed with a density-functional theory framework. We have used the ab-initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method together with a data-mining technique to determine the stable compounds in the xenon-oxygen system in this pressure range. We have calculated structural and optical properties of these phases, and a good match between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained. Funding for computational research provided by the engineering and physical sciences research council (EPSRC; UK). Computing resources provided by Cambridge HPC and HECToR. X-ray diffraction experiments performed at ESRF.

  18. Hyperpolarized Xenon for NMR and MRI Applications

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Christopher; Kunth, Martin; Döpfert, Jörg; Rossella, Federica; Schröder, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) suffer from intrinsic low sensitivity because even strong external magnetic fields of ~10 T generate only a small detectable net-magnetization of the sample at room temperature 1. Hence, most NMR and MRI applications rely on the detection of molecules at relative high concentration (e.g., water for imaging of biological tissue) or require excessive acquisition times. This limits our ability to exploit the very useful molecular specificity of NMR signals for many biochemical and medical applications. However, novel approaches have emerged in the past few years: Manipulation of the detected spin species prior to detection inside the NMR/MRI magnet can dramatically increase the magnetization and therefore allows detection of molecules at much lower concentration 2. Here, we present a method for polarization of a xenon gas mixture (2-5% Xe, 10% N2, He balance) in a compact setup with a ca. 16000-fold signal enhancement. Modern line-narrowed diode lasers allow efficient polarization 7 and immediate use of gas mixture even if the noble gas is not separated from the other components. The SEOP apparatus is explained and determination of the achieved spin polarization is demonstrated for performance control of the method. The hyperpolarized gas can be used for void space imaging, including gas flow imaging or diffusion studies at the interfaces with other materials 8,9. Moreover, the Xe NMR signal is extremely sensitive to its molecular environment 6. This enables the option to use it as an NMR/MRI contrast agent when dissolved in aqueous solution with functionalized molecular hosts that temporarily trap the gas 10,11. Direct detection and high-sensitivity indirect detection of such constructs is demonstrated in both spectroscopic and imaging mode. PMID:22986346

  19. Multiple ionization of xenon by proton impact

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.T.; DuBois, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of multiple ionization of xenon for 0.2- to 2.0-MeV proton impact was made. Absolute cross sections for producing xenon ions with charges from +1 to +3 were measured, and calculations of subshell cross sections were performed. Experiment and theory are consistent and indicate that multiple ionization of xenon by fast protons occurs via inner-shell ionization. This is in contrast to the lighter noble gases where direct multiple outer shell ionization can be predominant.

  20. Alternative hypothesis for the origin of CCF xenon. [Carbonaceous-Chondrite-Fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    The relative abundances and origins of the xenon isotopes found in carbonaceous meteorites are discussed. It is proposed that carbonaceous-chondrite-fission (CCF) xenon is not caused by fission, but is the direct result of a modified r-process nucleosynthesis which produces a peak at Z = 54 and N = 82. The xenon produced in this way would have been trapped in dust grains which were subsequently incorporated in the solar system with minimal degassing.

  1. Extreme confinement of xenon by cryptophane-111 in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Akil I; Lapidus, Saul H; Kane, Christopher M; Holman, K Travis

    2015-01-26

    Solids that sorb, capture and/or store the heavier noble gases are of interest because of their potential for transformative rare gas separation/production, storage, or recovery technologies. Herein, we report the isolation, crystal structures, and thermal stabilities of a series of xenon and krypton clathrates of (±)-cryptophane-111 (111). One trigonal crystal form, Xe@111⋅y(solvent), is exceptionally stable, retaining xenon at temperatures of up to about 300 °C. The high kinetic stability is attributable not only to the high xenon affinity and cage-like nature of the host, but also to the crystal packing of the clathrate, wherein each window of the molecular container is blocked by the bridges of adjacent containers, effectively imprisoning the noble gas in the solid state. The results highlight the potential of discrete molecule materials exhibiting intrinsic microcavities or zero-dimensional pores. PMID:25504739

  2. Xenon Blocks Neuronal Injury Associated with Decompression.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; David, Hélène N; Vallée, Nicolas; Meckler, Cedric; Demaistre, Sebastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, about 30% of patients suffering neurologic decompression sickness (DCS) exhibit incomplete recovery. Since the mechanisms of neurologic DCS involve ischemic processes which result in excitotoxicity, it is likely that HBO in combination with an anti-excitotoxic treatment would improve the outcome in patients being treated for DCS. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of the noble gas xenon in an ex vivo model of neurologic DCS. Xenon has been shown to provide neuroprotection in multiple models of acute ischemic insults. Fast decompression compared to slow decompression induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a well-known marker of sub-lethal cell injury. Post-decompression administration of xenon blocked the increase in LDH release induced by fast decompression. These data suggest that xenon could be an efficient additional treatment to HBO for the treatment of neurologic DCS. PMID:26469983

  3. Xenon Blocks Neuronal Injury Associated with Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; David, Hélène N.; Vallée, Nicolas; Meckler, Cedric; Demaistre, Sebastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, about 30% of patients suffering neurologic decompression sickness (DCS) exhibit incomplete recovery. Since the mechanisms of neurologic DCS involve ischemic processes which result in excitotoxicity, it is likely that HBO in combination with an anti-excitotoxic treatment would improve the outcome in patients being treated for DCS. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of the noble gas xenon in an ex vivo model of neurologic DCS. Xenon has been shown to provide neuroprotection in multiple models of acute ischemic insults. Fast decompression compared to slow decompression induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a well-known marker of sub-lethal cell injury. Post-decompression administration of xenon blocked the increase in LDH release induced by fast decompression. These data suggest that xenon could be an efficient additional treatment to HBO for the treatment of neurologic DCS. PMID:26469983

  4. Surface diffusion of xenon on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, D. Laurence; George, Steven M.

    1993-06-01

    The surface diffusion of xenon on the Pt(111) surface was investigated using laser induced thermal desorption (LITD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. The surface diffusion coefficient at 80 K decreased dramatically from D=8×10-7 cm2/s at θ=0.05θs to approximately D=2×10-8 cm2/s at θ=θs, where θs denotes the saturation coverage at 85 K, corresponding to a commensurate monolayer coverage of 5.0×1014 xenon atoms/cm2. This coverage dependence was consistent with attractive interactions between the adsorbed xenon atoms and the existence of two-dimensional condensed phases of xenon on Pt(111). The kinetic parameters for surface diffusion at θ=θs were Edif=1.3±0.1 kcal/mol and D0=1.1×10-4±0.2 cm2/s. The magnitude of Edif at θ=θs represented the combined effect of the intrinsic corrugation of the adsorbate-surface potential and attractive interactions between the adsorbed xenon atoms. LITD experiments at θ=0.25 θs revealed diffusion kinetic parameters of Edif=1.2±0.2 kcal/mol and D0=3.4×10-4±0.5 cm2/s. The constant Edif at low and high coverage was attributed to the ``breakaway'' of xenon atoms from the edges of condensed phase xenon islands. The coverage dependence of the surface diffusion coefficient for Xe/Pt(111) was explained by a multiple site diffusion mechanism, where collisions with xenon islands limit diffusional motion. Thermal desorption kinetics for xenon on Pt(111) were determined using TPD experiments. Using the variation of heating rates method, the desorption parameters were Edes=6.6±0.2 kcal/mol and νdes=1.3×1013±0.4 s-1, in good agreement with previous studies. The xenon TPD peak shifted to higher temperature versus initial coverage at a fixed heating rate, providing further evidence for attractive interactions between the adsorbed xenon atoms.

  5. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  6. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-07-01

    A modification of a common commercial Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilatory rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration.

  7. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-07-01

    A modification of a common commerical Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilator rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration.

  8. Reactions of vanadium dioxide molecules with acetylene: infrared spectra of VO2(η(2)-C2H2)(x) (x = 1, 2) and OV(OH)CCH in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaojie; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2013-07-01

    Reactions of vanadium dioxide molecules with acetylene have been studied by matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Reaction intermediates and products are identified on the basis of isotopic substitutions as well as density functional frequency calculations. Ground state vanadium dioxide molecule reacts with acetylene in forming the side-on-bonded VO2(η(2)-C2H2) and VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complexes spontaneously on annealing in solid neon. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) complex is characterized to have a (2)B2 ground state with C2v symmetry, whereas the VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complex has a (2)A ground state with C2 symmetry. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) and VO2(η(2)-C2H2)2 complexes are photosensitive. The VO2(η(2)-C2H2) complex rearranges to the OV(OH)CCH molecule upon UV-vis light excitation. PMID:23718542

  9. The Search for Dark Matter with the XENON100 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, Elena

    2008-11-23

    The XENON Dark Matter Experiment aims at the direct detection of dark matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with dual phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chambers (XeTPCs). Following the successful performance of the XENON10 detector, which has shown in 2007 the best sensitivity to spin-independent coupling of WIMPs to matter, we have designed and completed the construction of a new TPC with an active LXe shield, containing a total of 170 kg of xenon. The detector is currently undergoing final commissioning at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. I will review the XENON10 results and present the status of the XENON100 experiment.

  10. XENON dark matter searches: Results and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Andrew; Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    XENON100 is a dark matter search experiment looking for elastic WIMP scattering using a 62 kg liquid target. WIMP search data from XENON100 published in 2012 has set the world's strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spinindependent, elastic scattering. It has also set the strongest limits on WIMP-nucleus spin-dependent scattering considering neutron scattering only, and competitive limits considering proton scattering only. The successor experiment to XENON100, XENON1T, is currently under construction, with commissioning scheduled to begin in 2014. XENON1T's design goal is a 100 fold increase in sensitivity for elastic WIMP searches over XENON100.

  11. Molecular oxygen migration through the xenon docking sites of human hemoglobin in the R-state.

    PubMed

    Lepeshkevich, Sergei V; Gilevich, Syargey N; Parkhats, Marina V; Dzhagarov, Boris M

    2016-09-01

    A nanosecond laser flash-photolysis technique was used to study bimolecular and geminate molecular oxygen (O2) rebinding to tetrameric human hemoglobin and its isolated α and β chains in buffer solutions equilibrated with 1atm of air and up to 25atm of xenon. Xenon binding to the isolated α chains and to the α subunits within tetrameric hemoglobin was found to cause a decrease in the efficiency of O2 escape by a factor of ~1.30 and 3.3, respectively. A kinetic model for O2 dissociation, rebinding, and migration through two alternative pathways in the hemoglobin subunits was introduced and discussed. It was shown that, in the isolated α chains and α subunits within tetrameric hemoglobin, nearly one- and two-third escaping molecules of O2 leave the protein via xenon docking sites, respectively. The present experimental data support the idea that O2 molecule escapes from the β subunits mainly through the His(E7) gate, and show unambiguously that, in the α subunits, in addition to the direct E7 channel, there is at least one alternative escape route leading to the exterior via the xenon docking sites. PMID:27288155

  12. Xenon lighting adjusted to plant requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koefferlein, M.; Doehring, T.; Payer, Hans D.; Seidlitz, H. K.

    1994-01-01

    Xenon lamps are available as low and high power lamps with relatively high efficiency and a relatively long lifetime up to several thousand hours. Different construction types of short-arc and long-arc lamps permit a good adaptation to various applications in projection and illumination techniques without substantial changes of the spectral quality. Hence, the xenon lamp was the best choice for professional technical purposes where high power at simultaneously good spectral quality of the light was required. However, technical development does not stand still. Between the luminous efficacy of xenon lamps of 25-50 lm/W and the theoretical limit for 'white light' of 250 lm/W is still much room for improvement. The present development mainly favors other lamp types, like metal halide lamps and fluorescent lamps for commercial lighting purposes. The enclosed sections deal with some of the properties of xenon lamps relevant to plant illumination; particularly the spectral aspects, the temporal characteristics of the emission, and finally the economy of xenon lamps will be addressed. Due to radiation exceeding the natural global radiation in both the ultraviolet (UV) and the infrared (IR) regions, filter techniques have to be included into the discussion referring to the requirements of plant illumination. Most of the presented results were obtained by investigations in the GSF phytotron or in the closed Phytocell chambers of the University of Erlangen. As our experiences are restricted to area plant illumination rather than spot lights our discussion will concentrate on low pressure long-arc xenon lamps which are commonly used for such plant illuminations. As the spectral properties of short-arc lamps do not differ much from those of long-arc lamps most of our conclusions will be valid for high pressure xenon lamps too. These lamps often serve as light sources for small sun simulators and for monochromators which are used for action spectroscopy of plant responses.

  13. Stirring Up an Elastic Fluid: Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Motil, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Whipped cream stays in place even when turned upside down. Yet it readily flows through the nozzle of a spray can to reach the dessert plate. This demonstrates the phenomenon of shear thinning that is important to many industrial and physical processes. Paints, film emulsions, and other complex solutions that are highly viscous under normal conditions but become thin and flow easily under shear forces. A simple fluid, such as water, does not exhibit shear thinning under normal conditions. Very close to the liquid-vapor critical point, where the distinction between liquid and vapor disappears, the fluid becomes more complex and is predicted to display shear thinning. At the critical point, xenon atoms interact over long distances in a classical model of cooperative phenomena. Physicists rely on this system to learn how long-range order arises. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of fluids. Viscosity originates from the interactions of individual molecules. It is so complicated that, except for the simplest gas, it cannot be calculated accurately from theory. Tests with critical fluids can provide key data, but are limited on Earth because critical fluids are highly compressed by gravity. CVX-2 employs a tiny metal screen vibrating between two electrodes in a bath of critical xenon. The vibrations and how they dampen are used to measure viscosity. CVX flew on STS-85 (1997), where it revealed that, close to the critical point, the xenon is partly elastic: it can 'stretch' as well as flow. For STS-107, the hardware has been enhanced to determine if critical xenon is a shear-thinning fluid.

  14. Stirring Up an Elastic Fluid: Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2002-12-01

    Whipped cream stays in place even when turned upside down. Yet it readily flows through the nozzle of a spray can to reach the dessert plate. This demonstrates the phenomenon of shear thinning that is important to many industrial and physical processes. Paints, film emulsions, and other complex solutions that are highly viscous under normal conditions but become thin and flow easily under shear forces. A simple fluid, such as water, does not exhibit shear thinning under normal conditions. Very close to the liquid-vapor critical point, where the distinction between liquid and vapor disappears, the fluid becomes more complex and is predicted to display shear thinning. At the critical point, xenon atoms interact over long distances in a classical model of cooperative phenomena. Physicists rely on this system to learn how long-range order arises. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of fluids. Viscosity originates from the interactions of individual molecules. It is so complicated that, except for the simplest gas, it cannot be calculated accurately from theory. Tests with critical fluids can provide key data, but are limited on Earth because critical fluids are highly compressed by gravity. CVX-2 employs a tiny metal screen vibrating between two electrodes in a bath of critical xenon. The vibrations and how they dampen are used to measure viscosity. CVX flew on STS-85 (1997), where it revealed that, close to the critical point, the xenon is partly elastic: it can 'stretch' as well as flow. For STS-107, the hardware has been enhanced to determine if critical xenon is a shear-thinning fluid.

  15. The Xenon record of Earth's early differentiaiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peto, M. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kelley, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Xenon isotopes in mantle derived rocks provide information on the early differentiation of the silicate mantle of our planet. {131,132 134,136}Xe isotopes are produced by the spontaneous fission of two different elements: the now extinct radionuclide 244Pu, and the long-lived 238U. These two parent nuclides, however, yield rather different proportion of fissiogenic Xenon isotopes. Hence, the proportion of Pu- to U-derived fission xenon is indicative of the degree and rate of outgassing of a mantle reservoir. Recent data obtained from Iceland in our lab confirm that the Xenon isotopic composition of the plume source(s) is characterized by lower 136Xe/130Xe ratios than the MORB source and the Iceland plume is more enriched in the Pu-derived Xenon component. These features are interpreted as reflecting different degrees of outgassing and appear not to be the result of preferential recycling of Xenon to the deep mantle. To further investigate how representative the Icelandic measurements might be of other mantle plumes, we measured noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) in gas-rich basalt glasses from the Rochambeau Ridge (RR) in the Northern Lau Basin. Recent work suggests the presence of a "Samoan-like" OIB source in the northern Lau Basin and our measurements were performed on samples with plume-like 3He/4He ratios (15-28 RA) [1]. The Xenon isotopic measurements indicate that the maximum measured 136Xe/130Xe ratios in the Rochambeau samples are similar to Iceland. In particular, for one of the gas rich samples we were able to obtain 77 different isotopic measurements through step-crushing. Preliminary investigation of this sample suggests higher Pu- to U-derived fission Xenon than in MORBs. To quantitatively evaluate the degree and rate of outgassing of the plume and MORB reservoirs, particularly during the first few hundred million years of Earth's history, we have modified a geochemical reservoir model that was previously developed to investigate mantle overturn and mixing

  16. Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresel, P. E.; Waichler, S. R.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hayes, J. C.; McIntyre, J. I.; Giles, J. R.; Sondrup, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site show radioxenon and stable xenon isotopic signatures that are indicative of transuranic waste. Radioxenon analysis has greater sensitivity due to the lower background concentrations and indicates spontaneous fission due to the short half life of the isotopes. Stable isotope ratios may be used to distinguish irradiated fuel sources from pure spontaneous fission sources and are not as dependent on rapid release from the waste form. The release rate is dependent on the type of waste and container integrity and is the greatest unknown in application of this technique. Numerical multi-phase transport modeling of burial grounds at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory indicates that, under generalized conditions, the radioxenon isotopes will diffuse away from the waste and be found in the soil cap and adjacent to the burial ground at levels many orders of magnitude above the detection limit.

  17. Cosmogenic activation of xenon and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Piastra, Francesco; Schumann, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Rare event search experiments using liquid xenon as target and detection medium require ultra-low background levels to fully exploit their physics potential. Cosmic ray induced activation of the detector components and, even more importantly, of the xenon itself during production, transportation and storage at the Earth's surface, might result in the production of radioactive isotopes with long half-lives, with a possible impact on the expected background. We present the first dedicated study on the cosmogenic activation of xenon after 345 days of exposure to cosmic rays at the Jungfraujoch research station at 3470 m above sea level, complemented by a study of copper which has been activated simultaneously. We have directly observed the production of ^7Be, ^{101}Rh, ^{125}Sb, ^{126}I and ^{127}Xe in xenon, out of which only ^{125}Sb could potentially lead to background for a multi-ton scale dark matter search. The production rates for five out of eight studied radioactive isotopes in copper are in agreement with the only existing dedicated activation measurement, while we observe lower rates for the remaining ones. The specific saturation activities for both samples are also compared to predictions obtained with commonly used software packages, where we observe some underpredictions, especially for xenon activation.

  18. Direct Dark Matter search with XENON100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrigo, S. E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The XENON100 experiment is the second phase of the XENON program for the direct detection of the dark matter in the universe. The XENON100 detector is a two-phase Time Projection Chamber filled with 161 kg of ultra pure liquid xenon. The results from 224.6 live days of dark matter search with XENON100 are presented. No evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs is found, excluding spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross sections above 2 × 10-45 cm2 for a 55 GeV/c2 WIMP at 90% confidence level (C.L.). The most stringent limit is established on the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron interaction for WIMP masses above 6 GeV/c2, with a minimum cross section of 3.5 × 10-40 cm2 (90% C.L.) for a 45 GeV/c2 WIMP. The same dataset is used to search for axions and axion-like-particles. The best limits to date are set on the axion-electron coupling constant for solar axions, gAe < 7.7 × 10-12 (90% C.L.), and for axion-like-particles, gAe < 1 × 10-12 (90% C.L.) for masses between 5 and 10 keV/c2.

  19. Dendrite engineering on xenon crystals.

    PubMed

    Fell, Marco; Bilgram, Jörg

    2007-06-01

    The experimental work presented focuses on transient growth, morphological transitions, and control of xenon dendrites. Dendritic free growth is perturbed by two different mechanisms: Shaking and heating up to the melting temperature. Spontaneous and metastable multitip configurations are stabilized, coarsening is reduced, leading to a denser sidebranch growth, and a periodic tip splitting is found during perturbation by shaking. On the other hand, heating leads to controlled sidebranching and characteristic transitions of the tip shape. A deterministic behavior is found besides the random-noise-driven growth. The existence of a limit cycle is supported by the findings. Together the two perturbation mechanisms allow a "dendrite engineering"--i.e., a reproducible controlling of the crystal shape during its growth. The tip splitting for dendritic free growth is found not to be a splitting of the tip in two; rather, the respective growth velocities of the main tip and the fins change. The latter then surpass the main tip and develop into new tips. The occurrence of three- and four-tip configurations is explained with this mechanism. Finite-element calculations of the heat flow and the convective flow in the growth vessel show that the idea of a single axisymmetric toroidal convection roll across the whole growth vessel has to be dropped. The main effect of convection under Earth's gravity is the compression of the diffusive temperature field around the downward-growing tip. A model to explain the symmetry of dendritic crystals--e.g., snow crystals--is developed, based on the interaction of crystal shape and heat flow in the crystal. PMID:17677269

  20. Reflectance of polytetrafluoroethylene for xenon scintillation light

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.; Lopes, M. I.; Solovov, V.; Neves, F.

    2010-03-15

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region ({lambda}{approx_equal}175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work, we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived, and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Other fluoropolymers, namely, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), and perfluoro-alkoxyalkane (PFA) were also measured.

  1. 129Xe spin relaxation in frozen xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. J.; Gatzke, M.; Fox, David C.; Cates, G. D.; Happer, W.

    1999-04-01

    We discuss the longitudinal spin relaxation of 129Xe nuclei in frozen xenon. Over a large range of temperatures and magnetic fields, the dominant spin-lattice relaxation mechanism is shown to be nuclear spin-flip Raman scattering of lattice phonons. Two closely related interactions couple the lattice phonons to the spins of 129Xe nuclei: (1) the nuclear spin-rotation interaction between nearest-neighbor atoms, and (2) the paramagnetic antishielding of the externally applied field at the site of 129Xe nuclei by the electrons of neighboring Xe atoms. We show that relaxation rates can be predicted by using measured chemical shifts of gaseous and condensed xenon. The predicted relaxation rates are in good agreement with measurements. We outline a simple way to estimate the spin-rotation coupling and paramagnetic antishielding in terms of the small perturbations of the outermost electron orbitals of one xenon atom due to a neighboring atom.

  2. Reflectance of polytetrafluoroethylene for xenon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.; Lopes, M. I.; Solovov, V.; Neves, F.

    2010-03-01

    Gaseous and liquid xenon particle detectors are being used in a number of applications including dark matter search and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is often used in these detectors both as electrical insulator and as a light reflector to improve the efficiency of detection of scintillation photons. However, xenon emits in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region (λ ≃175 nm) where the reflecting properties of PTFE are not sufficiently known. In this work, we report on measurements of PTFE reflectance, including its angular distribution, for the xenon scintillation light. Various samples of PTFE, manufactured by different processes (extruded, expanded, skived, and pressed) have been studied. The data were interpreted with a physical model comprising both specular and diffuse reflections. The reflectance obtained for these samples ranges from about 47% to 66% for VUV light. Other fluoropolymers, namely, ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), and perfluoro-alkoxyalkane (PFA) were also measured.

  3. Transdermal diffusion of xenon in vitro using diffusion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhovsky, A.; Petrov, E.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study the diffusion rate of xenon through guinea pig skin and how viscosity of cosmetic component capryl/capric triglyceride (CCT) facilitates to deliver xenon to surface of skin patches. They were placed in Franz cell for 24 hours and diffusion rate and permeability of xenon were calculated. Thus diffusion rate was 0.031 mg/hour*cm2 and permeability was 0.003 cm/hour. Using Brookfield viscometer it was shown that viscosity of CCT decreased upon increasing xenon concentration. Obtained results can be utilized in developing of new xenon containing drugs for topical administration.

  4. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  5. Xenon fluorides show potential as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernick, C. L.; Shieh, T. C.; Yang, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Xenon fluorides permit the controlled addition of fluorine across an olefinic double bond. They provide a series of fluorinating agents that permit ready separation from the product at a high purity. The reactions may be carried out in the vapor phase.

  6. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  7. DFT-MD simulations of shocked Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Mattsson, Thomas R.

    2009-03-01

    Xenon is not only a technologically important element used in laser technologies, jet propulsion and dental anesthesia, but it is also arguably the simplest material in which to study the metal-insulator transition at high pressure. Because of its closed shell electronic configuration, Xenon is often assumed to be chemically inert, interacting almost entirely through the van der Waals interaction, and at liquid density, is typically modeled well using Leonard-Jones potentials. However, such modeling has a limited range of validity as Xenon is known to form compounds at normal conditions and likely exhibits considerably more chemistry at higher densities when hybridization of occupied orbitals becomes significant. In this talk, we present DFT-MD simulations of shocked liquid Xenon with the goal of developing an improved equation of state. The relative importance of the van der Waals interaction compared to other Coulomb interactions is considered, and estimates of the relative accuracy of various density functionals are quantified. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Anticipatory control of xenon in a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described for automatically dampening xenon-135 spatial transients in the core of a pressurized water reactor having control rods which regulate reactor power level, comprising the steps of: measuring the neutron flu in the reactor core at a plurality of axially spaced locations on a real-time, on-line basis; repetitively generating from the neutron flux measurements, on a point-by-point basis, signals representative of the current axial distribution of xenon-135, and signals representative of the current rate of change of the axial distribution of xenon-135; generating from the xenon-135 distribution signals and the rate of change of xenon distribution signals, control signals for reducing the xenon transients; and positioning the control rods as a function of the control signals to dampen the xenon-135 spatial transients.

  9. Atomistic study of stability of xenon nanoclusters in uranium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, A.; Van Brutzel, L.; Freyss, M.

    2010-05-01

    Density-functional theory calculations of the xenon incorporation energies in point defects in urania have been done in order to fit empirical potentials. With this set of parameters, we have considered the incorporation of xenon in small and extended defects such as planar interstitials, grain boundaries, faceted, and spherical voids. The results show that xenon atoms are more likely to aggregate than to be homogeneously distributed in the urania grains. SIGMA5 grain boundary and spherical shape voids are the most favorable defects of xenon atom incorporation. The presence of xenon atoms in nanovoids affects their shape. The energy gain to aggregate xenon atoms into clusters saturates for cluster sizes of about 15-20 Schottky defects. This demonstrates that medium size defects are just as favorable as big size defects for xenon incorporation.

  10. Bisphosphine dioxides

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  11. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOEpatents

    Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  12. Preliminary Measurements of the Xenon Triple Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2014-04-01

    Ever since the construction and definition of the highly successful International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), one severe deficiency of the scale has been recognized, without a reliable remedy. The problem is the fact that the only then available high-quality fixed point between the argon triple point and the water triple point was the mercury triple point, which unfortunately is situated rather closely to the water triple point, thus having an extremely strong influence on the interpolation function of SPRTs in the range. Already before 1990, measurements on possible fixed points better placed in this temperature range have been investigated, such as the triple points of krypton and xenon. However, results have been rather elusive, mainly regarding the rather large melting range of their transition. A turning point was the 2005 paper from the National Research Council (NRC, Canada), where it was established that the relatively high content of krypton was the culprit for the large melting range of the xenon transitions published previously. Indeed, measurements on a xenon sample with very low krypton content produced a very high-quality plateau, of the same level as other ITS-90 fixed points. However, no follow-up measurements have been reported, and thus neither have comparison measurements been reported. Shortly, after the appearance of the NRC paper, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM, Italy) acquired a batch of the same high-purity xenon as used by NRC with the aim of preparing a few sealed cells with it and trying to reproduce the NRC results. However, with the start of the Neon Project (Euromet Project 770), the realization of these intentions had to be postponed until now. Last December, three cells of different design have been filled with this high-quality xenon and preliminary results of the measurements on the triple point are reported.

  13. An automated multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system for isolation and enrichment of trace amounts of xenon from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tuula; Östman, Conny; Colmsjö, Anders

    2011-04-01

    The monitoring of radioactive xenon isotopes is one of the principal methods for the detection of nuclear explosions in order to identify clandestine nuclear testing. In this work, a miniaturized, multiple-oven, six-column, preparative gas chromatograph was constructed in order to isolate trace quantities of radioactive xenon isotopes from ambient air, utilizing nitrogen as the carrier gas. The multidimensional chromatograph comprised preparative stainless steel columns packed with molecular sieves, activated carbon, and synthetic carbon adsorbents (e.g., Anasorb®-747 and Carbosphere®). A combination of purification techniques--ambient adsorption, thermal desorption, back-flushing, thermal focusing, and heart cutting--was selectively optimized to produce a well-defined xenon peak that facilitated reproducible heart cutting and accurate quantification. The chromatographic purification of a sample requires approximately 4 h and provides complete separation of xenon from potentially interfering components (such as water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, and radon) with recovery and accuracy close to 100%. The preparative enrichment process isolates and concentrates a highly purified xenon gas fraction that is suitable for subsequent ultra-low-level γ-, ß/γ-spectroscopic or high-resolution mass spectrometric measurement (e.g., to monitor the gaseous fission products of nuclear explosions at remote locations). The Xenon Processing Unit is a free-standing, relatively lightweight, and transportable system that can be interfaced to a variety of sampling and detection systems. It has a relatively inexpensive, rugged, and compact modular (19-inch rack) design that provides easy access to all parts for maintenance and has a low power requirement. PMID:21347675

  14. Xenon and iodine reveal multiple distinct exotic xenon components in Efremovka "nanodiamonds"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Holland, G.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Fisenko, A. V.; Crowther, S. A.; Turner, G.

    2016-03-01

    We identify new xenon components in a nanodiamond-rich residue from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. We demonstrate for the first time that these, and the previously identified xenon components Xe-P3 and Xe-P6, are associated with elevated I/Xe ratios. The 129I/127I ratio associated with xenon loss from these presolar compositions during processing on planetesimals in the early solar system was (0.369 ± 0.019) × 10-4, a factor of 3-4 lower than the canonical value. This suggests either incorporation of iodine into carbonaceous grains before the last input of freshly synthesized 129I to the solar system's precursor material, or loss of noble gases during processing of planetesimals around 30 Myr after solar system formation. The xenon/iodine ratios and model closure ages were revealed by laser step pyrolysis analysis of a neutron-irradiated, coarse-grained nanodiamond separate. Three distinct low temperature compositions are identified by characteristic I/Xe ratios and 136Xe/132Xe ratios. There is some evidence of multiple compositions with distinct I/Xe ratios in the higher temperature releases associated with Xe-P6. The presence of iodine alongside Q-Xe and these components in nanodiamonds constrains the pathway by which extreme volatiles entered the solid phase and may facilitate the identification of their carriers. There is no detectable iodine contribution to the presolar Xe-HL component, which is released at intermediate temperatures; this suggests a distinct trapping process. Releases associated with the other components all include significant contributions of 128Xe produced from iodine by neutron capture during reactor irradiation. We propose a revised model relating the origin of Xe-P3 (which exhibits an s-process deficit) through a "Q-process" to the Q component (which makes the dominant contribution to the heavy noble gas budget of primitive material). The Q-process incorporates noble gases and iodine into specific carbonaceous phases with mass

  15. Hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance of the lung and the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Arvind Krishnamachari

    2001-04-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a new diagnostic modality that has been used successfully for lung imaging. Xenon is soluble in blood and inhaled xenon is transported to the brain via circulating blood. Xenon also accumulates in the lipid rich white matter of the brain. Hyperpolarized xenon can hence be used as a tissue- sensitive probe of brain function. The goals of this study were to identify the NMR resonances of xenon in the rat brain and evaluate the role of hyperpolarized xenon for brain MRI. We have developed systems to produce sufficient volumes of hyperpolarized xenon for in vivo brain experiments. The specialized instrumentation developed include an apparatus for optical pump-cell manufacture and high purity gas manifolds for filling cells. A hyperpolarized gas delivery system was designed to ventilate small animals with hyperpolarized xenon for transport to the brain. The T1 of xenon dissolved in blood indicates that the lifetime of xenon in the blood is sufficient for significant magnetization to be transferred to distal tissues. A variety of carrier agents for intravenous delivery of hyperpolarized xenon were tested for transport to distal tissues. Using our new gas delivery system, high SNR 129Xe images of rat lungs were obtained. Spectroscopy with hyperpolarized xenon indicated that xenon was transported from the lungs to the blood and tissues with intact magnetization. After preliminary studies that indicated the feasibility for in vivo rat brain studies, experiments were performed with adult rats and young rats with different stages of white matter development. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed the prominence of one peak from xenon in the rat brain, which was assigned to brain lipids. Cerebral brain perfusion was calculated from the wash-out of the hyperpolarized xenon signal in the brain. An increase in brain perfusion during maturation was observed. These experiments showed that hyperpolarized xenon MRI

  16. Xenon ion propulsion for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Patterson, M. J.; Gruber, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The status of critical ion propulsion system elements is reviewed. Electron bombardment ion thrusters for primary propulsion have evolved to operate on xenon in the 5-10 kW power range. Thruster efficiencies of 0.7 and specific impulse values of 4000 s have been documented. The baseline thruster currently under development by NASA LeRC includes ring-cusp magnetic field plasma containment and dished two-grid ion optics. Based on past experience and demonstrated simplifications, power processors for these thrusters should have approximately 500 parts, a mass of 40 kg, and an efficiency near 0.94. Thrust vector control, via individual thruster gimbals, is a mature technology. High pressure, gaseous xenon propellant storage and control schemes, using flight qualified hardware, result in propellant tankage fractions between 0.1 and 0.2. In-space and ground integration testing has demonstrated that ion propulsion systems can be successfully integrated with their host spacecraft.

  17. Spectroscopy of Ba and Ba+ deposits in solid xenon for barium tagging in nEXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, B.; Cook, S.; Walton, T.; Chambers, C.; Craycraft, A.; Benitez-Medina, C.; Hall, K.; Fairbank, W.; Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Basque, V.; Beck, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Cao, G. F.; Cleveland, B.; Coon, M.; Daniels, T.; Daugherty, S. J.; DeVoe, R.; Didberidze, T.; Dilling, J.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dunford, M.; Fabris, L.; Farine, J.; Feldmeier, W.; Fierlinger, P.; Fudenberg, D.; Giroux, G.; Gornea, R.; Graham, K.; Gratta, G.; Heffner, M.; Hughes, M.; Jiang, X. S.; Johnson, T. N.; Johnston, S.; Karelin, A.; Kaufman, L. J.; Killick, R.; Koffas, T.; Kravitz, S.; Krücken, R.; Kuchenkov, A.; Kumar, K. S.; Leonard, D. S.; Licciardi, C.; Lin, Y. H.; Ling, J.; MacLellan, R.; Marino, M. G.; Moore, D.; Odian, A.; Ostrovskiy, I.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Retiere, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Rozo, M. P.; Schubert, A.; Sinclair, D.; Smith, E.; Stekhanov, V.; Tarka, M.; Tolba, T.; Twelker, K.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Walton, J.; Weber, M.; Wen, L. J.; Wichoski, U.; Yang, L.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhao, Y. B.; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Progress on a method of barium tagging for the nEXO double beta decay experiment is reported. Absorption and emission spectra for deposits of barium atoms and ions in solid xenon matrices are presented. Excitation spectra for prominent emission lines, temperature dependence, and bleaching of the fluorescence reveal the existence of different matrix sites. A regular series of sharp lines observed in Ba+ deposits is identified with some type of barium hydride molecule. Lower limits for the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the principal Ba emission transition are reported. Under current conditions, an image of fewer than or equal to 104 Ba atoms can be obtained. Prospects for imaging single Ba atoms in solid xenon are discussed.

  18. Port and harbor patrol car loaded Xenon search light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoh, Hiroshi; Takenami, Takashi

    2005-05-01

    The container ship yard is brighten by the lighting, but after Sunset of the sea side is dark during a crescent. On the sea side lighting, we propose to use to patrol car loaded Xenon search light. Generally, the Pacific Ocean of a surface of the sea swimming fishes such as Samma (Mackerel pike) likes strong visible light as a Xenon search light beam. In the feeling of the human eyes and brains with a strong visible light beam such as Xenon search light, the reaction is divided two kind of types, to avoid reaction's humans have a feeling that bad conscience, and no reaction's humans tend to have a feeling of good mind. For the black painted unmanned objects of visible watching is needed as possible as strong visible light beam of the Xenon search light. The optical system of the Xenon search light consists of a Xenon lamp, a parabolic mirror and the filters.

  19. Optimization of Xenon Biosensors for Detection of ProteinInteractions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Ruiz, E.Janette; Wu, Tom; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; King, David S.; Schultz, Peter G.; Pines, Alex; Wemmer, David E..

    2005-08-03

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR can detect the presence of specific low-concentration biomolecular analytes by means of the xenon biosensor, which consists of a water-soluble, targeted cryptophane-A cage that encapsulates xenon. In this work we use the prototypical biotinylated xenon biosensor to determine the relationship between the molecular composition of the xenon biosensor and the characteristics of protein-bound resonances. The effects of diastereomer overlap, dipole-dipole coupling, chemical shift anisotropy, xenon exchange, and biosensor conformational exchange on protein-bound biosensor signal were assessed. It was found that optimal protein-bound biosensor signal can be obtained by minimizing the number of biosensor diastereomers and using a flexible linker of appropriate length. Both the linewidth and sensitivity of chemical shift to protein binding of the xenon biosensor were found to be inversely proportional to linker length.

  20. High-pressure transformations in xenon hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2002-01-01

    A high-pressure investigation of the Xe⋅H2O chemical system was conducted by using diamond-anvil cell techniques combined with in situ Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and laser heating. Structure I xenon clathrate was observed to be stable up to 1.8 GPa, at which pressure it transforms to a new Xe clathrate phase stable up to 2.5 GPa before breaking down to ice VII plus solid xenon. The bulk modulus and structure of both phases were determined: 9 ± 1 GPa for Xe clathrate A with structure I (cubic, a = 11.595 ± 0.003 Å, V = 1,558.9 ± 1.2 Å3 at 1.1 GPa) and 45 ± 5 GPa for Xe clathrate B (tetragonal, a = 8.320 ± 0.004 Å, c = 10.287 ± 0.007 Å, V = 712.1 ± 1.2 Å3 at 2.2 GPa). The extended pressure stability field of Xe clathrate structure I (A) and the discovery of a second Xe clathrate (B) above 1.8 GPa have implications for xenon in terrestrial and planetary interiors. PMID:11756690

  1. Recovering Residual Xenon Propellant for an Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Skakkottai, P.; wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2006-01-01

    Future nuclear-powered Ion-Propulsion- System-propelled spacecraft such as Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) will carry more than 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. Typically, a small percentage of this propellant cannot be used towards the end of the mission because of the pressure drop requirements for maintaining flow. For large missions such as JIMO, this could easily translate to over 250 kg of unusable xenon. A proposed system, the Xenon Recovery System (XRS), for recovering almost all of the xenon remaining in the tank, would include a cryopump in the form of a condenser/evaporator that would be alternatively cooled by a radiator, then heated electrically. When the pressure of the xenon in the tank falls below 0.7 MPa (100 psia), the previously isolated XRS will be brought online and the gas from the tank would enter the cryopump that is initially cooled to a temperature below saturation temperature of xenon. This causes xenon liquefaction and further cryopumping from the tank till the cryopump is full of liquid xenon. At this point, the cryopump is heated electrically by small heaters (70 to 80 W) to evaporate the liquid that is collected as high-pressure gas (<7 MPa; 1,000 psia) in an intermediate accumulator. Check valves between the tank and the XRS prevent the reverse flow of xenon during the heating cycle. The accumulator serves as the high-pressure source of xenon gas to the Xenon Feed System (XFS) downstream of the XRS. This cycle is repeated till almost all the xenon is recovered. Currently, this system is being baselined for JIMO.

  2. Liquid-xenon detector under the intensive pulse irradiation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanov, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of intense pulsed irradiation on the operation of the liquid xenon spectrometer was studied. The ionization chamber filled with liquid xenon was irradiated by bremsstrahlung pulses of the microtron. The pulse repetition rate was 400 Hz. The absorbed dose ranged from 10-7 to 0.1 Gy per pulse. Stable operation of the liquid xenon spectrometer in the intervals between the pulses of the accelerator was shown for a long time.

  3. Relaxation channels of multi-photon excited xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Melnikov, A. S.; Rakcheeva, L. P. Murashov, S. V.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.; Lyubchik, S.; Timofeev, N. A.; Pastor, A. A.

    2015-09-21

    The relaxation processes of the xenon clusters subjected to multi-photon excitation by laser radiation with quantum energies significantly lower than the thresholds of excitation of atoms and ionization of clusters were studied. Results obtained by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy method showed that desorption processes of excited atoms play a significant role in the decay of two-photon excited xenon clusters. A number of excited states of xenon atoms formed during this process were discovered and identified.

  4. Relaxation channels of multi-photon excited xenon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdobintsev, P. Yu.; Rakcheeva, L. P.; Murashov, S. V.; Melnikov, A. S.; Lyubchik, S.; Timofeev, N. A.; Pastor, A. A.; Khodorkovskii, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    The relaxation processes of the xenon clusters subjected to multi-photon excitation by laser radiation with quantum energies significantly lower than the thresholds of excitation of atoms and ionization of clusters were studied. Results obtained by means of the photoelectron spectroscopy method showed that desorption processes of excited atoms play a significant role in the decay of two-photon excited xenon clusters. A number of excited states of xenon atoms formed during this process were discovered and identified.

  5. Measuring and Modeling Xenon Uptake in Plastic Beta-Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, R.; Hayes, J. C.; Harper, W. W.; Humble, P.; Ripplinger, M. D.; Stephenson, D. E.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The precision of the stable xenon volume measurement in atmospheric monitoring radio-xenon systems is a critical parameter used to determine the activity concentration of a radio-xenon sample. Typically these types of systems use a plastic scintillating beta-cell as part of a beta-gamma detection scheme to measure the radioactivity present in the gas sample. Challenges arise when performing the stable xenon calculation during or after radioactive counting of the sample due to xenon uptake into the plastic beta-cells. Plastic beta cells can adsorb as much as 5% of the sample during counting. If quantification is performed after counting, the uptake of xenon into the plastic results in an underestimation of the xenon volume measurement. This behavior also causes what is typically known as 'memory effect' in the cell. Experiments were conducted using a small volume low pressure range thermal conductivity sensor to quantify the amount of xenon uptake into the cell over a given period of time. Understanding the xenon uptake in the cell provides a better estimate of the stable volume which improves the overall measurement capability of the system. The results from these experiments along with modeling will be presented.

  6. Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Doke, T.

    2010-07-15

    This article reviews the progress made over the last 20 years in the development and applications of liquid xenon detectors in particle physics, astrophysics, and medical imaging experiments. A summary of the fundamental properties of liquid xenon as radiation detection medium, in light of the most current theoretical and experimental information is first provided. After an introduction of the different type of liquid xenon detectors, a review of past, current, and future experiments using liquid xenon to search for rare processes and to image radiation in space and in medicine is given. Each application is introduced with a survey of the underlying scientific motivation and experimental requirements before reviewing the basic characteristics and expected performance of each experiment. Within this decade it appears likely that large volume liquid xenon detectors operated in different modes will contribute to answering some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, fulfilling the most demanding detection challenges. From detectors based solely on liquid xenon (LXe) scintillation, such as in the MEG experiment for the search of the rare ''{mu}{yields}e{gamma}'' decay, currently the largest liquid xenon detector in operation, and in the XMASS experiment for dark matter detection, to the class of time projection chambers which exploit both scintillation and ionization of LXe, such as in the XENON dark matter search experiment and in the Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay, unrivaled performance and important contributions to physics in the next few years are anticipated.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

  8. Adsorption of xenon on vicinal copper and platinum surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Layton

    The adsorption of xenon was studied on Cu(111), Cu(221), Cu(643) and on Pt(111), Pt(221), and Pt(531) using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of xenon, and ultraviolet photoemission of adsorbed xenon (PAX). These experiments were performed to study the atomic and electronic structure of stepped and step-kinked, chiral metal surfaces. Xenon TPD and PAX were performed on each surface in an attempt to titrate terrace, step edge, and kink adsorption sites by adsorption energetics (TPD) and local work function differences (PAX). Due to the complex behavior of xenon on the vicinal copper and platinum metal surfaces, adsorption sites on these surfaces could not be adequately titrated by xenon TPD. On Cu(221) and Cu(643), xenon desorption from step adsorption sites was not apparent leading to the conclusion that the energy difference between terrace and step adsorption is minuscule. On Pt(221) and Pt(531), xenon TPD indicated that xenon prefers to bond at step edges and that the xenon-xenon interaction at step edges in repulsive but no further indication of step-kink adsorption was observed. The Pt(221) and Pt(531) TPD spectra indicated that the xenon overlayer undergoes strong compression near monolayer coverage on these surfaces due to repulsion between step-edge adsorbed xenon and other encroaching xenon atoms. The PAX experiments on the copper and platinum surfaces demonstrated that the step adsorption sites have lower local work functions than terrace adsorption sites and that higher step density leads to a larger separation in the local work function of terrace and step adsorption sites. The PAX spectra also indicated that, for all surfaces studied at 50--70 K, step adsorption is favored at low coverage but the step sites are not saturated until monolayer coverage is reached; this observation is due to the large entropy difference between terrace and step adsorption states and to repulsive interactions between xenon atoms

  9. High-Rydberg Xenon Submillimeter-Wave Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara

    1987-01-01

    Proposed detector for infrared and submillimeter-wavelength radiation uses excited xenon atoms as Rydberg sensors instead of customary beams of sodium, potassium, or cesium. Chemically inert xenon easily stored in pressurized containers, whereas beams of dangerously reactive alkali metals must be generated in cumbersome, unreliable ovens. Xenon-based detector potential for infrared astronomy and for Earth-orbiter detection of terrestrial radiation sources. Xenon atoms excited to high energy states in two stages. Doubly excited atoms sensitive to photons in submillimeter wavelength range, further excited by these photons, then ionized and counted.

  10. A photochemical answer to the 'xenon paradox'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard; Marty, B.

    2012-12-01

    Xenon is depleted by one order of magnitude relative to other volatile elements when normalized to the chondritic composition. Furthermore, atmospheric xenon is far more enriched in the heavy isotopes relatively to chondritic and solar compositions (3-4%.amu-1) than atmospheric krypton (< 1%.amu-1). This discrepancy, known as the 'xenon paradox', has led to sophisticated models of atmospheric evolution coupled with mantle geodynamics (Pepin, 1991; Tolstikhin and Marty, 1998) and cometary contributions (Dauphas, 2003; Owen et al., 1992) that could explain terrestrial noble gas patterns under ad hoc conditions during the building stages of the Earth, no more than ~200 Ma following the beginning of solar system formation. Yet, xenon having an isotopic composition intermediate between the atmospheric and the chondritic ones has been recently documented in Archean (≤3 Ga-old) sedimentary rocks (Pujol et al., 2011), suggesting that isotopic fractionation of Xe occurred over a much longer period of time than previously thought, during the Hadean and the Archean eons. In that case, assuming a Rayleigh type isotope evolution for atmospheric Xe requires an enrichment fractionation factor of 1.3% in heavy isotopes for Xe remaining in the atmosphere. This is clearly within the range of values observed in laboratory experiments aimed at trapping and fractionating Xe isotopes in solids, which is only effective upon ionization (Marrocchi et al., 2011; Kuga et al., 2012). We report here a possibility for explaining the 'xenon paradox' through interaction of the Hadean/Archean atmosphere with EUV light from the young Sun. By using a new photochemical model, we have found out that atmospheric Xe depletion and enrichment in heavy Xe isotopes could be achieved by EUV photoionization deep enough in the atmosphere to allow the preferential implantation of the heavier Xe isotopes in organic aerosols, the formation of which is itself triggered by UV photochemistry. Most of the ionized

  11. Relative scintillation efficiency of liquid xenon in the XENON10 direct dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzur, Angel

    There is almost universal agreement that most of the mass in the Universe consists of dark matter. Many lines of reasoning suggest that the dark matter consists of a weakly interactive massive particle (WIMP) with mass ranging from 10 GeV/c 2 to a few TeV/c 2 . Today, numerous experiments aim for direct or indirect dark matter detection. XENON10 is a direct detection experiment using a xenon dual phase time projection chamber. Particles interacting with xenon will create a scintillation signal ( S 1) and ionization. The charge produced is extracted into the gas phase and converted into a proportional scintillation light ( S 2), with an external electric field. The dominant background, b particles and g rays, will undergo an electron recoil (ER) interaction, while WIMPs and neutrons will undergo a nuclear recoil (NR) interaction. Event-by-event discrimination of background signals is based on log 10 ( S 2/ S 1) NR < log 10 ( S 2/ S 1) ER and the 3-D position reconstruction. In 2006 the XENON10 detector started underground operations at laboratorio Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. After 6 months of operations, totaling 58.6 live days and 5.4 kg of fiducial mass, XENON10 set the best upper limits at the time. Finding a spin- independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section s h = 8.8 × 10^-44 cm 2 and a spin- dependent WIMP-neutron cross-section s h = 1.0 × 10^-38 cm 2 for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c 2 (90% C.L.). In this work I give an overview of the dark matter evidence and review the requirements for a dark matter search. In particular I discuss the XENON10 detector, deployment, operation, calibrations, analysis and WIMP-nucleon cross- section limits. Finally, I present our latest results for the relative scintillation efficiency ([Special characters omitted.] ) for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon, which was the biggest source of uncertainty in the XENON10 limit. This quantity is essential to determine the nuclear energy scale and to determine the WIMP-nucleon cross

  12. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  13. DFT Study of the Reaction Mechanisms of Carbon Dioxide and its Isoelectronic Molecules CS2 and OCS Dissolved in Pyrrolidinium and Imidazolium Acetate Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Danten, Y; Cabaço, M I; Coutinho, J A P; Pinaud, Noël; Besnard, M

    2016-06-16

    The reaction mechanisms of CO2 and its isoelectronic molecules OCS and CS2 dissolved in N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium acetate and in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were investigated by DFT calculations in "gas phase". The analysis of predicted multistep pathways allowed calculating energies of reaction and energy barriers of the processes. The major role played by the acetate anion in the degradation of the solutes CS2 and OCS as well as in the capture of OCS and CO2 by the imidazolium ring is highlighted. In both ionic liquids, this anion governs the conversion of CS2 into OCS and of OCS into CO2 through interatomic S-O exchanges between the anion and the solutes with formation of thioacetate anions. In imidazolium acetate, the selective capture of CS2 and OCS by the imidazolium ring competes with the S-O exchanges. From the calculated values of the energy barriers a basicity scale of the anions is proposed. The (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the predicted adducts were calculated and agree well with the experimental observations. It is argued that the scenario issued from the calculated pathways is shown qualitatively to be independent from the functionals and basis set used, constitute a valuable tool in the understanding of chemical reactions taking place in liquid phase. PMID:27186961

  14. Chondritic xenon in the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Burnard, Peter G; Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce. Here we show, using high-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area (in Germany), that the light xenon isotopes identify a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon. This is consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatiles in the Earth's mantle, and indicates that the volatiles in the atmosphere and mantle originated from distinct cosmochemical sources. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the origin of Eifel magmatism being a deep mantle plume. The corresponding mantle source has been isolated from the convective mantle since about 4.45 billion years ago, in agreement with models that predict the early isolation of mantle domains. Xenon isotope systematics support a clear distinction between mid-ocean-ridge and continental or oceanic plume sources, with chemical heterogeneities dating back to the Earth's accretion. The deep reservoir now sampled by the Eifel gas had a lower volatile/refractory (iodine/plutonium) composition than the shallower mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge volcanism, highlighting the increasing contribution of volatile-rich material during the first tens of millions of years of terrestrial accretion. PMID:27111512

  15. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  16. Xenon-Ion Drilling of Tungsten Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    High-velocity xenon ions used to drill holes of controlled size and distribution through tungsten layer that sheaths surface of controlled-porosity dispenser cathode of traveling wave-tube electron emitter. Controlled-porosity dispenser cathode employs barium/calcium/ aluminum oxide mixture that migrates through pores in cathode surface, thus coating it and reducing its work function. Rapid, precise drilling technique applied to films of other metals and used in other applications where micron-scale holes required. Method requires only few hours, as opposed to tens of hours by prior methods.

  17. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.

    2015-08-21

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.

  18. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yoo, J.; Jaskierny, W. F.

    2015-08-21

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7 cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163 K), the drift speed is 0.193 ± 0.003 cm/μs while the drift speed in the solid phase (157 K) is 0.397 ± 0.006 cm/μs at 900 V/cm over 8.0 cm of uniform electric fields. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a factor twomore » faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.« less

  19. Evidence of charge exchange pumping in calcium-xenon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Charge exchange between xenon ions and calcium atoms may produce an inversion between the 5s or 4d and 4p energy levels of the calcium ions. A low power flowing xenon plasma seeded with calcium was utilized to determine if charge exchange or electron collisions populate the 5s and 4d levels Ca(+). Line intensity ratios proportional to the density ratios n5s/n4p and n4d/n4p were measured. From the dependence of these intensity ratios on power input to the xenon plasma it was concluded that charge exchange pumping of the 5s and 4d levels predominates over electron collisional pumping of these levels. Also, by comparing intensity ratios obtained using argon and krypton in place of xenon with those obtained in xenon the same conclusion was made.

  20. Xenon ion propulsion for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlin, V. K.; Patterson, M. J.; Gruber, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    For more than 30 years, NASA has conducted an ion propulsion program which has resulted in several experimental space flight demonstrations and the development of many supporting technologies. Technologies appropriate for geosynchronous stationkeeping, earth-orbit transfer missions, and interplanetary missions are defined and evaluated. The status of critical ion propulsion system elements is reviewed. Electron bombardment ion thrusters for primary propulsion have evolved to operate on xenon in the 5 to 10 kW power range. Thruster efficiencies of 0.7 and specific impulse values of 4000 s were documented. The baseline thruster currently under development by NASA LeRC includes ring-cusp magnetic field plasma containment and dished two-grid ion optics. Based on past experience and demonstrated simplifications, power processors for these thrusters should have approximately 500 parts, a mass of 40 kg, and an efficiency near 0.94. Thrust vector control, via individual thruster gimbals, is a mature technology. High pressure, gaseous xenon propellant storage and control schemes, using flight qualified hardware, result in propellant tankage fractions between 0.1 and 0.2. In-space and ground integration testing has demonstrated that ion propulsion systems can be successfully integrated with their host spacecraft. Ion propulsion system technologies are mature and can significantly enhance and/or enable a variety of missions in the nation's space propulsion program.

  1. The XENON1T Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2012-03-01

    The worldwide race towards direct dark matter detection in the form of WIMPs has been dramatically accelerated by the remarkable progress and evolution of liquid xenon time projection chambers (LXeTPCs). With a realistic discovery potential, XENON100 has already reached a sensitivity of 7E-45 cm^2, and continues to accrue data at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy towards its ultimate sensitivity reach at the 2E-45 cm^2 level for the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section. To fully explore the favored parameter space for WIMP dark matter in search of a first robust and statistically significant discovery, or to confirm any hint of a signal from XENON100, the next phase of the XENON program will be a detector at the ton scale - XENON1T. The XENON1T detector, based on 2.2 ton of LXe viewed by low radioactivity photomultiplier tubes and housed in a water Cherenkov muon veto at LNGS, is presented. The detector design is advancing and construction of major systems will begin in 2012, with data taking beginning in 2015. Capable of probing WIMP interaction cross-sections to ˜2E-47cm^2 within 2 years of operation, XENON1T will provide the sensitivity to probe a particularly favorable region of electroweak physics.

  2. Measurement of cosmogenic radioactive products in xenon and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piastra, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Rare events searches, such as direct dark matter detection or neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) observation, using liquid xenon as target and detection medium require ultralow background to fully exploit the physics potential. Cosmogenic activation of the detector components, and even more importantly, of the xenon itself might have undesired impact on the background and the final sensitivity of the experiment. Since no measurement of cosmogenic activation of xenon was present in literature so far, we performed such a measurement exposing of a natural xenon sample to the cosmic radiation at the Jungfraujoch research station at an altitude of 3470 m above sea level for 245 days. This study was complemented with a ultra pure copper sample that was activated together with the xenon. We directly observed, with gamma-ray spectrometry, the production of 7Be, 101Rh, 125Sb, 126I and 127Xe in xenon, out of which only 125 Sb could potentially lead to a background relevant for multi-ton scale direct dark matter search. The production rates for five out of eight radioactive isotopes in copper are in good agreement with the only dedicated measurement present in literature. The production rates measured for both samples were compared with the predictions obtained with commonly used software packages. The latter showed a systematic under-estimation, especially for xenon.

  3. Environmental Applications of Stable Xenon and Radioxenon Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P. Evan; Olsen, Khris B.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2008-06-01

    Improved detection capabilities are needed at several Department of Energy sites to make remedial decisions about facilities and landfill cleanup. For facility monitoring air samples can be collected from within a facility and analyzed for short lived radioxenons to estimate inventories of residual plutonium holdup within the facility. For landfill cleanup activities soil gas sampling for xenon isotopes can be used to define the locations of spent fuel and transuranic wastes. Short-lived radioxenon isotopes are continuously produced by spontaneous fission of plutonium-240 in transuranic wastes. Large volume soil-gas samples provide extremely sensitive measurement of radioxenon in the subsurface; a characteristic of transuranic waste. The analysis employs a modified Automated Radioxenon Sampling and Analysis (ARSA) system. Proof of principle measurements at a Hanford Site liquid waste disposal site showed xenon-133 at levels in soil gas are approximately 16,000 times the detection limit and lower levels of xenon-135 from the spontaneous fission of plutonium-240 were also measured. Stable xenon isotopes are also produced by spontaneous fission but are subject to background concentrations in ambient air samples (facilities) but less so in soil gas where free exchange with ambient air is restricted. Rare gas mass spectrometry is used for highly precise stable xenon isotopic measurements. Stable xenon isotopic ratios from fission are distinct from natural xenon background ratios. Neutron capture on xenon-135 produces an excess of xenon-136 above fission ratios and thus provides a means of distinguishing reactor sources (e.g. spent fuel) from separated transuranic materials (plutonium).

  4. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Shuman, D.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gil, A.; Gómez, H.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jinete, M. A.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez, A.; Moiseenko, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Natal da Luz, H.; Navarro, G.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Palma, R.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Tomás, A.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R. C.; White, J.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  5. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. The DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.

  6. Modeling pulse characteristics in Xenon with NEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, J.; Barry, N.; Kazkaz, K.; Stolp, D.; Szydagis, M.; Tripathi, M.; Uvarov, S.; Woods, M.; Walsh, N.

    2014-04-01

    A comprehensive model for describing the characteristics of pulsed signals, generated by particle interactions in xenon detectors, is presented. An emphasis is laid on two-phase time projection chambers, but the models presented are also applicable to single phase detectors. In order to simulate the pulse shape due to primary scintillation light, the effects of the ratio of singlet and triplet dimer state populations, as well as their corresponding decay times, and the recombination time are incorporated into the model. In a two phase time projection chamber, when simulating the pulse caused by electroluminescence light, the ionization electron mean free path in gas, the drift velocity, singlet and triplet decay times, diffusion constants, and the electron trapping time, have been implemented. This modeling has been incorporated into a complete software package, which realistically simulates the expected pulse shapes for these types of detectors.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of atomic xenon dissolved in Gay-Berne model liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lintuvuori, Juho; Straka, Michal; Vaara, Juha

    2007-03-01

    We present constant-pressure Monte Carlo simulations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral parameters, nuclear magnetic shielding relative to the free atom as well as nuclear quadrupole coupling, for atomic xenon dissolved in a model thermotropic liquid crystal. The solvent is described by Gay-Berne (GB) molecules with parametrization kappa=4.4, kappa{'}=20.0 , and mu=nu=1 . The reduced pressure of P{*}=2.0 is used. Previous simulations of a pure GB system with this parametrization have shown that upon lowering the temperature, the model exhibits isotropic, nematic, smectic- A , and smectic- B /molecular crystal phases. We introduce spherical xenon solutes and adjust the energy and length scales of the GB-Xe interaction to those of the GB-GB interaction. This is done through first principles quantum chemical calculations carried out for a dimer of model mesogens as well as the mesogen-xenon complex. We preparametrize quantum chemically the Xe nuclear shielding and quadrupole coupling tensors when interacting with the model mesogen, and use the parametrization in a pairwise additive fashion in the analysis of the simulation. We present the temperature evolution of {129/131}Xe shielding and 131Xe quadrupole coupling in the different phases of the GB model. From the simulations, separate isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the experimentally available total shielding can be obtained. At the experimentally relevant concentration, the presence of the xenon atoms does not significantly affect the phase behavior as compared to the pure GB model. The simulations reproduce many of the characteristic experimental features of Xe NMR in real thermotropic LCs: Discontinuity in the value or trends of the shielding and quadrupole coupling at the nematic-isotropic and smectic-A-nematic phase transitions, nonlinear shift evolution in the nematic phase reflecting the behavior of the orientational order parameter, and decreasing shift in the smectic-A phase. The last

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of atomic xenon dissolved in Gay-Berne model liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintuvuori, Juho; Straka, Michal; Vaara, Juha

    2007-03-01

    We present constant-pressure Monte Carlo simulations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral parameters, nuclear magnetic shielding relative to the free atom as well as nuclear quadrupole coupling, for atomic xenon dissolved in a model thermotropic liquid crystal. The solvent is described by Gay-Berne (GB) molecules with parametrization κ=4.4 , κ'=20.0 , and μ=ν=1 . The reduced pressure of P⋆=2.0 is used. Previous simulations of a pure GB system with this parametrization have shown that upon lowering the temperature, the model exhibits isotropic, nematic, smectic- A , and smectic- B /molecular crystal phases. We introduce spherical xenon solutes and adjust the energy and length scales of the GB-Xe interaction to those of the GB-GB interaction. This is done through first principles quantum chemical calculations carried out for a dimer of model mesogens as well as the mesogen-xenon complex. We preparametrize quantum chemically the Xe nuclear shielding and quadrupole coupling tensors when interacting with the model mesogen, and use the parametrization in a pairwise additive fashion in the analysis of the simulation. We present the temperature evolution of Xe129/131 shielding and Xe131 quadrupole coupling in the different phases of the GB model. From the simulations, separate isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the experimentally available total shielding can be obtained. At the experimentally relevant concentration, the presence of the xenon atoms does not significantly affect the phase behavior as compared to the pure GB model. The simulations reproduce many of the characteristic experimental features of Xe NMR in real thermotropic LCs: Discontinuity in the value or trends of the shielding and quadrupole coupling at the nematic-isotropic and smectic- A -nematic phase transitions, nonlinear shift evolution in the nematic phase reflecting the behavior of the orientational order parameter, and decreasing shift in the smectic- A phase. The last

  9. High-intensity xenon pulse light source for fluorescence excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Makoto; Ueno, Kazuo

    1997-05-01

    A newly developed 60W xenon flash lamp, L6604 and L6605, achieves the goals of longer operating life, higher output, and improved light stability. It operates at 2 Joules per flash input energy with approximately a 4 microsecond flash duration. The stability achieved is 2-3 percent peak-to-peak during a lifetime of 5 X 10e7 flashes, which is almost double that of conventional xenon flash lamps. This newly developed xenon flashlamp should serve as an excellent light source for analytical cytology and other fluorescence instruments. It can function as a high output, stable excitation light source for conventional fluorescence or delayed luminescence with a CCD. Besides providing powerful and stable illumination for absorption analysis of cells on slides, this lamp eliminates the optical artifacts associated with vibration of the stage which often limit throughput. This paper will describe in detail performance improvements obtained from this newly developed xenon flash lamp.

  10. Fission xenon from extinct Pu-244 in 14,301.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Ragan, D.

    1972-01-01

    Xenon extracted in step-wise heating of lunar breccia 14,301 contains a fission-like component in excess of that attributable to uranium decay during the age of the solar system. There seems to be no adequate source for this component other than Pu-244. Verification that this component is in fact due to the spontaneous fission of extinct Pu-244 comes from the derived spectrum which is similar to that observed from artificially produced Pu-244. It thus appears that Pu-244 was extant at the time lunar crustal material cooled sufficiently to arrest the thermal diffusion of xenon. Subsequent history has apparently maintained the isotopic integrity of plutonium fission xenon. Of major importance are details of the storage itself. Either the fission component is the result of in situ fission of Pu-244 and subsequent storage in 14,301 material, or the fission xenon was stored in an intermediate reservoir before incorporation into 14,301.

  11. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  12. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  13. Purging means and method for Xenon arc lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    High pressure Xenon short-arc lamp with two reservoirs which are selectively connectable to the lamp's envelope is described. One reservoir contains an absorbent which will absorb both Xenon and contaminant gases such as CO2 and O2. The absorbent temperature is controlled to evacuate the envelope of both the Xenon and the contaminant gases. The temperature of the absorbent is then raised to desorb only clean Xenon while retaining the contaminant gases, thereby clearing the envelope of the contaminant gases. The second reservoir contains a gas whose specific purpose is, to remove the objectional metal film which deposits gradually on the interior surface of the lamp envelope during normal arc operation. The origin of the film is metal transferred from the cathode of the arc lamp by sputtering or other gas transfer processes.

  14. Scintillation Efficiency of Liquid Xenon for Low Energy Nuclear Recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongjirad, Taritree; Ni, Kaixuan; Manzur, Angel; Kastens, Louis; McKinsey, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    In early 2006, the XENON and ZEPLIN collaborations announced highly stringent upper limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section. However, the dominant systematic uncertainty in these limits is due to the uncertainty in the nuclear recoil scintillation efficiency (NRSE) for liquid xenon. The NRSE is defined as the amount of scintillation produced by nuclear recoils, divided by the amount of scintillation produced by electron recoils, per unit energy. Though the NRSE has been measured by several groups, its value at the low energies most important for the liquid xenon WIMP searches has a large uncertainty. Furthermore, the NRSE may vary with the strength of the electric field in the liquid xenon. In an attempt to reduce these uncertainties, we have measured the NRSE down to 5 keV nuclear recoil energy for various electric fields.

  15. The unbearable lightness of being: CDMS versus XENON

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Sarkar, Subir; McCabe, Christopher; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai E-mail: felix.kahlhoefer@physics.ox.ac.uk E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2013-07-01

    The CDMS-II collaboration has reported 3 events in a Si detector, which are consistent with being nuclear recoils due to scattering of Galactic dark matter particles with a mass of ∼ 8.6 GeV and a cross-section on neutrons of ∼ 2 × 10{sup −41} cm{sup 2}. While a previous result from the XENON10 experiment has supposedly ruled out such particles as dark matter, we find by reanalysing the XENON10 data that this is not the case. Some tension remains however with the upper limit placed by the XENON100 experiment, independently of astrophysical uncertainties concerning the Galactic dark matter distribution. We explore possible ways of ameliorating this tension by altering the properties of dark matter interactions. Nevertheless, even with standard couplings, light dark matter is consistent with both CDMS and XENON10/100.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  17. Software tool for xenon gamma-ray spectrometer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, I. V.; Novikov, A. S.; Shustov, A. E.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Pyae Nyein, Sone; Petrenko, D.; Ulin, S. E.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.

    2016-02-01

    Software tool "Acquisition and processing of gamma-ray spectra" for xenon gamma-ray spectrometers control was developed. It supports the multi-windows interface. Software tool has the possibilities for acquisition of gamma-ray spectra from xenon gamma-ray detector via USB or RS-485 interfaces, directly or via TCP-IP protocol, energy calibration of gamma-ray spectra, saving gamma-ray spectra on a disk.

  18. Factors affecting the adsorption of xenon on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Underhill, D.W.; DiCello, D.C.; Scaglia, L.A.; Watson, J.A.

    1986-08-01

    The presence of water vapor was found to interfere strongly with the dynamic adsorption of /sup 133/Xe on coconut-base activated charcoal. The percent loss in the xenon adsorption coefficient was similar to values reported earlier for the adsorption of krypton on humidified charcoal. Attempts to increase the adsorption of xenon by (a) using a petroleum-based adsorbent with an extremely high surface area and (b) by impregnation of the adsorbent with iodine were not successful.

  19. Distillation column for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fieguth, Alexander; XENON Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The XENON1T experiment will probe a new parameter space in the direct dark matter search. Besides the enlargement of target mass to the ton scale, a further background reduction with respect to its predecessor XENON100 is necessary. A major contribution to the intrinsic contamination is the β-decaying isotope 85Kr, which leads to the requirement of a concentration less than 0.2 ppt of natural krypton in xenon. Its removal from the xenon gas is achieved by cryogenic distillation. For the new experiment a custom-build distillation column with a separation factor larger than 105 and a throughput of 3kg/h has been designed and built at the University of Muenster. Furthermore its performance has been characterized using different trace gas detection techniques, e.g. a novel 83mKr-tracer method, and its functionality has been tested successfully. The distillation column, which is installed and commissioned at the XENON1T experiment, is ready to process the 3.5 tons of xenon.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitrogen dioxide ; CASRN 10102 - 44 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  1. Chlorine dioxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine dioxide ; CASRN 10049 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  2. The Significance of the Bond Angle in Sulfur Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are the illustrations and descriptions of the molecular structure of sulfur dioxide found in selected chemistry textbooks. Inconsistencies and incorrect information are indicated. It is suggested that molecules other than sulfur dioxide be used as examples of molecules for which resonance is important. (CW)

  3. Effect of relativity on the ionization spectra of the xenon fluorides XeFn (n=2, 4, 6).

    PubMed

    Pernpointner, Markus; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2005-06-01

    Noble gas compounds exhibit special chemical bonding situations and have been investigated by various spectroscopic and theoretical techniques. In this work we calculate the ionization spectra of the xenon fluorides (XeF2,XeF4, and XeF6) in the valence and subvalence (down to Xe 4d) areas by application of the recently developed Dirac-Hartree-Fock one-particle propagator technique. In this technique, the relativistic (four-component) and electron correlation effects are computed simultaneously. The xenon compounds show considerable spin-orbit splitting strongly influencing the photoelectron spectrum not reproducible in prior calculations. Comparison to one-component methods is made and the occurring satellite structures are interpreted. The satellite structures can be attributed either to the breakdown of the one-particle picture or to a reflection of intra-atomic and interatomic Auger decay processes within the molecule. PMID:15974733

  4. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-22

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. In order to validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. Furthermore, the DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.

  5. Low-energy positron interactions with xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Jones, A. C. L.; Caradonna, P.; Slaughter, D. S.; McEachran, R. P.; Sullivan, J. P.; Buckman, S. J.; Bellm, S.; Lohmann, B.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.; Mueller, D. W.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Low-energy interactions of positrons with xenon have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental measurements were carried out using a trap-based positron beam with an energy resolution of ˜80 meV, while the theoretical calculations were carried out using the convergent close-coupling method and the relativistic optical potential approach. Absolute values of the grand total, positronium formation and grand total minus positronium formation cross sections are presented over the energy range of 1-60 eV. Elastic differential cross sections (DCS), for selected energies, are also presented both below and above the positronium formation threshold. Fine energy-step measurements of the positronium formation cross section over the energy range of 4.4-8.4 eV, and measurements of the elastic DCS at the energies of 5.33 and 6.64 eV, have been carried out to investigate the ionization threshold regions corresponding to the 2P3/2 and 2P1/2 states of the Xe+ ion. The present results are compared with both experimental and theoretical values from the literature where available.

  6. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  7. Stable xenon nitride at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Feng; Wang, Yanchao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yunwei; Ma, Yanming

    2015-09-01

    Nitrides in many ways are fascinating since they often appear as superconductors, high-energy density, and hard materials. Though there exist a large variety of nitrides, noble gas nitrides are missing in nature. Pursuit of noble gas nitrides has therefore become the subject of topical interests, but remains as a great challenge since molecular nitrogen (N2, a major form of nitrogen) and noble gases are both inert systems and do not interact at normal conditions. We show through a first-principles swarm-structure search that high pressure enables a direct interaction of N2 and xenon (Xe) above 146 GPa. The resultant Xe nitride has a peculiar stoichiometry of XeN6, possessing a high-energy density of approximately 2.4 kJg -1, rivaling that of the modern explosives. Structurally, XeN6 is intriguing with the appearance of chaired N6 hexagons and unusually high 12-coordination of Xe bonded with N. Our work opens up the possibility of achieving Xe nitride with superior high-energy density whose formation is long sought as impossible.

  8. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou, Peng

    2008-11-01

    Xenon difluoride (XeF2) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF2 into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF2 is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions (˜4.5 torr at 25 °C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF2 in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF2 are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  9. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Dawn; Magyar, Rudolph; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Mixtures of light and heavy elements arise in inertial confinement fusion and planetary science. We present results on the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT/QMD) at elevated-temperature and pressure is used to obtain the properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate the QMD simulations, we performed high-precision shock compression experiments using Sandia's Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis of the simulations correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with completion of dissociation in ethane. DFT-based simulation results compare well with experimental data and are used to provide insight into the dissociation as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for ethane, Xe-ethane, polymethyl-pentene, and polystyrene, suggesting that a limiting compression exists for C-C bonded systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  11. Cerebral blood flow tomography with xenon-133

    SciTech Connect

    Lassen, N.A.

    1985-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be measured tomographically by inhalation of Xenon-/sup 133/. The calculation is based on taking a sequence of tomograms during the wash-in and wash-out phase of the tracer. Due to the dynamic nature of the process, a highly sensitive and fast moving single photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) is required. Two brain-dedicated SPECT systems designed for this purpose are mentioned, and the method is described with special reference to the limitations inherent in the soft energy of the 133Xe primary photons. CBF tomography can be used for a multitude of clinical and investigative purposes. This article discusses in particular its use for the selection of patients with carotid occlusion for extracranial/intracranial bypass surgery, for detection of severe arterial spasm after aneurysm bleeding, and for detection of low flow areas during severe migraine attacks. The use of other tracers for CBF tomography using SPECT is summarized with emphasis on the /sup 99m/Tc chelates that freely pass the intact blood-brain barrier. The highly sensitive brain-dedicated SPECT systems described are a prerequisite for achieving high resolution tomograms with such tracers.

  12. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-22

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. In order to validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. Furthermore, themore » DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.« less

  13. Xenon-enhanced CT imaging of local pulmonary ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Jehangir K.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    We are using the unique features of electron beam CT (EBCT) in conjunction with respiratory and cardiac gating to explore the use of non-radioactive xenon gas as a pulmonary ventilation contrast agent. The goal is to construct accurate and quantitative high-resolution maps of local pulmonary ventilation in humans. We are evaluating xenon-enhanced computed tomography in the pig model with dynamic tracer washout/dilution and single breath inhalation imaging protocols. Scanning is done via an EBCT scanner which offers 50 msec scan aperture speeds. CT attenuation coefficients (image gray scale value) show a linear increase with xenon concentration (r equals 0.99). We measure a 1.55 Hounsfield Unit (HU) enhancement (kV equals 130, mA equals 623) per percentage increase in xenon gas concentration giving an approximately 155 HU enhancement with 100% xenon gas concentration as measured in a plexiglass super-syringe. Early results indicate that a single breath (from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity) of 100% xenon gas provides an average 32 +/- 1.85 (SE) HU enhancement in the lung parenchyma (maximum 50 HU) and should not encounter unwanted xenon side effects. However, changes in lung density occurring during even short breath holds (as short as 10 seconds) may limit using a single breath technique to synchronous volumetric scanning, currently possible only with EBCT. Preliminary results indicate close agreement between measured regional xenon concentration-time curves and theoretical predictions for the same sample. More than 10 breaths with inspirations to as high as 25 cmH2O airway pressure were needed to clear tracer from all lung regions and some regions had nearly linear rather than mono-exponential clearance curves. When regional parenchymal xenon concentration-time curves were analyzed, vertical gradients in ventilation and redistribution of ventilation at higher inspiratory flow rates were consistent with known pulmonary physiology. We present

  14. Direct Dark Matter Search with the XENON100 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yuan

    Dark matter, a non-luminous, non-baryonic matter, is thought to constitute 23 % of the matter-energy components in the universe today. Except for its gravitational effects, the existence of dark matter has never been confirmed by any other means and its nature remains unknown. If a hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) were in thermal equilibrium in the early universe, it could have a relic abundance close to that of dark matter today, which provides a promising particle candidate of dark matter. Minimal Super-Symmetric extensions to the standard model predicts a stable particle with mass in the range 10 GeV/c2 to 1000 GeV/c2, and spin-independent cross-section with ordinary matter nucleon sigmax < 1 x 10--43 cm2. The XENON100 experiment deploys a Dual Phase Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXeTPC) of 62 kg liquid xenon as its sensitive volume, to detect scintillation (S1) and ionization (S2) signals from WIMP dark matter particles directly scattering off xenon nuclei. The detector is located underground at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in central Italy. 1.4 km of rock (3.7 km water equivalent) reduces the cosmic muon background by a factor of 106. The event-by-event 3D positioning capability of TPC allows volume fiducialization. With the self-shielding power of liquid xenon, as well as a 99 kg liquid xenon active veto, the electromagnetic radiation background is greatly suppressed. By utilizing the difference of (S2/S1) between electronic recoil and nuclear recoil, the expected WIMP signature, a small nuclear recoil energy deposition, could be discriminated from electronic recoil background with high efficiency. XENON100 achieved the lowest background rate (< 2.2 x 10--2 events/kg/day/keV) in the dark matter search region (< 40 keV) among all direct dark matter detectors. With 11.2 days of data, XENON100 already sets the world's best spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section limit of 2.7 x 10--44 cm2 at WIMP mass 50 GeV/c 2

  15. XEMIS: A liquid xenon detector for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego Manzano, L.; Bassetto, S.; Beaupere, N.; Briend, P.; Carlier, T.; Cherel, M.; Cussonneau, J.-P.; Donnard, J.; Gorski, M.; Hamanishi, R.; Kraeber Bodéré, F.; Le Ray, P.; Lemaire, O.; Masbou, J.; Mihara, S.; Morteau, E.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Stutzmann, J.-S.; Tauchi, T.; Thers, D.

    2015-07-01

    A new medical imaging technique based on the precise 3D location of a radioactive source by the simultaneous detection of 3γ rays has been proposed by Subatech laboratory. To take advantage of this novel technique a detection device based on a liquid xenon Compton telescope and a specific (β+, γ) emitter radionuclide, 44Sc, are required. A first prototype of a liquid xenon time projection chamber called XEMIS1 has been successfully developed showing very promising results for the energy and spatial resolutions for the ionization signal in liquid xenon, thanks to an advanced cryogenics system, which has contributed to a high liquid xenon purity with a very good stability and an ultra-low noise front-end electronics (below 100 electrons) operating at liquid xenon temperature. The very positive results obtained with XEMIS1 have led to the development of a second prototype for small animal imaging, XEMIS2, which is now under development. To study the feasibility of the 3γ imaging technique and optimize the characteristics of the device, a complete Monte Carlo simulation has been also carried out. A preliminary study shows very positive results for the sensitivity, energy and spatial resolutions of XEMIS2.

  16. Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Chen, Q F; Gu, Y J; Chen, Z Y

    2012-12-01

    The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ∼6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. PMID:23368058

  17. Spectrally Resolved Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the XenonBiosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hilty, Christian; Lowery, Thomas; Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander

    2005-07-15

    Due to its ability to non-invasively record images, as well as elucidate molecular structure, nuclear magnetic resonance is the method of choice for applications as widespread as chemical analysis and medical diagnostics. Its detection threshold is, however, limited by the small polarization of nuclear spins in even the highest available magnetic fields. This limitation can, under certain circumstances, be alleviated by using hyper-polarized substances. Xenon biosensors make use of the sensitivity gain of hyperpolarized xenon to provide magnetic resonance detection capability for a specific low-concentration target. They consist of a cryptophane cage, which binds one xenon atom, and which has been connected via a linker to a targeting moiety such as a ligand or antibody. Recent work has shown the possibility of using the xenon biosensor to detect small amounts of a substance in a heterogeneous environment by NMR. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) provides the capability to obtain spectrally and spatially resolved images of the distribution of immobilized biosensor, opening the possibility for using the xenon biosensor for targeted imaging.

  18. Xenon-induced changes in CNS sensitization to pain.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Oliver; Köster, Sarah; Georgieff, Michael; Bäder, Stefan; Föhr, Karl J; Kammer, Thomas; Herrnberger, Bärbel; Grön, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Electrophysiological investigations of the spinal cord in animals have shown that pain sensitizes the central nervous system via glutamate receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) related to an enhancement of pain perception. To expand these findings, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) and perfusion imaging in combination with repeated electrical stimulation in humans. Specifically we monitored modulation of somatosensory processing during inhibition of excitatory transmission by ocular application of the glutamate receptor antagonist xenon. BOLD responses upon secondary stimulation increased in mid insular and in primary/secondary sensory cortices under placebo and decreased under xenon treatments. Xenon-induced decreases in regional perfusion were confined to stimulation responsive brain regions and correlated with time courses of xenon concentrations in the cranial blood. Moreover, effects of xenon on behavioral, fMRI and perfusion data scaled with stimulus intensity. The dependence of pain sensitization on sufficient pre-activation reflects a multistage process which is characteristic for glutamate receptor related processes of LTP. This study demonstrates how LTP related processes known from the cellular level can be investigated at the brain systems level. PMID:19703572

  19. The krypton and xenon markets up to the year 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammarlund, Nils

    1992-05-01

    Krypton and xenon are rare gases which are found in air in concentrations of about 1.14 and 0.087 ppm, respectively. They are produced in specially equipped, very large air separation units by adding a special raw gas extraction unit. Then this raw gas is purified and the krypton and xenon are separated by cryogenic methods. These rare gases are used in the lamp industry, for medical applications and in laser and research applications. The market for krypton and xenon is growing. The production capacity for these gases is limited and this results in a cyclic behavior of availability and market price. In the next few years, 10-20 million liters of krypton and one to two million liters of xenon will become available on the market due to new investments in the USA, South Africa and the AGA AB joint venture in the USSR. The total world production capacity of krypton and xenon will increase to 60-80 million liters. To influence the availability of these gases it is important to have close partnership between user and producer, which will realize bright and unorthodox ideas for the supply and use of these rare gases.

  20. Emergence in Elderly Patient Undergoing General Anesthesia with Xenon

    PubMed Central

    Wefki Abdelgawwad Shousha, Ahmed Abdelgawwad; Paparazzo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is a consensus that the postoperative cognitive function is impaired in elderly patients after general anaesthesia, and such category patient takes more time to recover. Xenon is a noble gas with anesthetic properties mediated by antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. With a minimum alveolar concentration of 0.63, xenon is intended for maintaining hypnosis with 30% oxygen. The fast recovery after xenon anaesthesia was hypothesized to be advantageous in this scenario. Case Presentation. We report the case of 99-year-old woman who underwent sigmoid colon carcinoma resection with colorectal anastomosis. We carried out the induction phase by propofol, oxygen, fentanil, and rocuronium bromide, and then we proceeded to a rapid sequence endotracheal intubation consequently. The patient was monitored by IBP, NIBP, ECG, cardiac frequency, respiratory rate, capnometry, TOF Guard, blood gas analysis, and BIS. For maintenance we administrated oxygen, remifentanil, rocuronium bromide, and xenon gas 60–65%. Shortly after the end of surgery the patients started an autonomous respiratory activity, and a high BIS level was also recorded. Decision was made by our team to proceed into the emergence phase. The residual neuromuscular block was antagonized by sugammadex, modified Aldrete score was implicated, and we got our patient fully awake without any cognitive dysfunction or delirium. Conclusion. The rapid emergence to full orientation in very elderly patient who had been anesthetized by xenon shows concordance to the high BIS values and the clinical signs of the depth of anesthesia. PMID:23762640

  1. Influence of radiation damage on xenon diffusion in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedland, E.; Gärtner, K.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Thabethe, T. T.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion of xenon in poly and single crystalline silicon carbide and the possible influence of radiation damage on it are investigated. For this purpose 360 keV xenon ions were implanted in commercial 6H-SiC and CVD-SiC wafers at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C. Width broadening of the implantation profiles and xenon retention during isochronal and isothermal annealing up to temperatures of 1500 °C was determined by RBS-analysis, whilst in the case of 6H-SiC damage profiles were simultaneously obtained by α-particle channelling. No diffusion or xenon loss was detected in the initially amorphized and eventually recrystallized surface layer of cold implanted 6H-SiC during annealing up to 1200 °C. Above that temperature serious erosion of the implanted surface occurred, which made any analysis impossible. No diffusion or xenon loss is detected in the hot implanted 6H-SiC samples during annealing up to 1400 °C. Radiation damage dependent grain boundary diffusion is observed at 1300 °C in CVD-SiC.

  2. The next generation dark matter hunter: XENON1T status and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The XENON Dark Matter Experiment has been ongoing at LNGS since 2005 with the goal of searching for dark matter WIMPs with liquid xenon as target and detector material. With detectors of increasing target mass and decreasing background, the XENON program has achieved competitive limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction couplings, but also on axions and axion like particles. With the start of the next generation experiment, XENON1T expected in 2015, XENON Dark Matter Experiment will continue to lead field of dark matter direct detection. XENON1T will be the first experiment to use multi-tons of liquid xenon in a time projection chamber and is designed to achieve two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than the current best limits. I will review the status of construction and the scientific goals of XENON1T.

  3. Low-Energy Sputtering Studies of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of boron nitride with xenon ions was investigated using secondary ion (SIMS) and secondary neutral (SNMS) mass spectrometry. The ions generated from the ion gun were incident on the target at an angle of 50' with respect to the surface'normal. The energy of ions ranged from 100 eV to 3 keV. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge build-up on the target surface. The intensities of sputtered neutral and charged particles, including single atoms, molecules, and clusters, were measured as a function of ion energy. Positive SIMS spectra were dominated by the two boron isotopes whereas BN- and B- were the two major constituents of the negative SIMS spectra. Nitrogen could be detected only in the SNMS spectra. The intensity-energy curves of the sputtered particles were similar in shape. The knees in P-SIMS and SNMS intensity-energy curves appear at around I keV which is significantly higher that 100 to 200 eV energy range at which knees appear in the sputtering of medium and heavy elements by ions of argon and xenon. This difference in the position of the sputter yield knee between boron nitride and heavier targets is due to the reduced ion energy differences. The isotopic composition of secondary ions of boron were measured by bombarding boron nitride with xenon ions at energies ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The secondary ion flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident ion energies. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary ion energy. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. The trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy

  4. High-pressure xenon detectors for gamma-ray spectrometry

    PubMed

    Dmitrenko; Gratchev; Ulin; Uteshev; Viasik

    2000-03-01

    The main results of long-term research on compressed xenon detector properties conducted at the laboratory of cosmic physics of MEPhI are given along with a description of the latest gamma-ray spectrometers based on this work. It is shown that using xenon as working substance, it is possible to create a gamma-ray spectrometer with high energy resolution. The construction and the main physical, technical and operation performances of xenon gamma-ray spectrometers based on ionization chambers of various configurations are described. For a gamma-ray spectrometer with a cylindrical ionization chamber and shielding grid, an energy resolution of about 14 keV (10 keV intrinsic resolution) for gamma-ray line of 662 keV is obtained. The characteristics of these detectors allow one to apply them in various fields of science and engineering, moreover, their good spectrometric properties provide the opportunity to use them for metrology measurements. PMID:10724434

  5. High-pressure xenon detector development at Constellation Technology Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert A.; Bastian, Lloyd F.

    2006-08-01

    Xenon-filled ionization detectors, due to their high atomic number fill gas (Z=54), moderate densities (~0.3 g/cm 3-0.5 g/cm 3) and good energy resolution (2%-4% at 662 keV), fill an important niche between more familiar technologies such as NaI(Tl) scintillators and Germanium detectors. Until recently, difficulties with obtaining sufficient Xenon purity, reducing microphonic sensitivity, and developing low-noise electronics compatible with small ionization signals have hampered the development of this nuclear detection field. Constellation Technology Corporation, whose experience with xenon detectors goes back to the mid 1990's, has made significant progress in these areas and has developed a commercial line of detectors with active volumes ranging from small (35 g Xe) to large (1400 g Xe). Here we will discuss our development of a mobile, large area, spectroscopic array.

  6. Xenon bubble chambers for direct dark matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, C.; Fallon, S.; Genovesi, J.; Khaitan, D.; Klimov, K.; Mock, J.; Szydagis, M.

    2016-03-01

    The search for dark matter is one of today's most exciting fields. As bigger detectors are being built to increase their sensitivity, background reduction is an ever more challenging issue. To this end, a new type of dark matter detector is proposed, a xenon bubble chamber, which would combine the strengths of liquid xenon TPCs, namely event by event energy resolution, with those of a bubble chamber, namely insensitivity to electronic recoils. In addition, it would be the first time ever that a dark matter detector is active on all three detection channels, ionization and scintillation characteristic of xenon detectors, and heat through bubble formation in superheated fluids. Preliminary simulations show that, depending on threshold, a discrimination of 99.99% to 99.9999+% can be achieved, which is on par or better than many current experiments. A prototype is being built at the University at Albany, SUNY. The prototype is currently undergoing seals, thermal, and compression testing.

  7. Modeling the Energy Resolution of Xenon with NEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    In addition to explaining the mean yields, NEST (the Noble Element Simulation Technique) can also address the energy resolution degrading effects in noble elements, for both electron and nuclear recoils (ER and NR). Liquid and gaseous xenon will be presented as examples. A non-binomial recombination fluctuation model will be discussed which well describes the intrinsic, supra-Poissonian resolution observed in xenon. It is combined with electric field effects, the Fano factor, and detector efforts, such as finite light collection efficiency and PMT quantum efficiency. In matters of conflicting dark matter search results observed by experiments such as XENON100 and CoGeNT, a stochastic, non-analytic, partially non-Gaussian understanding of the energy resolution for low-energy, WIMP-like nuclear recoils may be part of the solution. ER-NR discrimination can be predicted well with such an understanding.

  8. Estimation of Anomalous Single Scatter Events in XENON100 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kyungeun; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous single scatter events in XENON100 are events that have only one scintillation pulse (S1) and one ionization pulse (S2), but are multiple scatters in nature. Only one scatter takes place inside the detector's charge and light sensitive volume, resulting in a S2/S1 ratio that is lower than that of true single scatter events and typical of that expected from a WIMP interaction. The identification and suppression of these anomalous events is therefore essential for a sensitive dark matter search. I present results from a Monte Carlo (MC) study that was carried out to estimate the expected number of anomalous single scatter events in the XENON100 WIMP search data. The MC was validated with a comparison with Co-60 gamma-calibration data. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT, and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  9. Time profile of the scintillation from liquid and gaseous xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Ikuko; Nakamura, Shogo

    2014-11-01

    The decay time profile of vacuum ultraviolet scintillation induced by electronic recoils has been studied for liquid and gaseous xenon. The scintillation light from xenon excited by a gamma source was measured by using two vacuum ultraviolet sensitive photomultipliers, one for detecting scintillation and the other for counting photons of weak monochromatic light. The analysis results based on the time-correlated single photon counting method show that the time profile in the 176 nm scintillation decay curve for liquid xenon is consistent with a single exponential component and the decay time constant is 31.5±1.3 ns. This constant does not change significantly for pressure ranges between 90 kPa and 130 kPa. There is no emission wavelength dependence of the decay constant. The result corresponds to an average on electronic recoil energies up to 1.3 MeV.

  10. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  11. Study of the electromagnetic background in the XENON100 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Choi, B.; Giboni, K.-L.; Lang, R. F.; Lim, K. E.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Plante, G.; Arisaka, K.; Cline, D.; Lam, C. W.; Lung, K.; Pantic, E.; Teymourian, A.; Wang, H.; Arneodo, F.; Askin, A.; Baudis, L.; Behrens, A.; Ferella, A. D.; Kish, A.

    2011-04-15

    The XENON100 experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, aims to directly detect dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles via their elastic scattering off xenon nuclei. We present a comprehensive study of the predicted electronic recoil background coming from radioactive decays inside the detector and shield materials and intrinsic radioactivity in the liquid xenon. Based on GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations using a detailed geometry together with the measured radioactivity of all detector components, we predict an electronic recoil background in the energy region of interest and 30 kg fiducial mass of less than 10{sup -2} events{center_dot}kg{sup -1{center_dot}}day{sup -1{center_dot}}keV{sup -1}, consistent with the experiment's design goal. The predicted background spectrum is in very good agreement with the data taken during the commissioning of the detector in Fall 2009.

  12. [Perspective in the development and supply of equipment for xenon anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Burov, N E; Molchanov, I V; Potapov, V N; Nikolaev, L L

    2005-01-01

    Basic trends in development of methods and equipment for xenon-saving anesthesia are discussed. Brief description of specifications of equipment for xenon anesthesia is given. Unique models of domestic medical devices are briefly described together with methods of their adaptation to commercial equipment for anesthesia. Prospects in further upgrade of the equipment for xenon anesthesia are discussed. PMID:16491656

  13. A Mini-helicon Thruster in Argon and Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Francis F.

    2015-11-01

    Our small helicon discharge, 5 cm in diam and 5 cm long, using a commercial Nd permanent magnet, has been used previously to eject an argon ion beam suitable for spacecraft propulsion. The specific impulse can be increased by biasing the conducting top plate of the discharge. Thrusters normally use xenon for propulsion because of its high mass and low ionization potential. We have now tested the mini-helicon thruster in xenon. The entire device is small enough to be brought to a poster session and shown there.

  14. Liquid/solid/dual phase xenon γ-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sonsbeek, R.; Bom, V. R.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Hollander, R. W.; Meijvogel, K.; Okx, W. J. C.

    1994-09-01

    It is recognized by various groups in the world that liquid xenon (LXe) is an interesting medium for the detection of γ-rays. In spite of all the experimental and theoretical effort expended during recent years, the processes that take place in this medium are not yet fully understood. We have obtained some preliminary results using an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid. This chamber could be filled with LXe and with solid xenon (SXe). We also investigated dual phase (GXe/SXe) systems. Our study will be continued with a newly developed detection cell described in this article.

  15. The LUX Two-Phase-Xenon Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Tyana; Camp, Charlie; Marquez, Zach; Rodinov, Andrew; White, James

    2007-10-01

    The race to be the first experiment to detect collisions between atoms and a new type of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) that is conjectured to explain dark matter is heating up. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a second-generation WIMP dark matter search experiment that employs a liquid xenon target and provides background discrimination based on the ratio of ionization to scintillation produced in subatomic particle interactions. This experiment is designed to reach the heart of the favored parameter space for supersymmetric WIMPs and has a genuine chance to be the discovery experiment. The concept, design, schedule and reach of the experiment will be discussed.

  16. XENON: A 1 tonne liquid Xenon Detector for a sensitive WIMP dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberlack, U.

    The current set of cosmological observations indicates a universe consisting of about 2/3 "dark energy" and 1/3 matter, of which90% is dark. Big bang nucleosyn- thesis and deuterium abundance measurements imply that most of the dark matter is non-baryonic. Dark matter also plays a central role in structure formation, and its microscopic properties have a significant impact on the spatial distribution of mass as traced by galaxies and clusters. Several lines of arguments indicate that dark matter consists of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), the best-motivated exam- ple of which is the neutralino, the lightest supersymmetric particle. Direct detection offers the hope of studying the dark matter properties in detail, and shedding light on particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Understanding the nature of dark mat- ter is therefore highly significant from both the astrophysics and fundamental physics point of view. Current experiments are not yet sensitive enough by a factor of sev- eral 1000, to test the lowest SUSY predictions. Our approach to this challenge is XENON, a liquid Xenon experiment, based on an array of 10 self-shielded time pro- jection chambers of 100 kg fiducial mass each. The simultaneous measurement of ion- ization and scintillation signals produced by a WIMP interaction results in effective background discrimination (> 99.5%) down to a threshold of 4 keV. Event localiza- tion in 3D yields additional discrimination power. We describe this detector concept for a sensitive Dark Matter search in the context of other existing and planned experi- ments. Our target sensitivity of 4 10-10 pb is sufficient to probe the lowest predicted interaction rates for supersymmetric models.

  17. Computer simulations of the Adsorption of Xenon onto a C60 monolayer on Ag (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatica, Silvina; Cole, Milton; Diehl, Renee

    2007-03-01

    We performed Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the adsorption of Xenon on a substrate composed of C60 molecules placed on top of a Ag(111) surface. The C60 molecules form a commensurate structure at a distance of 0.227 nm above the Ag surface. The interaction potential between the Xe atoms and the substrate has two contributions: from the C60 molecules and from the Ag atoms. In the simulations, the interaction with the Ag surface was computed using an ab initio van der Waals potential, varying as 1/d^3. The interaction between the Xe atoms and each C60 molecule was computed using a potential previously developed by Hernandez et.al. (E. S. Hernandez, M. W. Cole and M. Boninsegni, ``Wetting of spherical surfaces by quantum fluids'', J. Low Temp. Phys. 134, 309-314 (2004)), who integrated the Lennard Jones interaction over the surface of a spherical buckyball. The total potential has especially attractive 3-fold sites, positioned 0.4 nm above the point between each three buckyballs. The low coverage uptake populates those sites, and then continues forming a monolayer. The adsorption isotherms show several steps, typical of substrates that have distinct adsorption sites. We compare the results with the experimental data.

  18. Xenon-mediated neuroprotection in response to sustained, low-level excitotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Lavaur, J; Lemaire, M; Pype, J; Le Nogue, D; Hirsch, E C; Michel, P P

    2016-01-01

    Noble gases such as xenon and argon have been reported to provide neuroprotection against acute brain ischemic/anoxic injuries. Herein, we wished to evaluate the protective potential of these two gases under conditions relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders. For that, we established cultures of neurons typically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, that is, cortical neurons and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and exposed them to L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) to generate sustained, low-level excitotoxic stress. Over a period of 4 days, PDC caused a progressive loss of cortical neurons which was prevented substantially when xenon replaced nitrogen in the cell culture atmosphere. Unlike xenon, argon remained inactive. Xenon acted downstream of the inhibitory and stimulatory effects elicited by PDC on glutamate uptake and efflux, respectively. Neuroprotection by xenon was mimicked by two noncompetitive antagonists of NMDA glutamate receptors, memantine and ketamine. Each of them potentiated xenon-mediated neuroprotection when used at concentrations providing suboptimal rescue to cortical neurons but most surprisingly, no rescue at all. The survival-promoting effects of xenon persisted when NMDA was used instead of PDC to trigger neuronal death, indicating that NMDA receptor antagonism was probably accountable for xenon's effects. An excess of glycine failed to reverse xenon neuroprotection, thus excluding a competitive interaction of xenon with the glycine-binding site of NMDA receptors. Noticeably, antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine reduced PDC-induced neuronal death but xenon itself lacked free radical-scavenging activity. Cholinergic neurons were also rescued efficaciously by xenon in basal forebrain cultures. Unexpectedly, however, xenon stimulated cholinergic traits and promoted the morphological differentiation of cholinergic neurons in these cultures. Memantine reproduced some of these

  19. Investigations of Buffer-Gases Role in Xenon and Halogen Excimer Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobotaru, L. C.; Porosnicu, C.

    2010-10-01

    Excimer- is an acronym in use for the excited dimmer, molecule which does not exist in the ground state but only in an excited state. This paper presents the role of the buffer-gas atoms (Ar, Ne, He), in the (Cl2/I2 Xe) excimer radiation emission mechanisms. The same buffer-gas produced a different effect on the excimer emission intensity: the neon and argon addition to xenon/chlorine/iodine had a negative effect while the helium and neon addition had a positive effect. The Penning reactions play an important role in the excimer radiation generation in connection with the gas-buffer addition and the halogen ionization potential value. The measurements are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at moderate pressure in a panel, respectively classic coaxial geometry.

  20. Electron spin polarization in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Alexander; Morales, Felipe; Kunitski, Maksim; Henrichs, Kevin; Laucke, Alina; Richter, Martin; Jahnke, Till; Kalinin, Anton; Schöffler, Markus; Schmidt, Lothar Ph. H.; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga; Dörner, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    As a fundamental property of the electron, the spin plays a decisive role in the electronic structure of matter, from solids to molecules and atoms, for example, by causing magnetism. Yet, despite its importance, the spin dynamics of the electrons released during the interaction of atoms with strong ultrashort laser pulses has remained experimentally unexplored. Here, we report the experimental detection of electron spin polarization by the strong-field ionization of xenon atoms and support our results with theoretical analysis. We found up to 30% spin polarization changing its sign with electron energy. This work opens the new dimension of spin to strong-field physics. It paves the way to the production of sub-femtosecond spin-polarized electron pulses with applications ranging from probing the magnetic properties of matter at ultrafast timescales to testing chiral molecular systems with sub-femtosecond temporal and sub-ångström spatial resolutions.

  1. [Intracranial pressure changes during xenon anesthesia in neurosurgical patients without intracranial hypertention].

    PubMed

    Rylova, A V; Lubnin, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    Xenon assures rapid awakening and stable hemodynamics, it also has some neuroprotective effect. This is the reason why it may become an anesthetic of choice in neurosurgery. Still there is little and controversial data on its impact upon ICP. This is the first study of xenon effect upon intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebrovascular reactivity during xenon anesthesia in neurosurgical patients without intracranial hypertension. We report a slight increase in intracranial and a slight decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure during xenon anesthesia and show that cerebrovascular reactivity is preserved. Thus we conclude that xenon anesthesia is safe for neurosurgical patients without intracranial hypertension. PMID:21957614

  2. Xe-129 NMR of xenon dissolved in biological media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazitov, R. K.; Kuzma, N. N.; Happer, W.; Driehuys, B.; Merrill, G. F.

    2002-03-01

    The high solubility and large chemical shift of ^129Xe in various tissues makes it an ideal, non-invasive probe for pathological conditions such as cancer or atherosclerosis. To this end, we report NMR measurements of lineshapes, chemical shifts, and relaxation times of ^129Xe dissolved in the following biological tissues in vitro: heart, muscle, sinew, stomach(R.K. Mazitov, K. M. Enikeev, et al., Dokl. Akad. Nauk) 365, 396 (1999)., and the white and yolk of egg. NMR measurements of xenon dissolved in olive and sunflower oils are also reported. Tissues weighing 160--250 mg, not exposed to freezing, were studied in a 11.75 T field at the ^129Xe resonance frequency of 138.4 MHz; the pressure of xenon in the sealed-sample ampoules was ~20 bar. The influence of drugs and water content on tissues was studied. No xenon-water clathrates(J.A. Ripmeester and D.W. Davidson, J. Mol. Struct. ) 75, 67 (1981). were observed in the tissues, even at the high pressures used. The aim of this study is to establish possible correlations between the NMR parameters of dissolved xenon and the state of the tissue.

  3. Performance of field emission cathodes in xenon environments

    SciTech Connect

    Marrese, C.M.; Polk, J.E.; Jensen, K.L.; Gallimore, A.D.; Spindt, C.; Fink, R.L.; Tolt, Z.L.; Palmer, W.D.

    1999-07-01

    Field emission (FE) cathodes are currently being considered to supply electrons in electric propulsion systems for propellant ionization and ion beam neutralization. Hollow cathodes with thermionic electron emitters typically used with Hall and ion thrusters require propellant and heaters for operation. Therefore there are lower limits on their size and power. Because FE cathodes do not require propellant or heaters they can be used with small and micropropulsion systems. The primary concern with integrating these two technologies is cathode lifetime. An FE cathode must be capable of operation in a plasma environment where xenon pressures exceed 2 x 10{sup {minus}6} Torr. Experiments were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to evaluate the performance of silicon and molybdenum microtip field emission array cathodes, and carbon film cathodes in xenon pressures up to 2 x 10{sup {minus}5} Torr. Experimental and modeling results were used to determine energy thresholds for sputtering silicon and molybdenum by xenon ions. Experiments and theoretical results are presented for performance degradation in xenon environments.

  4. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  5. Quantifying Plasma Collision Processes in Xenon Powered Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Rainer A.; Chiu, Yu-hui

    2011-05-01

    The use of xenon plasma electrostatic space propulsion systems for low-thrust applications is growing rapidly due to the significant propellant mass savings associated with the high specific impulse of the engines. The high expense of the propellant drives the cost of ground-based testing, which lacks many attributes of in-space conditions. The cost-effective performance and integration optimization of these propulsion systems, consequently, is highly dependent on models that correctly render the static plasma properties and its outflow from the engine at arbitrary conditions. A primary impediment to the accuracy of models is quantitative data such as energy dependent cross sections for a multitude of collision processes that govern the plasma properties. We present a review of theoretical and experimental advances in determining vital cross sections and their implementation in models of electrostatic thruster plasmas. Experimentally validated theoretical charge exchange and xenon ion differential scattering cross sections have led to improved modeling of the angular distribution of Hall Effect thruster plume ion currents. New cross sections for inelastic electron and xenon ion scattering on xenon atoms, including atoms in the 5p56s J = 2 metastable state, have led to the development of a collisional radiative model that predicts local electron temperatures from near-infrared spectral intensities.

  6. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Density Functional Theory (dft) Simulations of Shocked Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Magyar, Rudolph J.

    2009-12-01

    Xenon is not only a technologically important element used in laser technologies and jet propulsion, but it is also one of the most accessible materials in which to study the metal-insulator transition with increasing pressure. Because of its closed shell electronic configuration, xenon is often assumed to be chemically inert, interacting almost entirely through the van der Waals interaction, and at liquid density, is typically modeled well using Leonard-Jones potentials. However, such modeling has a limited range of validity as xenon is known to form compounds under normal conditions and likely exhibits considerably more chemistry at higher densities when hybridization of occupied orbitals becomes significant. We present DFT-MD simulations of shocked liquid xenon with the goal of developing an improved equation of state. The calculated Hugoniot to 2 MPa compares well with available experimental shock data. Sandia is a mul-tiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Density Functional Theory (DFT) Simulations of Shocked Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Magyar, Rudolph J.

    2009-06-01

    Xenon is not only a technologically important element used in laser technologies and jet propulsion, but it is also one of the most accessible materials in which to study the metal-insulator transition with increasing pressure. Because of its closed shell electronic configuration, Xenon is often assumed to be chemically inert, interacting almost entirely through the van der Waals interaction, and at liquid density, is typically modeled well using Leonard-Jones potentials. However, such modeling has a limited range of validity as Xenon is known to form compounds at normal conditions and likely exhibits considerably more chemistry at higher densities when hybridization of occupied orbitals becomes significant. In this talk, we present DFT-MD simulations of shocked liquid Xenon with the goal of developing an improved equation of state. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Pulsed xenon flashlamp device for the treatment of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, Jonathan M.; Hennings, David R.; Johnston, Thomas F., Jr.; Taylor, Eric

    2003-06-01

    We present our research into a pulsed xenon lamp source for the treatment of psoriasis and other skin disorders. Various filtering techniques, lamp configurations, power supply configurations and delivery systems are discussed. Comparisons are made to existing treatment modalities. Cryogen cooling of the treatment site is discussed.

  10. Applications of highly spin-polarized xenon in NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.W. |

    1993-09-01

    The main goal of the work presented in this thesis is produce highly spin-polarized xenon to create much greater signal intensities (up to 54,000 times greater) so as to allow studies to be made on systems with low surface area and long spin-lattice relaxation times. The spin-exchange optical pumping technique used to create high nuclear spin polarization is described in detail in chapter two. This technique is initially applied to some multiple-pulse optically detected NMR experiments in low magnetic field (50G) that allow the study of quadrupoler interactions with a surface of only a few square centimeters. In chapter three the apparatus used to allow high field {sup 129}Xe NMR studies to be performed with extremely high sensitivity is described and applied to experiments on diamagnetic susceptibility effects in thin ({approximately}2000 layers) films of frozen xenon. Preliminary surface investigations of laser polarized {sup 129}Xe adsorbed an a variety of materials (salts, molecular crystals, amorphous carbon, graphite) are then discussed. A full detailed study of the surface of a particular polymer, poly(acrylic acid), is presented in chapter four which shows the kind of detailed information that can be obtained from this technique. Along with preliminary results for several similar polymers, a summary is given of xenon studies of a novel ultra-high surface area polymer, poly(triarylcarbinol). Finally in chapter five the exciting possibility of transferring the high spin order of the laser polarized xenon has been used to transfer nuclear spin order to {sup 13}CO{sub 2} in a xenon matrix and to protons on poly(triarylcarbinol).

  11. Xenon-mediated neuroprotection in response to sustained, low-level excitotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Lavaur, J; Lemaire, M; Pype, J; Nogue, D Le; Hirsch, E C; Michel, P P

    2016-01-01

    Noble gases such as xenon and argon have been reported to provide neuroprotection against acute brain ischemic/anoxic injuries. Herein, we wished to evaluate the protective potential of these two gases under conditions relevant to the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders. For that, we established cultures of neurons typically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, that is, cortical neurons and basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and exposed them to L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) to generate sustained, low-level excitotoxic stress. Over a period of 4 days, PDC caused a progressive loss of cortical neurons which was prevented substantially when xenon replaced nitrogen in the cell culture atmosphere. Unlike xenon, argon remained inactive. Xenon acted downstream of the inhibitory and stimulatory effects elicited by PDC on glutamate uptake and efflux, respectively. Neuroprotection by xenon was mimicked by two noncompetitive antagonists of NMDA glutamate receptors, memantine and ketamine. Each of them potentiated xenon-mediated neuroprotection when used at concentrations providing suboptimal rescue to cortical neurons but most surprisingly, no rescue at all. The survival-promoting effects of xenon persisted when NMDA was used instead of PDC to trigger neuronal death, indicating that NMDA receptor antagonism was probably accountable for xenon’s effects. An excess of glycine failed to reverse xenon neuroprotection, thus excluding a competitive interaction of xenon with the glycine-binding site of NMDA receptors. Noticeably, antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine reduced PDC-induced neuronal death but xenon itself lacked free radical-scavenging activity. Cholinergic neurons were also rescued efficaciously by xenon in basal forebrain cultures. Unexpectedly, however, xenon stimulated cholinergic traits and promoted the morphological differentiation of cholinergic neurons in these cultures. Memantine reproduced some of these

  12. The Light Response of the XENON100 Time Projection Chamber and the Measurements of the Optical Parameters with the Xenon Scintillation Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bin

    The XENON program is a phased project using liquid xenon as a sensitive detector medium in search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These particles are the leading candidates to explain the non-baryonic, cold dark matter in our Universe. XENON100, the successor experiment of XENON10, has increased the target liquid xenon mass to 61 kg with a 100 times reduction in background rate enabling a large increase in sensitivity to WIMP-nucleon interaction cross-section. To-date, the most stringent limit on this cross-section over a wide range of WIMP masses have been obtained with XENON100. XENON100 is a detector responding to the scintillation of xenon and the work of this thesis will mainly focus on the light response of the detector. Chapter 1 describes the evidences for dark matter and some of the detection methods, roughly divided by the indirect and the direct detection. In the section 1.2.2 for direct detection, a treatment of interaction rate of WIMPs is introduced. Chapter 2 is a description of the XENON100 detector, some of the main characteristics of liquid xenon, followed by the detector design. In Chapter 3, the light response of the XENON100 time projection chamber (TPC) is explained, including the Monte Carlo simulation work that was carried out prior to the main data taking. The Monte Carlo provided the basic idea of understanding the detector in the early stage of design and calibration, but the actual corrections of the light signals were determined later with the real data. Several optical parameters are critical in explaining the light response, such as the quantum efficiency (QE) of the photomultipliers (PMTs) used in the detector and the reflectivity of the teflon (Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) material that surrounds the liquid xenon target volume and defines the TPC. Since the few existing measurements of reflectivity of PTFE in liquid xenon were performed in different conditions and thus could not be applied, the XENON

  13. Segregation of xenon to dislocations and grain boundaries in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nerikar, P. V.; Casillas Trujillo, L. A.; Andersson, D. A.; Unal, C.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Stanek, C. R.; Parfitt, D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Sinnott, S. B.

    2011-11-01

    It is well known that Xe, being insoluble in UO{sub 2}, segregates to dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs), where bubbles may form resulting in fuel swelling. Less well known is how sensitive this segregation is to the structure of the dislocation or GB. In this work we employ pair potential calculations to examine Xe segregation to dislocations (edge and screw) and several representative grain boundaries ({Sigma}5 tilt, {Sigma}5 twist, and random). Our calculations predict that the segregation trend depends significantly on the type of dislocation or GB. In particular we find that Xe prefers to segregate strongly to the random boundary as compared to the other two boundaries and to the screw dislocation rather than the edge. Furthermore, we observe that neither the volumetric strain nor the electrostatic potential of a site can be used to predict its segregation characteristics. These differences in segregation characteristics are expected to have important consequences for the retention and release of Xe in nuclear fuels. Finally, our results offer general insights into how atomic structure of extended defects influence species segregation.

  14. Uranium dioxide films with xenon filled bubbles for fission gas behavior studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, I. O.; Dickerson, R. M.; Dickerson, P. O.; Byler, D. D.; McClellan, K. J.

    2014-09-01

    Electron beam evaporation and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) methods were utilized to fabricate depleted UO2 films and UO2 films with embedded Xe atoms, respectively. The films were fabricated at elevated temperature of 700 °C and also subsequently annealed at 1000 °C to induce grain growth and Xe atom redistribution. The goal of this work was to synthesize reference UO2 samples with controlled microstructures and Xe-filled bubble morphologies, without the effects attendant to rector irradiation-induced fission. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization revealed that fine Xe-filled bubbles nucleated in the as grown films and subsequent annealing resulted in noticeable bubble size increase. Reported results demonstrate the great potential IBAD techniques and UO2 films have for various areas of nuclear materials studies.

  15. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  16. Detection and characterization of xenon-binding sites in proteins by 129Xe NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Seth M; Lee, Seok-Yong; Ruiz, E Janette; Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E

    2002-09-13

    Xenon-binding sites in proteins have led to a number of applications of xenon in biochemical and structural studies. Here we further develop the utility of 129Xe NMR in characterizing specific xenon-protein interactions. The sensitivity of the 129Xe chemical shift to its local environment and the intense signals attainable by optical pumping make xenon a useful NMR reporter of its own interactions with proteins. A method for detecting specific xenon-binding interactions by analysis of 129Xe chemical shift data is illustrated using the maltose binding protein (MBP) from Escherichia coli as an example. The crystal structure of MBP in the presence of 8atm of xenon confirms the binding site determined from NMR data. Changes in the structure of the xenon-binding cavity upon the binding of maltose by the protein can account for the sensitivity of the 129Xe chemical shift to MBP conformation. 129Xe NMR data for xenon in solution with a number of cavity containing phage T4 lysozyme mutants show that xenon can report on cavity structure. In particular, a correlation exists between cavity size and the binding-induced 129Xe chemical shift. Further applications of 129Xe NMR to biochemical assays, including the screening of proteins for xenon binding for crystallography are considered. PMID:12217701

  17. Mesoscale Backtracking by Means of Atmospheric Transport Modeling of Xenon Plumes Measured by Radionuclide Gas Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P. P.; Achim, P.; Taffary, T.

    2006-12-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric radioactive xenon concentration is performed for nuclear safety regulatory requirements. It is also planned to be used for the detection of hypothetical nuclear tests in the framework of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this context, the French Atomic Energy Commission designed a high sensitive and automated fieldable station, named SPALAX, to measure the activity concentrations of xenon isotopes in the atmosphere. SPALAX stations were set up in Western Europe and have been operated quite continuously for three years or more, detecting principally xenon-133 and more scarcely xenon-135, xenon-133m and xenon-131m. There are around 150 nuclear power plants in the European Union, research reactors, reprocessing plants, medical production and application facilities releasing radioactive xenon in normal or incidental operations. A numerical study was carried out aiming to explain the SPALAX measurements. The mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Modelling involves the MM5 suite (PSU- NCAR) to predict the wind fields on nested domains, and FLEXPART, a 3D Lagrangian particle dispersion code, used to simulate the backward transport of xenon plumes detected by the SPALAX. For every event of detection, at least one potential xenon source has a significant efficiency of emission. The identified likely sources are located quite close to the SPALAX stations (some tens of kilometres), or situated farther (a few hundreds of kilometres). A base line of some mBq per cubic meter in xenon-133 is generated by the nuclear power plants. Peaks of xenon-133 ranging from tens to hundreds of mBq per cubic meter originate from a radioisotope production facility. The calculated xenon source terms required to obtain the SPALAX measurements are discussed and seem consistent with realistic emissions from the xenon sources in Western Europe.

  18. Rotational spectra of the Xe-(H2O)2 van der Waals trimer: xenon as a probe of electronic structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qing; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2007-03-22

    Rotational spectra of three isotopomers of the Xe-(H2O)2 van der Waals trimer were recorded using a pulsed-nozzle, Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Nine [nine, four] a-type and twelve [eleven, seven] b-type transitions were measured for the 132Xe-(H2O)2 [129Xe-(H2O)2, 131Xe-(H2O)2] isotopomer. The determined rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were used to extract information about the structure and vibrational motions of the complex. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the 131Xe (nuclear spin quantum number I=3/2) nucleus were also detected. The large value of the off-diagonal nuclear quadrupole coupling constant chiab in particular provides detailed insight into the electronic environment of the xenon atom and the orientations of the water molecules within the complex. An effective structure that best reproduces the experimental 131Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is rationalized by ab initio calculations. An overall goal of this line of work is to determine how the successive solvation of a xenon atom with water molecules affects the xenon electron distribution and its intermolecular interactions. The results may provide molecular level interpretations of 129Xe NMR data from, for example, imaging experiments. PMID:17388264

  19. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S; Chong, Samantha Y; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K Mark; Armstrong, Jayne A; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M; Thallapally, Praveen K; Cooper, Andrew I

    2014-10-01

    The separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases, such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1-phenylethanol, suggesting applications in enantioselective separation. PMID:25038731

  20. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. Mark; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-01

    The separation of molecules with similar size and shape is an important technological challenge. For example, rare gases can pose either an economic opportunity or an environmental hazard and there is a need to separate these spherical molecules selectively at low concentrations in air. Likewise, chiral molecules are important building blocks for pharmaceuticals, but chiral enantiomers, by definition, have identical size and shape, and their separation can be challenging. Here we show that a porous organic cage molecule has unprecedented performance in the solid state for the separation of rare gases, such as krypton and xenon. The selectivity arises from a precise size match between the rare gas and the organic cage cavity, as predicted by molecular simulations. Breakthrough experiments demonstrate real practical potential for the separation of krypton, xenon and radon from air at concentrations of only a few parts per million. We also demonstrate selective binding of chiral organic molecules such as 1-phenylethanol, suggesting applications in enantioselective separation.

  1. First Dark Matter Results from the XENON100 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Choi, B.; Giboni, K.-L.; Lang, R. F.; Lim, K. E.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Plante, G.; Arisaka, K.; Brown, E.; Cline, D. B.; Lam, C. W.; Pantic, E.; Teymourian, A.; Wang, H.; Arneodo, F.; Fattori, S.; Askin, A.; Baudis, L.; Behrens, A.; Ferella, A. D.

    2010-09-24

    The XENON100 experiment, in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, is designed to search for dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off 62 kg of liquid xenon in an ultralow background dual-phase time projection chamber. In this Letter, we present first dark matter results from the analysis of 11.17 live days of nonblind data, acquired in October and November 2009. In the selected fiducial target of 40 kg, and within the predefined signal region, we observe no events and hence exclude spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross sections above 3.4x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} for 55 GeV/c{sup 2} WIMPs at 90% confidence level. Below 20 GeV/c{sup 2}, this result constrains the interpretation of the CoGeNT and DAMA signals as being due to spin-independent, elastic, light mass WIMP interactions.

  2. High Pressure XENON Gamma-Ray Spectrometers for Field Use

    SciTech Connect

    David K. Wehe; Zong He; Glenn K. Knoll

    2004-02-16

    This project explored a new concept for high-pressure xenon ionization chambers by replacing the Frisch grid with coplanar grid electrodes similar to those used in wide bandgap semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometers. This work is the first attempt to apply the coplanar grid anode design in a gas ionization chamber in order to achieve to improved energy resolution. Three prototype detectors, two cylindrical and one parallel plate configurations, were built and tested. While the detectors did not demonstrate energy resolutions as good as other high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometers, the results demonstrated that the concept of single polarity charge sending using coplanar grid electrodes will work in a gas detector.

  3. Xenon NMR measurements of permeability and tortuosity in reservoir rocks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruopeng; Pavlin, Tina; Rosen, Matthew Scott; Mair, Ross William; Cory, David G; Walsworth, Ronald Lee

    2005-02-01

    In this work we present measurements of permeability, effective porosity and tortuosity on a variety of rock samples using NMR/MRI of thermal and laser-polarized gas. Permeability and effective porosity are measured simultaneously using MRI to monitor the inflow of laser-polarized xenon into the rock core. Tortuosity is determined from measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient using thermal xenon in sealed samples. The initial results from a limited number of rocks indicate inverse correlations between tortuosity and both effective porosity and permeability. Further studies to widen the number of types of rocks studied may eventually aid in explaining the poorly understood connection between permeability and tortuosity of rock cores. PMID:15833638

  4. A portable gamma-ray spectrometer using compressed xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Smith, G.C.; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1997-10-01

    An ionization chamber using compressed xenon has been designed and built for gamma-ray spectrometry. The device is based on signal measurement from a parallel plate detector, with the gas enclosure constructed specifically for packaging into a portable instrument; thus, appropriate engineering practices comprises two small containers that can be setup for operation in just a few minutes. Its sensitivity is 100 keV to over 1 MeV, with a resolution at 662 keV of 2.5% FWHM for uniform irradiation, and 2% FWHM for collimated irradiation, comparable to the best ever with compressed xenon. It also exhibits greater specificity that most scintillators, such as NaI. The device is insensitive to neutron damage and has a low power requirement.

  5. Driving Rabi oscillations at the giant dipole resonance in xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Stefan; Wang, Daochen; Santra, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short and very intense light pulses in the XUV and x-ray regimes. We investigate the possibility to drive Rabi oscillations in xenon with an intense FEL pulse by using the unusually large dipole strength of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR decays within less than 30 as due to its position, which is above the 4 d ionization threshold. We find that intensities around 1018W /cm2 are required to induce Rabi oscillations with a period comparable to the lifetime. The pulse duration should not exceed 100 as because xenon will be fully ionized within a few lifetimes. Rabi oscillations reveal themselves also in the photoelectron spectrum in the form of Autler-Townes splittings extending over several tens of electronvolts.

  6. Development of liquid xenon detectors for gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    The application of liquid xenon in high-resolution detectors for gamma-ray astronomy is being investigated. Initial results from a pulse-shape analysis of ionization signals in a liquid-xenon gridded chamber indicate that it is possible to achieve the necessary liquid purity for the transport of free electrons with simple techniques. The energy resolution has been measured as a function of applied electric field, using electrons and gamma-rays from a 207Bi source. At a field of 12 kV/cm the noise-substracted energy resolution of the dominant 569-keV gamma-ray line is 34 keV FWHM (full width at half maximum). This value is mostly determined by recombination of electron-ion pairs on delta-electron tracks.

  7. Dark matter sensitivity of multi-ton liquid xenon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Marc; Baudis, Laura; Bütikofer, Lukas; Kish, Alexander; Selvi, Marco

    2015-10-01

    We study the sensitivity of multi ton-scale time projection chambers using a liquid xenon target, e.g., the proposed DARWIN instrument, to spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering interactions. Taking into account realistic backgrounds from the detector itself as well as from neutrinos, we examine the impact of exposure, energy threshold, background rejection efficiency and energy resolution on the dark matter sensitivity. With an exposure of 200 t × y and assuming detector parameters which have been already demonstrated experimentally, spin-independent cross sections as low as 2.5 × 10-49 cm2 can be probed for WIMP masses around 40 GeV/c2. Additional improvements in terms of background rejection and exposure will further increase the sensitivity, while the ultimate WIMP science reach will be limited by neutrinos scattering coherently off the xenon nuclei.

  8. DAX: A Versatile Testbed for Xenon Detector R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The DAX (DAvis Xenon) system serves as a test bed for liquid-xenon (LXe) detector research and development, particularly in the context of future dark matter direct detection searches. A number of important technologies are being tested in this system, including an active liquid-purity monitor, silicon photomultiplier sensors, wavelength shifters, and a direct measurement of the scintillation and ionization response of LXe to low-energy Pb-206 recoils. The last item is important because Pb-206 is a decay product of Po-210, which is a prominent surface background resulting from radon plate-out, and its behavior in LXe is poorly understood. I discuss the motivation and design of this system, along with the current status and recent results of its goals.

  9. Gamma background discrimination in the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgarejo, Antonio; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments rely on the ability to have an expected background close to 0 in order to be able to identify possible WIMP signals. Among the multiple strategies to achieve this goal, most of the experiments use background reduction techniques which exploit the difference between electron-like signal (most radioactive backgrounds) and neutron-like signals (neutrons and WIMPs). In this talk we will show the studies and measurements within the XENON100 experiment to distinguish signals from electrons and neutrons by comparing their light to signal ratio. A straightforward prediction of this work is the amount of events expected in the dark matter region in this experiment. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF, DOE, SNF, the Volkswagen Foundation, FCT and STCSM. We are grateful to the LNGS for hosting and supporting the XENON program.

  10. Experimental investigations of argon and xenon ion sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The multipole thruster was used to investigate the use of argon and xenon propellants as possible alternatives to the electric thruster propellants of mercury and cesium. The multipole approach was used because of its general high performance level. The design employed, using flat and cylindrical rolled sections of sheet metal, was selected for ease of fabrication, design, assembly, and modification. All testing was conducted in a vacuum facility and the pumping was accomplished by a 0.8 m diffusion pump together with liquid nitrogen cooled liner. Minimum discharge losses were in the 200-250 ev. ion range for both argon and xenon. Flatness parameters were typically in the 0.70-0.75 range.

  11. Theoretical study of xenon adsorption in UO2 nanoporous matrices.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Mehdi; Tréglia, Guy; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2014-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of xenon incorporation in UO2 nanocavities, by means of Grand Canonical Monte Carlo calculations based on semi-empirical potentials. We first characterize the reconstruction of the matrix around an empty cavity which leads to a stoechiometry change from UO2 to UO in this region. Then, we determine xenon adsorption isotherms which exhibit an abrupt transition from a dilute phase to a dense one and an increase in the density of the latter phase as a function of temperature. This last result is attributed to a vibrational entropy effect by means of a mean field analysis. Finally, the pressure calculation inside the bubble proves the limitations of the usual mesoscopic models based on gas state behaviour. PMID:25388362

  12. A Study of Radon Background in the XENON100 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Marc

    2011-04-27

    The XENON100 Dark Matter experiment has recently published first results from an analysis of 11.2 live days of data, setting an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross section of 3.4x10{sup -44} cm{sup 2} at 55 GeV/c{sup 2} and 90% confidence level. This article focuses on one specific background component of the XENON100 detector by presenting two independent methods of measuring the {sup 222}Rn concentration during operation phase. A first estimate of radon activity is derived for the 11.2 days analysis, proving the feasibility of on-line radon monitoring. Remaining systematic uncertainties are discussed.

  13. Constraints on inelastic dark matter from XENON10

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, J; Aprile, E; Arneodo, F; Baudis, L; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Coelho, L C; Dahl, C E; DeViveiros, L; Ferella, A D; Fernandes, L P; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Giboni, K L; Gomez, R; Hasty, R; Kastens, L; Kwong, J; Lopes, J M; Madden, N; Manalaysay, A; Manzur, A; McKinsey, D N; Monzani, M E; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Orboeck, J; Plante, G; Santorelli, R; dos Santos, J; Shagin, P; Shutt, T; Sorensen, P; Schulte, S; Winant, C; Yamashita, M

    2009-11-23

    It has been suggested that dark matter particles which scatter inelastically from detector target nuclei could explain the apparent incompatibility of the DAMA modulation signal (interpreted as evidence for particle dark matter) with the null results from CDMS-II and XENON10. Among the predictions of inelastically interacting dark matter are a suppression of low-energy events, and a population of nuclear recoil events at higher nuclear recoil equivalent energies. This is in stark contrast to the well-known expectation of a falling exponential spectrum for the case of elastic interactions. We present a new analysis of XENON10 dark matter search data extending to E{sub nr} = 75 keV nuclear recoil equivalent energy. Our results exclude a significant region of previously allowed parameter space in the model of inelastically interacting dark matter. In particular, it is found that dark matter particle masses m{sub x} {approx}> 150 GeV are disfavored.

  14. Cryogenic Technology Development For The MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, Tomiyoshi

    2008-02-21

    Cryogenic key technologies have been developed for the muon rare decay experiment (MEG) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. These technologies are the high power pulse tube cryocooler for precise temperature and pressure control of liquid xenon in the calorimeter, a purification system with a cryogenic liquid pump and a cryogenic dewar with 1000 L storage capacity. The paper describes the general concepts and the first test results of each technology. All the results imply a promising performance for the coming MEG experiment.

  15. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-) filled proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, B. D.; Agrawal, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. Results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases are presented.

  16. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  17. Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for radioactive waste controlling complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, S.; Novikov, A.; Dmitrenko, V.; Vlasik, K.; Krivova, K.; Petrenko, D.; Uteshev, Z.; Shustov, A.; Petkovich, E.

    2016-02-01

    Xenon detector based gamma-ray spectrometer for a radioactive waste sorting complex and its characteristics are described. It has been shown that the “thin-wall” modification of the detector allows better registration of low-energy gamma rays (tens of keV). The spectrometer is capable of operation in unfavorable field conditions and can identify radionuclides of interest in less than 1 second.

  18. Flight qualification of an 18-mN xenon thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, J. R.; Williams, J. D.; Robson, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, we describe an 18-mN xenon ion propulsion subsystem (XIPS) and our plans to flight-qualify the critical component of this system. The XIPS consists of a 13-cm-diam thruster, a power supply, and a xenon storage and control unit. The thruster produces 17.8 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of 2585 s, with an input power of about 439 W. The power supply contains only about 400 parts in its 7 individual power modules: screen, accel, discharge, two keepers, and two beaters. The power supply is designed to operate from a 29- to 34-V or a 49- to 53-V power bus and achieves an overall efficiency of 88 to 90 percent over these ranges. Xenon propellant is stored at an initial pressure of 7.6 MPa (1100 psia) to give a tankage fraction of only about 12 percent. Control of the xenon flow rates is accomplished using a pressure regulator to reduce the storage pressure to 68.9 kPA (10 psia) on the upstream side of flow restrictors located in the lines leading to the discharge chamber and the discharge and neutralizer cathodes. We describe our plans to qualify the XIPS thruster by subjecting two flight units to qualification testing, including performance, thermal-vacuum, and vibration tests. In addition, we describe our plans to subject the qualification thrusters to a cyclic life test, in which we intend to accumulate at least 12,000 h and over 6,000 ON/OFF cycles. We also describe our plans to subject two XIPS cathodes to a continuous-operation life test of unspecified duration; we plan to test these cathodes until failure.

  19. A coherent understanding of low-energy nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Liquid xenon detectors such as XENON10 and XENON100 obtain a significant fraction of their sensitivity to light (∼<10 GeV) particle dark matter by looking for nuclear recoils of only a few keV, just above the detector threshold. Yet in this energy regime a correct treatment of the detector threshold and resolution remains unclear. The energy dependence of the scintillation yield of liquid xenon for nuclear recoils also bears heavily on detector sensitivity, yet numerous measurements have not succeeded in obtaining concordant results. In this article we show that the ratio of detected ionization to scintillation can be leveraged to constrain the scintillation yield. We also present a rigorous treatment of liquid xenon detector threshold and energy resolution. Notably, the effective energy resolution differs significantly from a simple Poisson distribution. We conclude with a calculation of dark matter exclusion limits, and show that existing data from liquid xenon detectors strongly constrain recent interpretations of light dark matter.

  20. High-pressure xenon detector development at Constellation Technology Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Robert A.

    2007-08-01

    Xenon-filled ionization detectors, due to their high atomic number fill gas ( Z=54), moderate densities (˜0.3-0.5 g/cm 3) and good energy resolution (2-4% at 662 keV), fill an important niche between more familiar technologies such as NaI(Tl) scintillators and germanium detectors. Until recently, difficulties with obtaining sufficient xenon purity, reducing microphonic sensitivity, and developing low-noise electronics compatible with small ionization signals have hampered the development of this nuclear detection field. Constellation Technology Corporation, whose experience with xenon detectors goes back to the mid 1990s, has made significant progress in these areas and has developed a commercial line of detectors with active volumes ranging from small (35 g Xe) to large (1400 g Xe). Current applications for Constellation's detectors are principally in the area of defense (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Advanced Spectroscopic Portals), but as awareness of this technology grows, it will surely find applications in a much expanded range of fields.

  1. [Low-flow xenon anesthesia in surgical patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rashchupkin, A B; Burov, N E

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of central hemodynamics in 60 patients with essential hypertension during low flow anesthesia with xenon and nitrous oxide is carried out. The main group consisted of 30 patients, 22 male and 8 female, in the median age of 45.9 +/- 23 years. 22 patients out of those had 2nd stage essential hypertension, while the other 8 had 3rd stage. The control group consisted of 30 patients, 20 male and 10 female, in the median age of 45.1 + 1.3 years. 4 patients had 3rd stage essential hypertension, 26 patients had 2nd stage. The both groups were clinically comparable by the character and severity of the main disease, the carried out surgery (open cholecystectomy) and the qualification of surgeons. Results of the research showed, that low flow monoanesthesia with xenon abruptly eradicated the unfavourable consequences of induction of anesthesia (3-5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental or 2-2.5 mg/kg of propofol) and had a positive effect on the parameters of central hemodynamics of patients with essential hypertension. Xenon anesthesia, compared to nitrous oxide, rapidly stabilized the parameters of blood pressure and heart rate and can be recommended as a method of choice in patients with essential hypertension and compromised myocarium. Nitrous oxide with bolus of regular fentanyl doses doesn't reliable anesthesiological protection during open cholecystectomy and shows signs of toxicity. PMID:21692217

  2. Very-low-field MRI of laser polarized xenon-129.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan; Cates, Gordon D; Tobias, William A; Mugler, John P; Miller, G Wilson

    2014-10-17

    We describe a homebuilt MRI system for imaging laser-polarized xenon-129 at a very low holding field of 2.2mT. A unique feature of this system was the use of Maxwell coils oriented at so-called "magic angles" to generate the transverse magnetic field gradients, which provided a simple alternative to Golay coils. We used this system to image a laser-polarized xenon-129 phantom with both a conventional gradient-echo and a fully phase-encoded pulse sequence. In other contexts, a fully phase-encoded acquisition, also known as single-point or constant-time imaging, has been used to enable distortion-free imaging of short-T2(∗) species. Here we used this technique to overcome imperfections associated with our homebuilt MRI system while also taking full advantage of the long T2(∗) available at very low field. Our results demonstrate that xenon-129 image quality can be dramatically improved at low field by combining a fully phase-encoded k-space acquisition with auxiliary measurements of system imperfections including B0 field drift and gradient infidelity. PMID:25462954

  3. Very-low-field MRI of laser polarized xenon-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuan; Cates, Gordon D.; Tobias, William A.; Mugler, John P.; Miller, G. Wilson

    2014-12-01

    We describe a homebuilt MRI system for imaging laser-polarized xenon-129 at a very low holding field of 2.2 mT. A unique feature of this system was the use of Maxwell coils oriented at so-called 'magic angles' to generate the transverse magnetic field gradients, which provided a simple alternative to Golay coils. We used this system to image a laser-polarized xenon-129 phantom with both a conventional gradient-echo and a fully phase-encoded pulse sequence. In other contexts, a fully phase-encoded acquisition, also known as single-point or constant-time imaging, has been used to enable distortion-free imaging of short-T2∗species. Here we used this technique to overcome imperfections associated with our homebuilt MRI system while also taking full advantage of the long T2∗available at very low field. Our results demonstrate that xenon-129 image quality can be dramatically improved at low field by combining a fully phase-encoded k-space acquisition with auxiliary measurements of system imperfections including B0 field drift and gradient infidelity.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of the Large Underground Xenon Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Michael Austin

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter search experiment operates a time projection chamber constructed of 370 kg of xenon, currently installed in the Homestake gold mine. The goal of the experiment is to detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). Novel calibration methods for this uniquely large detector are discussed. Background events due to standard model physics processes including cosmogenically activated xenon, alpha emission, and neutron production are shown to be negligible in recent 85 day WIMP search data. The LUX Monte Carlo simulation includes a new physical model, the Nobel Element Simulation Technique (NEST), for scintillation and ionization. NEST describes energy-, particle-, field- and medium-dependent behavior of a charge recombination model. A simulated data acquisition chain that bridges the gap between simulation and data has been developed to permit full testing of the analysis tools employed by LUX. Signal generation by cumulative photon responses are described algorithmically. Computational optimization has been performed to decrease processing time by a factor of fifty. A new technique for event depth estimation using machine learning and image analysis is introduced. Variable length waveforms are converted to fixed dimension field maps for use in machine learning. A support vector machine trained against pulse shapes with known depth successfully regressed depth without direct measurement of highly variable pulse widths. The world's most stringent limits on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section are presented.

  5. Highly ionized xenon and volumetric weighting in restricted focal geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2015-08-01

    The ionization of xenon atoms subjected to 42 fs, 800 nm pulses of radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser was investigated. In our experiments, a maximum laser intensity of ˜ 2 × 10 15 W / cm 2 was used. Xenon ions were measured using a time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer having an entrance slit with dimensions of 12 μ m × 400 μ m . The observed yields Xe n + ( n = 1 - 7 ) were partially free of spatial averaging. The ion yields showed sequential and nonsequential multiple ionization and dip structures following saturation. To investigate the dip structures and to perform a comparison between experimental and simulated data, with the goal of clarifying the effects of residual spatial averaging, we derived a hybrid analytical-numerical solution for the integration kernel in restricted focal geometries. We simulated xenon ionization using Ammosov-Delone-Krainov and Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev theories and obtained agreement with the results of observations. Since a large number of experiments suffer from spatial averaging, the results presented are important to correctly interpret experimental data by taking into account spatial averaging.

  6. Allende meteorite: Isotopically anomalous xenon is accompanied by normal osmium

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H.; Higuchi, H.; Gros, Jacques; Morgan, John W.; Anders, Edward

    1976-01-01

    The 184Os/190Os ratio of six Allende meteorite samples was determined by neutron activation analysis. Four chromite concentrates gave a ratio differing from the terrestrial ratio by only -0.1 ± 0.4%, although they contained highly anomalous xenon enriched by up to 67% in 124Xe and 93% in 136Xe. In view of this result and the normal isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen in these fractions, it seems very unlikely that the xenon anomalies were produced in a supernova by the p and r processes. More probably, the xenon anomalies were established in the early solar system, by mass fractionation during trapping of noble gases in solids and by spontaneous fission of a superheavy element. Two other samples, containing osmium from the calcium,aluminum-rich inclusions, also gave an 184Os/190Os ratio within -0.1 ± 0.5% of the terrestrial value, although these inclusions show well-established anomalies in the light elements oxygen and magnesium, which appear to be due to pre-solar dust grains of distinctive nuclear history. Apparently the stellar source of the anomalous oxygen and magnesium did not synthesize heavier elements. PMID:16592365

  7. Prospects for dark matter detection with inelastic transitions of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Dark matter can scatter and excite a nucleus to a low-lying excitation in a direct detection experiment. This signature is distinct from the canonical elastic scattering signal because the inelastic signal also contains the energy deposited from the subsequent prompt de-excitation of the nucleus. A measurement of the elastic and inelastic signal will allow a single experiment to distinguish between a spin-independent and spin-dependent interaction. For the first time, we characterise the inelastic signal for two-phase xenon detectors in which dark matter inelastically scatters off the 129Xe or 131Xe isotope. We do this by implementing a realistic simulation of a typical tonne-scale two-phase xenon detector and by carefully estimating the relevant background signals. With our detector simulation, we explore whether the inelastic signal from the axial-vector interaction is detectable with upcoming tonne-scale detectors. We find that two-phase detectors allow for some discrimination between signal and background so that it is possible to detect dark matter that inelastically scatters off either the 129Xe or 131Xe isotope for dark matter particles that are heavier than approximately 010 GeV . If, after two years of data, the XENON1T search for elastic scattering nuclei finds no evidence for dark matter, the possibility of ever detecting an inelastic signal from the axial-vector interaction will be almost entirely excluded.

  8. Gamma detectors based on high-pressure xenon: their development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, Sergey E.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, V. M.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasik, K. F.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Dukhvalov, A. G.; Kotler, F. G.; Pushkin, K. N.

    2004-10-01

    Various modifications of xenon detectors and their parameters in comparison with gamma-detectors of other types are considered. Prospects of xenon detectors' applicatins in gamma-spectroscopy based on experimental results are discussed including detection and control of radioactive and fissile materials displacement, definition of uranium enrichment rate, and measurements of nuclear reactor radioactive gas waste concentration. Possibilities for xenon detector use for environmental control and measurement of cosmic gamma radiation on orbital stations are considered.

  9. Gamma detectors based on high pressure xenon: their development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulin, Sergey E.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, V. M.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Vlasic, K. F.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Duhvalov, A. G.; Kotler, F. G.; Pushkin, K. N.

    2004-01-01

    Various modifications of xenon detectors and their parameters in comparison with gamma-detectors of other types are considered. Prospects of xenon detectors' applications in gamma-spectroscopy based on experimental results are discussed including detection and control of radioactive and fissile materials displacement, definition of uranium enrichment rate, and measurements of nuclear reactor radioactive gas waste concentration. Possibilities for xenon detector use for environmental control and measurement of cosmic gamma radiation on orbital stations are considered.

  10. NMR investigations of surfaces and interfaces using spin-polarized xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Gaede, H C

    1995-07-01

    {sup 129}Xe NMR is potentially useful for the investigation of material surfaces, but has been limited to high surface area samples in which sufficient xenon can be loaded to achieve acceptable signal to noise ratios. In Chapter 2 conventional {sup 129}Xe NMR is used to study a high surface area polymer, a catalyst, and a confined liquid crystal to determine the topology of these systems. Further information about the spatial proximity of different sites of the catalyst and liquid crystal systems is determined through two dimensional exchange NMR in Chapter 3. Lower surface area systems may be investigated with spin-polarized xenon, which may be achieved through optical pumping and spin exchange. Optically polarized xenon can be up to 10{sup 5} times more sensitive than thermally polarized xenon. In Chapter 4 highly polarized xenon is used to examine the surface of poly(acrylonitrile) and the formation of xenon clathrate hydrates. An attractive use of polarized xenon is as a magnetization source in cross polarization experiments. Cross polarization from adsorbed polarized xenon may allow detection of surface nuclei with drastic enhancements. A non-selective low field thermal mixing technique is used to enhance the {sup 13}C signal of CO{sub 2} of xenon occluded in solid CO{sub 2} by a factor of 200. High-field cross polarization from xenon to proton on the surface of high surface area polymers has enabled signal enhancements of {approximately}1,000. These studies, together with investigations of the efficiency of the cross polarization process from polarized xenon, are discussed in Chapter 5. Another use of polarized xenon is as an imaging contrast agent in systems that are not compatible with traditional contrast agents. The resolution attainable with this method is determined through images of structured phantoms in Chapter 6.

  11. Deactivation of xenon atoms in the 6s resonant state in collisions with xenon and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; Semenova, Ludmila V; Ustinovskii, N N; Kholin, I V; Chugunov, A Yu

    1999-02-28

    The absorption probing method was used to investigate collisional deactivation of the 6s[3/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of the xenon atom in high-pressure He - Xe mixtures with a low xenon concentration. Measurements were made of the rate constants of the following plasma-chemical reactions: Xe* + Xe + He {yields} Xe{sub 2}* + He [(2.1 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -32} cm{sup 6}s{sup -1}], Xe* + 2He {yields} HeXe* + He (less than 10{sup -35} cm{sup 6}s{sup -1}), and Xe* + He {yields} products + He (less than 3 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1}). (active media)

  12. Measurement of xenon distribution statistics in Na-A zeolite cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Chmelka, B.F.; Raftery, D.; McCormick, A.V.; de Menorval, L.C.; Levine, R.D.; Pines, A. . Materials Sciences Division University of California, Berkeley, CA . Department of Chemistry)

    1991-02-04

    {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy has been used to probe directly the distribution of xenon atoms confined in atomic-size Na-A zeolite cavities. For mean xenon occupancies less than about three Xe atoms per {alpha}-cage, the guest populations are well described by binomial statistics. At higher guest loadings the finite volumes of the xenon atoms become significant, as reflected by a fit of the experimental populations with a hypergeometric distribution. The data and hypergeometric analysis indicate a maximum occupancy of seven Xe atoms/cage. At the highest xenon loadings the experimental distribution is narrower than hypergeometric.

  13. Early outgassing of Mars supported by differential water solubility of iodine and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, Donald S.; Drake, Michael J.; Swindle, Timothy D.

    1991-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has a high X-129/Xe-132 ratio compared to the Martian mantle. As Xe-129 is the daughter product of the extinct nuclide I-129, a means of fractionating iodine from xenon early in Martian history appears necessary to account for the X-129/Xe-132 ratios of its known reservoirs. A model is presented here to account for the Marian xenon data which relies on the very different solubilities of xenon and iodine in water to fractionate them after outgassing. Atmospheric xenon is lost by impact erosion during heavy bombardment, followed by release of Xe-129 produced from I-129 decay in the crust.

  14. Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Rosen, M S; Wang, R; Cory, D G; Walsworth, R L

    2002-12-01

    We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. PMID:12807139

  15. Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Wang, R.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. c2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  17. Physics reach of the XENON1T dark matter experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arazi, L.; Arneodo, F.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Berger, T.; Breur, P.; Breskin, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; Di Gangi, P.; Di Giovanni, A.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Franco, D.; Fulgione, W.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Hasterok, C.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kaminsky, B.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Le Calloch, M.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Manfredini, A.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, N.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; von Sivers, M.; Wall, R.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wulf, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The XENON1T experiment is currently in the commissioning phase at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. In this article we study the experiment's expected sensitivity to the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section, based on Monte Carlo predictions of the electronic and nuclear recoil backgrounds. The total electronic recoil background in 1 tonne fiducial volume and (1, 12) keV electronic recoil equivalent energy region, before applying any selection to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils, is (1.80 ± 0.15) · 10‑4 (kg·day·keV)‑1, mainly due to the decay of 222Rn daughters inside the xenon target. The nuclear recoil background in the corresponding nuclear recoil equivalent energy region (4, 50) keV, is composed of (0.6 ± 0.1) (t·y)‑1 from radiogenic neutrons, (1.8 ± 0.3) · 10‑2 (t·y)‑1 from coherent scattering of neutrinos, and less than 0.01 (t·y)‑1 from muon-induced neutrons. The sensitivity of XENON1T is calculated with the Profile Likelihood Ratio method, after converting the deposited energy of electronic and nuclear recoils into the scintillation and ionization signals seen in the detector. We take into account the systematic uncertainties on the photon and electron emission model, and on the estimation of the backgrounds, treated as nuisance parameters. The main contribution comes from the relative scintillation efficiency Script Leff, which affects both the signal from WIMPs and the nuclear recoil backgrounds. After a 2 y measurement in 1 t fiducial volume, the sensitivity reaches a minimum cross section of 1.6 · 10‑47 cm2 at mχ = 50 GeV/c2.

  18. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  19. [Xenon CT CBF mapping derived from two minutes inhalation].

    PubMed

    Toshima, R; Toyohara, K; Ebisawa, T; Ishikawa, K; Karashima, H; Shimojo, S; Miyahara, T

    1988-04-01

    Although xenon enhanced CT method for local cerebral blood flow measurement has been brought into a clinical practice, the technique has inherent limitations including anesthetic effects and expensive cost of xenon by a large consumption. To overcome these problems a modified method with a short-duration inhalation was developed and its validity was attested. Siemens Somatom SF with a resolution of 256 X 256 pixels and a scan time of 10 seconds was used. The subjects inhaled 50% Xe/O2 gas mixture from an apparatus consisted of Douglas bag and an open circuit. Xenon concentration in the expired gas was continuously monitored and estimated for arterial blood concentration by using a hematocrit correction. PaCO2 was monitored throughout the study. At the starting point and the endpoint of the inhalation two scans were performed respectively. Thus obtained four images were processed for CT noise cancellation, summation and subtraction to produce an in vivo autoradiography image. Local CBF was calculated from equations derived from the autoradiographic technique with a fixed partition coefficient of lambda = 1. Computer simulation studies were performed to find the optimal scan point to obtain an autoradiographic image and to estimate the calculation errors of this method. One minute and forty-five seconds was found to be the optimal scan point to gain an autoradiographic image in view of a balance between linearity of CBF/enhancement curve and total amount of tissue enhancement. The theoretical errors due to the assumption for a fixed partition coefficient were calculated to be 8% underestimation for gray matter and 5% overestimation for white matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3401410

  20. Chondritic xenon in the Earth’s mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Burnard, Peter G.; Füri, Evelyn; Marty, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Noble gas isotopes are powerful tracers of the origins of planetary volatiles, and the accretion and evolution of the Earth. The compositions of magmatic gases provide insights into the evolution of the Earth’s mantle and atmosphere. Despite recent analytical progress in the study of planetary materials and mantle-derived gases, the possible dual origin of the planetary gases in the mantle and the atmosphere remains unconstrained. Evidence relating to the relationship between the volatiles within our planet and the potential cosmochemical end-members is scarce. Here we show, using high-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area (in Germany), that the light xenon isotopes identify a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon. This is consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatiles in the Earth’s mantle, and indicates that the volatiles in the atmosphere and mantle originated from distinct cosmochemical sources. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the origin of Eifel magmatism being a deep mantle plume. The corresponding mantle source has been isolated from the convective mantle since about 4.45 billion years ago, in agreement with models that predict the early isolation of mantle domains. Xenon isotope systematics support a clear distinction between mid-ocean-ridge and continental or oceanic plume sources, with chemical heterogeneities dating back to the Earth’s accretion. The deep reservoir now sampled by the Eifel gas had a lower volatile/refractory (iodine/plutonium) composition than the shallower mantle sampled by mid-ocean-ridge volcanism, highlighting the increasing contribution of volatile-rich material during the first tens of millions of years of terrestrial accretion.

  1. Heat capacity of xenon adsorbed on nanobundle grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishko, K. A.; Sokolova, E. S.

    2016-02-01

    A model of a one-dimensional nonideal gas in an external transverse force field is used to interpret the experimentally observed thermodynamic properties of xenon deposited in grooves on the surface of carbon nanobundles. A nonideal gas model with pairwise interactions is not entirely adequate for describing dense adsorbates (at low temperatures), but makes it easy to account for the exchange of particles between the 1D adsorbate and the 3D atmosphere, which is an important factor at intermediate (on the order of 35 K for xenon) and, especially, high (˜100 K) temperatures. In this paper, we examine a 1D real gas taking only the one-dimensional Lennard-Jones interaction into account, but under exact equilibrium with respect to the number of particles between the 1D adsorbate and the 3D atmosphere of the measurement cell. The low-temperature branch of the specific heat is fitted independently by an elastic chain model so as to obtain the best agreement between theory and experiment over the widest possible region, beginning at zero temperature. The gas approximation sets in after temperatures for which the phonon specific heat of the chain essentially transforms to a one-dimensional equipartition law. Here the basic parameters of both models can be chosen so that the heat capacity C(T) of the chain transforms essentially continuously into the corresponding curve for the gas approximation. Thus, it can be expected that an adequate interpretation of the real temperature dependences of the specific heat of low-dimensionality atomic adsorbates can be obtained through a reasonable combination of the phonon and gas approximations. The main parameters of the gas approximation (such as the desorption energy) obtained by fitting the theory to experiments on the specific heat of xenon correlate well with published data.

  2. The search for particle dark matter with the XENON imaging time projection chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide race to direct dark matter detection has been accelerated by the evolution of Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chambers (LXeTPCs). The XENON program has demonstrated the effective scaling of LXeTPCs with phased detectors of increasing sensitivity.

  3. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  4. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) for both NASA's human and science exploration missions combined with the technology investment from the Space Technology Mission Directorate have enabled the development of a 50kW-class SEP mission. NASA mission concepts developed, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30kW-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100's of kg up to 10,000 kg. A xenon propellant load of 10 metric tons represents greater than 10% of the global annual production rate of xenon. A single procurement of this size with short-term delivery can disrupt the xenon market, driving up pricing, making the propellant costs for the mission prohibitive. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper discusses approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 MT of xenon propellant considering realistic programmatic constraints to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for mission campaigns utilizing multiple high-power solar electric propulsion vehicles requiring 100's of metric tons of xenon over an extended period of time where a longer term acquisition approach could be implemented.

  5. Interstellar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.

    1987-09-01

    Some 70 different molecular species have so far been detected variously in diffuse interstellar clouds, dense interstellar clouds, and circumstellar shells. Only simple (diatomic and triatomic) species exist in diffuse clouds because of the penetration of destructive UV radiations, whereas more complex (polyatomic) molecules survive in dense clouds as a result of the shielding against this UV radiation provided by dust grains. A current list of interstellar molecules is given together with a few other molecular species that have so far been detected only in circumstellar shells. Also listed are those interstellar species that contain rare isotopes of several elements. The gas phase ion chemistry is outlined via which the observed molecules are synthesized, and the process by which enrichment of the rare isotopes occurs in some interstellar molecules is described.

  6. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  7. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  8. Xenon ion beam characterization in a helicon double layer thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2006-12-25

    A current-free electric double layer is created in a helicon double layer thruster operating with xenon and compared to a recently developed theory. The Xe{sup +} ion beam formed by acceleration through the potential drop of the double layer is characterized radially using an electrostatic ion energy analyzer. For operating conditions of 500 W rf power, 0.07 mTorr gas pressure, and a maximum magnetic field of 125 G, the measured beam velocity is about 6 km s{sup -1}, the beam area is about 150 cm{sup 2}, and the measured beam divergence is less than 6 deg.

  9. Xenon ion beam characterization in a helicon double layer thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Lieberman, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    A current-free electric double layer is created in a helicon double layer thruster operating with xenon and compared to a recently developed theory. The Xe+ ion beam formed by acceleration through the potential drop of the double layer is characterized radially using an electrostatic ion energy analyzer. For operating conditions of 500W rf power, 0.07mTorr gas pressure, and a maximum magnetic field of 125G, the measured beam velocity is about 6kms-1, the beam area is about 150cm2, and the measured beam divergence is less than 6°.

  10. A 5-kW xenon ion thruster lifetest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Verhey, Timothy R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of the first life test of a high power ring-cusp ion thruster are presented. A 30-cm laboratory model thruster was operated steady-state at a nominal beam power of 5 kW on xenon propellant for approximately 900 hours. This test was conducted to identify life-timing erosion modifications, and to demonstrate operation using simplified power processing. The results from this test are described including the conclusions derived from extensive post-test analyses of the thruster. Modifications to the thruster and ground support equipment, which were incorporated to solve problems identified by the lifetest, are also described.

  11. Shear Thinning Near the Critical Point of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu

    2008-01-01

    We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of reduced shear rate: 10(exp -3) < gamma-dot tau < 700, where gamma-dot tau is the shear rate scaled by the relaxation time tau of critical fluctuations. The measurements had a temperature resolution of 0.01 mK and were conducted in microgravity aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity. The viscometer measured the drag on a delicate nickel screen as it oscillated in the xenon at amplitudes 3 mu,m < chi (sub 0) >430 mu, and frequencies 1 Hz < omega/2 pi < 5 Hz. To separate shear thinning from other nonlinearities, we computed the ratio of the viscous force on the screen at gamma-dot tau to the force at gamma-dot tau approximates 0: C(sub gamma) is identical with F(chi(sub 0), omega tau, gamma-dot tau )/F)(chi(sub 0, omega tau, 0). At low frequencies, (omega tau)(exp 2) < gamma-dot tau, C(sub gamma) depends only on gamma-dot tau, as predicted by dynamic critical scaling. At high frequencies, (omega tau)(exp 2) > gamma-dot tau, C(sub gamma) depends also on both x(sub 0) and omega. The data were compared with numerical calculations based on the Carreau-Yasuda relation for complex fluids: eta(gamma-dot)/eta(0)=[1+A(sub gamma)|gamma-dot tau|](exp - chi(sub eta)/3+chi(sub eta)), where chi(sub eta) =0.069 is the critical exponent for viscosity and mode-coupling theory predicts A(sub gamma) =0.121. For xenon we find A(sub gamma) =0.137 +/- 0.029, in agreement with the mode coupling value. Remarkably, the xenon data close to the critical temperature T(sub c) were independent of the cooling rate (both above and below T(sub c) and these data were symmetric about T(sub c) to within a temperature scale factor. The scale factors for the magnitude of the oscillator s response differed from those for the oscillator's phase; this suggests that the surface tension of the two

  12. Krypton and xenon in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hoffman, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The paper reports a determination by the Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer of upper limits to the concentration of krypton and xenon along with most of their isotopes in the atmosphere of Venus. The upper limit to the krypton mixing ratio is estimated at 47 ppb, with a very conservative estimate at 69 ppb. The probable upper limit to the sum of the mixing ratios of the isotopes Xe-128, Xe-129, Xe-130, Xe-131, and Xe-132 is 40 ppb by volume, with a very conservative upper limit three times this large.

  13. Frequency-Dependent Viscosity of Xenon Near the Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    We used a novel, overdamped oscillator aboard the Space Shuttle to measure the viscosity eta of xenon near its critical density rho(sub c), and temperature T(sub c). In microgravity, useful data were obtained within 0.1 mK of T(sub c), corresponding to a reduced temperature t = (T -T(sub c))/T(sub c) = 3 x 10(exp -7). The data extend two decades closer to T(sub c) than the best ground measurements, and they directly reveal the expected power-law behavior eta proportional to t(sup -(nu)z(sub eta)). Here nu is the correlation length exponent, and our result for the small viscosity exponent is z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006. (All uncertainties are one standard uncertainty.) Our value for z(sub eta) depends only weakly on the form of the viscosity crossover function, and it agrees with the value 0.067 +/- 0.002 obtained from a recent two-loop perturbation expansion. The measurements spanned the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz and revealed viscoelasticity when t less than or equal to 10(exp -1), further from T(sub c) than predicted. The viscoelasticity scales as Af(tau), where tau is the fluctuation-decay time. The fitted value of the viscoelastic time-scale parameter A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop perturbation calculation. Near T(sub c), the xenon's calculated time constant for thermal diffusion exceeded days. Nevertheless, the viscosity results were independent of the xenon's temperature history, indicating that the density was kept near rho(sub c), by judicious choices of the temperature vs. time program. Deliberately bad choices led to large density inhomogeneities. At t greater than 10(exp -5), the xenon approached equilibrium much faster than expected, suggesting that convection driven by microgravity and by electric fields slowly stirred the sample.

  14. The polarization sensitivity of the liquid xenon imaging telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Bolotnikov, A.; Chen, D.; Mukherjee, R.; Xu, F.

    1994-01-01

    The properties and the expected performance of a liquid xenon (LXe) gamma-ray imaging telescope, optimized for the MeV energy region, are presented. The unique potential of this telescope as a Compton polarimeter is particularly emphasized. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the modulation factor is as high as 40% at 1 MeV with a detection efficiency close to 20%. These figures of merit, combined with the excellent background suppression capability of the three-dimensional position sensitive LXe detector, yield sensitivity at the 3 sigma level to polarization fractions as small as a few percent for strong sources, even in a balloon flight.

  15. Xenon gamma-ray detector for ecological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Alexander S.; Ulin, Sergey E.; Chernysheva, Irina V.; Dmitrenko, Valery V.; Grachev, Victor M.; Petrenko, Denis V.; Shustov, Alexander E.; Uteshev, Ziyaetdin M.; Vlasik, Konstantin F.

    2015-01-01

    A description of the xenon detector (XD) for ecological applications is presented. The detector provides high energy resolution and is able to operate under extreme environmental conditions (wide temperature range and unfavorable acoustic action). Resistance to acoustic noise as well as improvement in energy resolution has been achieved by means of real-time digital pulse processing. Another important XD feature is the ionization chamber's thin wall with composite housing, which significantly decreases the mass of the device and expands its energy range, especially at low energies.

  16. Mission Advantages of NEXT: Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Gefert, Leon; Benson, Scott; Patterson, Michael; Noca, Muriel; Sims, Jon

    2002-01-01

    With the demonstration of the NSTAR propulsion system on the Deep Space One mission, the range of the Discovery class of NASA missions can now be expanded. NSTAR lacks, however, sufficient performance for many of the more challenging Office of Space Science (OSS) missions. Recent studies have shown that NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system is the best choice for many exciting potential OSS missions including outer planet exploration and inner solar system sample returns. The NEXT system provides the higher power, higher specific impulse, and higher throughput required by these science missions.

  17. Evaluation of carrier agents for hyperpolarized xenon MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesh, A. K.; Zhao, L.; Balamore, D.; Jolesz, F. A.; Albert, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    Several biocompatible carrier agents, in which xenon is highly soluble and has a long T(1), were tested, and injected in living rats. These included saline, Intralipid suspension, perfluorocarbon emulsion and (129)Xe gas-filled liposomes. The T(1) of (129)Xe in these compounds ranged from 47 to 116 s. Vascular injection of these carrier agents was tolerated well, encouraging their use for further experiments in live animals. In vivo spectra, obtained from gas-filled liposomes and perfluorocarbon solutions, suggest that these carrier agents have potential for use in angiography and perfusion imaging. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Experimental evidence on interaction between xenon and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wołoszyn, Łukasz; Ilczyszyn, Marek; Ilczyszyn, Maria M.

    Xenon gas interacts with bovine serum albumin (BSA) dissolved in a physiological buffer solution. The fluorescence quenching related to the Trp emission is reversible and depends linearly on the time of saturation by Xe. The most probable site of this interaction is Trp212. The common emission of all BSA fluorophores is also influenced by Xe but this quenching is more complex and suggests: (i) at least two sites occupied by Xe and related to the Tyr and Trp residues; (ii) structural variations of BSA induced by the Xe guest atoms.

  19. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  20. The polarization sensitivity of the liquid xenon imaging telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Bolotnikov, A.; Chen, D.; Mukherjee, R.

    1993-01-01

    The properties and the expected performance of a liquid xenon (LXe) gamma ray imaging telescope, optimized for the MeV energy region, are presented. The unique potential of this telescope as a Compton polarimeter is particularly emphasized. Based on Monte Carlo simulations we show that the modulation factor is as high as 40 percent at 1 MeV with a detection efficiency close to 20 percent. These figures of merit combined with the excellent background suppression capability of the three dimensional position sensitive LXe detector yield sensitivity at the three sigma level to polarization fractions as small as a few percent for strong sources, even in a balloon flight.

  1. Xenon Fractionation, Hydrogen Escape, and the Oxidation of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Catling, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Xenon in Earth's atmosphere is severely mass fractionated and depleted compared to any plausible solar system source material, yet Kr is unfractionated. These observations seem to imply that Xe has escaped from Earth. Vigorous hydrodynamic hydrogen escape can produce mass fractionation in heavy gases. The required hydrogen flux is very high but within the range permitted by solar EUV heating when Earth was 100 Myrs old or younger. However this model cannot explain why Xe escapes but Kr does not. Recently, what appears to be ancient atmospheric xenon has been recovered from several very ancient (3-3.5 Ga) terrestrial hydrothermal barites and cherts (Pujol 2011, 2013). What is eye-catching about this ancient Xe is that it is less fractionated that Xe in modern air. In other words, it appears that a process was active on Earth some 3 to 3.5 billion years ago that caused xenon to fractionate. By this time the Sun was no longer the EUV source that it used to be. If xenon was being fractionated by escape — currently the only viable hypothesis — it had to be in Earth's Archean atmosphere and under rather modest levels of EUV forcing. It should be possible for Xe, but not Kr, to escape from Earth as an ion. In a hydrodynamically escaping hydrogen wind the hydrogen is partially ionized. The key concepts are that ions are much more strongly coupled to the escaping flow than are neutrals (so that a relatively modest flow of H and H+ to space could carry Xe+ along with it, the flux can be small enough to be consistent with diffusion-limited flux), and that Xe alone among the noble gases is more easily ionized than hydrogen. This sort of escape is possible along the polar field lines, although a weak or absent magnetic field would likely work as well. The extended history of hydrogen escape implicit in Xe escape in the Archean is consistent with other suggestions that hydrogen escape in the Archean was considerable. Hydrogen escape plausibly played the key role in creating

  2. Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass using a xenon flashtube

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, M.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    Biomass materials, including lignin, redwood, corn cob, Calotropis Procera, Leucaena wood, Kraft paper, newsprint, cow manure, D-glucose, and D-cellobiose, were pyrolyzed in vacuum by the visible radiant flux emitted from a Xenon flashtube. The flux density exceeded 8 kW/cm/sup 2/ during the 1 ms flash. Sirup yields were low (avg 25%), while the gas yield was high (avg 32%). The gaseous products were composed primarily of CO and CO/sub 2/. The high relative yields of CO establish the existence of a high temperature fragmentation pathway active during the flash pyrolysis of all biomass materials. 39 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Enumerating molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  4. Mobility and fluorescence of barium ions in xenon gas for the exo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Medina, Julio Cesar

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is an experiment which aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The measurement of this decay would give information about the absolute neutrino mass and whether or not the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Since this is a very rare decay, the ability to reject background events by detecting the barium ion daughter from the double beta decay would be a major advantage. EXO is currently operating a detector with 200 kg of enriched liquid xenon, and there are plans to build a ton scale xenon detector. Measurements of the purity of liquid xenon in our liquid xenon test cell are reported. These results are relevant to the research on detection of single barium ions by our research group at Colorado State University. Details of the operation of the purity monitor are described. The effects of using a purifier, recirculation and laser ablation on the purity of liquid xenon are discussed. Mobility measurements of barium in xenon gas are reported for the first time. The variation of mobility with xenon gas pressure suggests that a significant fraction of molecular ions are formed when barium ions interact with xenon gas at high pressures. The measured mobility of Ba+ in Xe gas at different pressures is compared with the predicted theoretical value, and deviations are explained by a model that describes the fraction of molecular ions in Xe gas as a function of pressure. The results are useful for the analysis of experiments of fluorescence of Ba+ in xenon gas. It is also important to know the mobility of the ions in order to calculate the time they interact with an excitation laser in fluorescence experiments and in proposed 136 Ba+ daughter detection schemes. This thesis presents results of detection of laser induced fluorescence of Ba+ ions in Xe gas. Measurements of the pressure broadening of the excitation spectra of Ba+ in xenon gas are presented. Nonradiative decays due to gas collisions and optical pumping

  5. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Balan, C.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Chen, W.-T.; Choi, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Ghag, C.; Giboni, K.-L.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Lamblin, J.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Levy, C.; Lim, K. E.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lung, K.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Massoli, F. V.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Molinario, A.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-03-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are not related to WIMP interactions. These signals, which show the excellent sensitivity of the detector to small charge signals, are explained as being due to the photoionization of impurities in the liquid xenon and of the metal components inside the TPC. They are used as a unique calibration source to characterize the detector. We explain how we can infer crucial parameters for the XENON100 experiment: the secondary-scintillation gain, the extraction yield from the liquid to the gas phase and the electron drift velocity.

  6. Application of scintillating properties of liquid xenon and silicon photomultiplier technology to medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Benlloch-Rodriguez, J. M.; Ferrario, Paola

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new positron emission time-of-flight apparatus using liquid xenon. The detector is based in a liquid xenon scintillating cell. The cell shape and dimensions can be optimized depending on the intended application. In its simplest form, the liquid xenon scintillating cell is a box in which two faces are covered by silicon photomultipliers and the others by a reflecting material such as Teflon. It is a compact, homogenous and highly efficient detector which shares many of the desirable properties of monolithic crystals, with the added advantage of high yield and fast scintillation offered by liquid xenon. Our initial studies suggest that good energy and spatial resolution comparable with that achieved by lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals can be obtained with a detector based in liquid xenon scintillating cells. In addition, the system can potentially achieve an excellent coincidence resolving time of better than 100 ps.

  7. XENON in medical area: emphasis on neuroprotection in hypoxia and anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Xenon is a medical gas capable of establishing neuroprotection, inducing anesthesia as well as serving in modern laser technology and nuclear medicine as a contrast agent. In spite of its high cost, its lack of side effects, safe cardiovascular and organoprotective profile and effective neuroprotective role after hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) favor its applications in clinics. Xenon performs its anesthetic and neuroprotective functions through binding to glycine site of glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor competitively and blocking it. This blockage inhibits the overstimulation of NMDA receptors, thus preventing their following downstream calcium accumulating cascades. Xenon is also used in combination therapies together with hypothermia or sevoflurane. The neuroprotective effects of xenon and hypothermia cooperate synergistically whether they are applied synchronously or asynchronously. Distinguishing properties of Xenon promise for innovations in medical gas field once further studies are fulfilled and Xenon’s high cost is overcome. PMID:23369273

  8. Sensitivity Enhancement by Exchange Mediated MagnetizationTransfer of the Xenon Biosensor Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Lowery, Thomas J.; Han, Song-I.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander

    2006-08-31

    Hyperpolarized xenon associated with ligand derivitized cryptophane-A cages has been developed as a NMR based biosensor. To optimize the detection sensitivity we describe use of xenon exchange between the caged and bulk dissolved xenon as an effective signal amplifier. This approach, somewhat analogous to 'remote detection' described recently, uses the chemical exchange to repeatedly transfer spectroscopic information from caged to bulk xenon, effectively integrating the caged signal. After an optimized integration period, the signal is read out by observation of the bulk magnetization. The spectrum of the caged xenon is reconstructed through use of a variable evolution period before transfer and Fourier analysis of the bulk signal as a function of the evolution time.

  9. Observing and preventing rubidium runaway in a direct-infusion xenon-spin hyperpolarizer optimized for high-resolution hyper-CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei) NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, C.; Kunth, M.; Rossella, F.; Schröder, L.

    2014-02-01

    Xenon is well known to undergo host-guest interactions with proteins and synthetic molecules. As xenon can also be hyperpolarized by spin exchange optical pumping, allowing the investigation of highly dilute systems, it makes an ideal nuclear magnetic resonance probe for such host molecules. The utility of xenon as a probe can be further improved using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei (Hyper-CEST), but for highly accurate experiments requires a polarizer and xenon infusion system optimized for such measurements. We present the design of a hyperpolarizer and xenon infusion system specifically designed to meet the requirements of Hyper-CEST measurements. One key element of this design is preventing rubidium runaway, a chain reaction induced by laser heating that prevents efficient utilization of high photon densities. Using thermocouples positioned along the pumping cell we identify the sources of heating and conditions for rubidium runaway to occur. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of actively cooling the optical cell to prevent rubidium runaway in a compact setup. This results in a 2-3-fold higher polarization than without cooling, allowing us to achieve a polarization of 25% at continuous flow rates of 9 ml/min of 129Xe. The simplicity of this design also allows it to be retrofitted to many existing polarizers. Combined with a direction infusion system that reduces shot-to-shot noise down to 0.56% we have captured Hyper-CEST spectra in unprecedented detail, allowing us to completely resolve peaks separated by just 1.62 ppm. Due to its high polarization and excellent stability, our design allows the comparison of underlying theories of host-guest systems with experiment at low concentrations, something extremely difficult with previous polarizers.

  10. Observing and preventing rubidium runaway in a direct-infusion xenon-spin hyperpolarizer optimized for high-resolution hyper-CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei) NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, C.; Kunth, M.; Rossella, F.; Schröder, L.

    2014-02-28

    Xenon is well known to undergo host-guest interactions with proteins and synthetic molecules. As xenon can also be hyperpolarized by spin exchange optical pumping, allowing the investigation of highly dilute systems, it makes an ideal nuclear magnetic resonance probe for such host molecules. The utility of xenon as a probe can be further improved using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei (Hyper-CEST), but for highly accurate experiments requires a polarizer and xenon infusion system optimized for such measurements. We present the design of a hyperpolarizer and xenon infusion system specifically designed to meet the requirements of Hyper-CEST measurements. One key element of this design is preventing rubidium runaway, a chain reaction induced by laser heating that prevents efficient utilization of high photon densities. Using thermocouples positioned along the pumping cell we identify the sources of heating and conditions for rubidium runaway to occur. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of actively cooling the optical cell to prevent rubidium runaway in a compact setup. This results in a 2–3-fold higher polarization than without cooling, allowing us to achieve a polarization of 25% at continuous flow rates of 9 ml/min of {sup 129}Xe. The simplicity of this design also allows it to be retrofitted to many existing polarizers. Combined with a direction infusion system that reduces shot-to-shot noise down to 0.56% we have captured Hyper-CEST spectra in unprecedented detail, allowing us to completely resolve peaks separated by just 1.62 ppm. Due to its high polarization and excellent stability, our design allows the comparison of underlying theories of host-guest systems with experiment at low concentrations, something extremely difficult with previous polarizers.

  11. Xenon in And at the End of the Tunnel of Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Doukov, T.I.; Blasiak, L.C.; Seravalli, J.; Ragsdale, S.W.; Drennan, C.L.; /MIT /SLAC, SSRL /Nebraska U.

    2009-05-11

    A fascinating feature of some bifunctional enzymes is the presence of an internal channel or tunnel to connect the multiple active sites. A channel can allow for a reaction intermediate generated at one active site to be used as a substrate at a second active site, without the need for the intermediate to leave the safety of the protein matrix. One such bifunctional enzyme is carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase from Moorella thermoacetica (mtCODH/ACS). A key player in the global carbon cycle, CODH/ACS uses a Ni-Fe-S center called the C-cluster to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and uses a second Ni-Fe-S center, called the A-cluster, to assemble acetyl-CoA from a methyl group, coenzyme A, and C-cluster-generated CO. mtCODH/ACS has been proposed to contain one of the longest enzyme channels (138 A long) to allow for intermolecular CO transport. Here, we report a 2.5 A resolution structure of xenon-pressurized mtCODH/ACS and examine the nature of gaseous cavities within this enzyme. We find that the cavity calculation program CAVENV accurately predicts the channels connecting the C- and A-clusters, with 17 of 19 xenon binding sites within the predicted regions. Using this X-ray data, we analyze the amino acid composition surrounding the 19 Xe sites and consider how the protein fold is utilized to carve out such an impressive interior passageway. Finally, structural comparisons of Xe-pressurized mtCODH/ACS with related enzyme structures allow us to study channel design principles, as well as consider the conformational flexibility of an enzyme that contains a cavity through its center.

  12. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2015-10-15

    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  13. Calibration Techniques of the XENON1T Dark Matter Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Xenon Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The XENON1T experiment will probe new parameter spaces in direct dark matter searches. The successful operation of such a detector requires several calibration techniques to accurately reconstruct the position and energies of events within the active volume. 220Rn is introduced into the detector itself, through re-circulation of gaseous Xe, for use as an internal calibration sources. The decay of 220Rn and its daughters provides both high-energy alpha particles as well as a low-energy beta spectrum that can be used to calibrate the detector. Mono-energetic 2.5 MeV neutrons, allow for the in-situ calibration of the charge yield of nuclear recoil events within the detector, using double scatter events to reconstruct the deposited energy at the first scatter. Accurately positioned external Compton sources allow to determine the performance of fiducialization, as well as an insitu calibration of the charge yield of electronic recoils. This talk will present the calibration systems of the XENON1T detector.

  14. Performance characteristics of ring-cusp thrusters with xenon propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The performance characteristics and operating envelope of several 30-cm ring-cusp ion thrusters with xenon propellant were investigated. Results indicate a strong performance dependence on the discharge chamber boundary magnetic fields and resultant distribution of electron currents. Significant improvements in discharge performance over J-series divergent-field thrusters were achieved for large throttling ranges, which translate into reduced cathode emission currents and reduced power dissipation which should be of significant benefit for operation at thruster power levels in excess of 10 kW. Mass spectrometry of the ion beam was documented for both the ring-cusp and J-series thrusters with xenon propellant for determination of overall thruster efficiency, and lifetime. Based on the lower centerline values of doubly charged ions in the ion beam and the lower operating discharge voltage, the screen grid erosion rate of the ring-cusp thruster is expected to be lower than the divergent-field J-series thruster by a factor of 2.

  15. First axion results from the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Lellouch, D.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Xenon100 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of searches for axions and axionlike particles with the XENON100 experiment. The axion-electron coupling constant, gAe, has been probed by exploiting the axioelectric effect in liquid xenon. A profile likelihood analysis of 224.6 live days × 34-kg exposure has shown no evidence for a signal. By rejecting gAe larger than 7.7×10-12 (90% C.L.) in the solar axion search, we set the best limit to date on this coupling. In the frame of the DFSZ and KSVZ models, we exclude QCD axions heavier than 0.3 and 80 eV /c2, respectively. For axionlike particles, under the assumption that they constitute the whole abundance of dark matter in our galaxy, we constrain gAe to be lower than 1×10-12 (90% C.L.) for masses between 5 and 10 keV /c2.

  16. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Xenon improves neurological outcome and reduces secondary injury following trauma in an in vivo model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Luh, Clara; Gruss, Marco; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Hirnet, Tobias; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Franks, Nicholas P; Thal, Serge C; Dickinson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the neuroprotective efficacy of the inert gas xenon following traumatic brain injury, and to determine whether application of xenon has a clinically relevant therapeutic time window. Design Controlled animal study. Setting University research laboratory. Subjects Male C57BL/6N mice (n=196) Interventions 75% xenon, 50% xenon or 30% xenon, with 25% oxygen (balance nitrogen) treatment following mechanical brain lesion by controlled cortical impact. Measurements & Main Results Outcome following trauma was measured using: 1) functional neurological outcome score, 2) histological measurement of contusion volume, 3) analysis of locomotor function and gait. Our study shows that xenon-treatment improves outcome following traumatic brain injury. Neurological outcome scores were significantly (p<0.05) better in xenon-treated groups in the early phase (24 hours) and up to 4 days after injury. Contusion volume was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the xenon-treated groups. Xenon treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced contusion volume when xenon was given 15 minutes after injury or when treatment was delayed 1 hour or 3 hours after injury. Neurological outcome was significantly (p<0.05) improved when xenon treatment was given 15 minutes or 1 hour after injury. Improvements in locomotor function (p<0.05) were observed in the xenon-treated group, 1 month after trauma. Conclusions These results show for the first time that xenon improves neurological outcome and reduces contusion volume following traumatic brain injury in mice. In this model, xenon application has a therapeutic time window of up to at least 3 hours. These findings support the idea that xenon may be of benefit as a neuroprotective treatment in brain trauma patients. PMID:25188549

  18. Dissociation rates of diatomic molecules. Final report, 15 September 1985-15 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cosby, P.C.; Helm, H.

    1992-12-01

    Absolute cross sections were measured for the electron-impact dissociation of simple molecules using a novel fast beam technique with multicoincident detection of the dissociation fragments. Translational energy released in the dissociation and product mass ratios were explicitly measured, allowing a detailed understanding of the dissociation mechanisms. The technique was applied to the molecules of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, and other molecules. A detailed description of the measurement technique is presented together with the measured data.... Dissociation, electron impact, cross sections, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine.

  19. Modelling the behaviour of microbulk Micromegas in xenon/trimethylamine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Choliz, E.; González-Díaz, D.; Diago, A.; Castel, J.; Dafni, T.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Şahin, Ö.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-11-01

    We model the response of a state of the art micro-hole single-stage charge amplification device ('microbulk' Micromegas) in a gaseous atmosphere consisting of xenon/trimethylamine at various concentrations and pressures. The amplifying structure, made with photo-lithographic techniques similar to those followed in the fabrication of gas electron multipliers (GEMs), consisted of a 100 μm-side equilateral-triangle pattern with 50 μm-diameter holes placed at its vertexes. Once the primary electrons are guided into the holes by virtue of an optimized field configuration, avalanches develop along the 50 μm-height channels etched out of the original doubly copper-clad polyimide foil. In order to properly account for the strong field gradients at the holes' entrance as well as for the fluctuations of the avalanche process (that ultimately determine the achievable energy resolution), we abandoned the hydrodynamic framework, resorting to a purely microscopic description of the electron trajectories as obtained from elementary cross-sections. We show that achieving a satisfactory description needs additional assumptions about atom-molecule (Penning) transfer reactions and charge recombination to be made.

  20. Response of liquid xenon to low-energy ionizing radiation and its use in the XENON10 dark matter search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manalaysay, Aaron Gosta

    This dissertation focuses on developments aimed at improving the effectiveness and understanding of liquid xenon particle detectors in their use in the field of dark matter direct detection. Chapter 3 covers the XENON10 experiment, which searches for evidence of direct interactions between Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and Xe nuclei. The 3-D position sensitive liquid xenon time projection chamber acquired 58.6 live days of WIMP search data from October, 2006 through February, 2007. The results of these data set new limits on both spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions. The spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section is constrained to be less than 4.5 x 10-44 cm2 for WIMPs of mass 30 GeV/ c2 and less than 8.8 x 10-44 cm2 for WIMPs of mass 100 GeV/c2 at the 90% confidence level. The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron and WIMP-proton cross sections are constrained to be less than 10-39 cm 2 and 10-36 cm2, respectively. Finally, the mass of the heavy Majorana neutrino, in the context of a dark matter candidate, is excluded for masses in the range 10 GeV/c2 to 2.2TeV/c2. Chapter 4 discusses the study of the relative scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils in liquid xenon. The two existing measurements of the relative scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils below 20 keV lead to inconsistent extrapolations at lower energies. This results in a different energy scale and thus sensitivity reach of liquid xenon dark matter detectors. A new measurement of the relative scintillation efficiency below 10 keV, performed with a liquid xenon scintillation detector and optimized for maximum light collection is discussed. Greater than 95% of the interior surface of this detector was instrumented with photomultiplier tubes, giving a scintillation yield of 19.6 photoelectrons/keV electron equivalent for 122 keV gamma rays. The relative scintillation efficiency for nuclear recoils of 5 keV is found to be 0.14, staying constant around this value up to 10 keV. For

  1. Photoabsorption and photoionization of chlorine dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Flesch, R.; Ruehl, E.; Hottmann, K.; Baumgaertel, H. )

    1993-01-28

    Photoprocesses of chlorine dioxide in the near-UV have become highly important for stratospheric photoprocesses at high latitudes, especially in Antarctica. Chlorine dioxide has been identified among other absorbers because of its specific absorption cross section in the near-UV. Possible contributions of chlorine dioxide photochemistry to polar ozone depletion have been discussed recently. The high-resolution He I photoelectron spectrum and the absolute (vacuum-UV) absorption cross section (6-25 eV) as well as the ionic fragmentation of chlorine dioxide (OCIO) are reported. The photoelectron spectrum is interpreted in terms of exchange splitting effects of the various singlet and triplet cation states as well as by comparison to chemically related molecules. The vacuum-UV absorption spectrum shows different Rydberg series converging to the cation states. These Rydberg series and their vibrational progressions are assigned by term value arguments, dipole selection rules, and comparison with the photoelectron spectrum. Photoionization mass spectrometry is used for measurements of the ionization and fragmentation threshold of OCIO. The major fragment is ClO[sup +] which occurs above 13.4 eV. Thermomechanical data such as heats of formation and bond dissociation energies are derived. No evidence for isomerization of OClO[sup +] is found, as observed for the electronically excited neutral molecule. 54 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Guinea, F.; Fogler, M. M.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Muñoz Vidal, J.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 136XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the 136XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope 136XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  3. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Vidal, J. Muñoz; Guinea, F.; Fogler, M.M.; Katsnelson, M.I. E-mail: paco.guinea@icmm.csic.es E-mail: katsnel@sci.kun.nl E-mail: francesc.monrabal@ific.uv.es

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  4. Revisiting XENON100's constraints (and signals?) for low-mass dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Although observations made with the CoGeNT and CDMS experiments have been interpreted as possible signals of low-mass ( ∼ 7–10 GeV) dark matter particles, constraints from the XENON100 collaboration appear to be incompatible with this hypothesis, at least at face value. In this paper, we revisit XENON100's constraint on dark matter in this mass range, and consider how various uncertainties and assumptions made might alter this conclusion. We also note that while XENON100's two nuclear recoil candidates each exhibit very low ratios of ionization-to-scintillation signals, making them difficult to attribute to known electronic or neutron backgrounds, they are consistent with originating from dark matter particles in the mass range favored by CoGeNT and CDMS. We argue that with lower, but not implausible, values for the relative scintillation efficiency of liquid xenon (L{sub eff}), and the suppression of the scintillation signal in liquid xenon at XENON100's electric field (S{sub nr}), these two events could consistently arise from dark matter particles with a mass and cross section in the range favored by CoGeNT and CDMS. If this interpretation is correct, we predict that the LUX experiment, with a significantly higher light yield than XENON100, should observe dark matter induced events at an observable rate of ∼ 3–24 per month.

  5. Measurement of the reflectivity to 178 nm light of the PTFE used in the Xenon100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Bin; Xenon Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The XENON100 time projection chamber (TPC) uses polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) both as insulator and as VUV-light reflector. The reflectivity of PTFE, however, is not well established, especially considering that it significantly depends on the surface finish. Furthermore, the PTFE in XENON100 is in contact with the liquid xenon at about - 100°C, which can also affect the reflecting property. A set-up consisting of a monochromator and a vacuum chamber was developed within the XENON100 collaboration and operated at the Columbia University Nevis Laboratory to measure the reflectivity of PTFE and other material samples, relevant for future XENON detectors. The chamber is equipped with an Iwatani PDC08 pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) to be able to cool down the samples to liquid xenon temperature. The same set-up has also been used to measure, for the first time, the quantum efficiency (QE) of the Hamamatsu R8520-06-AL XENON100 photomultipliers at low temperature.

  6. Numerical study on xenon positive column discharges of mercury-free lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Jiting; He, Feng; Miao, Jinsong; Wang, Jianqi; Hu, Wenbo

    2007-02-15

    In this paper, the numerical study has been performed on the xenon positive column discharges of mercury-free fluorescent lamp. The plasma discharge characteristics are analyzed by numerical simulation based on two-dimensional fluid model. The effects of cell geometry, such as the dielectric layer, the electrode width, the electrode gap, and the cell height, and the filling gas including the pressure and the xenon percentage are investigated in terms of discharge current and discharge efficiency. The results show that a long transient positive column will form in the xenon lamp when applying ac sinusoidal power and the lamp can operate in a large range of voltage and frequency. The front dielectric layer of the cell plays an important role in the xenon lamp while the back layer has little effect. The ratio of electrode gap to cell height should be large to achieve a long positive column xenon lamp and higher efficiency. Increase of pressure or xenon concentration results in an increase of discharge efficiency and voltage. The discussions will be helpful for the design of commercial xenon lamp cells.

  7. Irradiated Xenon Isotopic Ratio Measurement for Failed Fuel Detection and Location in Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Chikara; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Harano, Hideki

    2009-08-01

    The accuracy of xenon isotopic ratio burn-up calculations used for failed fuel identification was evaluated by an irradiation test of xenon tag gas samples in the Joyo test reactor. The experiment was carried out using pressurized steel capsules containing unique blend ratios of stable xenon tag gases in an on-line creep rupture experiment in Joyo. The tag gas samples were irradiated to total neutron fluences of 1.6 to 4.8 × 1026 n/m2. Laser resonance ionization mass spectrometry was used to analyze the cover gas containing released tag gas diluted to isotopic ratios of 100 to 102 ppb. The isotopic ratios of xenon tag gases after irradiation were calculated using the ORIGEN2 code. The neutron cross sections of xenon nuclides were based on the JENDL-3.3 library. These cross sections were collapsed into one group using the neutron spectra of Joyo. The comparison of measured and calculated xenon isotopic ratios provided C/E values that ranged from 0.92 to 1.10. The differences between calculation and measurement were considered to be mainly due to the measurement errors and the xenon nuclide cross section uncertainties.

  8. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been used for station-keeping of geostationary communications satellites since the 1980s. Solar electric propulsion has also benefitted from success on NASA Science Missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn. The xenon propellant loads for these applications have been in the 100s of kilograms range. Recent studies performed for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have demonstrated that SEP is critically enabling for both near-term and future exploration architectures. The high payoff for both human and science exploration missions and technology investment from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) are providing the necessary convergence and impetus for a 30-kilowatt-class SEP mission. Multiple 30-50- kilowatt Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM) concepts have been developed based on the maturing electric propulsion and solar array technologies by STMD with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). Xenon is the optimal propellant for the existing state-of-the-art electric propulsion systems considering efficiency, storability, and contamination potential. NASA mission concepts developed and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30-kilowatt-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100s of kilograms up to 10,000 kilograms. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper will provide updated information on the xenon market relative to previous papers that discussed xenon production relative to NASA mission needs. The paper will discuss the various approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 metric tons of xenon propellant to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for larger NASA missions requiring 100s of metric tons of xenon will be discussed.

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Peter G.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

  10. Carbon Dioxide Fountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

  11. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  12. Modeling total reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide emissions from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Christopher Louis

    2000-11-01

    Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict total reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 emissions from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur emissions on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 emissions and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur emissions were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur emissions. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle emissions. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic emissions, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC emissions. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill emissions, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill emissions

  13. Increasing the Life of a Xenon-Ion Spacecraft Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan; Polk, James; Sengupta, Anita; Wirz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A short document summarizes the redesign of a xenon-ion spacecraft thruster to increase its operational lifetime beyond a limit heretofore imposed by nonuniform ion-impact erosion of an accelerator electrode grid. A peak in the ion current density on the centerline of the thruster causes increased erosion in the center of the grid. The ion-current density in the NSTAR thruster that was the subject of this investigation was characterized by peak-to-average ratio of 2:1 and a peak-to-edge ratio of greater than 10:1. The redesign was directed toward distributing the same beam current more evenly over the entire grid andinvolved several modifications of the magnetic- field topography in the thruster to obtain more nearly uniform ionization. The net result of the redesign was to reduce the peak ion current density by nearly a factor of two, thereby halving the peak erosion rate and doubling the life of the thruster.

  14. Investigation of many-body forces in krypton and xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Salacuse, J.J.; Egelstaff, P.A.

    1988-10-15

    The simplicity of the state dependence at relatively high temperatures ofthe many-body potential contribution to the pressure and energy has been pointed out previously (J. Ram and P. A. Egelstaff, J. Phys. Chem. Liq. 14, 29 (1984); A. Teitsima and P. A. Egelstaff, Phys. Rev. A 21, 367 (1980)). In this paper, we investigate how far these many-body potential terms may be represented by simple models in the case of krypton on the 423-, 273-, 190-, and 150-K isotherms, and xenon on the 170-, 210-, and 270-K isotherms. At the higher temperatures the best agreement is found for the mean-field type of theory, and some consequences are pointed out. On the lower isotherms a state point is found where the many-body energy vanishes, and large departures from mean-field behavior are observed. This is attributed to the influence of short-ranged many-body forces.

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-08-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166{degrees}C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen.

  16. Performance of 10-kW class xenon ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are performance data for laboratory and engineering model 30 cm-diameter ion thrusters operated with xenon propellant over a range of input power levels from approximately 2 to 20 kW. Also presented are preliminary performance results obtained from laboratory model 50 cm-diameter cusp- and divergent-field ion thrusters operating with both 30 cm- amd 50 cm-diameter ion optics up to a 20 kW input power. These data include values of discharge chamber propellant and power efficiencies, as well as values of specific impulse, thruster efficiency, thrust and power. The operation of the 30 cm- and 50 cm-diameter ion optics are also discussed.

  17. Deep Space Mission Applications for NEXT: NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Benson, Scott; Witzberger, Kevin; Cupples, Michael

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) is designed to address a need for advanced ion propulsion systems on certain future NASA deep space missions. This paper surveys seven potential missions that have been identified as being able to take advantage of the unique capabilities of NEXT. Two conceptual missions to Titan and Neptune are analyzed, and it is shown that ion thrusters could decrease launch mass and shorten trip time, to Titan compared to chemical propulsion. A potential Mars Sample return mission is described, and compassion made between a chemical mission and a NEXT based mission. Four possible near term applications to New Frontiers and Discovery class missions are described, and comparisons are made to chemical systems or existing NSTAR ion propulsion system performance. The results show that NEXT has potential performance and cost benefits for missions in the Discovery, New Frontiers, and larger mission classes.

  18. A Linear RFQ Ion Trap for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Flatt, B.; Green, M.; Wodin, J.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Gratta, G.; LePort, F.; Montero Diez, M.; Neilson, R.; O'Sullivan, K.; Pocar, A.; Baussan, E.; Breidenbach, M.; Conley, R.; Fairbank Jr., W.; Farine, J.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Hauger, M.; Hodgson, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Neuchatel U. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /Alabama U.

    2008-01-14

    The design, construction, and performance of a linear radio-frequency ion trap (RFQ) intended for use in the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) are described. EXO aims to detect the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe to {sup 136}Ba. To suppress possible backgrounds EXO will complement the measurement of decay energy and, to some extent, topology of candidate events in a Xe filled detector with the identification of the daughter nucleus ({sup 136}Ba). The ion trap described here is capable of accepting, cooling, and confining individual Ba ions extracted from the site of the candidate double-beta decay event. A single trapped ion can then be identified, with a large signal-to-noise ratio, via laser spectroscopy.

  19. A New Electrostatically-focused UV HPD for Liquid Xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, Priscilla Brooks

    2013-07-10

    Appropriate photodetectors are a major challenge for liquid xenon technology as proposed by the next generation of double beta decay, solar neutrino, and dark matter searches. The primary photon signal is tiny and in the hard ultraviolet, the installation is cryogenic, and the sensors themselves must not introduce background. Hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) provide an easy substitute for a conventional PMT with the added advantages of low radioactivity, better area coverage, and single photoelectron counting. A computer-controlled test setup capable of characterizing optical properties of ultraviolet photodetectors was installed. It was used to compare photomultiplier tubes, silicon photomultipliers, avalanche photodiodes, and a novel-design custom HPD developed by the DEP company under this proposal.

  20. Gold cluster/titanium dioxide heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Eiji; Kogo, Atsushi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2014-08-01

    Metal clusters have recently been applied as photosensitizers to wet-type photovoltaic cells. However, there are some practical issues including instability of the clusters in a liquid phase and leakage of electrolyte. To address these issues, we fabricated a heterojunction photovoltaic cell with solid-state layers of glutathione-protected Au25 clusters and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The ITO/TiO2/Au25/Au cell responded to visible and near infrared light even at 900 nm. Short-circuit photocurrent was ˜14 μA cm-2 and open-circuit photovoltage was 0.53 V under a xenon lamp (>480 nm, 75 mW cm-2).

  1. Reducing Polarization Losses during Cryogenic Separation of Hyperpolarized Xenon from Buffer Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Happer, W.

    2001-05-01

    Present-day optical pumping and spin-exchange technology can produce bulk volumes of xenon with polarization of forty percent or more, but in the process xenon needs to be mixed with much larger quantities of buffer gases, such as helium and/or nitrogen(B. Driehuys et al., High-volume production of laser-polarized Xe-129), Appl. Phys. Lett. 69: 1668, 1996.. Currently, hyperpolarized xenon yield is limited in part by the collection efficiency --- even the best cryogenic separation techniques introduce losses of more than half of ^129Xe polarization when applied to bulk quantities of gas. Here we will report new data on the effects of field strength, flow rate, temperature, and presence of other xenon isotopes on the collection efficiency, as well as some possible means for preventing loss of ^129Xe spin polarization during the cryogenic separation process.

  2. Experimental studies of a zeeman-tuned xenon laser differential absorption apparatus.

    PubMed

    Linford, G J

    1973-06-01

    A Zeeman-tuned cw xenon laser differential absorption device is described. The xenon laser was tuned by axial magnetic fields up to 5500 G generated by an unusually large water-cooled dc solenoid. Xenon laser lines at 3.37 micro, 3.51 micro, and 3.99 micro were tuned over ranges of 6 A, 6 A, and 11 A, respectively. To date, this apparatus has been used principally to study the details of formaldehyde absorption lines lying near the 3 .508-micro xenon laser transition. These experiments revealed that the observed absorption spectrum of formaldehyde exhibits a sufficiently unique spectral structure that the present technique may readily be used to measure relative concentrations of formaldehyde in samples of polluted air. PMID:20125492

  3. A study of xenon isotopes in a martian meteorite using the RELAX ultrasensitive mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Whitby, J A; Gilmour, J D; Turner, G

    1997-01-15

    The Refrigerator Enhanced Analyser for Xenon (RELAX), an ultrasensitive resonance ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, has been used with a laser microprobe to investigate the isotopic composition of xenon trapped in the martian meteorite ALH84001. The laser microprobe has a spatial resolution of the order of 100{mu}m thus allowing the in situ analysis of individual mineral grains in a polished section when combined with ultrasensitive, low blank sample analysis. We present results showing that the mineral orthopyroxene in ALH84001 contains a trapped xenon component consistent with a martian origin. Additionally, a cosmic ray exposure age of 15Ma for ALH84001 is obtained from spallation derived xenon trapped within an apatite grain.

  4. Nonlinear dynamical behavior of Xenon atoms along dislocation lines in UO2+ x nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, PengFei; Dai, ZhenHong

    2015-05-01

    Experimental results showed that there are a few Xenon atom bubbles connected by the dislocation line in the UO2+ x nuclear fuel, and the largest radius of bubbles is about 45 nm. This phenomenon is in contrast to traditional bubble formation mechanism. This phenomenon is very important in understanding the properties of nuclear fuel. In this work, we apply a time-dependent microscopic atom transport equation and take into account stress coherent potential in the boundary of the dislocation. Using the equation, we numerically solved the stress coherence effect and studied the transfer properties of Xenon atoms along the dislocation line. Our numerical results show that the transport of the Xenon atoms along the dislocation changes nonlinearly with the external driving energy, and reaches at the saturation values. It explains the growth limit of Xenon atom bubbles that is in agreement with the experiment results.

  5. Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Rosa Tamara; He, Ting; Zhang, Le; Floyd, Carlos S.; Freeman, Matthew; White, Christian; Burant, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The study of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human weight regulation has been constrained by the lack of a noninvasive tool for measuring this tissue and its function in vivo. Existing imaging modalities are nonspecific and intrinsically insensitive to the less active, lipid-rich BAT of obese subjects, the target population for BAT studies. We demonstrate noninvasive imaging of BAT in mice by hyperpolarized xenon gas MRI. We detect a greater than 15-fold increase in xenon uptake by BAT during stimulation of BAT thermogenesis, which enables us to acquire background-free maps of the tissue in both lean and obese mouse phenotypes. We also demonstrate in vivo MR thermometry of BAT by hyperpolarized xenon gas. Finally, we use the linear temperature dependence of the chemical shift of xenon dissolved in adipose tissue to directly measure BAT temperature and to track thermogenic activity in vivo. PMID:25453088

  6. Progress on Acoustic Measurements of the Bulk Viscosity of Near-Critical Xenon (BVX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, Keith A.; Shinder, Iosif I.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    We plan to determine the bulk viscosity of xenon 10 times closer [in reduced temperature tau = (T-Tc)/Tc] to its liquid-vapor critical point than ever before. (Tc is the critical temperature.) To do so, we must measure the dispersion and attenuation of sound at frequencies 1/100 of those used previously. In general, sound attenuation has contributions from the bulk viscosity acting throughout the volume of the xenon as well as contributions from the thermal conductivity and the shear viscosity acting within thin thermoacoustic boundary layers at the interface between the xenon and the solid walls of the resonator. Thus, we can determine the bulk viscosity only when the boundary layer attenuation is small and well understood. We present a comparison of calculations and measurements of sound attenuation in the acoustic boundary layer of xenon near its liquid-vapor critical point.

  7. Large scale xenon purification using cryogenic distillation for dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Bao, L.; Hao, X. H.; Ju, Y. L.; Pushkin, K.; He, M.

    2014-11-01

    A high efficiency cryogenic distillation system for removal of radioactive krypton-85 (85Kr) from commercially available xenon (Xe) has been designed, developed and assessed to meet the requirements of high sensitivity, low background dark matter detection experiments. The concentration of krypton (Kr) in a commercial xenon product can be decreased from 10-9 to 10-12 mol/mol based on the theoretical design and simulation. The experimental measurements showed that the concentration of krypton was decreased to 10-11 mol/mol with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h. Over 500 kg of xenon has been purified using this system, which has been used as the detection medium in project Panda X, the first dark matter detector developed in China.

  8. Lowering the radioactivity of the photomultiplier tubes for the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arazi, L.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Giovanni, A. Di; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Calloch, M. Le; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lyashenko, A.; Macmullin, S.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Fernandez, A. J. Melgarejo; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pakarha, P.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vitells, O.; Wall, R.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Laubenstein, M.

    2015-11-01

    The low-background, VUV-sensitive 3-inch diameter photomultiplier tube R11410 has been developed by Hamamatsu for dark matter direct detection experiments using liquid xenon as the target material. We present the results from the joint effort between the XENON collaboration and the Hamamatsu company to produce a highly radio-pure photosensor (version R11410-21) for the XENON1T dark matter experiment. After introducing the photosensor and its components, we show the methods and results of the radioactive contamination measurements of the individual materials employed in the photomultiplier production. We then discuss the adopted strategies to reduce the radioactivity of the various PMT versions. Finally, we detail the results from screening 286 tubes with ultra-low background germanium detectors, as well as their implications for the expected electronic and nuclear recoil background of the XENON1T experiment.

  9. Shadowing in the muon-xenon inelastic scattering cross section at 490 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. R.; Aïd, S.; Anthony, P. L.; Baker, M. D.; Bartlett, J.; Bhatti, A. A.; Braun, H. M.; Busza, W.; Carroll, T. J.; Conrad, J. M.; Coutrakon, G.; Davisson, R.; Derado, I.; Dhawan, S. K.; Dougherty, W.; Dreyer, T.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eckardt, V.; Ecker, U.; Erdmann, M.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, G.; Figiel, J.; Gebauer, H. J.; Geesaman, D. F.; Gilman, R.; Green, M. C.; Haas, J.; Halliwell, C.; Hanlon, J.; Hantke, D.; Hughes, V. W.; Jackson, H. E.; Jaffe, D. E.; Jancso, G.; Jansen, D. M.; Kaufman, S.; Kennedy, R. D.; Kirk, T.; Kobrak, H. G. E.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lord, J. J.; Lubatti, H. J.; McLeod, D.; Magill, S.; Malecki, P.; Manz, A.; Melanson, H.; Michael, D. G.; Mohr, W.; Montgomery, H. E.; Morfin, J. G.; Nickerson, R. B.; O'Day, S.; Olkiewicz, K.; Osborne, L.; Papavassiliou, V.; Pawlik, B.; Pipkin, F. M.; Ramberg, E. J.; Röser, A.; Ryan, J. J.; Salgado, C.; Salvarani, A.; Schellman, H.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, N.; Schüler, K. P.; Seyerlein, H. J.; Skuja, A.; Snow, G. A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Steinberg, P. H.; Stier, H. E.; Stopa, P.; Swanson, R. A.; Talaga, R.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Trost, H.-J.; Venkataramania, H.; Vidal, M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wilkes, J.; Wilson, Richard; Wittek, W.; Wolbers, S. A.; Zhao, T.; Fermilab E665 Collaboration

    1992-08-01

    Inelastic scattering of 490 GeV μ + from deuterium and xenon nuclei has been studied for xBj> s.001. The ratio of the xenon/deuterium cross section per nucleon is observed to vary with xBj, with a depletion in the kinematic range 0.001 < xBj < 0.025 which exhibits no significant Q2 dependence. An electromagnetic calorimeter was used to verify the radiative corrections.

  10. 12-cm magneto-electrostatic containment argon/xenon ion source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The original 12 cm hexagonal magneto-electrostatic containment (MESC) discharge chamber described by Moore in 1969 has been optimized for argon and xenon operation. Argon mass utilization efficiencies of 65 to 77 percent were achieved at keeper-plus-main discharge energy consumptions of 244 to 422 eV/ion respectively. Xenon performance of 85 to 96 percent mass utilization were realized at 203 to 350 eV/ion. The paper discusses the optimization process and test results.

  11. {sup 129}Xe nuclear magnetic resonance studies of xenon in zeolite CaA.

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, C. J.; Jameson, A. K.; Gerald, R. E., II; de Dios, A. C.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Loyola Univ.

    1992-02-01

    The average {sup 129}Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift for xenon atoms in alpha cages of zeolite CaA is observed in a single peak dependent on xenon loading ({l_angle}n{r_angle} = 0.5-8.9 Xe atoms/alpha cage) and temperature (240-360 K). The general increase of the shift with increasing average number of xenon atoms per alpha cage is shown to be due largely to the changing distribution of occupancies with increasing {l_angle}n{r_angle}, coupled with increasing increments in the chemical shifts of Xe{sub n} with increasing n. Except at the highest loadings, the results obtained for xenon in CaA are predicted nicely on the basis of {delta}{sub av}(T) = (1/{l_angle}n{r_angle}){Sigma}{sub n}n{delta}{sub n}(T)P{sub n}({l_angle}n{r_angle},T), where the fractions P{sub n} of alpha cages containing n Xe atoms are imported from the P{sub n} measured in xenon in zeolite NaA. The high loading data in CaA are interpreted in terms of contributions to the average {sup 129}Xe chemical shifts associated with xenon atoms in the window positions.

  12. Abatement of Xenon and Iodine Emissions from Medical Isotope Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, Charles G.; Sorensen, Christina M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Emma L.; Kephart, Rosara F.

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes.

  13. Structural Basis for Xenon Inhibition in a Cationic Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Fourati, Zeineb; Prangé, Thierry; Delarue, Marc; Colloc'h, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    GLIC receptor is a bacterial pentameric ligand-gated ion channel whose action is inhibited by xenon. Xenon has been used in clinical practice as a potent gaseous anaesthetic for decades, but the molecular mechanism of interactions with its integral membrane receptor targets remains poorly understood. Here we characterize by X-ray crystallography the xenon-binding sites within both the open and “locally-closed” (inactive) conformations of GLIC. Major binding sites of xenon, which differ between the two conformations, were identified in three distinct regions that all belong to the trans-membrane domain of GLIC: 1) in an intra-subunit cavity, 2) at the interface between adjacent subunits, and 3) in the pore. The pore site is unique to the locally-closed form where the binding of xenon effectively seals the channel. A putative mechanism of the inhibition of GLIC by xenon is proposed, which might be extended to other pentameric cationic ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:26910105

  14. Conceptual design and simulation of a water Cherenkov muon veto for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Auger, M.; Balan, C.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Behrens, A.; Beltrame, P.; Bokeloh, K.; Breskin, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Colijn, A. P.; Contreras, H.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Duchovni, E.; Fattori, S.; Ferella, A. D.; Fulgione, W.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grignon, C.; Gross, E.; Hampel, W.; Itay, R.; Kaether, F.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Le Calloch, M.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Levy, C.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lung, K.; Lyashenko, A.; MacMullin, S.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani Paras, D.; Melgarejo Fernandez, A. J.; Meng, Y.; Messina, M.; Miguez, B.; Molinario, A.; Morana, G.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Oberlack, U.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Pantic, E.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rosendahl, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Simgen, H.; Teymourian, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Vitells, O.; Wang, H.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-11-01

    XENON is a dark matter direct detection project, consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) filled with liquid xenon as detection medium. The construction of the next generation detector, XENON1T, is presently taking place at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It aims at a sensitivity to spin-independent cross sections of 2 · 10-47 c 2 for WIMP masses around 50 GeV2, which requires a background reduction by two orders of magnitude compared to XENON100, the current generation detector. An active system that is able to tag muons and muon-induced backgrounds is critical for this goal. A water Cherenkov detector of ~ 10 m height and diameter has been therefore developed, equipped with 8 inch photomultipliers and cladded by a reflective foil. We present the design and optimization study for this detector, which has been carried out with a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The muon veto will reach very high detection efficiencies for muons (>99.5%) and showers of secondary particles from muon interactions in the rock (>70%). Similar efficiencies will be obtained for XENONnT, the upgrade of XENON1T, which will later improve the WIMP sensitivity by another order of magnitude. With the Cherenkov water shield studied here, the background from muon-induced neutrons in XENON1T is negligible.

  15. Determination of the Relative Two-photon Absorption Cross-section Between Xenon and Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Drew; Scime, Earl; McCarren, Dustin; Vandervort, Robert; Soderholm, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Two-photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is a non-perturbative method for measuring the density and temperature of neutral hydrogen in a fusion plasma. Calibration of a TALIF system, for absolute density measurements, requires a measurement of a known density of particles under controlled conditions. Since hydrogen is diatomic, hydrogen TALIF system calibration requires measurements of target cold monatomic gas with a two-photon transition from the ground state and fluorescence decay at accessible energies. Here we present single-sided TALIF (angular momentum change of 2) measurements of a new transition in xenon with absorption and emission wavelengths nearly identical to those of the hydrogen TALIF sequence (the n = 3 to n = 2 emission in hydrogen is at 656.27 nm whereas it is at 655.99 nm in xenon). The xenon calibration approach provides the first opportunity for absolute calibration of Doppler-free (angular momentum change of 0) hydrogen TALIF. We first measure the relative TALIF absorption cross section between xenon and krypton and then use the known cross section ratio between the krypton and hydrogen transitions to calculate the relative xenon-hydrogen cross section. Single isotope xenon samples are used to remove the confounding factors of isotopic and hyperfine splitting.

  16. Carbon dioxide concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C. F.; Huebscher, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Passed exhaled air through electrochemical cell containing alkali metal carbonate aqueous solution, and utilizes platinized electrodes causing reaction of oxygen at cathode with water in electrolyte, producing hydroxyl ions which react with carbon dioxide to form carbonate ions.

  17. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  18. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China. PMID:24517821

  19. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.; Baldwin, B.; White, W.D.; Reves, J.G.; Greeley, W.J. )

    1991-04-01

    We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow.

  20. Recombination in liquid xenon for low-energy recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Detector response to low-energy recoils in sub-keV region is critical to detection of low-mass dark matter particles-WIMPS (Weakly interacting massive particles). The role of electron-ion recombination is important to the interpretation of the relation between ionization yield and scintillation yield, which are in general anti-correlated. Recent experimental results show that ionization yield increases down to keV range. This phenomenon contradicts general understanding for low energy recoils in the keV range in which direct excitation dominates. The explanation is that recombination becomes much less efficient when the track length is smaller than the thermalization distance of electrons. However, recombination rate is also proportional to ionization density, which is very high for keV recoils. To understand how recombination rate behaves for keV recoils, we calculated both initial recombination rate and volume recombination rate for keV recoils in liquid xenon. In this paper, we show the results of the calculated recombination rate as a function of recoil energy for both electronic recoils and nuclear recoils. Detector response to low-energy recoils in sub-keV region is critical to detection of low-mass dark matter particles-WIMPS (Weakly interacting massive particles). The role of electron-ion recombination is important to the interpretation of the relation between ionization yield and scintillation yield, which are in general anti-correlated. Recent experimental results show that ionization yield increases down to keV range. This phenomenon contradicts general understanding for low energy recoils in the keV range in which direct excitation dominates. The explanation is that recombination becomes much less efficient when the track length is smaller than the thermalization distance of electrons. However, recombination rate is also proportional to ionization density, which is very high for keV recoils. To understand how recombination rate behaves for keV recoils

  1. Anisotropic nuclear spin relaxation in single-crystal xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Babich, D.; Happer, W.

    2002-04-01

    We extend the theory of longitudinal spin relaxation of 129Xe nuclei in frozen xenon to the case of single-crystal samples, where the relaxation rate depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field with respect to the crystalline axes. For sufficiently large magnetic fields, the relaxation is dominated by spin-flip Raman scattering of lattice phonons. Two closely related interactions couple the lattice phonons to the spins of 129Xe nuclei: the nuclear spin-rotation interaction between nearest-neighbor atoms, which leads to an isotropic, field-independent relaxation rate, and the paramagnetic antishielding of the externally applied field at the site of 129Xe nuclei by the electrons of neighboring Xe atoms. The latter interaction, also known as the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) interaction, leads to an anisotropic relaxation rate proportional to the square of the applied field. This mechanism dominates spin relaxation at fields of the order of the Debye field BD=kBTD/μB=82 T.

  2. Shock Compression of Cryogenic Noble Gas Mixtures: Xenon - Krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Seth; Magyar, Rudolph; Lemke, Raymond; Mattsson, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    In past work, we have examined the multi-Mbar response of cryogenically cooled liquid xenon and liquid krypton measuring their Hugoniots to 8 Mbar. These results were utilized in the development of new EOS models for Xe and Kr to use in high energy density physics applications. The previous work demonstrated the usefulness of integrating high accuracy shock compression experiments with DFT to generate the basis for equation of state (EOS) models. In many physics applications, such as Z-pinch experiments, gas mixtures are used instead. However, we do not have reliable experimental data on these mixtures to provide informed decisions about the EOS models or mixture rules. To improve our understanding of mixtures at extreme conditions, we performed dynamic compression experiments using Sandia's Z - facility on a 70/30 molar ratio Kr/Xe cryogenically cooled liquid mixture. We measured the Hugoniot state and reshock state of the liquid mixture to several Mbar. The experimental data validated the DFT simulations for identical molar ratio mixtures. The combined experimental and DFT results are used to assess the EOS models and test the mixture rules. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Coplanar anode implementation in compressed xenon ionization chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiff, Scott Douglas

    This dissertation examines the problem of microphonic degradation of high-pressure xenon ionization chambers' energy spectra. A detector design that utilizes coplanar anodes is proposed to mitigate this problem, and an optimization study finds the best geometry given some constraints on the system. A radial position-sensing method is developed from theory and implemented in experiments, demonstrating usefulness in the areas of hardware diagnostics and energy spectrum enhancement. Detailed simulations quantify the effects of various physical processes on the measured energy spectrum; the processes that degrade the photopeak most severely also show promise for improvement via design and operational changes. Simulations show multiple-site events are undesirable due to resolution degradation. A hydrogen cooling admixture is implemented to improve energy resolution after detailed simulations predict advantageous performance changes. The detector linearity is shown to be quite good over the range tested, 80-1330 keV. The best measured energy resolution is 4.2% FWHM at 662 keV, which is near the range that would be considered competitive with the less-rugged detectors employing Frisch grids.

  4. An homeopathic cure to pure Xenon large diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, C. D. R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    The NEXT neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν) experiment will use a high-pressure gas electroluminescence-based TPC to search for the decay of Xe-136. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qββ. The rejection potential associated to the topology reconstruction is limited by our capacity to properly reconstruct the original path of the electrons in the gas. This reconstruction is limited by different factors that include the geometry of the detector, the density of the sensors in the tracking plane and the separation among them, etc. Ultimately, the resolution is limited by the physics of electron diffusion in the gas. In this paper we present a series of molecular additives that can be used in Xenon gas at very low partial pressure to reduce both longitudinal and transverse diffusion. We will show the results of different Monte-Carlo simulations of electron transport in the gas mixtures from wich we have extracted the value of some important parameters like diffusion, drift velocity and light yields. These results show that there is a series of candidates that can reduce diffusion without affecting the energy resolution of the detector and they should be studied experimentally. A comparison with preliminary results from such an ongoing experimental effort is given.

  5. Biothiol Xenon MRI Sensor Based on Thiol-Addition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengjun; Jiang, Weiping; Ren, Lili; Yuan, Yaping; Zhang, Bin; Luo, Qing; Guo, Qianni; Bouchard, Louis-S; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Biothiols such as cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH) play an important role in regulating the vital functions of living organisms. Knowledge of their biodistribution in real-time could help diagnose a variety of conditions. However, existing methods of biothiol detection are invasive and require assays. Herein we report a molecular biosensor for biothiol detection using the nuclear spin resonance of (129)Xe. The (129)Xe biosensor consists of a cryptophane cage encapsulating a xenon atom and an acrylate group. The latter serves as a reactive site to covalently bond biothiols through a thiol-addition reaction. The biosensor enables discrimination of Cys from Hcy and GSH through the chemical shift and average reaction rate. This biosensor can be detected at a concentration of 10 μM in a single scan and it has been applied to detect biothiols in bovine serum solution. Our results indicate that this biosensor is a promising tool for the real-time imaging of biothiol distributions. PMID:27128102

  6. Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H.; Rahaman, H.; Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J.; Frank, K.

    2013-12-15

    Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

  7. Conceptual Design of the Nuclear Electronic Xenon Ion System (NEXIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monheiser, Jeff; Polk, Jay; Randolph, Tom

    2004-01-01

    In support of the NEXIS program, Aerojet-Redmond Operations, with review and input from the JPL and Boeing, has completed the design for a development model (DM) discharge chamber assembly and main discharge cathode assembly. These efforts along with the work by JPL to develop the carbon-carbon-composite ion optics assembly have resulted in a complete ion engine design. The goal of the NEXIS program is to significantly advance the current state of the art by developing an ion engine capable of operating at an input power of 20kW, an Isp of 7500 sec and have a total xenon through put capability of 2000 kg. In this paper we will describe the methodology used to design the discharge chamber and cathode assemblies and describe the resulting final design. Specifics will include the concepts used for the mounting of the ion optics along with the concepts used for the gimbal mounts. In addition, we will present results of a vibrational analysis showing how the engine will respond to a typical Delta IV heavy vibration spectrum.

  8. First Detection of Krypton and Xenon in a White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 KrVI-VII and Xe VI-VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 plus or minus 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 plus or minus 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the-precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and thaI the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell nash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  9. FIRST DETECTION OF KRYPTON AND XENON IN A WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 Kr VI- VII and Xe VI- VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 {+-} 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and that the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell flash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  10. s-process studies - Xenon and krypton isotopic abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.; Ward, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the s-process contributions to the isotopes of xenon and krypton. The object is to aid studies of the possibility that meteorites may contain gas that was carried in presolar grains that were grown in stellar ejecta and that were not degassed prior to incorporation into parent bodies. That model suggests routine interstellar fractionation of s-isotopes from r-isotopes owing to differential incorporation into dust. We show that a deficiency of s-process nuclei cannot yield details of Xe-X, but the gross similarities are strong enough to lead one to think that such a deficiency may play a role in a more complicated explanation. We predict the existence of an s-rich complement somewhere if fractional separation of this type has played a role in Xe-X. We show that the analogous decomposition of krypton is more uncertain, and we call for measurements of neutron-capture cross sections to alleviate these uncertainties.

  11. Thrust Stand Characterization of the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamant, Kevin D.; Pollard, James E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct thrust measurements have been made on the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion engine using a standard pendulum style thrust stand constructed specifically for this application. Values have been obtained for the full 40-level throttle table, as well as for a few off-nominal operating conditions. Measurements differ from the nominal NASA throttle table 10 (TT10) values by 3.1 percent at most, while at 30 throttle levels (TLs) the difference is less than 2.0 percent. When measurements are compared to TT10 values that have been corrected using ion beam current density and charge state data obtained at The Aerospace Corporation, they differ by 1.2 percent at most, and by 1.0 percent or less at 37 TLs. Thrust correction factors calculated from direct thrust measurements and from The Aerospace Corporation s plume data agree to within measurement error for all but one TL. Thrust due to cold flow and "discharge only" operation has been measured, and analytical expressions are presented which accurately predict thrust based on thermal thrust generation mechanisms.

  12. Ionization yield in xenon due to electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayashankar

    1982-04-01

    The ionization yield in xenon for complete energy degradation of electrons with initial energy up to 1 keV has been calculated by solving the generalized Fowler equation. The expression for the energy spectrum of secondary electrons from the O shell was obtained by using the empirical scaling functions to weight the Williams-Weizsäcker cross section for glancing collisions and the Mott cross section for knock-on collisions. The total ionization and excitation cross sections were taken from the recent evaluation reported by De Heer et al. Contributions from the inner-shell ionization and the Auger process were explicitly taken into account. The results are expressed in terms of the quantity W, the mean energy required to produce an ion pair. The W value is found to decrease with increasing incident energy, finally approaching a constant value of 23.1 eV for electrons with an energy above 200 eV. The results are generally in good agreement with the available experimental work.

  13. Extended-testing of xenon ion thruster hollow cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    A hollow cathode wear-test of 508 hours was successfully completed at an emission current of 23.0 A and a xenon flow rate of 10 Pa-L/s. This test was the continuation of a hollow cathode contamination investigation. Discharge voltage was stable at 16.7 V. The cathode temperature averaged 1050 C with a 7 percent drop during the wear-test. Discharge ignition voltage was found to be approximately 20 V and was repeatable over four starts. Post-test analyses of the hollow cathode found a much improved internal cathode condition with respect to earlier wear-test cathodes. Negligible tungsten movement occurred and no formation of mono-barium tungsten was observed. These results correlated with an order-of-magnitude reduction in propellant feed-system leakage rate. Ba2CaWO6 and extensive calcium crystal formation occurred on the upstream end of the insert. Ba-Ca compound depositions were found on the Mo insert collar, on the Re electrical leads, and in the gap between the insert and cathode wall. This wear-test cathode was found to be in the best internal condition and had the most stable operating performance of any hollow cathode tested during this contamination investigation.

  14. Human Regional Pulmonary Gas Exchange with Xenon Polarization Transfer (XTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradian, Iga; Butler, James; Hrovat, Mirko; Topulos, George; Hersman, Elizabeth; Ruset, Iulian; Covrig, Silviu; Frederick, Eric; Ketel, Stephen; Hersman, F. W.; Patz, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Xenon Transfer Contrast (XTC) is an existing imaging method (Ruppert et al, Magn Reson Med, 51:676-687, 2004) that measures the fraction F of ^129Xe magnetization that diffuses from alveolar gas spaces to septal parenchymal tissue in lungs in a specified exchange time. As previously implemented, XTC is a 2-breath method and has been demonstrated in anesthetized animals. To use XTC in humans and to avoid issues associated with obtaining identical gas volumes on subsequent breath-hold experiments as well as precise image registration in post-processing, a single breath XTC method was developed that acquires three consecutive gradient echo images in an 8s acquisition. We report here initial measurements of the mean and variance of F for 5 normal healthy subjects as well as 7 asymptomatic smokers. The experiments were performed at two lung volumes (˜45 and 65% of TLC). We found that both the mean and variance of F increased with smoking history. In comparison, standard pulmonary function tests such as DLCO FEV1 showed no correlation with smoking history.

  15. Reactivity of xenon with ice at planetary conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanloup, Chrystèle; Bonev, Stanimir A; Hochlaf, Majdi; Maynard-Casely, Helen E

    2013-06-28

    We report results from high pressure and temperature experiments that provide evidence for the reactivity of xenon with water ice at pressures above 50 GPa and a temperature of 1500 K-conditions that are found in the interiors of Uranus and Neptune. The x-ray data are sufficient to determine a hexagonal lattice with four Xe atoms per unit cell and several possible distributions of O atoms. The measurements are supplemented with ab initio calculations, on the basis of which a crystallographic structure with a Xe4O12H12 primitive cell is proposed. The newly discovered compound is formed in the stability fields of superionic ice and η-O2, and has the same oxygen subnetwork as the latter. Furthermore, it has a weakly metallic character and likely undergoes sublattice melting of the H subsystem. Our findings indicate that Xe is expected to be depleted in the atmospheres of the giant planets as a result of sequestration at depth. PMID:23848893

  16. Gamma background studies for the XENON experiment using a High Purity Germanium Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angle, Jesse Isaac

    The XENON Dark Matter Experiment, deployed at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy on March 2006, is a liquid noble gas detector designed to directly detect dark matter. The detector uses a dual-phase (gas/liquid) Xenon target to search for nuclear recoils associated with nucleus-WIMP interactions. Due to the high sensitivity needed in such an experiment, it is vital to not only reduce the background but to also understand the remaining background so as to aid in the understanding of the data as well as to facilitate upgrades beyond the early Research and Development phases. Many of the components of the XENON10 detector have been screened using a High Purity Germanium Detector known as the GATOR detector. Full analysis of the screening data requires Monte Carlo simulations of the GATOR detector and the sample. Results from this screening will be presented. Using the information obtained from the screening operation, Monte Carlo simulations of the XENON10 electron recoil background will be examined and compared to the actual detector data. The success of this simulation to data comparison indicates that we have a good understanding of the XENON10 gamma background and will be able to make more informed decisions regarding the next stage of detector development. This type of analysis has aided in the selection and design of many of the materials and components being incorporated into the new XENON100 detector, the next generation detector which will be capable of improving the limit set by XENON10 by at least an order of magnitude. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http:/ /www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  17. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  18. Carbon dioxide conversion over carbon-based nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity. PMID:23901504

  19. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  20. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  1. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  2. Evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in lung regions showing isolated xenon-133 ventilation washout defects

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Sood, K.B.; Shirazi, P.; Pal, I. )

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 washout phase imaging is often used to help determine whether the etiology of a perfusion defect is embolic or due to pulmonary parenchymal pathology, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary blood flow patterns associated with isolated defects on xenon washout images. Scintigraphic lung studies were reviewed until 100 cases with abnormal ventilation results were obtained. Ventilation abnormalities were compared with the corresponding perfusion scan results at the same anatomic site. Of the 208 individual lung regions with xenon abnormalities, 111 showed isolated washout defects (that is, with normal washin). Ninety-four of these 111 sites showed either normal perfusion or a small, nonsegmental corresponding perfusion defect. Three segmental perfusion defects were noted in association with isolated xenon retention. In each of these cases, however, the patient was felt actually to have pulmonary embolism. Thus, it is recommended that, for interpretation of scintigraphic images in the assessment of pulmonary embolism, lung pathology associated with isolated xenon retention not be considered a potential cause for large or segmental perfusion defects.

  3. Measurement of xenon plasma properties in an ion thruster using laser Thomson scattering technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, N.; Tomita, K.; Sugita, K.; Kurita, T.; Nakashima, H.; Uchino, K.

    2012-07-15

    This paper reports on the development of a method for measuring xenon plasma properties using the laser Thomson scattering technique, for application to ion engine system design. The thresholds of photo-ionization of xenon plasma were investigated and the number density of metastable atoms, which are photo-ionized by a probe laser, was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy, for several conditions. The measured threshold energy of the probe laser using a plano-convex lens with a focal length of 200 mm was 150 mJ for a xenon mass flow rate of 20 {mu}g/s and incident microwave power of 6 W; the probe laser energy was therefore set as 80 mJ. Electron number density was found to be (6.2 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and electron temperature was found to be 2.2 {+-} 0.4 eV at a xenon mass flow rate of 20 {mu}g/s and incident microwave power of 6 W. The threshold of the probe laser intensity against photo-ionization in a miniature xenon ion thruster is almost constant for various mass flow rates, since the ratio of population of the metastable atoms to the electron number density is little changed.

  4. Measurement of xenon plasma properties in an ion thruster using laser Thomson scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Tomita, K; Sugita, K; Kurita, T; Nakashima, H; Uchino, K

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports on the development of a method for measuring xenon plasma properties using the laser Thomson scattering technique, for application to ion engine system design. The thresholds of photo-ionization of xenon plasma were investigated and the number density of metastable atoms, which are photo-ionized by a probe laser, was measured using laser absorption spectroscopy, for several conditions. The measured threshold energy of the probe laser using a plano-convex lens with a focal length of 200 mm was 150 mJ for a xenon mass flow rate of 20 μg/s and incident microwave power of 6 W; the probe laser energy was therefore set as 80 mJ. Electron number density was found to be (6.2 ± 0.4) × 10(17) m(-3) and electron temperature was found to be 2.2 ± 0.4 eV at a xenon mass flow rate of 20 μg/s and incident microwave power of 6 W. The threshold of the probe laser intensity against photo-ionization in a miniature xenon ion thruster is almost constant for various mass flow rates, since the ratio of population of the metastable atoms to the electron number density is little changed. PMID:22852670

  5. Internal plasma potential measurements of a Hall thruster using xenon and krypton propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Linnell, Jesse A.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2006-09-15

    For krypton to become a realistic option for Hall thruster operation, it is necessary to understand the performance gap between xenon and krypton and what can be done to reduce it. A floating emissive probe is used with the Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory's High-speed Axial Reciprocating Probe system to map the internal plasma potential structure of the NASA-173Mv1 Hall thruster [R. R. Hofer, R. S. Jankovsky, and A. D. Gallimore, J. Propulsion Power 22, 721 (2006); and ibid.22, 732 (2006)] using xenon and krypton propellant. Measurements are taken for both propellants at discharge voltages of 500 and 600 V. Electron temperatures and electric fields are also reported. The acceleration zone and equipotential lines are found to be strongly linked to the magnetic-field lines. The electrostatic plasma lens of the NASA-173Mv1 Hall thruster strongly focuses the xenon ions toward the center of the discharge channel, whereas the krypton ions are defocused. Krypton is also found to have a longer acceleration zone than the xenon cases. These results explain the large beam divergence observed with krypton operation. Krypton and xenon have similar maximum electron temperatures and similar lengths of the high electron temperature zone, although the high electron temperature zone is located farther downstream in the krypton case.

  6. Irreversible xenon insertion into a small-pore zeolite at moderate pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Yongmoon; Cynn, Hyunchae; Park, Changyong; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Blom, Douglas A; Evans, William J; Kao, Chi-Chang; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2014-09-01

    Pressure drastically alters the chemical and physical properties of materials and allows structural phase transitions and chemical reactions to occur that defy much of our understanding gained under ambient conditions. Particularly exciting is the high-pressure chemistry of xenon, which is known to react with hydrogen and ice at high pressures and form stable compounds. Here, we show that Ag16Al16Si24O8·16H2O (Ag-natrolite) irreversibly inserts xenon into its micropores at 1.7 GPa and 250 °C, while Ag(+) is reduced to metallic Ag and possibly oxidized to Ag(2+). In contrast to krypton, xenon is retained within the pores of this zeolite after pressure release and requires heat to desorb. This irreversible insertion and trapping of xenon in Ag-natrolite under moderate conditions sheds new light on chemical reactions that could account for the xenon deficiency relative to argon observed in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres. PMID:25143221

  7. Irreversible xenon insertion into a small-pore zeolite at moderate pressures and temperatures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Seoung, Donghoon; Cynn, Hyunchae; Park, Changyong; Choi, Kwang -Yong; Blom, Douglas A.; Evans, William J.; Kao, Chi -Chang; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2014-09-01

    Pressure drastically alters the chemical and physical properties of materials and allows structural phase transitions and chemical reactions to occur that defy much of our understanding gained under ambient conditions. Particularly exciting is the high-pressure chemistry of xenon, which is known to react with hydrogen and ice at high pressures and form stable compounds. Here, we show that Ag16Al16Si24O8·16H2O (Ag-natrolite) irreversibly inserts xenon into its micropores at 1.7 GPa and 250 °C, while Ag+ is reduced to metallic Ag and possibly oxidized to Ag2+. In contrast to krypton, xenon is retained within the pores of this zeolite after pressure releasemore » and requires heat to desorb. This irreversible insertion and trapping of xenon in Ag-natrolite under moderate conditions sheds new light on chemical reactions that could account for the xenon deficiency relative to argon observed in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres.« less

  8. Irreversible xenon insertion into a small-pore zeolite at moderate pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Seoung, Donghoon; Cynn, Hyunchae; Park, Changyong; Choi, Kwang -Yong; Blom, Douglas A.; Evans, William J.; Kao, Chi -Chang; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2014-09-01

    Pressure drastically alters the chemical and physical properties of materials and allows structural phase transitions and chemical reactions to occur that defy much of our understanding gained under ambient conditions. Particularly exciting is the high-pressure chemistry of xenon, which is known to react with hydrogen and ice at high pressures and form stable compounds. Here, we show that Ag16Al16Si24O8·16H2O (Ag-natrolite) irreversibly inserts xenon into its micropores at 1.7 GPa and 250 °C, while Ag+ is reduced to metallic Ag and possibly oxidized to Ag2+. In contrast to krypton, xenon is retained within the pores of this zeolite after pressure release and requires heat to desorb. This irreversible insertion and trapping of xenon in Ag-natrolite under moderate conditions sheds new light on chemical reactions that could account for the xenon deficiency relative to argon observed in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres.

  9. [XeOXeOXe](2+), the Missing Oxide of Xenon(II); Synthesis, Raman Spectrum, and X-ray Crystal Structure of [XeOXeOXe][μ-F(ReO2F3)2]2.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Maria V; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2015-10-21

    The [XeOXeOXe](2+) cation provides an unprecedented example of a xenon(II) oxide and a noble-gas oxocation as well as a rare example of a noble-gas dication. The [XeOXeOXe](2+) cation was synthesized as its [μ-F(ReO2F3)2](-) salt by reaction of ReO3F with XeF2 in anhydrous HF at -30 °C. Red-orange [XeOXeOXe][μ-F(ReO2F3)2]2 rapidly decomposes to XeF2, ReO2F3, Xe, and O2 when the solid or its HF solutions are warmed above -20 °C. The crystal structure of [XeOXeOXe][μ-F(ReO2F3)2]2 consists of a planar, zigzag-shaped [XeOXeOXe](2+) cation (C2h symmetry) that is fluorine bridged through its terminal xenon atoms to two [μ-F(ReO2F3)2](-) anions. The Raman spectra of the natural abundance and (18)O-enriched [XeOXeOXe](2+) salts are consistent with a centrosymmetric (C2h) cation geometry. A proposed reaction pathway leading to [XeOXeOXe][μ-F(ReO2F3)2]2 consists of a series of oxygen/fluorine metathesis reactions that are presumably mediated by the transient HOXeF molecule. Quantum-chemical calculations were used to aid in the vibrational assignments of [Xe(16/18)OXe(16/18)OXe][μ-F(Re(16/18)O2F3)2]2 and to assess the bonding in [XeOXeOXe](2+) by NBO, QTAIM, ELF, and MEPS analyses. Ion pair interactions occur through Re-Fμ---Xe bridges, which are predominantly electrostatic in nature and result from polarization of the Fμ-atom electron densities by the exposed core charges of the terminal xenon atoms. Each xenon(II) atom is surrounded by a torus of xenon valence electron density comprised of the three valence electron lone pairs. The positive regions of the terminal xenon atoms and associated fluorine bridge bonds correspond to the positive σ-holes and donor interactions that are associated with "halogen bonding". PMID:26394189

  10. Collectivity in the light xenon isotopes: A shell model study

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Nowacki, F.; Sieja, K.; Poves, A.

    2010-12-15

    The lightest xenon isotopes are studied in the shell model framework, within a valence space that comprises all the orbits lying between the magic closures N=Z=50 and N=Z=82. The calculations produce collective deformed structures of triaxial nature that encompass nicely the known experimental data. Predictions are made for the (still unknown) N=Z nucleus {sup 108}Xe. The results are interpreted in terms of the competition between the quadrupole correlations enhanced by the pseudo-SU(3) structure of the positive parity orbits and the pairing correlations brought in by the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. We also have studied the effect of the excitations from the {sup 100}Sn core on our predictions. We show that the backbending in this region is due to the alignment of two particles in the 0h{sub 11/2} orbit. In the N=Z case, one neutron and one proton align to J=11 and T=0. In {sup 110,112}Xe the alignment begins in the J=10, T=1 channel and it is dominantly of neutron-neutron type. Approaching the band termination the alignment of a neutron-proton pair to J=11 and T=0 takes over. In a more academic mood, we have studied the role of the isovector and isoscalar pairing correlations on the structure on the yrast bands of {sup 108,110}Xe and examined the possible existence of isovector and isoscalar pairing condensates in these N{approx}{approx}Z nuclei.

  11. Iodine-xenon studies and the relax mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Ash, R. D.; Lyon, I. C.; Johnston, W. A.; Hutchison, R.; Bridges, J. C.; Turner, G.

    1994-07-01

    RELAX combines a resonance ionization ion source with a cryogenic sample concentrator to achieve ultrasensitivity. Gas is extracted from samples using either a continuous wave laser microprobe based on an argon-ion laser or a filament microfurnace. Recent refinements in the operating procedure have resulted in optimum sensitivities such that detection rates of 1 cps are achieved from fewer than 500 atoms. A Xe-128 spike reservoir has also been added and characterized, allowing accurate determinations of absolute amounts of gas. We have completed a preliminary study of the iodine-xenon system in samples from the Bjurbole and Parnallee meteorites. Bjurbole chondrules ranging in mass from 5.45 mg to 260 micrograms were analyzed by laser microprobe. The results from these samples are consistent with an effectively uniform formation age, suggesting that the use of Bjurbole chondrules for calibration of this chronometer can be extended to samples in this size range. Samples from two chondrules from the Parnallee meteorite have been analyzed to date. An alpha-cristobalite-bearing chondrule (designated CB1) was found to have a formation age 4.62 +/- 0.44 Ma after Bjurboele, while a porphyritic olivine macrochondrule appears to have been reset after the decay of I-129(t1/2 17 Ma). Consideration of these results alongside Ar-Ar data from the macrochondrule and whole rock samples suggests that Parnallee has a complex history: The macrochondrule underwent an early postcrystallization degassing event but appears to have been essentially unaffected by the later (1.9 Ga) partial resetting of the bulk meteorite.

  12. A New Wide-Range Equation of State for Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, John H.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the development of a new wide-range equation of state (EOS) for xenon. Three different prior EOS models predicted significant variations in behavior along the high pressure Hugoniot from an initial liquid state at 163.5 K and 2.97 g/cm3, which is near the triple point. Experimental measurements on Sandia's Z machine as well as density functional theory based molecular dynamics calculations both invalidate the prior EOS models in the pressure range from 200 to 840 GPa. The reason behind these EOS model disagreements is found to lie in the contribution from the thermal electronic models. A new EOS, based upon the standard separation of the Helmholtz free energy into ionic and electronic components, is constructed by combining the successful parts of prior models with a semi-empirical electronic model. Both the fluid and fcc solid phases are combined in a wide-range, multi-phase table. The new EOS is tabulated on a fine temperature and density grid, to preserve phase boundary information, and is available as table number 5191 in the LANL SESAME database. Improvements over prior EOS models are found not only along the Hugoniot, but also along the melting curve and in the region of the liquid-vapor critical point. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Component Verification Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Sovey, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Component testing is a critical facet of the comprehensive thruster life validation strategy devised by the NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program. Component testing to-date has consisted of long-duration high voltage propellant isolator and high-cycle heater life validation testing. The high voltage propellant isolator, a heritage design, will be operated under different environmental condition in the NEXT ion thruster requiring verification testing. The life test of two NEXT isolators was initiated with comparable voltage and pressure conditions with a higher temperature than measured for the NEXT prototype-model thruster. To date the NEXT isolators have accumulated 18,300 h of operation. Measurements indicate a negligible increase in leakage current over the testing duration to date. NEXT 1/2 in. heaters, whose manufacturing and control processes have heritage, were selected for verification testing based upon the change in physical dimensions resulting in a higher operating voltage as well as potential differences in thermal environment. The heater fabrication processes, developed for the International Space Station (ISS) plasma contactor hollow cathode assembly, were utilized with modification of heater dimensions to accommodate a larger cathode. Cyclic testing of five 1/22 in. diameter heaters was initiated to validate these modified fabrication processes while retaining high reliability heaters. To date two of the heaters have been cycled to 10,000 cycles and suspended to preserve hardware. Three of the heaters have been cycled to failure giving a B10 life of 12,615 cycles, approximately 6,000 more cycles than the established qualification B10 life of the ISS plasma contactor heaters.

  14. Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.

  15. PERSONAL MONITOR FOR NITROGEN DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An attempt was made to develop a personal monitor to measure nitrogen dioxide. Sampling of nitrogen dioxide is accomplished by permeation through a silicone membrane into a alkaline thymol blue solution. The nitrogen dioxide is converted to nitrite and is then quantitated by colo...

  16. Carbon Dioxide Laser Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Krupa Shankar, DS; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

    2009-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is a versatile tool that has applications in ablative lasing and caters to the needs of routine dermatological practice as well as the aesthetic, cosmetic and rejuvenation segments. This article details the basics of the laser physics as applicable to the CO2 laser and offers guidelines for use in many of the above indications. PMID:20808594

  17. Carbon dioxide laser guidelines.

    PubMed

    Krupa Shankar, Ds; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

    2009-07-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser is a versatile tool that has applications in ablative lasing and caters to the needs of routine dermatological practice as well as the aesthetic, cosmetic and rejuvenation segments. This article details the basics of the laser physics as applicable to the CO(2) laser and offers guidelines for use in many of the above indications. PMID:20808594

  18. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Lee, Inhee; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  19. Carbon dioxide recycling

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether is seen to offer a substantial route to renewable and environmentally carbon neutral fuels. One of the authors has championed the “Methanol Economy" in articles and a book. By recycling ambient CO2, the authors argue ...

  20. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  1. Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Henry A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)

  2. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a sterilant for use in manufacturing, laboratory equipment, medical devices, environmental surfaces, tools and clean rooms. Aqueous ClO2 is registered by the EPA as a surface disinfectant and sanitizer fo...

  3. Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2012-01-11

    Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

  4. Double beta decay daughter ion detection in a solid xenon matrix for EXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mong, Brian; Cook, Shon; Fairbank, William

    2009-10-01

    0 νββ experiments are the possibly the most sensitive means available to measure the absolute mass of the neutrino as long as backgrounds can be sufficiently suppressed. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment may be able to eliminate all backgrounds by detecting the daughter of the 0 νββ ( ^136Xe ->^136Ba +2e^- ) through optical fluorescence. We propose to grab the ion in the detector by freezing it in xenon ice on a cold probe, possibly an optical fiber, and then detecting it in the ice. We present progress in the detection of barium ions generated by an ion beam, and detected in a solid xenon matrix using CW laser excitation and efficient fluorescence detection.

  5. A Search for Nonstandard Neutron Spin Interactions using Dual Species Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James; Fu, Changbo; Yan, Haiyang; Smith, Erick; Snow, Mike; Walker, Thad

    2012-06-01

    NMR measurements using polarized noble gases can constrain possible exotic spin-dependent interactions involving nucleons. A differential measurement insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations can be performed using a mixture of two polarized species with different ratios of nucleon spin to magnetic moment. We used the NMR cell test station at Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) (developed to evaluate dual species xenon vapor cells for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope) to search for NMR frequency shifts of xenon-129 and xenon-131 when a non-magnetic zirconia rod is modulated near the NMR cell. We simultaneously excited both Xe isotopes and detected free-induction-decay transients. In combination with theoretical calculations of the neutron spin contribution to the nuclear angular momentum, the measurements put a new upper bound on possible monopole-dipole interactions of the neutron for ranges around 1mm. This work is supported by the NGC Internal Research and Development (IRAD) funding, the Department of Energy, and the NSF.

  6. Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Faccialà, D; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Soifer, H; Stagira, S; Dudovich, N; Vozzi, C

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions. PMID:27610855

  7. Thermodynamics, compressibility, and phase diagram: shock compression of supercritical fluid xenon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Chen, Q F; Gu, Y J; Chen, Z Y; Li, C J

    2014-09-28

    Supercritical fluids have intriguing behaviors at extreme pressure and temperature conditions, prompting the need for thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluid xenon (SCF) under shock compression. Double-shock experimental data on SCF xenon in the 140 GPa pressure range were directly measured by means of a multi-channel pyrometer and a Doppler-pins-system. It entered the so-called warm dense region. We found that the shock compressed SCF Xe had higher dynamic compression and higher number density than that of liquid Xe at same shock pressure. The larger compressibility of SCF Xe in our experiments could be explained that the increase of electronic excitations and ionizations leaded to a large drop of thermal pressure and a softening of Hugoniot. The high pressure phase diagram of xenon was depicted with the aid of the degeneracy, coupling parameter, and current available experiments on the pressure-temperature plane. PMID:25273430

  8. Liquid xenon time projection chamber for gamma rays in the MeV region: Development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, E.; Bolotnikov, A.; Chen, D.; Mukherjee, R.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of a large volume Liquid Xenon Time Projection Chamber (LXe-TPC) for three dimensional imaging and spectroscopy of cosmic gamma ray sources, was tested with a 3.5 liter prototype. The observation of induction signals produced by MeV gamma rays in liquid xenon is reported, with a good signal-to-noise ratio. The results represent the first experimental demonstration with a liquid xenon ionization chamber of a nondestructive readout of the electron image produced by point-like charges, using a sense wire configuration of the type originally proposed in 1970 by Gatti et al. An energy resolution as good as that previously measured by the millimeter size chambers, was achieved with the large prototype of 4.4 cm drift gap.

  9. Low-energy recoils and energy scale in liquid xenon detector for direct dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Mei, Dongming; Cubed Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Liquid xenon has been proven to be a great detector medium for the direct search of dark matter. However, in the energy region of below 10 keV, the light yield and charge production are not fully understood due to the convolution of excitation, recombination and quenching. We have already studied a recombination model to explain the physics processes involved in liquid xenon. Work is continued on the average energy expended per electron-ion pair as a function of energy based on the cross sections for different type of scattering processes. In this paper, the results will be discussed in comparison with available experimental data using Birk's Law to understand how scintillation quenching contributes to the non-linear light yield for electron recoils with energy below 10 keV in liquid xenon. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  10. Rapid measurement of spatial light distribution of a short-arc xenon flash lamp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youquan; Guo, Dexia; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Lingli; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Xianquan

    2016-08-20

    Small short-arc xenon flash lamps, yielding high energy and ultraviolet radiation without cooling structures, provide ideal analytic-instrument light. Improving instrument designs requires accurately determining spatial optical-flux distribution. Thus, this paper presents rapid scanning of a xenon lamp's central light intensity using a high-sensitivity photodiode to capture short light pulses. Results show two-dimensional optical illumination patterns. In the horizontal mode, the anode and cathode lie in the target plane. In the vertical mode, the two electrodes are centered in a circle. Thus, because the xenon lamp's spatial light flux varies by orientation and main driving voltage, we recommend sampling light horizontally in front of the lamp across small angles. PMID:27556976

  11. Observations of xenon gas-treated barley cells in solution by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, T; Sotome, I; Ohtani, T; Isobe, S; Oshita, S; Maekawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Barley cells cut from a sprout were exposed to either air or high-pressure xenon gas for 3 days and the surface of those cells was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the effect of the gas treatment. This method enabled the direct observation of the fresh surface of the barley cells in solution at high resolution. The cuticle layer was preserved on the primary cell wall of 0.48 MPa xenon gas-treated barley cells, while air-treated barley cells lost the cuticle layer from the primary cell wall. These findings indicate that the high-pressure xenon gas treatment is effective to preserve the cuticle layer attached to the primary cell wall. AFM is a powerful tool for the observation of the surface structure of living plant cells in solution. PMID:11108038

  12. Spin-lattice relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood.

    PubMed

    Wolber, J; Cherubini, A; Dzik-Jurasz, A S; Leach, M O; Bifone, A

    1999-03-30

    The nuclear spin polarization of 129Xe can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude by using optical pumping techniques. The increased sensitivity of xenon NMR has allowed imaging of lungs as well as other in vivo applications. The most critical parameter for efficient delivery of laser-polarized xenon to blood and tissues is the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of xenon in blood. In this work, the relaxation of laser-polarized xenon in human blood is measured in vitro as a function of blood oxygenation. Interactions with dissolved oxygen and with deoxyhemoglobin are found to contribute to the spin-lattice relaxation time of 129Xe in blood, the latter interaction having greater effect. Consequently, relaxation times of 129Xe in deoxygenated blood are shorter than in oxygenated blood. In samples with oxygenation equivalent to arterial and venous blood, the 129Xe T1s at 37 degrees C and a magnetic field of 1.5 T were 6.4 s +/- 0.5 s and 4.0 s +/- 0.4 s, respectively. The 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation time in blood decreases at lower temperatures, but the ratio of T1 in oxygenated blood to that in deoxygenated blood is the same at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C. A competing ligand has been used to show that xenon binding to albumin contributes to the 129Xe spin-lattice relaxation in blood plasma. This technique is promising for the study of xenon interactions with macromolecules. PMID:10097094

  13. Boltzmann expansion in a radiofrequency conical helicon thruster operating in xenon and argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    A low pressure (˜0.5 mTorr in xenon and ˜1 mTorr in argon) Boltzmann expansion is experimentally observed on axis within a magnetized (60 to 180 G) radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) conical helicon thruster for input powers up to 900 W using plasma parameters measured with a Langmuir probe. The axial forces, respectively, resulting from the electron and magnetic field pressures are directly measured using a thrust balance for constant maximum plasma pressure and show a higher fuel efficiency for argon compared to xenon.

  14. Differential Sputtering Behavior of Pyrolytic Graphite and Carbon-Carbon Composite Under Xenon Bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Johnson, Mark L.; Williams, Desiree D.

    2003-01-01

    A differential sputter yield measurement technique is described, which consists of a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. This apparatus has been used to characterize the sputtering behavior of various forms of carbon including polycrystalline graphite, pyrolytic graphite, and PVD-infiltrated and pyrolized carbon-carbon composites. Sputter yield data are presented for pyrolytic graphite and carbon-carbon composite over a range of xenon ion energies from 200 eV to 1 keV and angles of incidence from 0 deg (normal incidence) to 60 deg .

  15. A high pressure xenon gamma-ray spectrometer using a coplanar anode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, C. J.; He, Z.; Knoll, G. F.; Tepper, G.; Wehe, D. K.

    2003-06-01

    A new design of a high pressure xenon ionization chamber has been fabricated in an attempt to eliminate the problems associated with acoustical vibrations of the Frisch grid. The function of the traditional Frisch grid has been accomplished by employing a coplanar anode system capable of single polarity charge sensing. Two different detector designs have been fabricated using both cylindrical and parallel plate geometries. Each is filled with highly purified xenon gas at a pressure of approximately 57 atm. The designs of these new spectrometers and their measured characteristics will be presented.

  16. Response of acoustic signals generated in water by energetic xenon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyachi, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Kuraza, G.; Fujii, M.; Nagashima, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kobayashi, M. N.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyajima, M.; Okudaira, O.; Yamashita, N.; Shibata, H.; Murakami, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Okada, N.; Tou, T.

    2006-05-01

    The acoustic signals generated by bombarding 400 MeV/n xenon ions in water were studied using an array of piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate elements. The observed signal was reduced to a bipolar form through Fourier analysis. The output voltage corresponded to the amount of energy deposit in water, and it tailed off beyond the range of 400 MeV/n xenon in water. This magnitude was explained qualitatively as cumulative processes. Its behavior was consistent with the calculations based on the Bethe-Bloch formula. Possible applications of this detector to radiology and heavily doped radiation detectors are described.

  17. Xenon N4,500 Auger spectrum - a useful calibration source

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.X.; Bozek, J.D.; Kukk, E.; Myrseth, V.; Saethre, L.J.; Thomas, T.D.; Wiesner, Karoline

    2002-02-06

    In the xenon N4,5OO Auger spectrum there are 19 prominent lines ranging from 8 to 36 eV that provide a convenient set of standards for calibrating electron spectrometers. Combining optical data with recent measurements of this spectrum gives energies for these lines that are absolutely accurate to 11 meV. For most lines the relative accuracy is better than 1 meV; for a few it is about 3 meV. The spin-orbit splitting of the xenon 4d lines is measured to be 1979.0 +- 0.5meV.

  18. Results from the XENON10 and the Race to Detect Dark Matter with Noble Liquids

    ScienceCinema

    Shutt, Tom [Case Western Reserve, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

    2009-09-01

    Detectors based on liquid noble gases have the potential to revolutionize the direct search for WIMP dark matter. The XENON10 experiment, of which I am a member, has recently announced the results from it's first data run and is now the leading WIMP search experiment. This and other experiments using xenon, argon and neon have the potential to rapidly move from the current kg-scale target mass to the ton scale and well beyond. This should allow a (nearly) definitive test or discovery of dark matter if it is in the form of weakly interacting massive particles.

  19. Mapping cerebral blood flow by xenon-enhanced computed tomography: clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yonas, H.; Good, W.F.; Gur, D.; Wolfson, S.K. Jr.; Latchaw, R.E.; Good, B.C.; Leanza, R.; Miller, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    Local cerebral blood flow was measured and mapped using xenon-enhanced x-ray transmission computed tomography. Studies involving 4-6 minutes of xenon-oxygen inhalation can be performed routinely in awake and anesthetized patients with acceptable patient tolerance and compliance. Several case studies of patients with acute and chronic ischemic injuries and other cerebral abnormalities are presented to illustrate characterization of flow pattern in normal and abnormal tissue, as well as the relevance of this flow information to clinical patient management.

  20. Diagnosing on plasma plume from xenon Hall thruster with collisional-radiative model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Juan; Yokota, Shigeru; Kaneko, Ryotaro; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2010-10-15

    The collisional-radiative model for xenon is used to calculate the electron density and temperature, and the atom population distribution in the plasma plume from a xenon Hall thruster. In the calculation, 173 levels of atom population are considered; only the processes of electron induced excitation and deexcitation, and spontaneous decay are simulated. The plasma plume is assumed to be optically thin. Consequently, the reasonable parameters of plasma plume along the outside center line of the thruster channel are obtained by making the calculated emission spectrum corresponding to measured ones and based on the atomic data available on site and by codes.

  1. Measurement of Xenon Viscosity as a Function of Low Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisnik, Stanley P.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of xenon gas viscosity at low temperatures (175-298 K) and low pressures (350 torr-760 torr) has been performed in support of Hall Thruster testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. The measurements were taken using the capillary flow technique. Viscosity measurements were repeatable to within 3%. The results in this paper are in agreement with data from Hanley and Childs and suggest that the data from Clarke and Smith is approximately 2% low. There are no noticeable pressure effects on xenon absolute viscosity for the pressure range from 350 torr to 760 torr.

  2. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, P; Dahl, C E

    2011-02-14

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al.. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well-described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  3. An exciting prospect: detecting inelastic transitions of xenon caused by dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Dark matter can scatter and excite the xenon isotopes 129Xe and 131Xe to a low-lying excitation in a direct detection experiment. This signature is distinct from the canonical elastic scattering signal because the inelastic signal also contains the energy deposited from the subsequent prompt de-excitation of the nucleus. A measurement of the elastic and inelastic signal will allow a single experiment to distinguish between a spin-independent and spin-dependent interaction. In this paper, I will discuss the prospects of detecting this inelastic signal with up-coming tonne-scale two-phase xenon direct detection experiments.

  4. Boltzmann expansion in a radiofrequency conical helicon thruster operating in xenon and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-03

    A low pressure ({approx}0.5 mTorr in xenon and {approx}1 mTorr in argon) Boltzmann expansion is experimentally observed on axis within a magnetized (60 to 180 G) radiofrequency (13.56 MHz) conical helicon thruster for input powers up to 900 W using plasma parameters measured with a Langmuir probe. The axial forces, respectively, resulting from the electron and magnetic field pressures are directly measured using a thrust balance for constant maximum plasma pressure and show a higher fuel efficiency for argon compared to xenon.

  5. Development of a xenon/computed tomography cerebral blood flow quality assurance phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Good, W.F.; Gur, D.; Herron, J.M.; Kennedy, W.H.

    1987-09-01

    A simple, easy to use, quality assurance and performance test phantom was developed for the xenon/computed tomography (CT) cerebral blood flow method. The phantom combines an inhalation system which allows for the simulation of xenon buildup or washout in the arterial blood as well as a multisection translatable cylinder in which several sections can be scanned during a preselected protocol to simulate the CT enhancement in brain tissue during a study. The phantom and scanning protocol are described and their use is demonstrated. The results compare favorably to the theoretically expected fast, intermediate, and slow flow values designed into the phantom.

  6. Results from the XENON10 and the Race to Detect Dark Matter with Noble Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Shutt, Tom

    2007-06-13

    Detectors based on liquid noble gases have the potential to revolutionize the direct search for WIMP dark matter. The XENON10 experiment, of which I am a member, has recently announced the results from it's first data run and is now the leading WIMP search experiment. This and other experiments using xenon, argon and neon have the potential to rapidly move from the current kg-scale target mass to the ton scale and well beyond. This should allow a (nearly) definitive test or discovery of dark matter if it is in the form of weakly interacting massive particles.

  7. First-principles calculation of the reflectance of shock-compressed xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, G. E.; Saitov, I. M. Stegailov, V. V.

    2015-05-15

    Within electron density functional theory (DFT), the reflectance of radiation from shock-compressed xenon plasma is calculated. The dependence of the reflectance on the frequency of the incident radiation and on the plasma density is considered. The Fresnel formula is used. The expression for the longitudinal dielectric tensor in the long-wavelength limit is used to calculate the imaginary part of the dielectric function (DF). The real part of the DF is determined by the Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with experimental data. An approach is proposed to estimate the plasma frequency in shock-compressed xenon.

  8. X-ray Emission Wavelengths of Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Curium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1992-03-01

    The wavelengths of the L series of argon, krypton and xenon, the K series of argon, and the M series of curium were measured by means of wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The specimens for the investigations were TiC layers which had been HF sputtered under reduced argon pressure by the PVD method, krypton and xenon implanted zeolites, and a curium doped borosilicate glass. The obtained relative intensities of the X-ray emission lines were normalized to the maximum intensity of the line of the respective series

  9. Initial observations of GeSe-xenon transport experiments performed on the D1 space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.; Trivedi, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    GeSe-xenon experiments performed aboard the D1 mission at xenon pressures of 2 and 6 atm confirm the crystal growth pattern, sizes, and surface morphology of crystals previously grown aboard STS-7 for different pressures. Besides the deposition and growth of GeSe crystals on the ampoule wall, several large single-crystalline GeSe platelets with lateral dimensions much greater than those of crystals on the wall and obtained on the ground are found. The present results reemphasize the question concerning the nucleation phenomena in microgravity.

  10. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  11. Chemical technologies for exploiting and recycling carbon dioxide into the value chain.

    PubMed

    Peters, Martina; Köhler, Burkhard; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Leitner, Walter; Markewitz, Peter; Müller, Thomas E

    2011-09-19

    While experts in various fields discuss the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies, the utilization of carbon dioxide as chemical feedstock is also attracting renewed and rapidly growing interest. These approaches do not compete; rather, they are complementary: CCS aims to capture and store huge quantities of carbon dioxide, while the chemical exploitation of carbon dioxide aims to generate value and develop better and more-efficient processes from a limited part of the waste stream. Provided that the overall carbon footprint for the carbon dioxide-based process chain is competitive with conventional chemical production and that the reaction with the carbon dioxide molecule is enabled by the use of appropriate catalysts, carbon dioxide can be a promising carbon source with practically unlimited availability for a range of industrially relevant products. In addition, it can be used as a versatile processing fluid based on its remarkable physicochemical properties. PMID:21866580

  12. Fission-fragment excited xenon/rare gas mixtures. II. Small signal gain of the 2. 03 [mu]m xenon transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.; Hays, G.N. )

    1993-04-15

    The results of small signal gain measurements of the 2.03 [mu]m (5[ital d][3/2][sub 1][minus]6[ital p][3/2][sub 1]) xenon transition in fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe, He/Ar/Xe, Ne/Ar/Xe, and He/Ne/Ar/Xe gas mixtures is presented. Time resolved small signal gain was probed using a cw He/Xe discharge laser as a function of total pressure, xenon concentration, pump power, He/Ne/Ar buffer ratio, and impurity concentration. Small signal gains of up to 6%/cm were observed for pump rates of 15 W/cm[sup 3]. Addition of helium and/or neon to the argon buffer increased the width of the laser gain and reduced the absorption observed under some experimental conditions. Experimentally determined gain scaling laws for several gas mixtures are presented.

  13. Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Functional Lung Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dregely, Isabel

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe (HXe) is a non-invasive contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which upon inhalation follows the functional pathway of oxygen in the lung by dissolving into lung tissue structures and entering the blood stream. HXe MRI therefore provides unique opportunities for functional lung imaging of gas exchange which occurs from alveolar air spaces across the air-blood boundary into parenchymal tissue. However challenges in acquisition speed and signal-to-noise ratio have limited the development of a HXe imaging biomarker to diagnose lung disease. This thesis addresses these challenges by introducing parallel imaging to HXe MRI. Parallel imaging requires dedicated hardware. This work describes design, implementation, and characterization of a 32-channel phased-array chest receive coil with an integrated asymmetric birdcage transmit coil tuned to the HXe resonance on a 3 Tesla MRI system. Using the newly developed human chest coil, a functional HXe imaging method, multiple exchange time xenon magnetization transfer contrast (MXTC) is implemented. MXTC dynamically encodes HXe gas exchange into the image contrast. This permits two parameters to be derived regionally which are related to gas-exchange functionality by characterizing tissue-to-alveolar-volume ratio and alveolar wall thickness in the lung parenchyma. Initial results in healthy subjects demonstrate the sensitivity of MXTC by quantifying the subtle changes in lung microstructure in response to orientation and lung inflation. Our results in subjects with lung disease show that the MXTC-derived functional tissue density parameter exhibits excellent agreement with established imaging techniques. The newly developed dynamic parameter, which characterizes the alveolar wall, was elevated in subjects with lung disease, most likely indicating parenchymal inflammation. In light of these observations we believe that MXTC has potential as a biomarker for the regional quantification of 1

  14. Coulomb excitation of C{sub 60} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    The ionization and dissociation of C{sub 60} molecules in the Coulomb field from fast, highly-charged xenon ions was measured recently at ATLAS. The Coulomb excitation was modeled as a coherent excitation of the giant plasmon resonance. Guided by photo-absorption measurements, single-plasmon excitations were identified with the production of single-charged C{sub 60}{sup +} molecular ions. The calculated cross sections do indeed reproduce the beam energy-dependence of the measured C{sub 60}{sup +} yield. The calculations show that single-plasmon excitations are responsible for about half of the total reaction cross section. The other half, i.e., multiplasmon excitations, leads to multiple ionization and dissociation of the molecule.

  15. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  16. Efficiency of excimer molecule formation in plasma jets of inert gas mixtures with SF6 and CCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogulich, V. S.; Starodub, V. P.; Shevera, V. S.

    1988-10-01

    The formation of krypton and xenon monofluorides and monochlorides in continuous plasma jets of inert gas mixtures with SF6 and CCl4 molecules is investigated experimentally. Absolute concentrations of KrF, XeF, KrCl, and XeCl excimer molecules in the jet are determined. The energy efficiency of specific input power conversion to the spontaneous B-X emission in the KrF band is estimated at 2-4 percent. Ways of increasing the concentration of excimer molecules in the plasma jet are analyzed.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a view of some of the widely-varied terrain of the martian south polar residual cap. The landforms here are composed mainly of frozen carbon dioxide. Each year since MGS arrived in 1997, the scarps that bound each butte and mesa, or line the edges of each pit, in the south polar region, have changed a little bit as carbon dioxide is sublimed away. The scarps retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year. Most of the change occurs during each southern summer.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 9.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  18. Microwave spectra and conformational studies of ethylamine from temperature dependent Raman spectra of xenon solutions and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darkhalil, Ikhlas D.; Nagels, Nick; Herrebout, Wouter A.; van der Veken, Benjamin J.; Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael J.; Durig, James R.

    2014-06-01

    FT-microwave spectroscopy was carried out where the trans conformer was identified to be the most stable conformer. Variable temperature (-60 to -100 °C) studies of the Raman spectra (4000-50 cm-1) of ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2 dissolved in liquefied xenon have been carried out. From these data both conformers have been identified and their relative stabilities obtained. The enthalpy difference has been determined to be 62 ± 6 cm-1 (0.746 ± 0.072 kJ mol-1) with the trans conformer the more stable form. The percentage of the gauche conformer is estimated to be 60% at ambient temperature. The conformational stabilities have been predicted from ab initio calculations with the Møller-Plesset perturbation method to the second order (MP2(full)) and the fourth order (MP4(SDTQ)) as well as with density functional theory by the B3LYP method by utilizing a variety of basis sets. Vibrational assignments have been made for the observed bands which have been predicted by MP2(full)/6-31G(d) ab initio calculations which includes harmonic force fields, frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and depolarization ratios for both conformers. The results are discussed and compared to the corresponding properties of some similar molecule.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  20. 133Xenon absorption into rubber-protected portable cadmium telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors invalidating the 133Xenon washout method for measurement of cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow rates in man.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J L

    1991-01-01

    The importance of 133Xenon absorption into rubber detector caps during cutaneous and subcutaneous blood flow measurement was investigated in 46 experiments involving 38 persons. 133Xenon was administered atraumatically. Cutaneous and subcutaneous washout rates were registered by portable Cadmium Telluride detectors without rubber caps, with rubber caps, and with rubber caps with Mylar membranes interposed between the rubber and the tissue investigated. No difference in rate constants obtained by means of various detector types was detected. The accumulation of 133Xenon in the rubber caps was found to take place within the first few minutes after the detectors had been brought into position. The 133Xenon then diffused back into the tissue exhibiting a great variation regarding rate constants. The 133Xenon diffused form rubber into air and perfused tissue tracing a monoexponential course; and again the rate constants would vary considerably. No correlation was found between elimination rates obtained with detectors with and without 133Xenon polluted caps, and no way of correcting for the 133Xenon content in the rubber caps was found. Relative changes in rate constants could still be recognized, but absolute values were not obtainable. PMID:1789123

  1. Frozen Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    1 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a south polar residual cap landscape, formed in frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that one can go to visit a landscape covering thousands of square kilometers with frozen carbon dioxide, so mesas, pits, and other landforms of the martian south polar region are as alien as they are beautiful. The scarps of the south polar region are known from thousands of other MGS MOC images to retreat at a rate of about 3 meters (3 yards) per martian year, indiating that slowly, over the course of the MGS mission, the amount of carbon dioxide in the martian atmosphere has probably been increasing.

    Location near: 86.9oS, 25.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  2. Carbon Dioxide Landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 March 2004 The martian south polar residual ice cap is mostly made of frozen carbon dioxide. There is no place on Earth that a person can go to see the landforms that would be produced by erosion and sublimation of hundreds or thousands of cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide. Thus, the south polar cap of Mars is as alien as alien can get. This image, acquired in February 2004 by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows how the cap appears in summer as carbon dioxide is subliming away, creating a wild pattern of pits, mesas, and buttes. Darker surfaces may be areas where the ice contains impurities, such as dust, or where the surface has been roughened by the removal of ice. This image is located near 86.3oS, 0.8oW. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  3. Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.P. . Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1989-05-01

    Because it has little or no tendency to generate carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform, chlorine dioxide is an attractive alternative to chlorine for drinking water disinfection. There are, however, concerns about its acute toxicity, and the toxic effects of its by-products, chlorite and chlorate. The human experience with chlorine dioxide in both controlled, prospective studies and in actual use situations in community water supplies have as yet failed to reveal adverse health effects. The EPA has recommended standards of 0.06 mg/L for chlorine dioxide and standards of 0.007 mg/L for chlorite and chlorate in drinking water. Among groups who may be at special risk from oxychlorines in drinking water are patients who must undergro chronic extracorporeal hemodialysis. Although even units for home hemodialysis are supposed to be equipped with devices which effectively remove oxychlorines, there is a always a possibility of operator error or equipment failure. When the equipment is adequately maintained, it is likely that dialysis patients will have more intensive exposures from drinking water than from dialysis fluids despite the much larger volumes of water that are involved in dialysis. This paper discusses a hemodialysis and the standards and effects of oxychlorines. 90 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Nonlinear pressure shifts of alkali-metal atoms in xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuyer, Bart; Xia, Tian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2011-05-01

    Compact, portable atomic frequency standards are based on the microwave resonance frequencies of alkali-metal atoms in inert buffer gases. The frequency shift of these resonances due to collisions with the buffer gas is known as the pressure shift. We demonstrate that the microwave resonance frequencies of ground-state 87Rb and 133Cs atoms have a nonlinear dependence on the pressure of the buffer gas Xe. Previous work has demonstrated a nonlinear dependence in Ar and Kr, but not He and N2, which is thought to be due to the loosely-bound van der Waals molecules that are known to form between alkali-metal and buffer-gas atoms in Ar, Kr, and Xe, but not He and N2. Surprisingly, we find that the nonlinearities in Xe are of the opposite sign to those in Ar and Kr, even though the overall shifts for each of these gases are negative. This discrepancy suggests that though the shifts due to the molecules in Ar and Kr are positive, the shifts due to the molecules in Xe are negative. No nonlinearities were observed in the buffer gas Ne to within our experimental accuracy, which suggests that molecules do not form in Ne. Additionally, we present improved measurements of the shifts of Rb and Cs in He and N2 and of Rb in Ar and Kr. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Department of Defense through the NDSEG program.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of the NMR Relaxation of Xenon-131 Dissolved in 1,3-Dioxane and 1,4-Dioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmer, M.; Reisse, J.

    The experimental NMR relaxation study of Xe-131 dissolved in 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane indicates that the intermolecular quadrupole relaxation mechanism is equally as efficient in both solvents even if 1,3-dioxane is a dipolar molecule while 1,4-dioxane is not. In order to interpret this observation, molecular-dynamics simulations were performed for model systems of xenon gas dissolved in 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane. The simulations were able to satisfactorily reproduce various experimental data for each system and, in perfect agreement with the experiment, yielded the same 131Xe quadrupole relaxation rate in both solvents. This result was obtained assuming an electrostatic origin of the electric-field gradient, and therefore validates this explanation. In 1,4-dioxane, the overwhelming part of the fluctuating electric-field gradient experienced by the xenon nucleus is due to the quadrupole moment of the solvent molecules. In 1,3-dioxane, the dipole moment is responsible for approximately half the value of the amplitude of the electric-field-gradient fluctuations only. Contributions at least up to the octopole moment are important and, consequently, the correlation time characterizing the electric-field-gradient fluctuations in 1,3-dioxane is significantly shorter than the dipolar correlation time and is found to be similar to the correlation time value in 1,4-dioxane. The relaxation rate of 131Xe in dioxanes is compared to the value in other solvents including cyclohexane, and comments are made on the general concept of polarity.

  6. Detection of the barium daughter in 136Xe -->136Ba + 2e- by in situ single-molecule fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, David

    2015-10-01

    To proceed toward effective ``discovery class'' ton-scale detectors in the search for neutrino-less double beta decay, a robust technique for rejection of all radioactivity-induced backgrounds is urgently needed. An efficient technique for detection of the barium daughter in the decay 136Xe -->136Ba + 2e- would provide a long-sought pathway toward this goal. Single-molecule fluorescent imaging appears to offer a new way to detect the barium daughter atom, which emerges naturally in an ionized state in pure xenon. A doubly charged barium ion can initiate a chelation process with a non-fluorescent precursor molecule, leading to a highly fluorescent complex. Repeated photo-excitation of the complex can reveal both presence and location of a single ionized atom with high precision and selectivity. Detection within the active volume of a xenon gas Time Projection Chamber operating at high pressure would be automatic, and with a capability for redundant confirmation.

  7. A Liquid Xenon Ionization Chamber in an All-fluoropolymer Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    LePort, F.; Pocar, A.; Bartoszek, L.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Flatt, B.; Gratta, G.; Green, M.; Montero Diez, M.; Neilson, R.; O'Sullivan, K.; Wodin, J.; Woisard, D.; Baussan, E.; Breidenbach, M.; Conley, R.; Fairbank, W., Jr.; Farine, J.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Applied Plastics Technology, Bristol /Neuchatel U. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /Alabama U. /Moscow, ITEP

    2007-02-26

    A novel technique has been developed to build vessels for liquid xenon ionization detectors entirely out of ultra-clean fluoropolymer. We describe the advantages in terms of low radioactivity contamination, provide some details of the construction techniques, and show the energy resolution achieved with a prototype all-fluoropolymer ionization detector.

  8. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-08-25

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% {at} 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency.

  9. Penile xenon (/sup 133/Xe) washout: a rapid method of screening for vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Wilbur, H.J.; Kang, S.A.; Flesh, L.; Bennett, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive inert gas xenon (/sup 133/Xe) is a well-established isotopic indicator used to assess vascular status in many organ systems. Xenon-133 was used to evaluate male impotence. Xenon-133 was injected subcutaneously at the level of the coronal sulcus in the detumescent state. Using the gamma camera, sequential images were obtained and computer-generated curves calculated. The clearance time for 50 per cent washout of the injected /sup 133/Xe (T1/2) was then calculated for each patient, as well as a control group. Preliminary findings indicate a correlation with such established techniques of evaluating erectile impotence as history, physical examination, penile pulse Doppler tracings, and brachial-penile blood pressure index. The xenon-133 washout study was a rapid, minimally invasive, reproducible, and cost-effective method of screening those impotent patients for vasculogenic etiology of their erectile impotence. We recommend the addition of this method to the surgeon engaged in the care of impotent males.

  10. Collective acceleration of xenon ions in a plasma-anode vircator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelpanov, V. I.; Golyakov, P. I.; Kornilov, V. G.; Volkov, A. A.; Dubinov, A. E.; Selemir, V. D.; Zhdanov, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    The collective acceleration of xenon ions in a plasma-anode vircator is studied. It is shown that the energy of accelerated ions may reach 900 MeV. The image of a bremsstrahlung source on the target suggests effective transport of relativistic electrons in the drift channel.

  11. Pulse-shape discrimination and energy resolution of a liquid-argon scintillator with xenon doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, C. G.; Bernard, E. P.; Lippincott, W. H.; Nikkel, J. A.; Shin, Y.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid-argon scintillation detectors are used in fundamental physics experiments and are being considered for security applications. Previous studies have suggested that the addition of small amounts of xenon dopant improves performance in light or signal yield, energy resolution, and particle discrimination. In this study, we investigate the detector response for xenon dopant concentrations from 9 ± 5 ppm to 1100 ± 500 ppm xenon (by weight) in 6 steps. The 3.14-liter detector uses tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) wavelength shifter with dual photomultiplier tubes and is operated in single-phase mode. Gamma-ray-interaction signal yield of 4.0 ± 0.1 photoelectrons/keV improved to 5.0 ± 0.1 photoelectrons/keV with dopant. Energy resolution at 662 keV improved from (4.4 ± 0.2)% (σ) to (3.5 ± 0.2)% (σ) with dopant. Pulse-shape discrimination performance degraded greatly at the first addition of dopant, slightly improved with additional additions, then rapidly improved near the end of our dopant range, with performance becoming slightly better than pure argon at the highest tested dopant concentration. Some evidence of reduced neutron scintillation efficiency with increasing dopant concentration was observed. Finally, the waveform shape outside the TPB region is discussed, suggesting that the contribution to the waveform from xenon-produced light is primarily in the last portion of the slow component.

  12. Characterisation of NEXT-DEMO using xenon Kα X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorca, D.; Martín-Albo, J.; Laing, A.; Ferrario, P.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, H.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Labarga, L.; Liubarsky, I.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Seguí, L.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2014-10-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe in a high-pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. Understanding the response of the detector is imperative in achieving a consistent and well understood energy measurement. The abundance of xenon K-shell X-ray emission during data taking has been identified as a multitool for the characterisation of the fundamental parameters of the gas as well as the equalisation of the response of the detector. The NEXT-DEMO prototype is a ~ 1.5 kg volume TPC filled with natural xenon. It employs an array of 19 PMTs as an energy plane and of 256 SiPMs as a tracking plane with the TPC light tube and SiPM surfaces being coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) which acts as a wavelength shifter for the VUV scintillation light produced by xenon. This paper presents the measurement of the properties of the drift of electrons in the TPC, the effects of the EL production region, and the extraction of position dependent correction constants using Kα X-ray deposits. These constants were used to equalise the response of the detector to deposits left by gammas from 22Na.

  13. Chemiluminescence in the oxidation of uranium (IV) by xenon trioxide and its analytical possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Khamidullina, L.A.; Lotnik, S.V.; Gusev, Yu.K.; Kazakov, V.P.

    1988-09-01

    This work is devoted to an investigation of the previously detected chemiluminescence in the oxidation of uranium (IV) by xenone trioxide and to evaluating the possibility of using it in determining nanogram quantities of U/sup (IV)/ in solution, including solutions containing a large excess of U/sup (VI)/.

  14. Measurement of Radon concentration by Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer for seismic monitoring of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A.; Ulin, S.; Dmitrenko, V.; Vlasik, K.; Bychkova, O.; Petrenko, D.; Uteshev, Z.; Shustov, A.

    2016-02-01

    A method for earthquake precursors search based on variations of 222Rn concentration determined via intensity measurement of 222Rn daughter nuclei gamma ray emission lines by means of xenon gamma-ray spectrometer is discussed. The equipment description as well as the first experimental data are presented.

  15. A liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the MEG and MEG II liquid xenon calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorelli, G.; Baldini, A. M.; Bemporad, C.; Cei, F.; Nicolò, D.; Galli, L.; Gallucci, G.; Grassi, M.; Papa, A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Venturini, M.

    2016-07-01

    We designed, built and operated a liquid hydrogen target for the calibration of the liquid xenon calorimeter of the MEG experiment. The target was used throughout the entire data taking period, from 2008 to 2013 and it is being refurbished and partly re-designed to be integrated and used in the MEG-II experiment.

  16. High-voltage power supply with improved thermostability for Xenon gamma-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, D.; Uteshev, Z.; Novikov, A.; Shustov, A.; Vlasik, K.; Chernysheva, I.; Smirnova, M.; Krivova, K.; Dmitrenko, V.; Ulin, S.

    2016-02-01

    In this article the high voltage power supply for xenon spectrometer is described. Result of time simulation for output voltage at different temperatures was shown. The experimental data is confirming results of the time simulations. The experimental data showed breadboard model provides a stability of voltage better than 1% of the generated voltage at different temperatures

  17. Pressure-induced bonding and compound formation in xenon-hydrogen solids

    SciTech Connect

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Goncharov, Alexander F; Gramsch, Stephen A; Liermann, Peter; Yang, Wenge; Liu, Zhenxian; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2010-11-03

    Closed electron shell systems, such as hydrogen, nitrogen or group 18 elements, can form weakly bound stoichiometric compounds at high pressures. An understanding of the stability of these van der Waals compounds is lacking, as is information on the nature of their interatomic interactions. We describe the formation of a stable compound in the Xe-H{sub 2} binary system, revealed by a suite of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy measurements. At 4.8 GPa, a unique hydrogen-rich structure forms that can be viewed as a tripled solid hydrogen lattice modulated by layers of xenon, consisting of xenon dimers. Varying the applied pressure tunes the Xe-Xe distances in the solid over a broad range from that of an expanded xenon lattice to the distances observed in metallic xenon at megabar pressures. Infrared and Raman spectra indicate a weakening of the intramolecular covalent bond as well as persistence of semiconducting behaviour in the compound to at least 255 GPa.

  18. Influence of atmospheric transport patterns on xenon detections at the CTBTO radionuclide network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysta, Monika; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta

    2016-04-01

    In order to fulfil its task of monitoring for signals emanating from nuclear explosions, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates global International Monitoring System (IMS) comprising seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide measurement networks. At present, 24 among 80 radionuclide stations foreseen by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) are equipped with certified noble gas measurement systems. Over a past couple of years these systems collected a rich set of measurements of radioactive isotopes of xenon. Atmospheric transport modelling simulations are crucial to an assessment of the origin of xenon detected at the IMS stations. Numerous studies undertaken in the past enabled linking these detections to non Treaty-relevant activities and identifying main contributors. Presence and quantity of xenon isotopes at the stations is hence a result of an interplay of emission patterns and atmospheric circulation. In this presentation we analyse the presence or absence of radioactive xenon at selected stations from an angle of such an interplay. We attempt to classify the stations according to similarity of detection patterns, examine seasonality in those patterns and link them to large scale or local meteorological phenomena. The studies are undertaken using crude hypotheses on emission patterns from known sources and atmospheric transport modelling simulations prepared with the FLEXPART model.

  19. Metal-organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M; Plonka, Anna M; Motkuri, Radha K; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal-organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing. PMID:27291101

  20. Characteristics of the 2.65 {mu}m atomic xenon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.

    1995-10-01

    The laser characteristics of the 2.65 {mu}m xenon laser transition are reviewed. Measured and extrapolated laser efficiency in nuclear pumped and electron beam pumped system is reported. Previous research has indicated that the reported power efficiency is between 0.1 and 2 percent.

  1. Effects of xenon cover gas in CO/sub 2/ laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, T.L.

    1980-07-01

    Weld spatter in CO/sub 2/ laser welding is detrimental to miniature components. The effects of using xenon gas as an inert laser welding atmosphere to reduce weld spatter are discussed. The laser plume characteristics, weld penetration, and weld spatter are evaluated.

  2. Nuclear spin-spin coupling in a van der Waals-bonded system: xenon dimer.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Juha; Hanni, Matti; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2013-03-14

    Nuclear spin-spin coupling over van der Waals bond has recently been observed via the frequency shift of solute protons in a solution containing optically hyperpolarized (129)Xe nuclei. We carry out a first-principles computational study of the prototypic van der Waals-bonded xenon dimer, where the spin-spin coupling between two magnetically non-equivalent isotopes, J((129)Xe - (131)Xe), is observable. We use relativistic theory at the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-density-functional theory levels using novel completeness-optimized Gaussian basis sets and choosing the functional based on a comparison with correlated ab initio methods at the nonrelativistic level. J-coupling curves are provided at different levels of theory as functions of the internuclear distance in the xenon dimer, demonstrating cross-coupling effects between relativity and electron correlation for this property. Calculations on small Xe clusters are used to estimate the importance of many-atom effects on J((129)Xe - (131)Xe). Possibilities of observing J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in liquid xenon are critically examined, based on molecular dynamics simulation. A simplistic spherical model is set up for the xenon dimer confined in a cavity, such as in microporous materials. It is shown that the on the average shorter internuclear distance enforced by the confinement increases the magnitude of the coupling as compared to the bulk liquid case, rendering J((129)Xe - (131)Xe) in a cavity a feasible target for experimental investigation. PMID:23514495

  3. Metal–organic framework with optimally selective xenon adsorption and separation

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debasis; Simon, Cory M.; Plonka, Anna M.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xianyin; Smit, Berend; Parise, John B.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is among the most viable alternatives to our current fossil fuel-based energy economy. The mass deployment of nuclear energy as a low-emissions source requires the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel to recover fissile materials and mitigate radioactive waste. A major concern with reprocessing used nuclear fuel is the release of volatile radionuclides such as xenon and krypton that evolve into reprocessing facility off-gas in parts per million concentrations. The existing technology to remove these radioactive noble gases is a costly cryogenic distillation; alternatively, porous materials such as metal–organic frameworks have demonstrated the ability to selectively adsorb xenon and krypton at ambient conditions. Here we carry out a high-throughput computational screening of large databases of metal–organic frameworks and identify SBMOF-1 as the most selective for xenon. We affirm this prediction and report that SBMOF-1 exhibits by far the highest reported xenon adsorption capacity and a remarkable Xe/Kr selectivity under conditions pertinent to nuclear fuel reprocessing. PMID:27291101

  4. A note on the biological activity of the noble gas compound xenon trioxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Smith, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of xenon trioxide for toxicity in the few common oxidants using three bioassays. On a molar basis XeO3 and HOCl were similar, but XeO3 was less active than expected when comparisons were based on normality.

  5. The search for an E(5) critical-point nucleus among the stable xenon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. E.; Ross, T. J.; Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ashley, S. F.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-10-01

    A critical-point has been proposed to exist within the shape/phase transition of the U(5), spherical, and O(6), γ-soft rotor, limits of the IBM. The xenon isotopes exhibit such a transition and have, therefore, been proposed as a chain in which to search for the E(5) critical-point symmetry. The candidacy for an E(5) nucleus has been largely based on the decays of the excited 0+ states, which for some of the xenon isotopes were not yet known. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory have been performed using highly enriched (>99.9%) 130Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe and 136Xe gases converted to solid xenon difluorides. From these measurements, new excited 0+ states and their decays were identified, level lifetimes were measured, and transition probabilities were determined. This new information allows definitive conclusions to be drawn about the occurrence of the E(5) symmetry within the stable xenon isotopes. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1305801.

  6. The physics of background discrimination in liquid xenon, and first results from Xenon10 in the hunt for WIMP dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Carl Eric

    2009-06-01

    The WIMP limit set by the Xenon10 experiment in 2007 signals a new era in direct detection of dark matter, with several large-scale liquid target detectors now under construction. A major challenge in these detectors will be to understand backgrounds at the level necessary to claim a positive WIMP signal. In liquid xenon, these backgrounds are dominated by electron recoils, which may be distinguished from the WIMP signal (nuclear recoils) by their higher charge-to-light ratio. During the construction and operation of Xenon10, the prototype detector Xed probed the physics of this discrimination. Particle interactions in liquid xenon both ionize and excite xenon atoms, giving charge and scintillation signals, respectively. Some fraction of ions recombine, reducing the charge signal and creating additional scintillation. The charge-to-light ratio, determined by the initial exciton-ion ratio and the ion recombination fraction, provides the basis for discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils. Intrinsic fluctuations in the recombination fraction limit discrimination. Changes in recombination induce an exact anti-correlation between charge and light, and when calibrated this anti-correlation distinguishes recombination fluctuations from uncorrelated fluctuations in the measured signals. We determine the mean recombination and recombination fluctuations as a function of energy and applied field for electron and nuclear recoils, finding that recombination fluctuations are already the limiting factor for discrimination above ~12 keVr (nuclear recoil energy). Below 12 keVr statistical fluctuations in the number of scintillation photons counted dominate, and we project a x6 improvement in background rejection with a x2 increase in light collection efficiency. We also build a simple recombination model that successfully reproduces the mean recombination in electron and nuclear recoils, including the surprising reversal of the expected trend for recombination with

  7. Carbon dioxide elimination and regeneration of resources in a microwave plasma torch.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Han S; Kwak, Hyoung S; Hong, Yong C

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas as a working gas produces a stable plasma-torch by making use of 2.45 GHz microwaves. The temperature of the torch flame is measured by making use of optical spectroscopy and a thermocouple device. Two distinctive regions are exhibited, a bright, whitish region of a high-temperature zone and a bluish, dimmer region of a relatively low-temperature zone. The bright, whitish region is a typical torch based on plasma species where an analytical investigation indicates dissociation of a substantial fraction of carbon dioxide molecules, forming carbon monoxides and oxygen atoms. The emission profiles of the oxygen atoms and the carbon monoxide molecules confirm the theoretical predictions of carbon dioxide disintegration in the torch. Various hydrocarbon materials may be introduced into the carbon dioxide torch, regenerating new resources and reducing carbon dioxide concentration in the torch. As an example, coal powders in the carbon dioxide torch are converted into carbon monoxide according to the reaction of CO2 + C → 2CO, reducing a substantial amount of carbon dioxide concentration in the torch. In this regards, the microwave plasma torch may be one of the best ways of converting the carbon dioxides into useful new materials. PMID:26774765

  8. Design of Solid Form Xenon-124 Target for Producing I-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Kakavand, T.; Shokri Bonab, S.

    2006-07-01

    Recently in Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine Department of NRCAM, at Atomic Energy organization of Iran (AEOI), a system for producing 1-123 via Xe-124 gas target technology, has been constructed and installed. One of the major problems in this system is the highly expensive cost of the enriched Xenon-124 gas. Therefore, saving this gas inside the system is very important. Unfortunately, by accidental rupture of the window foil or bad function of O-rings, the whole Xenon gas will escape from the system immediately. In this paper, by using computer codes; ALICE91, SRIM and doing some calculations we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing I-123 with the above mentioned reactions, but using Xe-124 solid target instead. According to our suggested design, a conical shaped irradiation vessel made of copper with 1 mm thickness, 1 cm outlet diameter, 5 cm length and 12 deg. angle at summit can be fixed inside a liquid nitrogen housing chamber. The Xenon-124 gas will be sent to the inside of this very cold conical trap and eventually deposited on its surface in solid form. Our calculation shows that during bombardment with 17-28 MeV proton energy, the thickness of solidified Xenon layer will remain around .28 mm. Likewise; thermo-dynamical calculation shows that in order to prevent the evaporation of solidified Xenon, the maximum permissible proton beam current for this system should be less than 1.4 {mu}A. According to these working conditions, the production yield of I-123 can be predicted to be around 150 mCi/{mu}Ah. (authors)

  9. Chemically fractionated fission-xenon in meteorites and on the earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukolyukov, Yuri A.; Jessberger, Elmar K.; Meshik, Alexander P.; Vu Minh, Dang; Jordan, Jimmy L.

    1994-07-01

    This is a report on the nature of isotopically anomalous xenon, which has been detected in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. It is extremely enriched in 132Xe, 129Xe, and to a lesser extent in 131Xe. Similar large excesses of 132Xe as well as of 131Xe, 134Xe, and 129Xe have previously been found in material processed in a natural nuclear reactor (Oklo phenomenon). Excess of these isotopes had also been encountered in MORB-glasses, in an ancient Greenland anorthosite. Thus, this Xe-type, which had previously been termed "alien" ( JORDON et al., 1980a) does not seem to be unique. To determine the origin of "alien" Xe, we analysed Xe (a) in neutron irradiated pitchblende and in the irradiation capsule, (b) in non-irradiated extremely fine-grained pitchblende (so-called Colorado-type deposit), and (c) in sandstone taken from the epicentre of an atomic explosion. In addition, the isotopic composition of xenon released by stepwise degassing and after selective dissolving of rocks from the Oklo natural reactor was determined. The results of these dedicated experiments demonstrate that the formation of alien Xe is due to the migration of the radioactive precursors of the stable isotopes 134Xe, 132Xe, 131Xe, and 129Xe. Due to this reason we now call it CFF-Xe - Chemically Fractionated Fission Xenon. Prerequisites for its formation are the simultaneous prevalence of two conditions: (1) fission (of 238U, 235U, and/ or 244Pu) and (2) a physicochemical environment (temperature, pressure, fluidity) at which the precursors of xenon (mainly Te and I) are mobile. Taking into account the occurrence of xenon in meteorites and terrestrial rocks, not all excesses of 129Xe in mantle rocks and natural gases are necessarily connected with the decay of primordial 129I.

  10. Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite.

    PubMed

    Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S

    2012-04-14

    Using the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, we discuss the phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon adsorbed on the graphite basal plane. The calculations have been performed using two- and three-dimensional models of the systems studied. It has been demonstrated that out-of-plane motion does not affect the properties of the films as long as the total density is well below the monolayer completion and at moderate temperatures. For the total densities close to the monolayer completion, the promotion of particles to the second layer considerably affects the film properties. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The melting point of submonolayer films has been shown to exhibit non-monotonous changes with the film composition, and reaches minimum for the xenon concentration of about 50%. At the temperatures below the melting point, the structure of solid phases depends upon the film composition and the temperature; one can also distinguish commensurate and incommensurate phases. Two-dimensional calculations have demonstrated that for the xenon concentration between about 15% and 65% the adsorbed film exhibits the formation of a superstructure, in which each Xe atom is surrounded by six Kr atoms. This superstructure is stable only at very low temperatures and transforms into the mixed commensurate (√3×√3)R30° phase upon the increase of temperature. Such a superstructure does not appear when a three-dimensional model is used. Grand canonical ensemble calculations allowed us to show that for the xenon concentration of about 3% the phase diagram topology of monolayer films changes from the krypton-like (with incipient triple point) to the xenon-like (with ordinary triple point). PMID:22502538

  11. Ultrafast measurements of chlorine dioxide photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ludowise, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    Time-resolved mass spectrometry and time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy are used to study the ultrafast photodissociation dynamics of chlorine dioxide, an important constituent in stratospheric ozone depletion. Chapter 1 introduces these pump/probe techniques, in which a femtosecond pump pulse excites a molecule to a dissociative state. At a later time, a second femtosecond probe pulse ionizes the molecule. The resulting mass and photoelectron spectra are acquired as a function of the delay between the pump and probe pulses, which follows the evolution of the molecule on the excited state. A comparison to other techniques used to study reaction dynamics is discussed. Chapter 2 includes a detailed description of the design and construction of the experimental apparatus, which consists of a femtosecond laser system, a molecular beam time-of-flight spectrometer, and a data acquisition system. The time-of-flight spectrometer is specifically designed to have a short flight distance to maximize the photoelectron collection efficiency without degrading the resolution, which is limited by the bandwidth of the femtosecond laser system. Typical performance of the apparatus is demonstrated in a study of the time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of nitric oxide. The results of the time-resolved mass spectrometry experiments of chlorine dioxide are presented in Chapter 3. Upon excitation to the A {sup 2}A{sub 2} state near 3.2 eV, the molecule dissociates through an indirect two-step mechanism. The direct dissociation channel has been predicted to be open, but is not observed. A quantum beat is observed in the OClO{sup +} species, which is described as a vibrational coherence of the optically prepared A {sup 2}A{sub 2} state. Chapter 4 presents the results of the time-resolved photoelectron experiments of chlorine dioxide. At short delay time, the quantum beat of the OClO{sup +} species is observed in the X {sup 1}A{sub 1} state of the ion. At infinite delay, the signal

  12. Effect of the structural anisotropy and lateral strain on the surface phonons of monolayer xenon on Cu(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppenfeld, P.; Büchel, M.; David, R.; Comsa, G.; Ramseyer, C.; Girardet, C.

    1994-11-01

    The phonon-dispersion curves for a xenon monolayer adsorbed on Cu(110) have been measured using inelastic He scattering. The size and geometry of the substrate unit cell introduces an anisotropic distortion of the xenon monolayer, which is reflected in a strong deformation of the phonon-dispersion curves with respect to the floating two-dimensional (2D) xenon layer. This effect is reproduced in a 2D phonon calculation, based on the Lennard-Jones Xe pair potential. In this way a microscopic relationship between lattice strain, force constants, and surface stress can be established.

  13. Xenon migration in UO2 under irradiation studied by SIMS profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, B.; Moncoffre, N.; Pipon, Y.; Bérerd, N.; Garnier, C.; Raimbault, L.; Sainsot, P.; Epicier, T.; Delafoy, C.; Fraczkiewicz, M.; Gaillard, C.; Toulhoat, N.; Perrat-Mabilon, A.; Peaucelle, C.

    2013-09-01

    During Pressurized Water Reactor operation, around 25% of the created Fission Products (FP) are Xenon and Krypton. They have a low solubility in the nuclear fuel and can either (i) agglomerate into bubbles which induce mechanical stress in the fuel pellets or (ii) be released from the pellets, increasing the pressure within the cladding and decreasing the thermal conductivity of the gap between pellets and cladding. After fifty years of studies on the nuclear fuel, all mechanisms of Fission Gas Release (FGR) are still not fully understood. This paper aims at studying the FGR mechanisms by decoupling thermal and irradiation effects and by assessing the Xenon behavior for the first time by profilometry. Samples are first implanted with 136Xe at 800 keV corresponding to a projected range of 140 nm. They are then either annealed in the temperature range 1400-1600 °C, or irradiated with heavy energy ions (182 MeV Iodine) at Room Temperature (RT), 600 °C or 1000 °C. Depth profiles of implanted Xenon in UO2 are determined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). It is shown that Xenon is mobile during irradiation at 1000 °C. In contrast, thermal treatments do not induce any Xenon migration process: these results are correlated to the formation of Xenon bubbles observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. At depths lower than about 40 nm (zone 1), no bubbles are observed, At depths in between 40 nm and 110 nm (zone 2), a large number of small bubbles (around 2 nm in diameter) can be observed. By comparing with the SRIM profile, it appears that this area corresponds to the maximum of the defect profile, The third zone displays two bubble populations. The first population has the same size than the bubbles present in zone 2. The bubble size of the second population is significantly larger (up to around 10 nm). A STEM micrograph is presented in Fig. 4. It highlights the Xenon bubbles more clearly. It appears that the largest bubbles are located mainly near dislocations

  14. Single Molecule Conductance of Oligothiophene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Emma J.

    to sample similar conformers. This work demonstrates that the conductance of bithiophene displays a strong dependence on the conformational fluctuations accessible within a given junction configuration, and that the symmetry of such small molecules can significantly influence their conductance behavior. Next, the single-molecule conductance of a family of oligothiophenes comprising one to six thiophene units was measured. An anomalous behavior was found: the peak of the conductance histogram distribution did not follow a clear exponential decay with increasing number of thiophene units in the chain. The electronic properties of the materials were characterized by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry to gain an understanding of the factors affecting the conductance of these molecules. Different conformers in the junction were postulated to be a contributing factor to the anomalous trend in the observed conductance as a function of molecule length. Then, the electronic properties of the thiophene-1,1-dioxide unit were investigated. These motifs have become synthetically accessible in the last decade, due to Rozen's unprecedentedly potent oxidizing reagent - HOF˙CH 3CN - which has been shown to be powerful yet selective enough to oxidize thiophenes in various environments. The resulting thiophene-1,1-dioxides show great promise for electronic devices. The oxidation chemistry of thiophenes was expanded and tuning of the frontier energy levels was demonstrated through combining electron poor and electron rich units. Finally, charge carriers in single-molecule junctions were shown to be tunable within a family of molecules containing these thiophene-1,1-dioxide (TDO) building blocks. Oligomers of TDO were designed in order to increase electron affinity, maintain delocalized frontier orbitals, while significantly decreasing the transport gap. Through thermopower measurements, the dominant charge carriers were shown to change from holes to electrons as the number of

  15. 129Xe NMR of xenon adsorbed on the molecular sieves AlPO 4-11 and SAPO-11. Chemical shift anisotropy related to the asymmetry of the adsorption zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springuel-Huet, M. A.; Fraissard, J.

    1989-01-01

    The form of the 129Xe NMR signal of xenon adsorbed at low concentration on the molecular sieves SAPO-11 and AlPO 4-11 corresponds to a highly anisotropic chemical shift which expresses the asymmetry of the channels in which the xenon is located. To the asymmetry of the xenon-wall interaction is added that of the xenon-xenon interaction when the channels are largely filled.

  16. Ion-Molecule Reactions in Gas Phase Radiation Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Clive

    1981-01-01

    Discusses some aspects of the radiation chemistry of gases, focusing on the ion-molecule and charge neutralization reactions which set study of the gas phase apart. Uses three examples that illustrate radiolysis, describing the radiolysis of (1) oxygen, (2) carbon dioxide, and (3) acetylene. (CS)

  17. Physics of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Many varieties of molecule have been detected in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. The processes by which these molecules are formed and destroyed are now broadly understood (see INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY). These molecules are important components of galaxies in two ways. Firstly, radiation emitted by molecules enables us to trace the presence of diffuse gas, to infer its physical properties and ...

  18. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  19. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes; Zhang, Yinzhi; Kuchta, Matthew E.; Andresen, John M.; Fauth, Dan J.

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  20. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  1. Electrochemical cell for obtaining oxygen from carbon dioxide atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Rast, H. E.; Rogers, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    For manned missions to Mars to become a reality, an efficient and reliable means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere will be required. Otherwise, the high cost of transporting the oxygen needed to sustain the astronauts will severely restrict the expedition to the martian surface. Recently, the use of electrochemical devices has been explored as a means of obtaining oxygen from the carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere. In these devices, oxygen ions diffuse through solid oxide membranes, thus, separating oxygen from the other gases presented. This phenomenon has only recently been explored as a means of obtaining large quantities of oxygen from toxic atmospheres, although first observed by Walter nernst in 1899. Nernst observed that stabilized zirconia will conduct oxygen ions when an electrical potential is applied across metallic electrodes applied to the ceramic membrane. Diatomic oxygen molecules are dissociated at the positive electrode/electrolyte interface. The oxygen ions enter the ceramic body due to the ion density gradient which is produced by the electrical potential across the electrolytic membrane. Once the ions have diffused through the membrane, they reform diatomic oxygen molecules at the anode. The separation of oxygen from carbon dioxide is achieved by the combination of thermal and electrochemical processes. The thermal decomposition of carbon dioxide (at 1000 C) results in the production of carbon monoxide and oxygen by the reaction.

  2. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  3. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  4. Carbon dioxide adsorbent study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study was initiated on the feasibility of using the alkali metal carbonate - bi-carbonate solid-gas reaction to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere of an EVA life support system. The program successfully demonstrates that carbon dioxide concentrations could be maintained below 0.1 mole per cent using this chemistry. Further a practical method for distributing the carbonates in a coherent sheet form capable of repeated regeneration (50 cycles) at modest temperatures (423 K), without loss in activity was also demonstrated. Sufficiently high reaction rates were shown to be possible with the carbonate - bi-carbonate system such that EVA hardware could be readily designed. Experimental and design data were presented on the basis of which two practical units were designed. In addition to conventional thermally regenerative systems very compact units using ambient temperature cyclic vacuum regeneration may also be feasible. For a one man - 8 hour EVA unit regenerated thermally at the base ship a system volume of 14 liters is estimated.

  5. Measurement of the Charge and Light Yield of Low Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Xenon at Different Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Matthew; Aprile, Elena; de Perio, Patrick; Goetzke, Luke; Greene, Zach; Lin, Qing; Messina, Marcello; Plante, Guillaume; Rizzo, Alfio; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Dual-phase liquid xenon detectors continue to lead in the search for the direct detection of dark matter. Characterization of the response of liquid xenon to low energy (<= 20 keV) nuclear recoils is essential to establish the sensitivity of these detectors to dark matter. The neriX detector at Columbia University is a dual-phase time projection chamber that is optimized for simultaneous measurements of light and charge from these low-energy interactions. A coincidence technique is employed to extract the light and charge yield from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon as a function of energy deposited and applied electric field. In this talk, we will present preliminary results from the light and charge yield measurements. We acknowledge continued support of the XENON Dark Matter program at Columbia University by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Design and First Results of the CoDeX Liquid-Xenon Compton-Imaging Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Brian; Cahn, Sidney; Bernard, Ethan; Boulton, Elizabeth; Destefano, Nicholas; Edwards, Blair; Hackenburg, Ariana; Horn, Markus; Larsen, Nicole; Nikkel, James; Wahl, Christopher; Gai, Moshe; McKinsey, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    CoDeX (Compton-imaging Detector in Xenon) is an R&D Compton gamma-ray imaging detector that uses 30 kg of xenon in a two-phase time projection chamber. Time projection relative to the initial scintillation signal provides the vertical interaction positions, and either PMT-sensed gas electroluminescence or a charge-sensitive amplifier quantifies the drifted ionization signal. Detector features to enable Compton imaging are a pair of instrumented wire grids added to sense the horizontal position of clouds of drifted electrons that traverse the detector. Each wire is individually amplified in the cold xenon environment. Design choices addressing the thermodynamic and xenon purity constraints of this system will be discussed. We will also discuss the mechanical designs, engineering challenges, and performance of this Compton-imaging detector.

  7. Studies of K-Ar dating and xenon from extinct radioactivities in breccia 14318; implications for early lunar history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Alexander, E. C., Jr.; Davis, P. K.; Srinivasan, B.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar breccia 14318 is one of three Apollo-14 breccias containing substantial amounts of parentless xenon from the spontaneous fission of extinct Pu-244. The argon and xenon contained in this breccia were studied by stepwise heating of pristine and neutron-irradiated samples. The isotopic composition of xenon from fission, determined by an improved method, is shown to be from Pu-244. Concentrations of this fissiogenic xenon are in substantial excess (15-fold) of what could be produced by spontaneous fission of U-238. The breccia is found to contain abundant trapped argon with an Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio of roughly 14. Otherwise, the argon is radiogenic and gives a convincing K-Ar age of 3.69 plus or minus 0.09 b.y. by the stepwise Ar-40/Ar-39 method, nearly in agreement with ages for other Apollo-14 breccias.

  8. The Development of the improved equipment for the measurement radionuclides of xenon in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, S. A.; Dubasov, Y. V.

    2009-04-01

    The Radium Khlopin Institute have developed the mobile (vehicle based) equipment attended for the providing of the monitoring of radioactive xenon isotopes in atmospheric air on territories, neighboring with NPP. This equipment comprises the improved sampling installation with sample-processing unit and specialized spectrometer of β-γ-coincidences. The principal specificity of sampling installation is the using of the gas-cooling machine attended for the reaching of the cryogenic temperatures, which works without helium, using for cooling the processed air itself. The capacity of sampling reaches 20 cubic meters per hour with the xenon extraction factor of 75%. The duration of the sampling cycle forms 3 - 7 hours depending of the xenon volume requirements. The sample-processing unit is designed on preparative gas chromatograph scheme. Duration of sample-processing procedure does not exceed one and half hour. The volume of the prepared sample is around half liter, it contains 3 - 7 cubic centimeters of the xenon, depending of sampling cycle time. For measurements of xenon radioisotopes containing in obtained sample, was developed a β-γ-coincidences spectrometer on the base of the "ORTEC" HP Ge detector equipped with scintillation β-detector designed as Marinelli chamber of 700 cm3 volume. This spectrometer allows to reduce the ambient background more than in 20 times, with γ-channel efficiency reduction not more than in 1.5 times. The minimum detectable activity of 133Хе (MDA), evaluated by Currie formula for probability 95 % is 0.05 Bq at the exposition of 20 hours. Spectrometer is also intended for determination of the stable krypton and xenon concentrations in β-chamber by X-ray-fluorescent method. Therefore, in a shield of the spectrometer collimating pinhole is made and 241Am source is installed. To improve the sensitivity of the analysis beryllium window is made in β-chamber wall, adjoining to the HPGe detector. X-ray-fluorescent analysis allows to

  9. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  10. Carbon dioxide/dewpoint monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luczkowski, S.

    1977-01-01

    The portable Carbon Dioxide/Dewpoint Monitor was designed to permit measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure and dewpoint and ambient gas temperature at any place within the Saturn Workshop. It required no vehicle interface other than storage. All components necessary for operation, including battery power source, were incorporated in the instrument.

  11. Coral reefs and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

  12. [Action modes of chlorine dioxide--a review].

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingken; Lai, Jieling; Zhan, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a highly effective disinfectant for food and potable water treatment. Till now, the action mode of ClO2 is still unclear. ClO2, can denature proteins by oxidizing tyrosine, tryptophan, and cysteine. We reviewed the pathways by which ClO02 reacts with important bio-molecules, as well as the primary target sites at individual cellular level of ClO2-induced biocidal effects. PMID:22799207

  13. Left ventricular performance and cerebral haemodynamics during xenon anaesthesia. A transoesophageal echocardiography and transcranial Doppler sonography study.

    PubMed

    Luttropp, H H; Romner, B; Perhag, L; Eskilsson, J; Fredriksen, S; Werner, O

    1993-12-01

    The effects of xenon anaesthesia on myocardial function and cerebral blood flow velocities were investigated with transoesophageal echocardiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. Seventeen ASA 1 patients undergoing open cholecystectomy (n = 16) or abdominal hysterectomy (n = 1) were studied. Anaesthesia with 65% xenon in oxygen was induced by ventilating the lungs through a circle system with minimal fresh gas flow. The echocardiographically obtained mean (SD) fractional area change in a short axis view of the left ventricle at the level of the papillary muscles was 65 (10)% (n = 14) before xenon. There was no significant change after 5, 10 and 15 min of xenon anaesthesia. Cerebral blood flow velocities were unchanged during the first 5 min of xenon anaesthesia, but were significantly increased in the left and right middle, and the right anterior, cerebral arteries after 15 and 30 min (n = 16) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, xenon anaesthesia had no adverse effect on myocardial function, but probably increased cerebral flood flow. PMID:7904428

  14. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature andmore » 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.« less

  15. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature and 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.

  16. Development of a high-resolution room-temperature compressed-xenon cylindrical ionization-chamber gamma radiation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepper, Gary C.; Losee, Jon R.; Palmer, Robert L.

    1998-07-01

    Highly compressed and purified xenon is emerging as an important detection medium for high resolution, room temperature gamma radiation spectroscopy. Detectors based on compressed xenon offer a unique combination of thermal stability, high energy resolution and large volume. Furthermore, fluid based detectors are not susceptible to radiation damage, and can be constructed in a variety of geometries. However, some important factors have delayed the development of practical xenon detectors for widespread use. These factors include the relatively high operational pressures and voltages and the need to maintain extremely high xenon purity. We have recently developed a 0.7 liter gridded ionization chamber xenon gamma radiation detector in a cylindrical geometry. The detector operates at room temperature and provides an intrinsic energy resolution of 1.8% at 662 keV which is five times greater than scintillation based spectrometers. The detector design and performance variables are discussed in comparison to a previous detector constructed in a planar geometry. Our results indicate that practical xenon detectors can now be developed for a wide variety of applications.

  17. Adsorption of two gas molecules at a single metal site in a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Runčevski, Tomče; Kapelewski, Matthew T; Torres-Gavosto, Rodolfo M; Tarver, Jacob D; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    One strategy to markedly increase the gas storage capacity of metal-organic frameworks is to introduce coordinatively-unsaturated metal centers capable of binding multiple gas molecules. Herein, we provide an initial demonstration that a single metal site within a framework can support the terminal coordination of two gas molecules-specifically hydrogen, methane, or carbon dioxide. PMID:27284590

  18. Adsorption of two gas molecules at a single metal site in a metal–organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Runčevski, Tomče; Kapelewski, Matthew T.; Torres-Gavosto, Rodolfo M.; Tarver, Jacob D.; Brown, Craig M.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    One strategy to markedly increase the gas storage capacity of metal-organic frameworks is to introduce coordinatively-unsaturated metal centers capable of binding multiple gas molecules. Herein, we provide an initial demonstration that a single metal site within a framework can support the terminal coordination of two gas molecules--specifically hydrogen, methane, or carbon dioxide.

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  20. Measurement of the Field-Dependent Response of Liquid Xenon to Low-Energy Electronic Recoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetzke, Luke; Anthony, Matthew; Aprile, Elena; de Perio, Patrick; Greene, Zach; Lin, Qing; Messina, Marcello; Plante, Guillaume; Rizzo, Alfio; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    The search for the direct detection of dark matter continues to be led by experiments employing liquid xenon (LXe) as the detection medium. Still, few measurements have been made of the response of LXe to low-energy interactions as a function of energy and electric field. The neriX detector at Columbia University is a dual-phase time projection chamber optimized for simultaneous measurements of light and charge from low-energy interactions in LXe. In this talk, we will present the results of measurements of the light and charge yield of electronic recoils in LXe using neriX. The Compton coincidence technique is employed to extract the yields as a function of energy deposited at different electric fields. We gratefully acknowledge the continued support of the XENON Dark Matter program at Columbia University by the National Science Foundation.

  1. [EFFECTS OF XENON ANESTHESIA ON HEMODYNAMICS: WHAT DO WE KNOW UNTIL 2015? (REVIEW)].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A Yu; Kuleshov, O V; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is known as an anesthetic in many ways closer to the ideal. In recent years, despite a number of objective reasons limiting its widespread use, the search continues for understanding how xenon influences on central hemodynamic parameters and regional blood flow. Analysis of several dozen of modern articles revealed many differences between the earlier and present data, emphasizing the prospect offurther research. According to Russian authors Xe has a positive inotropic effect on the myocardium and increases cardiac output. Foreign researchers in animal experiments notice vasoconstrictor properties of Xe with increased vascular resistance in the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The place of Xe as an anesthetic in the anesthetist's arsenal yet to be seen. PMID:27025141

  2. Numerical simulation of the Zeeman effect in neutral xenon from NIR diode-laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ngom, Baielo B.; Smith, Timothy B.; Huang Wensheng; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2008-07-15

    We present a numerical method for simulating neutral xenon absorption spectra from diode-laser spectroscopy of the Zeeman-split 6S{sup '}[1/2]{yields}6P{sup '}[1/2] line at 834.682 nm-air in a galvatron's plasma. To simulate the spectrum, we apply a Voigt profile to a spectrum of {sigma}-transition lines of even- and odd-numbered isotopes computed from anomalous Zeeman and nonlinear Zeeman hyperfine structure theories, respectively. Simulated spectra agree well with Zeeman-split spectra measured from 30 to 300 G. A commercial nonlinear least-squares solver (LSQNONLIN) returns field strengths and translational plasma kinetic temperatures that minimize the error between simulated and experimental spectra. This work is a preamble to computing magnetic field topology and the speed distribution of neutral xenon particles in the plume of a Hall thruster from diode laser-induced fluorescence.

  3. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for 1-30 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    A study of the primary scintillation light in liquid xenon excited by 241 Am alpha particles and 207 Bi internal conversion electrons are discussed. The time dependence and the intensity of the light at different field strengths have been measured with a specifically designed chamber, equipped with a CaF sub 2 light transmitting window coupled to a UV sensitive PMT. The time correlation between the fast light signal and the charge signal shows that the scintillation signals produced in liquid xenon by ionizing particles provides an ideal trigger in a Time Projection type LXe detector aiming at full imaging of complex gamma-ray events. Researchers also started Monte Carlo calculations to establish the performance of a LXe imaging telescope for high energy gamma-rays.

  4. A field-deployable gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing high pressure xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, Bo; Kane, W.R.; Lemley, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Most nuclear materials in the nuclear energy, safeguards, arms control, and nonproliferation regimes emit gamma rays with a unique signature. Currently, two categories of spectrometers are available to evaluate these materials: (1) Semiconductors, with excellent energy resolution, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. (2) Scintillation detectors, which function at ambient temperature, but with poor energy resolution. A detector which functions for extended periods in a range of environments, with an energy resolution superior to that of a scintillation spectrometer, would have evident utility. Recently, in the research community, such a device has evolved, an ionization chamber utilizing xenon gas at very high pressure (60 atm). Its energy resolution, typically, is 20 keV for the 661 keV gamma ray of {sup 137}Cs. With high xenon density and its high atomic number (Z=54), and superior energy resolution, its sensitivity is comparable to that of a scintillator.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF A LIQUID XENON CALORIMETER CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR THE MEG EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Iwamoto, T.; Mihara, S.; Mori, T.; Nishiguchi, H.; Otani, W.; Sawada, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-16

    The {mu}-particle rare decay physics experiment, the MU-E-GAMMA (MEG) experiment, will soon be operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Zurich. To achieve the extremely high sensitivity required to detect gamma rays, 800 L of liquid xenon is used as the medium in the calorimeter, viewed by 830 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) immersed in it. The required liquid xenon purity is of the order of ppb of water, and is obtained by using a cryogenic centrifugal pump and cold molecular sieves. The heat load of the calorimeter at 165 K is to be approximately 120 W, which is removed by a pulse-tube cryocooler developed at KEK and built by Iwatani Industrial Gas Corp., with a cooling power of about 200 W at 165 K. The cryogenic system is also equipped with a 1000-L dewar. This paper describes the results of an initial performance test of each cryogenic component.

  6. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-01

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl2 deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl2 in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  7. Xenon and Other Volatile Anesthetics Change Domain Structure in Model Lipid Raft Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Weinrich, Michael; Worcester, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 160 years, but the molecular mechanisms of action continue to be investigated. Direct interactions with ion channels received much attention after it was found that anesthetics do not change the structure of homogeneous model membranes. However, it was recently found that halothane, a prototypical anesthetic, changes domain structure of a binary lipid membrane. The noble gas xenon is an excellent anesthetic and provides a pivotal test of the generality of this finding, extended to ternary lipid raft mixtures. We report that xenon and conventional anesthetics change the domain equilibrium in two canonical ternary lipid raft mixtures. These findings demonstrate a membrane-mediated mechanism whereby inhalation anesthetics can affect the lipid environment of trans-membrane proteins. PMID:24299622

  8. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, N. A.; Cappelli, M. A.; Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-11-15

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s{sup Prime }[1/2]{sub 1}{sup 0}-6p{sup Prime }[3/2]{sub 2} xenon atomic transition at {lambda}= 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz.

  9. Development of a xenon polarizer for magnetometry in neutron electric dipole moment experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Troy

    Next generation electric dipole moment experiments require precise knowledge of the local magnetic fields in the experimental volume. Hyperpolarized xenon-129 has been proposed as a comagnetometer gas to be used in the neutron electric dipole moment experiment planned for TRIUMF. A flow through xenon polarizer was constructed and tested, and the hyperpolarized Xe-129 produced was transported to and characterized using a new AFP-NMR spectrometer. The polarization measured in the external AFP-NMR spectrometer was (12 +/- 4)%. The longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 was found to be (77 +/- 24) s in the experimental NMR volume, limited by leaks and field inhomogeneity. This represents good progress towards the eventual system for nEDM experiments where polarizations greater than 50% and T1, T2 relaxation times greater than 1000 s are expected.

  10. Radiolytic generation of radical cations in xenon matrices. Tetramethylcyclopropane radical cation and its transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, X.Z.; Trifunac, A.D. )

    1990-04-05

    Radiolytic generation of radical cations in xenon matrices containing electron scavengers is illustrated by studying the 1,1,2,2-tetramethylcyclopropane radical cation. Dilute and concentrated solutions of tetramethylcyclopropane in xenon without electron scavengers and neat tetramethylcyclopropane yielded neutral radicals upon {gamma}-irradiation. Speculation on the mechanisms of radical formation is presented. The radical species observed in the {gamma}-irradiation of neat tetramethylcyclopropane appears to be identical with the paramagnetic species observed in CF{sub 2}ClCFCl{sub 2} above 120 K, suggesting that a neutral radical rather than the ring-opened distonic radical cation is observed in the CF{sub 2}ClCFCl{sub 2} matrix.

  11. Flash xenon CPV simulator with low-cost elastic bent-trough mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Noboru; Okamoto, Kazuya; Ijiro, Toshikazu; Kiryu, Mitsugu; Yoshida, Takanori

    2013-09-01

    In the research and development of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems, a highly collimated artificial sunlight source with a wide irradiated area is very helpful in the reliable evaluation of module efficiency and optical performance. To collimate the light, a conventional flash xenon CPV simulator uses an expensive large concave mirror. This paper introduces a new flash xenon CPV simulator that consists of two low-cost elastic bent-trough mirrors. The prototype simulator achieved an irradiance deviation of less than 10%, collimation of 0.228° - 0.330°, and good spectral matching at an irradiated area of 700 mm × 500 mm. The major drawback of the present concept is that the flash lamp must provide higher emissive power than the conventional method because of the light attenuation caused by the two reflections from the mirrors.

  12. Ab initio electron scattering cross-sections and transport in liquid xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, G. J.; McEachran, R. P.; Cocks, D. G.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Dujko, S.; White, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    Ab initio fully differential cross-sections for electron scattering in liquid xenon are developed from a solution of the Dirac–Fock scattering equations, using a recently developed framework (Boyle et al 2015 J. Chem. Phys. 142 154507) which considers multipole polarizabilities, a non-local treatment of exchange, and screening and coherent scattering effects. A multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation accounting for the full anisotropic nature of the differential cross-section is used to calculate transport properties of excess electrons in liquid xenon. The results were found to agree to within 25% of the measured mobilities and characteristic energies over the reduced field range of 10‑4–1 Td. The accuracies are comparable to those achieved in the gas phase. A simple model, informed by highly accurate gas-phase cross-sections, is presented to improve the liquid cross-sections, which was found to enhance the accuracy of the transport coefficient calculations.

  13. Time-synchronized continuous wave laser-induced fluorescence on an oscillatory xenon discharge.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, N A; Cappelli, M A; Hargus, W A

    2012-11-01

    A novel approach to time-synchronizing laser-induced fluorescence measurements to an oscillating current in a 60 Hz xenon discharge lamp using a continuous wave laser is presented. A sample-hold circuit is implemented to separate out signals at different phases along a current cycle, and is followed by a lock-in amplifier to pull out the resulting time-synchronized fluorescence trace from the large background signal. The time evolution of lower state population is derived from the changes in intensity of the fluorescence excitation line shape resulting from laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the 6s(')[1/2](1)(0)-6p(')[3/2](2) xenon atomic transition at λ = 834.68 nm. Results show that the lower state population oscillates at twice the frequency of the discharge current, 120 Hz. PMID:23206061

  14. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1x10{sup 13} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The Xe{sup +}-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p{sup 6} {sup 2}S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  15. Radiogenic Xenon-129 in Silicate Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A.; Kurat, G.; Pravdivtseva, O.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron meteorites present a challenge for the I-Xe dating technique because it is usually the inclusions, not metal, that contain radiogenic xenon and iodine. Silicate inclusions are frequent in only types IAB and IIE, and earlier studies of irons have demonstrated that I-Xe system can survive intact in these inclusions preserving valuable age information. Our previous studies of the I-Xe record in pyroxene grains from Toluca iron suggested an intriguing relationship between apparent I-Xe ages and (Mg+Fe)/Fe ratios. The I-Xe system in K-feldspar inclusions from Colomera (IIE) had the fingerprint of slow cooling, with an indicated cooling rate of 2-4 C/Ma. Here we present studies of the iodine-xenon system in a silicate-graphite-metal (SiGrMet) inclusion of the IA Campo del Cielo iron meteorite from the collection of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna.

  16. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Börje

    2004-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

  17. Carbon Dioxide Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of the south polar residual cap at full MOC resolution, 1.5 m (5 ft) per pixel. During each of the three summers since the start of the MGS mapping mission in March 1999, the scarps that form mesas and pits in the 'Swiss cheese'-like south polar terrain have retreated an average of about 3 meters (1 yard). The material is frozen carbon dioxide; another 3 meters or so of each scarp is expected to be removed during the next summer, in late 2005. This image is located near 86.0oS, 350.8oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (0.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper left.

  18. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy. PMID:26081307

  19. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  20. Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)