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Sample records for xenon gas mixture

  1. Shock Compression of Cryogenic Noble Gas Mixtures: Xenon - Krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Seth; Magyar, Rudolph; Lemke, Raymond; Mattsson, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    In past work, we have examined the multi-Mbar response of cryogenically cooled liquid xenon and liquid krypton measuring their Hugoniots to 8 Mbar. These results were utilized in the development of new EOS models for Xe and Kr to use in high energy density physics applications. The previous work demonstrated the usefulness of integrating high accuracy shock compression experiments with DFT to generate the basis for equation of state (EOS) models. In many physics applications, such as Z-pinch experiments, gas mixtures are used instead. However, we do not have reliable experimental data on these mixtures to provide informed decisions about the EOS models or mixture rules. To improve our understanding of mixtures at extreme conditions, we performed dynamic compression experiments using Sandia's Z - facility on a 70/30 molar ratio Kr/Xe cryogenically cooled liquid mixture. We measured the Hugoniot state and reshock state of the liquid mixture to several Mbar. The experimental data validated the DFT simulations for identical molar ratio mixtures. The combined experimental and DFT results are used to assess the EOS models and test the mixture rules. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. A Method for Calculating Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of a Helium-Xenon Gas Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    A method for calculating viscosity and thermal conductivity of a helium-xenon (He-Xe) gas mixture was employed, and results were compared to AiResearch (part of Honeywell) analytical data. The method of choice was that presented by Hirschfelder with Singh's third-order correction factor applied to thermal conductivity. Values for viscosity and thermal conductivity were calculated over a temperature range of 400 to 1200 K for He-Xe gas mixture molecular weights of 20.183, 39.94, and 83.8 kg/kmol. First-order values for both transport properties were in good agreement with AiResearch analytical data. Third-order-corrected thermal conductivity values were all greater than AiResearch data, but were considered to be a better approximation of thermal conductivity because higher-order effects of mass and temperature were taken into consideration. Viscosity, conductivity, and Prandtl number were then compared to experimental data presented by Taylor.

  3. Fission-fragment excited xenon/rare gas mixtures. II. Small signal gain of the 2. 03 [mu]m xenon transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.; Hays, G.N. )

    1993-04-15

    The results of small signal gain measurements of the 2.03 [mu]m (5[ital d][3/2][sub 1][minus]6[ital p][3/2][sub 1]) xenon transition in fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe, He/Ar/Xe, Ne/Ar/Xe, and He/Ne/Ar/Xe gas mixtures is presented. Time resolved small signal gain was probed using a cw He/Xe discharge laser as a function of total pressure, xenon concentration, pump power, He/Ne/Ar buffer ratio, and impurity concentration. Small signal gains of up to 6%/cm were observed for pump rates of 15 W/cm[sup 3]. Addition of helium and/or neon to the argon buffer increased the width of the laser gain and reduced the absorption observed under some experimental conditions. Experimentally determined gain scaling laws for several gas mixtures are presented.

  4. Fission-fragment excited xenon/rare gas mixtures. I. Laser parameters of the 1. 73 [mu]m xenon transition

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, G.A.; Hays, G.N. )

    1993-04-15

    Laser parameters for the 1.73 [mu]m (5[ital d][3/2][sub 1][minus]6[ital p][5/2][sub 2]) xenon transition in fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe, He/Ar/Xe, Ne/Ar/Xe, and He/Ne/Ar/Xe gas mixtures are presented. Using a cw F center laser, time resolved small signal gain was probed as a function of total pressure, xenon concentration, pump power, He/Ne/Ar buffer ratio and impurity concentration. Small signal gains of up to 2%/cm were observed for pump rates of 30 W/cm[sup 3]. Addition of helium and/or neon to the argon buffer increased the width of the time resolved laser gain pulse and reduced the absorption observed under some experimental conditions. Experimentally determined gain scaling laws for several gas mixtures are presented. The measured small signal gain was coupled with the results of laser cavity measurements to calculate the saturation intensity for several gas mixtures. The addition of helium or neon increases the saturation intensity for several gas mixtures. Laser cavity measurements as well as the gain [times] saturation intensity product indicate that the 1.73 [mu]m power efficiency is approximately 2% for several gas mixtures.

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Electron transport coefficients in SF6 and xenon gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D. M.; Zhu, L. L.; Li, X. G.

    2000-12-01

    The electron swarm growth processes in SF6-Xe gas mixtures have been studied by a pulsed Townsend method over the range 32.24≤E/N≤564.2 Td (1 Td = 10-21 Vm2), where E is the electric field and N is the gas density of the mixture. The variation patterns as a function of the density-reduced electric field of the effective ionization coefficient bar α, electron drift velocity Ve and longitudinal diffusion coefficient DL in SF6-Xe gas mixtures have been given. The dielectric strength of SF6-Xe gas mixtures has also been determined, which varies linearly with SF6 concentration in the gas mixtures.

  6. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. The DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.

  7. Preliminary performance of a 4.97-inch radial turbine operating in a Brayton power system with a helium-xenon gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leroy, M. J., Jr.; Ream, L. W.; Curreri, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    The performance characteristics of the Brayton-rotating-unit's 4.97-inch radial turbine were investigated with the turbine part of a power conversion system. The following system parameters were varied: turbine inlet temperature from 1200 to 1600 F, compressor inlet temperature from 60 to 120 F, compressor outlet pressure from 20 to 45 psia, and shaft speed from 90-110 percent of rated speed (36000 rpm). The working fluid of the system was a gas mixture of helium-xenon with a nominal molecular weight of 83.8. Test results indicate that changes in system conditions have little effect on the turbine efficiency. At the design turbine inlet temperature of 1600 F and compressor inlet temperature of 80 F, an average turbine efficiency of 91 percent was obtained.

  8. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-22

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. In order to validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. Furthermore, the DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.

  9. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Magyar, Rudolph J.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Thomas; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2015-04-22

    Mixtures of light elements with heavy elements are important in inertial confinement fusion. We explore the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at elevated temperature and pressure is used to obtain the thermodynamic state properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. In order to validate these simulations, we have performed shock compression experiments using the Sandia Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with the completion of dissociation in ethane. Furthermore, themore » DFT-based simulation results compare well with the experimental data along the principal Hugoniots and are used to provide insight into the dissociation and temperature along the Hugoniots as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for several compositions suggesting a limiting compression for C-C bonded systems.« less

  10. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Dawn; Magyar, Rudolph; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Mixtures of light and heavy elements arise in inertial confinement fusion and planetary science. We present results on the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT/QMD) at elevated-temperature and pressure is used to obtain the properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate the QMD simulations, we performed high-precision shock compression experiments using Sandia's Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis of the simulations correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with completion of dissociation in ethane. DFT-based simulation results compare well with experimental data and are used to provide insight into the dissociation as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for ethane, Xe-ethane, polymethyl-pentene, and polystyrene, suggesting that a limiting compression exists for C-C bonded systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Analysis of the properties of the molecular-cluster xenon mixture in the mesoscopic phase transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlapov, L. I.; Kassymov, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the results of calculation of the concentrations of cluster subcomponents in a molecular-cluster xenon mixture at temperatures and pressures at which the gas experiences a mesoscopic phase transition. The existence of such a transition follows from singularities of the temperature dependence of viscosity, from the behavior of the cluster thermodiffusion coefficient, and from the features of the distributions of cluster subcomponents in the centrifuge. The mesoscopic phase transition is manifested in the intermediate position of the molecular-cluster mixture between the gas and the liquid judging from its properties in the transition region.

  12. Review of Helium and Xenon Pure Component and Mixture Transport Properties and Recommendation of Estimating Approach for Project Prometheus (Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity)

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, Melissa A.; Vargo, David D.

    2007-01-30

    The selected configuration for the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant was a direct coupling of Brayton energy conversion loop(s) to a single reactor heat source through the gas coolant/working fluid. A mixture of helium (He) and xenon (Xe) gas was assumed as the coolant/working fluid. Helium has superior thermal conductivity while xenon is added to increase the gas atomic weight to benefit turbomachinery design. Both elements have the advantage of being non-reactive. HeXe transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity) were needed to calculate pressure drops and heat transfer rates. HeXe mixture data are limited, necessitating the use of semi-empirical correlations to calculate mixture properties. Several approaches are available. Pure component properties are generally required in the mixture calculations. While analytical methods are available to estimate pure component properties, adequate helium and xenon pure component data are available. This paper compares the sources of pure component data and the approaches to calculate mixture properties. Calculated mixture properties are compared to the limited mixture data and approaches are recommended to calculate both pure component and mixture properties. Given the limited quantity of HeXe mixture data (all at one atmosphere), additional testing may have been required for Project Prometheus to augment the existing data and confirm the selection of mixture property calculation methods.

  13. Hydrodynamic gas mixture separation

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarov, A.A.

    1982-02-10

    The separation of gas mixtures is the basis of many chemical, petrochemical, and gas processes. Classical separation methods (absorption, adsorption, condensation, and freezing) require cumbersome and complex equipment. No adequate solution is provided by the cheapening and simplification of gas-processing apparatus and separation methods by hydration and diffusion. For example, an apparatus for extracting helium from natural gas by diffusion has a throughput of gas containing 0.45% helium of 117,000 m/sup 3//h and in the first stage has teflon membranes working at a pressure difference of 63.3x10/sup 5/ Pa of area 79,000 m/sup 2/, and the specific cost of the apparatus was 8500 dollars per m/sup 3//h of helium. Therefore, vigorous studies are being conducted on new ways of efficient separation of gas mixtures that are cheaper and simpler. Here we consider a novel method of physically essentially reversible separation of gas mixtures, which involves some features of single-phase supersonic flows.

  14. SEPARATION OF GAS MIXTURES BY THERMOACOUSTIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. SWIFT; D.A. GELLER; P.S. SPOOR

    2001-06-01

    Imposing sound on a binary gas mixture in a duct separates the two gases along the acoustic-propagation axis. Mole-fraction differences as large as 10% and separation fluxes as high as 0.001 M-squared c, where M is Mach number and c is sound speed, are easily observed. We describe the accidental discovery of this phenomenon in a helium-xenon mixture, subsequent experiments with a helium-argon mixture, and theoretical developments. The phenomenon occurs because a thin layer of the gas adjacent to the wall is immobilized by viscosity while the rest of the gas moves back and forth with the wave, and the heat capacity of the wall holds this thin layer of the gas at constant temperature while the rest of the gas experiences temperature oscillations due to the wave's oscillating pressure. The oscillating temperature gradient causes the light and heavy atoms in the gas to take turns diffusing into and out of the immobilized layer, so that the oscillating motion of the wave outside the immobilized layer tends to carry light-enriched gas in one direction and heavy-enriched gas in the opposite direction. Experiment and theory are in very good agreement for the initial separation fluxes and the saturation mole-fraction differences.

  15. Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Rosen, M S; Wang, R; Cory, D G; Walsworth, R L

    2002-12-01

    We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. PMID:12807139

  16. Diffusion NMR methods applied to xenon gas for materials study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Rosen, M. S.; Wang, R.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    We report initial NMR studies of (i) xenon gas diffusion in model heterogeneous porous media and (ii) continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas. Both areas utilize the pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) techniques in the gas phase, with the aim of obtaining more sophisticated information than just translational self-diffusion coefficients--a brief overview of this area is provided in the Introduction. The heterogeneous or multiple-length scale model porous media consisted of random packs of mixed glass beads of two different sizes. We focus on observing the approach of the time-dependent gas diffusion coefficient, D(t) (an indicator of mean squared displacement), to the long-time asymptote, with the aim of understanding the long-length scale structural information that may be derived from a heterogeneous porous system. We find that D(t) of imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times is similar for the mixed bead pack and a pack of the smaller sized beads alone, hence reflecting the pore surface area to volume ratio of the smaller bead sample. The approach of D(t) to the long-time limit follows that of a pack of the larger sized beads alone, although the limiting D(t) for the mixed bead pack is lower, reflecting the lower porosity of the sample compared to that of a pack of mono-sized glass beads. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate D(t) data between the short- and long-time limits. Initial studies of continuous flow laser-polarized xenon gas demonstrate velocity-sensitive imaging of much higher flows than can generally be obtained with liquids (20-200 mm s-1). Gas velocity imaging is, however, found to be limited to a resolution of about 1 mm s-1 owing to the high diffusivity of gases compared with liquids. We also present the first gas-phase NMR scattering, or diffusive-diffraction, data, namely flow-enhanced structural features in the echo attenuation data from laser-polarized xenon flowing through a 2 mm glass bead pack. c2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mobility and fluorescence of barium ions in xenon gas for the exo experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez Medina, Julio Cesar

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is an experiment which aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe. The measurement of this decay would give information about the absolute neutrino mass and whether or not the neutrino is its own antiparticle. Since this is a very rare decay, the ability to reject background events by detecting the barium ion daughter from the double beta decay would be a major advantage. EXO is currently operating a detector with 200 kg of enriched liquid xenon, and there are plans to build a ton scale xenon detector. Measurements of the purity of liquid xenon in our liquid xenon test cell are reported. These results are relevant to the research on detection of single barium ions by our research group at Colorado State University. Details of the operation of the purity monitor are described. The effects of using a purifier, recirculation and laser ablation on the purity of liquid xenon are discussed. Mobility measurements of barium in xenon gas are reported for the first time. The variation of mobility with xenon gas pressure suggests that a significant fraction of molecular ions are formed when barium ions interact with xenon gas at high pressures. The measured mobility of Ba+ in Xe gas at different pressures is compared with the predicted theoretical value, and deviations are explained by a model that describes the fraction of molecular ions in Xe gas as a function of pressure. The results are useful for the analysis of experiments of fluorescence of Ba+ in xenon gas. It is also important to know the mobility of the ions in order to calculate the time they interact with an excitation laser in fluorescence experiments and in proposed 136 Ba+ daughter detection schemes. This thesis presents results of detection of laser induced fluorescence of Ba+ ions in Xe gas. Measurements of the pressure broadening of the excitation spectra of Ba+ in xenon gas are presented. Nonradiative decays due to gas collisions and optical pumping

  18. A technique for administering xenon gas anesthesia during surgical procedures in mice.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Arne Mathias; Schmidt, Michaela; Ludiro, Alessia; Riva, Marco A; Gass, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Carrying out invasive procedures in animals requires the administration of anesthesia. Xenon gas offers advantages as an anesthetic agent compared with other agents, such as its protection of the brain and heart from hypoxia-induced damage. The high cost of xenon gas has limited its use as an anesthetic in animal experiments, however. The authors designed and constructed simple boxes for the induction and maintenance of xenon gas and isoflurane anesthesia in small rodents in order to minimize the amount of xenon gas that is wasted. While using their anesthesia delivery system to anesthetize pregnant mice undergoing caesarean sections, they measured the respiratory rates of the anesthetized mice, the survival of the pups and the percentages of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the system to confirm the system's safety. PMID:25333593

  19. Human Regional Pulmonary Gas Exchange with Xenon Polarization Transfer (XTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradian, Iga; Butler, James; Hrovat, Mirko; Topulos, George; Hersman, Elizabeth; Ruset, Iulian; Covrig, Silviu; Frederick, Eric; Ketel, Stephen; Hersman, F. W.; Patz, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Xenon Transfer Contrast (XTC) is an existing imaging method (Ruppert et al, Magn Reson Med, 51:676-687, 2004) that measures the fraction F of ^129Xe magnetization that diffuses from alveolar gas spaces to septal parenchymal tissue in lungs in a specified exchange time. As previously implemented, XTC is a 2-breath method and has been demonstrated in anesthetized animals. To use XTC in humans and to avoid issues associated with obtaining identical gas volumes on subsequent breath-hold experiments as well as precise image registration in post-processing, a single breath XTC method was developed that acquires three consecutive gradient echo images in an 8s acquisition. We report here initial measurements of the mean and variance of F for 5 normal healthy subjects as well as 7 asymptomatic smokers. The experiments were performed at two lung volumes (˜45 and 65% of TLC). We found that both the mean and variance of F increased with smoking history. In comparison, standard pulmonary function tests such as DLCO FEV1 showed no correlation with smoking history.

  20. Investigations of Buffer-Gases Role in Xenon and Halogen Excimer Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobotaru, L. C.; Porosnicu, C.

    2010-10-01

    Excimer- is an acronym in use for the excited dimmer, molecule which does not exist in the ground state but only in an excited state. This paper presents the role of the buffer-gas atoms (Ar, Ne, He), in the (Cl2/I2 Xe) excimer radiation emission mechanisms. The same buffer-gas produced a different effect on the excimer emission intensity: the neon and argon addition to xenon/chlorine/iodine had a negative effect while the helium and neon addition had a positive effect. The Penning reactions play an important role in the excimer radiation generation in connection with the gas-buffer addition and the halogen ionization potential value. The measurements are performed using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at moderate pressure in a panel, respectively classic coaxial geometry.

  1. Ionization coefficients in gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, D.; Šašić, O.; Jovanović, J.; Radmilović-Rađenović, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2007-03-01

    We have tested the application of the common E/N ( E—electric field, N—gas number density) or Wieland approximation [Van Brunt, R.J., 1987. Common parametrizations of electron transport, collision cross section, and dielectric strength data for binary gas mixtures. J. Appl. Phys. 61 (5), 1773-1787.] and the common mean energy (CME) combination of the data for pure gases to obtain ionization coefficients for mixtures. Test calculations were made for Ar-CH4, Ar-N2, He-Xe and CH4-N2 mixtures. Standard combination procedure gives poor results in general, due to the fact that the electron energy distribution is considerably different in mixtures and in individual gases at the same values of E/N. The CME method may be used for mixtures of gases with ionization coefficients that do not differ by more than two orders of magnitude which is better than any other technique that was proposed [Marić, D., Radmilović-Rađenović, M., Petrović, Z.Lj., 2005. On parametrization and mixture laws for electron ionization coefficients. Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 313-321.].

  2. Observations of xenon gas-treated barley cells in solution by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, T; Sotome, I; Ohtani, T; Isobe, S; Oshita, S; Maekawa, T

    2000-01-01

    Barley cells cut from a sprout were exposed to either air or high-pressure xenon gas for 3 days and the surface of those cells was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine the effect of the gas treatment. This method enabled the direct observation of the fresh surface of the barley cells in solution at high resolution. The cuticle layer was preserved on the primary cell wall of 0.48 MPa xenon gas-treated barley cells, while air-treated barley cells lost the cuticle layer from the primary cell wall. These findings indicate that the high-pressure xenon gas treatment is effective to preserve the cuticle layer attached to the primary cell wall. AFM is a powerful tool for the observation of the surface structure of living plant cells in solution. PMID:11108038

  3. Cluster formation restricts dynamic nuclear polarization of xenon in solid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Pourfathi, M.; Kara, H.; Manasseh, P.; Ghosh, R. K.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J. H.; Kadlecek, S. J.; Rizi, R. R.

    2012-09-01

    During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 1.5 K and 5 T, 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a homogeneous xenon/1-propanol/trityl-radical solid mixture exhibit a single peak, broadened by 1H neighbors. A second peak appears upon annealing for several hours at 125 K. Its characteristic width and chemical shift indicate the presence of spontaneously formed pure Xe clusters. Microwave irradiation at the appropriate frequencies can bring both peaks to either positive or negative polarization. The peculiar time evolution of 129Xe polarization in pure Xe clusters during DNP can be modelled as an interplay of spin diffusion and T1 relaxation. Our simple spherical-cluster model offers a sensitive tool to evaluate major DNP parameters in situ, revealing a severe spin-diffusion bottleneck at the cluster boundaries and a significant sample overheating due to microwave irradiation. Subsequent DNP system modifications designed to reduce the overheating resulted in four-fold increase of 129Xe polarization, from 5.3% to 21%.

  4. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  5. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  6. Nuclear excited xenon flashlamp

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The optical emissions of nuclear excited Xenon plasmas were investigated to determine basic parameters important to photolytic pumping of lasers. Gas mixtures of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the steady state mode in the University of Florida Training Reactor at neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 12//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of approximately 3 milliwatts/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas were primarily due to Xe/sub 2/* band emission at 172 nm with a few Xell lines in the visible and ir. Energy transfer from the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction to the Xe/sub 2/* 172 nm band was 67.0% +- 10%. High pressure gas mixtures (4 atm.) of Helium-3 and Xenon were irradiated in the pulse mode (250 ..mu..s FWHM) at the fast burst reactor at the Aberdeen Pulsed Radiation Facility at thermal neutron flux levels of about 10/sup 17//cm/sup 2/.s, generating a power density in the gas of about 1 kilowatt/cm/sup 3/. Optical emissions from the gas extended from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible to the infrared, resembling a discharge excited lamp with a current density of about 1500 amp./cm/sup 2/. Such a lamp could pump a Neodymium YAG or liquid laser.

  7. Effects of xenon cover gas in CO/sub 2/ laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, T.L.

    1980-07-01

    Weld spatter in CO/sub 2/ laser welding is detrimental to miniature components. The effects of using xenon gas as an inert laser welding atmosphere to reduce weld spatter are discussed. The laser plume characteristics, weld penetration, and weld spatter are evaluated.

  8. Separation of gas mixtures by centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Love, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) centrifuge utilizing electric currents and magnetic fields produces a magnetic force which develops supersonic rotational velocities in gas mixtures. Device is superior to ordinary centrifuges because rotation of gas mixture is produced by MHD force rather than mechanical means.

  9. An improved measurement of electron-ion recombination in high-pressure xenon gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, L.; Sorel, M.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Camargo, M.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lopez-March, N.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2015-03-01

    We report on results obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype of the NEXT-100 high-pressure xenon gas time projection chamber (TPC), filled with pure xenon gas at 10 bar pressure and exposed to an alpha decay calibration source. Compared to our previous measurements with alpha particles, an upgraded detector and improved analysis techniques have been used. We measure event-by-event correlated fluctuations between ionization and scintillation due to electron-ion recombination in the gas, with correlation coefficients between -0.80 and -0.56 depending on the drift field conditions. By combining the two signals, we obtain a 2.8% FWHM energy resolution for 5.49 MeV alpha particles and a measurement of the optical gain of the electroluminescent TPC. The improved energy resolution also allows us to measure the specific activity of the radon in the gas due to natural impurities. Finally, we measure the average ratio of excited to ionized atoms produced in the xenon gas by alpha particles to be 0.561± 0.045, translating into an average energy to produce a primary scintillation photon of Wex=(39.2± 3.2) eV.

  10. Physiological response of rats to delivery of helium and xenon: implications for hyperpolarized noble gas imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, M. P.; Sigaloff, K. C.; Kubatina, L. V.; Donahue, M. A.; Venkatesh, A. K.; Albert, M. S.; ALbert, M. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The physiological effects of various hyperpolarized helium and xenon MRI-compatible breathing protocols were investigated in 17 Sprague-Dawley rats, by continuous monitoring of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, EKG, temperature and endotracheal pressure. The protocols included alternating breaths of pure noble gas and oxygen, continuous breaths of pure noble gas, breath-holds of pure noble gas for varying durations, and helium breath-holds preceded by two helium rinses. Alternate-breath protocols up to 128 breaths caused a decrease in oxygen saturation level of less than 5% for either helium or xenon, whereas 16 continuous-breaths caused a 31.5% +/- 2.3% decrease in oxygen saturation for helium and a 30.7% +/- 1. 3% decrease for xenon. Breath-hold protocols up to 25 s did not cause the oxygen saturation to fall below 90% for either of the noble gases. Oxygen saturation values below 90% are considered pathological. At 30 s of breath-hold, the blood oxygen saturation dropped precipitously to 82% +/- 0.6% for helium, and to 76.5% +/- 7. 4% for xenon. Breath-holds longer than 10 s preceded by pre-rinses caused oxygen saturation to drop below 90%. These findings demonstrate the need for standardized noble gas inhalation procedures that have been carefully tested, and for continuous physiological monitoring to ensure the safety of the subject. We find short breath-hold and alternate-breath protocols to be safe procedures for use in hyperpolarized noble gas MRI experiments. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  12. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, M. M.; Zhang, D. X.; Xu, D.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H2 from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H2 in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  13. AXEL: High pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sheng

    2016-05-01

    AXEL is a high pressure xenon gas TPC detector being developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay search. We use proportional scintillation mode with a new electroluminescence light detection scheme to achieve very high energy resolution with a large detector. The detector has a capability of tracking which can be used reduce background. The project is in a R&D phase, and we report current status of our prototype chamber with 10 L and 8 bar Xe gas. We also present the results of the photon detection efficiency measurement and the linearity test of silicon photomultiplier(SiPM).

  14. Viscosity of multicomponent partially ionized gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaly, B. F.; Sutton, K.

    1980-07-01

    An approximate method is proposed for predicting the viscosity of partially ionized gas mixtures. This technique expresses the viscosity of a mixture in terms of the viscosities of the individual pure components, is simple in form, and does not require large computer run times or storage. Thus, the technique is suitable for use with complex flowfields and heat-transfer calculations. Results for gas mixtures which are representative of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Earth, and Venus, are presented and it is shown that the results compare favorably with detailed kinetic-theory analyses.

  15. Structural Plasticity of the Phage P22 Tail Needle gp26 Probed with Xenon Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Olia, A.; Casjens, S; Cingolani, G

    2009-01-01

    The tail needle, gp26, is a highly stable homo-trimeric fiber found in the tail apparatus of bacteriophage P22. In the mature virion, gp26 is responsible for plugging the DNA exit channel, and likely plays an important role in penetrating the host cell envelope. In this article, we have determined the 1.98 A resolution crystal structure of gp26 bound to xenon gas. The structure led us to identify a calcium and a chloride ion intimately bound at the interior of alpha-helical core, as well as seven small cavities occupied by xenon atoms. The two ions engage in buried polar interactions with gp26 side chains that provide specificity and register to gp26 helical core, thus enhancing its stability. Conversely, the distribution of xenon accessible cavities correlates well with the flexibility of the fiber observed in solution and in the crystal structure. We suggest that small internal cavities in gp26 between the helical core and the C-terminal tip allow for flexible swinging of the latter, without affecting the overall stability of the protein. The C-terminal tip may be important in scanning the bacterial surface in search of a cell-envelope penetration site, or for recognition of a yet unidentified receptor on the surface of the host.

  16. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  17. Gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1982-01-05

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  18. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    1980-03-28

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  19. Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1980-01-01

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  20. A novel 83mKr tracer method for characterizing xenon gas and cryogenic distillation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, S.; Bokeloh, K.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Lebeda, O.; Levy, C.; Murra, M.; Schneider, S.; V'enos, D.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-10-01

    The radioactive isomer 83mKr, has many properties that make it very useful for various applications. Its low energy decay products, like conversion, shake-off and Auger electrons as well as X- and γ-rays are used for calibration purposes in neutrino mass experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments. Thanks to the short half-life of 1.83 h and the decay to the ground state 83Kr, one does not risk contamination of any low-background experiment with long-lived radionuclides. In this paper, we present a new approach, using 83mKr as a radioactive tracer in noble gases. A method of doping 83mKr, into xenon gas and its detection, using special custom-made detectors, based on a photomultiplier tube, is described. Two applications of this method are presented: firstly, it can be used to characterize the particle flow inside of gas routing systems and determine the circulation speed of gas particles inside of a gas purification system for xenon. Secondly, it is used for rapid estimating of the separation performance of a distillation system.

  1. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature and 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.

  2. Development and evaluation of a silver mordenite composite sorbent for the partitioning of xenon from krypton in gas compositions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Law, Jack D.

    2015-12-22

    A new engineered form composite sorbent for the selective separation of xenon from krypton in simulant composition off-gas streams resulting from the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel has been developed and evaluated. A sodium mordenite powder was incorporated into a macroporous polymer binder, formed into spherical beads and successfully converted to a 9 wt.% silver form composite sorbent. The final engineered form sorbent retained the characteristic surface area indicative of sodium mordenite powder. The sorbent was evaluated for xenon adsorption potential with capacities measured as high as 30 millimoles of xenon per kilogram of sorbent achieved at ambient temperature andmore » 460 millimoles of xenon per kilogram sorbent at 220 K. Xenon/krypton selectivity was calculated to be 22.4 with a 1020 µL/L xenon, 150 µL/L krypton in a balance of air feed gas at 220 K. Furthermore, adsorption/desorption thermal cycling effects were evaluated with results indicating sorbent performance was not significantly impacted while undergoing numerous adsorption/desorption thermal cycles.« less

  3. Radioxenon production through neutron irradiation of stable xenon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Foltz Biegalski, Kendra M.

    2009-12-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. The deconvolution algorithm of the SDAT requires a library of β-γ coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes to determine isotopic ratios in a sample. In order to get experimentally produced spectra of the individual isotopes we have irradiated enriched samples of 130Xe, 132Xe, and 134Xe gas with a neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas. The samples produced were counted in an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) style β-γ coincidence detector. The spectra produced show that this method of radioxenon production yields samples with very high purity of the individual isotopes for 131mXe and 135Xe and a sample with a substantial 133mXe to 133Xe ratio.

  4. Thermal conductivity of partially ionized gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaly, B. F.; Sutton, K.

    1981-06-01

    A method is proposed for predicting the translational component of the thermal conductivity of partially ionized gas mixtures. It is approximate but simple in form and offers a significant improvement over commonly utilized approximations. It does not require large computer run times nor storage, thus it is suitable for use with complex flow fields and heat transfer calculations. Results for gas mixtures which are representative of the atmosphere of Jupiter, Earth, and Venus are presented and they compare favorably with results from detailed kinetic theory analyses.

  5. Separation and purification of xenon

    DOEpatents

    Schlea, deceased, Carl Solomon

    1978-03-14

    Xenon is separated from a mixture of xenon and krypton by extractive distillation using carbon tetrafluoride as the partitioning agent. Krypton is flushed out of the distillation column with CF.sub.4 in the gaseous overhead stream while purified xenon is recovered from the liquid bottoms. The distillation is conducted at about atmospheric pressure or at subatmospheric pressure.

  6. High-field, hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR: Preparation and transfer of pure spin-polarized xenon gas to the sample.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Sachs, D. B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Lisitza, N. V.; Happer, W.

    2003-03-01

    Hyperpolarized ^129Xe has already found extensive applications in magnetic resonance imaging(M. S. Albert et al., Nature 370, 199 (1994)) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(J. P. Mugler, et al., Magn. Reson. Med. 37, 809 (1997)). Using hyperpolarized xenon in high-field NMR spectroscopy opens up new prospects for medical diagnostics of many pathologies and disorders(R. K. Mazitov, et al., Doklady Biophysics 364-366, 28-31 (1999)). Here we present a new set-up for production(N. N. Kuzma, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 147602 (2002)), delivery, and temporary storage of pure hyperpolarized xenon gas for high-field (9.4T) NMR spectroscopy, with an emphasis on in-situ monitoring of ^129Xe polarization along the gas flow path and using a 1.1 T permanent magnet for cryogenic separation of hyperpolarized xenon from the buffer gases.

  7. An automated multidimensional preparative gas chromatographic system for isolation and enrichment of trace amounts of xenon from ambient air.

    PubMed

    Larson, Tuula; Östman, Conny; Colmsjö, Anders

    2011-04-01

    The monitoring of radioactive xenon isotopes is one of the principal methods for the detection of nuclear explosions in order to identify clandestine nuclear testing. In this work, a miniaturized, multiple-oven, six-column, preparative gas chromatograph was constructed in order to isolate trace quantities of radioactive xenon isotopes from ambient air, utilizing nitrogen as the carrier gas. The multidimensional chromatograph comprised preparative stainless steel columns packed with molecular sieves, activated carbon, and synthetic carbon adsorbents (e.g., Anasorb®-747 and Carbosphere®). A combination of purification techniques--ambient adsorption, thermal desorption, back-flushing, thermal focusing, and heart cutting--was selectively optimized to produce a well-defined xenon peak that facilitated reproducible heart cutting and accurate quantification. The chromatographic purification of a sample requires approximately 4 h and provides complete separation of xenon from potentially interfering components (such as water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, and radon) with recovery and accuracy close to 100%. The preparative enrichment process isolates and concentrates a highly purified xenon gas fraction that is suitable for subsequent ultra-low-level γ-, ß/γ-spectroscopic or high-resolution mass spectrometric measurement (e.g., to monitor the gaseous fission products of nuclear explosions at remote locations). The Xenon Processing Unit is a free-standing, relatively lightweight, and transportable system that can be interfaced to a variety of sampling and detection systems. It has a relatively inexpensive, rugged, and compact modular (19-inch rack) design that provides easy access to all parts for maintenance and has a low power requirement. PMID:21347675

  8. Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.A.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Lyke, S.E.

    1986-08-01

    The goal of this program is to determine the feasibility of solvent-dissolved coordination complexes for the separation of gas mixtures under bench-scale conditions. In particular, mixtures such as low-Btu gas are examined for CO and H/sub 2/ separation. Two complexes, Pd/sub 2/(dpm)/sub 2/Br/sub 2/ and Ru(CO)/sub 2/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/, were examined in a bench-scale apparatus for the separation of binary (CO-N/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/-N/sub 2/) and quinary (H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and N/sub 2/) mixtures. The separation of CO-N/sub 2/ was enhanced by the presence of the palladium complex in the 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCE) solvent, especially at high gas and low liquid rates. The five-component gas mixture separation with the palladium complex in TCE provided quite unexpected results based on physical solubility and chemical coordination. The complex retained CO, while the solvent retained CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and N/sub 2/ to varying degrees. This allowed the hydrogen content to be enhanced due to its low solubility in TCE and inertness to the complex. Thus, a one-step, hydrogen separation can be achieved from gas mixtures with compositions similar to that of oxygen-blown coal gas. A preliminary economic evaluation of hydrogen separation was made for a system based on the palladium complex. The palladium system has a separation cost of 50 to 60 cents/MSCF with an assumed capital investment of $1.60/MSCF of annual capacity charged at 30% per year. This assumes a 3 to 4 year life for the complex. Starting with a 90% hydrogen feed, PSA separation costs are in the range of 30 to 50 cents/MSCF. The ruthenium complex was not as successful for hydrogen or carbon monoxide separation due to unfavorable kinetics. The palladium complex was found to strip hydrogen gas from H/sub 2/S. The complex could be regenerated with mild oxidants which removed the sulfur as SO/sub 2/. 24 refs., 26 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Is xenon eldest?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that the solubility of noble gases in magmas decreases with increasing atomic weight. Xenon, the weightiest of the stable noble gases, is the least soluble atmospheric gas in magma. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the noble gases should have degassed from (or equilibrated with) a bubbling mantle in order of increasing solubility, such that xenon was the most rapidly degassed and helium the least. The apparent relative ages of the famous radiogenic noble gas isotopes agrees, at least qualitatively, with this premise. When atmospheric loss processes are assigned their proper place, several long-standing xenonological puzzles become added evidence for xenon's relative antiquity. Xenon being the afore-mentioned sense the oldest atmospheric gas, will have been most greatly subject to escape, be it impact-driven or EUV-driven. Nonradiogenic xenon's pronounced isotopic fractionation has already been attributed to escape; why it should be more fractionated than krypton would be assigned to xenon's greater atmospheric age. The small atmospheric inventory of xenon relative to the other nonradiogenic noblegases, known as the 'missing xenon' problem, could easily be explained by differential escape. The relatively tiny atmospheric inventories of the radiogenic daughter products of 129 Iodine and 244 Plutonium, both much smaller than would be expected from the inferred abundances of the parents in meteorites, offer a third and fourth data to support the hypothesis that Earth has lost most of its xenon.

  10. Is xenon eldest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K.

    It is well known that the solubility of noble gases in magmas decreases with increasing atomic weight. Xenon, the weightiest of the stable noble gases, is the least soluble atmospheric gas in magma. It is not unreasonable to suppose that the noble gases should have degassed from (or equilibrated with) a bubbling mantle in order of increasing solubility, such that xenon was the most rapidly degassed and helium the least. The apparent relative ages of the famous radiogenic noble gas isotopes agrees, at least qualitatively, with this premise. When atmospheric loss processes are assigned their proper place, several long-standing xenonological puzzles become added evidence for xenon's relative antiquity. Xenon being the afore-mentioned sense the oldest atmospheric gas, will have been most greatly subject to escape, be it impact-driven or EUV-driven. Nonradiogenic xenon's pronounced isotopic fractionation has already been attributed to escape; why it should be more fractionated than krypton would be assigned to xenon's greater atmospheric age. The small atmospheric inventory of xenon relative to the other nonradiogenic noblegases, known as the 'missing xenon' problem, could easily be explained by differential escape. The relatively tiny atmospheric inventories of the radiogenic daughter products of 129 Iodine and 244 Plutonium, both much smaller than would be expected from the inferred abundances of the parents in meteorites, offer a third and fourth data to support the hypothesis that Earth has lost most of its xenon.

  11. The XENON dark matter search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganoma, Junji

    2016-02-01

    The XENON experiment searches for xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of weakly interacting massive particles, using liquid/gas dual-phase xenon time projection chambers. The XENON100 experiment ended its science runs for the direct WIMP search. A ton-scale next phase detector, XENON1T, is currently at the commissioning phase. These proceedings focus on the technical challenges and status of the XENON1T experiment.

  12. Mesoscale Backtracking by Means of Atmospheric Transport Modeling of Xenon Plumes Measured by Radionuclide Gas Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, P. P.; Achim, P.; Taffary, T.

    2006-12-01

    The monitoring of atmospheric radioactive xenon concentration is performed for nuclear safety regulatory requirements. It is also planned to be used for the detection of hypothetical nuclear tests in the framework of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). In this context, the French Atomic Energy Commission designed a high sensitive and automated fieldable station, named SPALAX, to measure the activity concentrations of xenon isotopes in the atmosphere. SPALAX stations were set up in Western Europe and have been operated quite continuously for three years or more, detecting principally xenon-133 and more scarcely xenon-135, xenon-133m and xenon-131m. There are around 150 nuclear power plants in the European Union, research reactors, reprocessing plants, medical production and application facilities releasing radioactive xenon in normal or incidental operations. A numerical study was carried out aiming to explain the SPALAX measurements. The mesoscale Atmospheric Transport Modelling involves the MM5 suite (PSU- NCAR) to predict the wind fields on nested domains, and FLEXPART, a 3D Lagrangian particle dispersion code, used to simulate the backward transport of xenon plumes detected by the SPALAX. For every event of detection, at least one potential xenon source has a significant efficiency of emission. The identified likely sources are located quite close to the SPALAX stations (some tens of kilometres), or situated farther (a few hundreds of kilometres). A base line of some mBq per cubic meter in xenon-133 is generated by the nuclear power plants. Peaks of xenon-133 ranging from tens to hundreds of mBq per cubic meter originate from a radioisotope production facility. The calculated xenon source terms required to obtain the SPALAX measurements are discussed and seem consistent with realistic emissions from the xenon sources in Western Europe.

  13. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  14. Precursors in gas-liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasenko, V. G.; Gorelik, R. S.; Nakoryakov, V. E.; Timkin, L. S.

    2013-10-01

    Two types of precursors propagating at the speed of sound in a pure liquid have been revealed in the experiments on the evolution of pressure pulses in a gas-liquid mixture; at the same time, the main pressure pulse propagates at a low equilibrium speed of sound and its evolution is described by the Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation. The first high-frequency precursor is a complete analog of a classical Sommerfeld precursor, because the resonance dispersion equation for a bubble mixture coincides with that for insulators in the Lorentz model, and oscillates at a frequency close to the "plasma frequency." The second low-frequency precursor has been revealed in this work. The frequency of the low-frequency precursor is close to the resonance frequency of pulsations of bubbles, which is almost an order of magnitude lower than the frequency of the high-frequency precursor. The low-frequency precursor has a much larger amplitude of pulsations and smaller damping and is not described within the homogeneous model of the gas-liquid mixture. The observed phenomenon of low-frequency precursors has been explained within a simple heterogeneous model of a bubble liquid.

  15. Acoustic composition sensor for cryogenic gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Luchik, T. S.; Back, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic sensor useful for the determination of the composition of a gaseous binary mixture in cryogenic liquid spills has been characterized. One version of the instrument traps a known mixture of helium and nitrogen at ambient temperature in a tube which is interrogated by sonic pulses to determine the speed of sound and hence the composition. Experimental data shows that this sensor is quite accurate. The second version uses two unconfined microphones which sense sound pulses. Experimental data acquired during mixing when liquid nitrogen is poured into a vessel of gaseous helium is presented. Data during transient cooling of the tubular sensor containing nitrogen when the sensor is dipped into liquid nitrogen and during transient warm-up when the sensor is withdrawn are also presented. This sensor is being developed for use in the mixing of liquid cryogens with gas evolution in the simulation of liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen explosion hazards.

  16. Dusty Plasma Structures in Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, D. V.; Antipov, S. N.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2008-09-07

    The possibility of attainment of large Mach numbers is analyzed for the case of heavy ions drifting in a light gas. Under conditions of typical experiments with dust structures in plasmas, the use of the mixture of light and heavy gases is shown to make it possible to suppress the ion heating in the electric field and to form supersonic flows characterized by large Mach numbers. The drift of krypton ions in helium is considered as an example. Experiments with dc glow discharge at 1-10% of Kr show that the transition to the discharge in mixture leads to increase of interaction anisotropy and reinforcement of coupling of dust particles in the direction of ion drift. On the other hand, under certain conditions the phenomenon of abnormal 'heating' of dust particles was observed when the particles can obtain high kinetic energy which is several orders of magnitude higher than typical.

  17. HDT mixtures treatment strategies by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-07-15

    Gas phase chromatographic processes are of interest for the separation of hydrogen isotopes from an HDT mixture. For a certain quantity, they are very competitive and present several benefits. Nevertheless no active packing material allows to have simultaneously good enrichment performances for tritium production and high decontamination capabilities for HD gases. The influence of the packing material is first described in this article. Then two specific processes (TCAP and Reverse Chromatography), each well adapted to perform one target, are presented. Finally, the problematic to propose an optimized treatment scheme associating these two processes is formulated. (authors)

  18. Effects of xenon gas on generation and propagation of shock waves in the cavity of excimer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Shinichiroh; Maeno, Kazuo; Honma, Hiroki

    1993-05-01

    High repetition rate excimer lasers are expected for wide industrial application. The power of excimer laser, however, decreases rapidly in a higher repetition rate operation. Shock or acoustic waves, which are caused by the periodic pulse discharge, may limit the repetition rate of an excimer laser up to 2.5 kHz. Such waves cause inhomogeneity of gas density in the discharge region of the excimer laser. In high repetition rate operation this inhomogeneity remains at the next discharge. Arcing may be generated by this inhomogeneity and the homogeneous excitation of the laser gas is obstructed. Although these phenomena have been reported, the research for the effects of shock waves has remained insufficient. And the relation between these shock waves and discharge phenomena has not been clarified. To resolve this problem, we developed a scaling model chamber of a UV preionized excimer laser cavity with windows for flow visualization. We report the first result by using this model and Schlieren technique in a pure helium gas case. In our experiment three types of shock waves are found in the discharge cavity. Those shock waves are generated from the boundary of the main discharge area, from sparking pin gaps, and from the main electrode surfaces. In this study we focus on the effect of xenon gas on the generation and the propagation of shock waves. Components of the Xe-Cl excimer laser gas are helium, xenon, and hydrogen chloride. In those gases xenon has the largest molecular weight of 131.29. So we conclude xenon plays an important role in the shock wave propagation and in discharge phenomenon.

  19. Spark decomposition studies of dielectric gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauers, I.; Christophorou, L. G.

    The ultimate usefulness of a high voltage insulating gas depends not only on the ability of the gas to withstand high voltages, but also on the degradation of the gas resulting from spark discharges, corona or prolonged electrical stress and the effect(s) of the by-products on the equipment and, possibly, the environment. In view of these considerations, the study of long-range spark decomposition was undertaken in an effort to improve the decomposition characteristics of dielectric gases through proper tailoring of gas mixtures while maintaining high breakdown strengths. The data reported are on the analyses of gases sparked by capactive (0.1 micro F) discharge into a 0.5-mm gap, resulting in an energy input of approximately 5 J per spark. The nature of the decomposition products of SF6 formed by high voltage discharges observed is found to be critically dependent on impurities (particularly H2O), electrode material and insulating materials present in the system.

  20. First proof of topological signature in the high pressure xenon gas TPC with electroluminescence amplification for the NEXT experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, P.; Laing, A.; López-March, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Irastorza, I. G.; Labarga, L.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Losada, M.; Luzón, G.; Marí, A.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Miller, T.; Monrabal, F.; Monserrate, M.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Pérez Aparicio, J. L.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Serra, L.; Shuman, D.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Villar, J. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; Yepes-Ramírez, H.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe in a high-pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Q ββ . This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype.

  1. THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN XENON AND POSITIVE SILVER CLUSTERS IN GAS PHASE AND ON THE (001) CHABAZITE SURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.

    2009-03-16

    A systematic study on the adsorption of xenon on silver clusters in the gas phase and on the (001) surface of silver-exchanged chabazite is reported. Density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the cluster model was employed. The results indicate that the dominant part of the binding is the {sigma} donation, which is the charge transfer from the 5p orbital of Xe to the 5s orbital of Ag and is not the previously suggested d{sub {pi}}-d{sub {pi}} back-donation. A correlation between the binding energy and the degree of {sigma} donation is found. Xenon was found to bind strongly to silver cluster cations and not to neutral ones. The binding strength decreases as the cluster size increases for both cases, clusters in the gas-phase and on the chabazite surface. The Ag{sup +} cation is the strongest binding site for xenon both in gas phase and on the chabazite surface with the binding energies of 73.9 and 14.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The results also suggest that the smaller silver clusters contribute to the negative chemical shifts observed in the {sup 129}Xe NMR spectra in experiments.

  2. Dark matter directionality revisited with a high pressure xenon gas detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohlabeng, Gopolang; Kong, Kyoungchul; Li, Jin; Para, Adam; Yoo, Jonghee

    2015-07-20

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect inmore » a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below ~50 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe an anisotropy of the dark matter distribution. Our results also show that the directional information significantly improves precision measurements of dark matter mass and the elastic scattering cross section for a heavy dark matter.« less

  3. Dark matter directionality revisited with a high pressure xenon gas detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mohlabeng, Gopolang; Kong, Kyoungchul; Li, Jin; Para, Adam; Yoo, Jonghee

    2015-07-20

    An observation of the anisotropy of dark matter interactions in a direction-sensitive detector would provide decisive evidence for the discovery of galactic dark matter. Directional information would also provide a crucial input to understanding its distribution in the local Universe. Most of the existing directional dark matter detectors utilize particle tracking methods in a low-pressure gas time projection chamber. These low pressure detectors require excessively large volumes in order to be competitive in the search for physics beyond the current limit. In order to avoid these volume limitations, we consider a novel proposal, which exploits a columnar recombination effect in a high-pressure gas time projection chamber. The ratio of scintillation to ionization signals observed in the detector carries the angular information of the particle interactions. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a future directional detector focused on the proposed high-pressure Xenon gas time projection chamber. We study the prospect of detecting an anisotropy in the dark matter velocity distribution. We find that tens of events are needed to exclude an isotropic distribution of dark matter interactions at 95% confidence level in the most optimistic case with head-to-tail information. However, one needs at least 10-20 times more events without head-to-tail information for light dark matter below ~50 GeV. For an intermediate mass range, we find it challenging to observe an anisotropy of the dark matter distribution. Our results also show that the directional information significantly improves precision measurements of dark matter mass and the elastic scattering cross section for a heavy dark matter.

  4. Modelling the behaviour of microbulk Micromegas in xenon/trimethylamine gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Choliz, E.; González-Díaz, D.; Diago, A.; Castel, J.; Dafni, T.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzón, G.; Mirallas, H.; Şahin, Ö.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-11-01

    We model the response of a state of the art micro-hole single-stage charge amplification device ('microbulk' Micromegas) in a gaseous atmosphere consisting of xenon/trimethylamine at various concentrations and pressures. The amplifying structure, made with photo-lithographic techniques similar to those followed in the fabrication of gas electron multipliers (GEMs), consisted of a 100 μm-side equilateral-triangle pattern with 50 μm-diameter holes placed at its vertexes. Once the primary electrons are guided into the holes by virtue of an optimized field configuration, avalanches develop along the 50 μm-height channels etched out of the original doubly copper-clad polyimide foil. In order to properly account for the strong field gradients at the holes' entrance as well as for the fluctuations of the avalanche process (that ultimately determine the achievable energy resolution), we abandoned the hydrodynamic framework, resorting to a purely microscopic description of the electron trajectories as obtained from elementary cross-sections. We show that achieving a satisfactory description needs additional assumptions about atom-molecule (Penning) transfer reactions and charge recombination to be made.

  5. Shock wave dispersion of gas-particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatulin, R. I.; Gubaidullin, D. A.; Tukmakov, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    The decay of a discontinuity in a two-component homogeneous gas mixture and the dispersion of a gas-particle mixture with a two-component carrier medium are numerically simulated. The mathematical model of the dynamics of heterogeneous media takes into account the interphase force interaction and interphase heat exchange. Experimental results known from the literature are compared with numerical results describing the dispersion of a gas-particle mixture in a shock tube.

  6. The narrow pulse approximation and long length scale determination in xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of model porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Sen, P. N.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Patz, S.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of the narrow pulse approximation and imperfect background gradient cancellation), (ii) the ability to derive long length scale structural information, and (iii) effects of finite sample size. We find that the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times in small beads is significantly affected by the gas pressure. In particular, as expected, we find smaller deviations between measured D(t) and theoretical predictions as the gas pressure is increased, resulting from reduced diffusion during the application of the gradient pulse. The deviations are then completely removed when water D(t) is observed in the same samples. The use of gas also allows us to probe D(t) over a wide range of length scales and observe the long time asymptotic limit which is proportional to the inverse tortuosity of the sample, as well as the diffusion distance where this limit takes effect (approximately 1-1.5 bead diameters). The Pade approximation can be used as a reference for expected xenon D(t) data between the short and the long time limits, allowing us to explore deviations from the expected behavior at intermediate times as a result of finite sample size effects. Finally, the application of the Pade interpolation between the long and the short time asymptotic limits yields a fitted length scale (the Pade length), which is found to be approximately 0.13b for all bead packs, where b is the bead diameter. c. 2002 Elsevier Sciences (USA).

  7. The narrow pulse approximation and long length scale determination in xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of model porous media.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Sen, P N; Hürlimann, M D; Patz, S; Cory, D G; Walsworth, R L

    2002-06-01

    We report a systematic study of xenon gas diffusion NMR in simple model porous media, random packs of mono-sized glass beads, and focus on three specific areas peculiar to gas-phase diffusion. These topics are: (i) diffusion of spins on the order of the pore dimensions during the application of the diffusion encoding gradient pulses in a PGSE experiment (breakdown of the narrow pulse approximation and imperfect background gradient cancellation), (ii) the ability to derive long length scale structural information, and (iii) effects of finite sample size. We find that the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the imbibed xenon gas at short diffusion times in small beads is significantly affected by the gas pressure. In particular, as expected, we find smaller deviations between measured D(t) and theoretical predictions as the gas pressure is increased, resulting from reduced diffusion during the application of the gradient pulse. The deviations are then completely removed when water D(t) is observed in the same samples. The use of gas also allows us to probe D(t) over a wide range of length scales and observe the long time asymptotic limit which is proportional to the inverse tortuosity of the sample, as well as the diffusion distance where this limit takes effect (approximately 1-1.5 bead diameters). The Padé approximation can be used as a reference for expected xenon D(t) data between the short and the long time limits, allowing us to explore deviations from the expected behavior at intermediate times as a result of finite sample size effects. Finally, the application of the Padé interpolation between the long and the short time asymptotic limits yields a fitted length scale (the Padé length), which is found to be approximately 0.13b for all bead packs, where b is the bead diameter. PMID:12165255

  8. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  9. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  10. Formation of Structured Water and Gas Hydrate by the Use of Xenon Gas in Vegetable Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Hiroko; Suzuki, Toru; Kawagoe, Yoshinori; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    Freezing is a valuable technique for food preservation. However, vegetables are known to be softening remarkably after freezing and thawing process. It is expected to find alternative technique instead of freezing. Recently, the application of structured water and/or gas hydrate had been attempted to prolong the preservation of vegetable. In this study, the formation process of structure water and/or gas hydrate in pure water and carrot tissue was investigated by using NMR relaxation times, T1 and T2, of which applying condition was up to 0.4MPa and 0.8MPa at 5oC. Under the pressure of 0.4MPa, no gas hydrate was appeared, however, at 0.8MPa, formation of gas hydrate was recognized in both water and carrot tissue. Once the gas hydrate formation process in carrot tissue started, T1 and T2 increased remarkably. After that, as the gas hydrate developed, then T1 and T2 turned to decrease. Since this phenomenon was not observed in pure water, it is suggested that behavior of NMR relaxation time just after the formation of gas hydrate in carrot tissue may be peculiar to compartment system such as inter and intracellular spaces.

  11. Studies of xenon ECR plasma: search for a better understanding of the gas-mixing and anomalous effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Mal, Kedar; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-12-01

    Pure and oxygen-mixed xenon plasmas were produced using 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The charge state distributions (CSDs) of highly abundant isotopes (129Xe, 131 Xe and 132 Xe) were studied by extracting the ions from the plasma and analyzed them in mass and energy using a large acceptance analyzer-switching dipole magnet. In earlier studies (Drentje 1992 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 2875, Kawai et al 2001 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 451), the CSD of oxygen and nitrogen ECR plasmas showed that isotopic intensity ratio of ions varies with the charge state (anomalous effect). The anomalous effect in the pure and oxygen-mixed xenon ECR plasma was absent up to +13 charge state. With oxygen, a very small positive gas-mixing effect on the charge state beyond +8 was observed. In this paper, we present CSDs of xenon isotopes with and without oxygen mixing (at optimized ion source parameters) and compare the intensity of isotopes for various charge states to shed light on the previously noticed anomalous effect in the ECR plasma.

  12. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  13. Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.A.; Lilga, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    A system was investigated that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of alcohols and the hydrogenation of ketones. Such a catalyst, if used in a membrane containing an alcohol solvent, might be of use in selective H/sub 2/ separation from gas mixtures. The dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol and 2-octanol were studied using a RhCl/sub 3//SnCl/sub 2//LiCl catalyst system. These alcohols are dehydrogenated at rates that are initially rapid, but which gradually slow to a stop. The decrease in rate of H/sub 2/ evolution is a result of the establishment of an equilibrium between the alcohol and the liberated hydrogen and ketone. At 150/sup 0/C, cyclohexanol has the fastest rate of dehydrogenation. Several dehydrogenation/hydrogenation cycles have been carried out using this alcohol over a period of one week without serious catalyst deactivation or side reactions. Initial tests of the catalyst dissolved in cyclohexanol within two membranes were inconclusive. An anion exchange membrane was not suitably wetted by the catalyst solution and Celgard/sup TM/, which was wetted, could not be kept wet at 150/sup 0/C under flow conditions in the membrane cell. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Secondary scintillation yield in high-pressure xenon gas for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Ball, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lux, T.; Sánchez, F.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2010-02-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) is an important topic in contemporary physics with many active experiments. New projects are planning to use high-pressure xenon gas as both source and detection medium. The secondary scintillation processes available in noble gases permit large amplification with negligible statistical fluctuations, offering the prospect of energy resolution approaching the Fano factor limit. This Letter reports results for xenon secondary scintillation yield, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap for pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collected the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas. X-rays directly absorbed in the LAAPD are used as a reference for determining the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, hence, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. The number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt, the so-called scintillation amplification parameter, displays a small increase with pressure, ranging from 141±6 at 2 bar to 170±10 at 8 bar. In our setup, this parameter does not increase above 8 bar due to non-negligible electron attachment. The results are in good agreement with those presented in the literature in the 1 to 3 bar range. The increase of the scintillation amplification parameter with pressure for high gas densities has been also observed in former work at cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Efficiency of excimer molecule formation in plasma jets of inert gas mixtures with SF6 and CCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogulich, V. S.; Starodub, V. P.; Shevera, V. S.

    1988-10-01

    The formation of krypton and xenon monofluorides and monochlorides in continuous plasma jets of inert gas mixtures with SF6 and CCl4 molecules is investigated experimentally. Absolute concentrations of KrF, XeF, KrCl, and XeCl excimer molecules in the jet are determined. The energy efficiency of specific input power conversion to the spontaneous B-X emission in the KrF band is estimated at 2-4 percent. Ways of increasing the concentration of excimer molecules in the plasma jet are analyzed.

  16. Antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon.

    PubMed

    Spaggiari, Sabrina; Kepp, Oliver; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Chaba, Kariman; Adjemian, Sandy; Pype, Jan; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Lemaire, Marc; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-08-15

    Although chemically non-reactive, inert noble gases may influence multiple physiological and pathological processes via hitherto uncharacterized physical effects. Here we report a cell-based detection system for assessing the effects of pre-defined gas mixtures on the induction of apoptotic cell death. In this setting, the conventional atmosphere for cell culture was substituted with gas combinations, including the same amount of oxygen (20%) and carbon dioxide (5%) but 75% helium, neon, argon, krypton, or xenon instead of nitrogen. The replacement of nitrogen with noble gases per se had no effects on the viability of cultured human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Conversely, argon and xenon (but not helium, neon, and krypton) significantly limited cell loss induced by the broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor staurosporine, the DNA-damaging agent mitoxantrone and several mitochondrial toxins. Such cytoprotective effects were coupled to the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, as demonstrated by means of a mitochondrial transmembrane potential-sensitive dye and by assessing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In line with this notion, argon and xenon inhibited the apoptotic activation of caspase-3, as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy coupled to automated image analysis. The antiapoptotic activity of argon and xenon may explain their clinically relevant cytoprotective effects. PMID:23907115

  17. The noble gas xenon induces pharmacological preconditioning in the rat heart in vivo via induction of PKC-ɛ and p38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Nina C; Toma, Octavian; Wolter, Jessica I; Obal, Detlef; Müllenheim, Jost; Preckel, Benedikt; Schlack, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Xenon is an anesthetic with minimal hemodynamic side effects, making it an ideal agent for cardiocompromised patients. We investigated if xenon induces pharmacological preconditioning (PC) of the rat heart and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. For infarct size measurements, anesthetized rats were subjected to 25 min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Rats received either the anesthetic gas xenon, the volatile anesthetic isoflurane or as positive control ischemic preconditioning (IPC) during three 5-min periods before 25-min ischemia. Control animals remained untreated for 45 min. To investigate the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), rats were pretreated with the PKC inhibitor calphostin C (0.1 mg kg−1) or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 (1 mg kg−1). Additional hearts were excised for Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Infarct size was reduced from 50.9±16.7% in controls to 28.1±10.3% in xenon, 28.6±9.9% in isoflurane and to 28.5±5.4% in IPC hearts. Both, calphostin C and SB203580, abolished the observed cardioprotection after xenon and isoflurane administration but not after IPC. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay revealed an increased phosphorylation and translocation of PKC-ɛ in xenon treated hearts. This effect could be blocked by calphostin C but not by SB203580. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was induced by xenon and this effect was blocked by calphostin C. In summary, we demonstrate that xenon induces cardioprotection by PC and that activation of PKC-ɛ and its downstream target p38 MAPK are central molecular mechanisms involved. Thus, the results of the present study may contribute to elucidate the beneficial cardioprotective effects of this anesthetic gas. PMID:15644876

  18. Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures with terahertz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, R. H.; Mittleman, D. M.; Nuss, M. C.

    1996-12-01

    A time-domain chemical-recognition system for classifying gases and analyzing gas mixtures is presented. We analyze the free induction decay exhibited by gases excited by far-infrared (terahertz) pulses in the time domain, using digital signal-processing techniques. A simple geometric picture is used for the classification of the waveforms measured for unknown gas species. We demonstrate how the recognition system can be used to determine the partial pressures of an ammonia-water gas mixture.

  19. Emission characteristics and parameters of gas-discharge plasma in mixtures of heavy inert gases with chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Malinin, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation from longitudinal glow-discharge plasma in three- and four-component mixtures of argon, krypton, and xenon with chlorine has been investigated. The total radiation of Ar, Kr, and Xe monochlorides and chlorine molecules in the spectral range 170-310 nm has been optimized with respect to the composition and the pressure of gas mixtures, as well as the discharge current. The mean output power, the electric power of discharge, and the efficiency of a broadband low-pressure exciplex halogen lamp have been determined. Parameters of the glow discharge in Ar-Kr-Cl2 and Kr-Xe-Cl2 mixtures have been simulated numerically. The electron energy distribution functions have been determined through the solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. These functions have been used to calculate the plasma parameters, namely, electron transfer characteristics, specific losses of discharge power for electronic processes, and ionization and attachment coefficients.

  20. Xenon Filled Silicon Germanium Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewinter, F.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that shows the desirability and feasibility of using a xenon fill in the initial stages of operation of a silicon-germanium radioisotope thermoelectric generator to be used in outer-planetary exploration. The xenon cover gas offers protection against oxidation and against material sublimation, and allows the generator to deliver required power throughout the prelaunch and launch phases. The protective mechanisms afforded by the xenon cover gas and the mechanization of a xenon supply system are also discussed.

  1. A note on the biological activity of the noble gas compound xenon trioxide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Smith, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of xenon trioxide for toxicity in the few common oxidants using three bioassays. On a molar basis XeO3 and HOCl were similar, but XeO3 was less active than expected when comparisons were based on normality.

  2. THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM GAS MIXTURE

    DOEpatents

    Jury, S.H.

    1964-03-17

    A method of separating uranium from a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and other gases is described that comprises bringing the mixture into contact with anhydrous calcium sulfate to preferentially absorb the uranium hexafluoride on the sulfate. The calcium sulfate is then leached with a selective solvent for the adsorbed uranium. (AEC)

  3. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  4. Inferential determination of various properties of a gas mixture

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2007-03-27

    Methods for inferentially determining various properties of a gas mixture, when the speed of sound in the gas is known at an arbitrary temperature and pressure. The method can be applied to natural gas mixtures, where the known parameters are the sound speed, temperature, pressure, and concentrations of any dilute components of the gas. The method uses a set of reference gases and their calculated density and speed of sound values to estimate the density of the subject gas. Additional calculations can be made to estimate the molecular weight of the subject gas, which can then be used as the basis for heating value calculations. The method may also be applied to inferentially determine density and molecular weight for gas mixtures other than natural gases.

  5. Devices for the Production of Reference Gas Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fijało, Cyprian; Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    For many years there has been growing demand for gaseous reference materials, which is connected with development in many fields of science and technology. As a result, new methodological and instrumental solutions appear that can be used for this purpose. Appropriate quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) must be used to make sure that measurement data are a reliable source of information. Reference materials are a significant element of such systems. In the case of gas samples, such materials are generally called reference gas mixtures. This article presents the application and classification of reference gas mixtures, which are a specific type of reference materials, and the methods for obtaining them are described. Construction solutions of devices for the production of reference gas mixtures are detailed, and a description of a prototype device for dynamic production of reference gas mixtures containing aroma compounds is presented. PMID:27437588

  6. Noble Gas (Argon and Xenon)-Saturated Cold Storage Solutions Reduce Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Y.; Pype, J.L.; Martin, A.R.; Chong, C.F.; Daniel, L.; Gaudart, J.; Ibrahim, Z.; Magalon, G.; Lemaire, M.; Hardwigsen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Following kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury contributes to adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a cold-storage solution saturated with noble gas (xenon or argon) could limit ischemia-reperfusion injury following cold ischemia. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 experimental groups. Kidneys were harvested and then stored for 6 h before transplantation in cold-storage solution (Celsior®) saturated with either air, nitrogen, xenon or argon. A syngenic orthotopic transplantation was performed. Renal function was determined on days 7 and 14 after transplantation. Transplanted kidneys were removed on day 14 for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results Creatinine clearance was significantly higher and urinary albumin significantly lower in the argon and xenon groups than in the other groups at days 7 and 14. These effects were considerably more pronounced for argon than for xenon. In addition, kidneys stored with argon, and to a lesser extent those stored with xenon, displayed preserved renal architecture as well as higher CD-10 and little active caspase-3 expression compared to other groups. Conclusion Argon- or xenon-satured cold-storage solution preserved renal architecture and function following transplantation by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:22470401

  7. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging of ventilation distribution and gas uptake in the human lung using hyperpolarized xenon-129.

    PubMed

    Mugler, John P; Altes, Talissa A; Ruset, Iulian C; Dregely, Isabel M; Mata, Jaime F; Miller, G Wilson; Ketel, Stephen; Ketel, Jeffrey; Hersman, F William; Ruppert, Kai

    2010-12-14

    Despite a myriad of technical advances in medical imaging, as well as the growing need to address the global impact of pulmonary diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, on health and quality of life, it remains challenging to obtain in vivo regional depiction and quantification of the most basic physiological functions of the lung-gas delivery to the airspaces and gas uptake by the lung parenchyma and blood-in a manner suitable for routine application in humans. We report a method based on MRI of hyperpolarized xenon-129 that permits simultaneous observation of the 3D distributions of ventilation (gas delivery) and gas uptake, as well as quantification of regional gas uptake based on the associated ventilation. Subjects with lung disease showed variations in gas uptake that differed from those in ventilation in many regions, suggesting that gas uptake as measured by this technique reflects such features as underlying pathological alterations of lung tissue or of local blood flow. Furthermore, the ratio of the signal associated with gas uptake to that associated with ventilation was substantially altered in subjects with lung disease compared with healthy subjects. This MRI-based method provides a way to quantify relationships among gas delivery, exchange, and transport, and appears to have significant potential to provide more insight into lung disease. PMID:21098267

  8. New approach in direct-simulation of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Chan-Hong; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Jeng, Duen-Ren

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported for an investigation of a new direct-simulation Monte Carlo method by which energy transfer and chemical reactions are calculated. The new method, which reduces to the variable cross-section hard sphere model as a special case, allows different viscosity-temperature exponents for each species in a gas mixture when combined with a modified Larsen-Borgnakke phenomenological model. This removes the most serious limitation of the usefulness of the model for engineering simulations. The necessary kinetic theory for the application of the new method to mixtures of monatomic or polyatomic gases is presented, including gas mixtures involving chemical reactions. Calculations are made for the relaxation of a diatomic gas mixture, a plane shock wave in a gas mixture, and a chemically reacting gas flow along the stagnation streamline in front of a hypersonic vehicle. Calculated results show that the introduction of different molecular interactions for each species in a gas mixture produces significant differences in comparison with a common molecular interaction for all species in the mixture. This effect should not be neglected for accurate DSMC simulations in an engineering context.

  9. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-10-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  10. Novel Sorbent Development and Evaluation for the Capture of Krypton and Xenon from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2013-09-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, INL sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up.

  11. Novel sorbent development and evaluation for the capture of krypton and xenon from nuclear fuel reprocessing off-gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Garn, T.G.; Greenhalgh, M.R.; Law, J.D.

    2013-07-01

    The release of volatile radionuclides generated during Used Nuclear Fuel reprocessing in the US will most certainly need to be controlled to meet US regulatory emission limits. A US DOE sponsored Off-Gas Sigma Team has been tasked with a multi-lab collaborative research and development effort to investigate and evaluate emissions and immobilization control technologies for the volatile radioactive species generated from commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) Reprocessing. Physical Adsorption technology is a simpler and potential economical alternative to cryogenic distillation processes that can be used for the capture of krypton and xenon and has resulted in a novel composite sorbent development procedure using synthesized mordenite as the active material. Utilizing the sorbent development procedure, Idaho National Laboratory sigma team members have developed two composite sorbents that have been evaluated for krypton and xenon capacities at ambient and 191 K temperature using numerous test gas compositions. Adsorption isotherms have been generated to predict equilibration and maximum capacities enabling modeling to support process equipment scale-up. (authors)

  12. Thermal Conductivity of Gas Mixtures in Chemical Equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, Richard S.

    1960-01-01

    The expression for the thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium is presented in a simpler and less restrictive form. This new form is shown to be equivalent to the previous equations.

  13. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  14. Improved 02/H2 Gas Mixture Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulthrop, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Monitor of mixture concentrations uses catalyzed and uncatalyzed temperature probe. Sensor includes Pt-catalyzed temperature probe mounted in line with similar uncatalyzed temperature probe. Use of common temperature probes and standard, flareless, high-pressure tubefittings resulted in design conductive to installation in almost any system. Suitable for use in regenerative fuel cells, life-support systems, and other closed systems.

  15. [Xenon: From rare gaz to doping product].

    PubMed

    Tassel, Camille; Le Daré, Brendan; Morel, Isabelle; Gicquel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Doping is defined as the use of processes or substances to artificially increase physical or mental performance. Xenon is a noble gas used as an anesthetic and recently as a doping agent. Xenon is neuroprotective as an antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors. Xenon stimulates the synthesis of erythropoietin (EPO) by increase of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). Xenon would be a new doping product, maintaining doping methods ahead of detection. PMID:26922993

  16. Regional Mapping of Gas Uptake by Blood and Tissue in the Human Lung using Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Kun; Ruppert, Kai; Jiang, Yun; Mata, Jaime F.; Miller, G. Wilson; Shim, Y. Michael; Wang, Chengbo; Ruset, Iulian C.; Hersman, F. William; Altes, Talissa A.; Mugler, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a breath-hold acquisition for regional mapping of ventilation and the fractions of hyperpolarized xenon-129 (Xe129) dissolved in tissue (lung parenchyma and plasma) and red blood cells (RBCs), and to perform an exploratory study to characterize data obtained in human subjects. Materials and Methods A three-dimensional, multi-echo, radial-trajectory pulse sequence was developed to obtain ventilation (gaseous Xe129), tissue and RBC images in healthy subjects, smokers and asthmatics. Signal ratios (total dissolved Xe129 to gas, tissue-to-gas, RBC-to-gas and RBC-to-tissue) were calculated from the images for quantitative comparison. Results Healthy subjects demonstrated generally uniform values within coronal slices, and a gradient in values along the anterior-to-posterior direction. In contrast, images and associated ratio maps in smokers and asthmatics were generally heterogeneous and exhibited values mostly lower than those in healthy subjects. Whole-lung values of total dissolved Xe129 to gas, tissue-to-gas, and RBC-to-gas ratios in healthy subjects were significantly larger than those in diseased subjects. Conclusion Regional maps of tissue and RBC fractions of dissolved Xe129 were obtained from a short breath-hold acquisition, well tolerated by healthy volunteers and subjects with obstructive lung disease. Marked differences were observed in spatial distributions and overall amounts of Xe129 dissolved in tissue and RBCs among healthy subjects, smokers and asthmatics. PMID:23681559

  17. Reduced viscosity interpreted for fluid/gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis predicts decrease in fluid viscosity by comparing pressure profile of fluid/gas mixture with that of power-law fluid. Fluid is taken to be viscous, non-Newtonian, and incompressible; the gas to be ideal; the flow to be inertia-free, isothermal, and one dimensional. Analysis assists in design of flow systems for petroleum, coal, polymers, and other materials.

  18. Krypton and xenon in Apollo 14 samples - Fission and neutron capture effects in gas-rich samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.

    1975-01-01

    Gas-rich Apollo 14 breccias and trench soil are examined for fission xenon from the decay of the extinct isotopes Pu-244 and I-129, and some samples have been found to have an excess fission component which apparently was incorporated after decay elsewhere and was not produced by in situ decay. Two samples have excess Xe-129 resulting from the decay of I-129. The excess is correlated at low temperatures with excess Xe-128 resulting from neutron capture on I-127. This neutron capture effect is accompanied by related low-temperature excesses of Kr-80 and Kr-82 from neutron capture on the bromine isotopes. Surface correlated concentrations of iodine and bromine are calculated from the neutron capture excesses.

  19. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at themore » 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  20. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  1. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Nygren, D.

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase o_ers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  2. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  3. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  4. A Decade of Xenon Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents reactions for the formation of xenon compounds and compounds of the other inert gases. Provides bonding and structure theories for noble gas compounds and speculates on possible applications. (GS)

  5. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  6. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  7. Recovery of purified helium or hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1974-01-15

    A process is described for the removal of helium or hydrogen from gaseous mixtures also containing contaminants. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatomspheric pressure to preferentially absorb the contaminants in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed gas enriched in hydrogen or helium is withdrawn from the absorption zone as product. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in contaminants is withdrawn separately from the absorption zone. (10 claims)

  8. Autoignition of adiabatically compressed combustible gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.; Keck, J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of explosion limits for fuel/air/diluent mixtures compressed by an expanding laminar flame have been made in a constant volume spherical bomb. The fuels studied to date range from butane to octane at fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.8 to 1.3. The explosion pressures and temperatures range from 10 to 100 atm and 650 to 850 K. The pressure versus time curves show the behavior typical of the two-stage ignition process observed in rapid compression machines. A branched chain kinetic model has been developed to correlate the data. The model has been used to predict both the explosion limits measured in the current bomb experiments and ignition delays measured in prior rapid compression machine experiments. Good agreement between experiment and theory can be achieved with minor adjustment in published rate constants.

  9. [Xenon light therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi

    2012-07-01

    The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength. PMID:22860297

  10. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  11. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  12. Recent nuclear pumped laser results. [gas mixtures and laser plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.; Wells, W. E.; Akerman, M. A.; Anderson, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent direct nuclear pumped laser research has concentrated on experiments with three gas mixtures (Ne-N2, He-Ne-O2, and He-Hg). One mixture has been made to lase and gain has been achieved with the other two. All three of these mixtures are discussed with particular attention paid to He-Hg. Of interest is the 6150-angstroms ion transition in Hg(+). The upper state of this transition is formed directly by charge transfer and by Penning ionization.

  13. Acoustics and precondensation phenomena in gas-vapor saturated mixtures.

    PubMed

    Guianvarc'h, C; Bruneau, M; Gavioso, R M

    2014-02-01

    Starting from fundamental hydrodynamics and thermodynamics equations for thermoviscous fluids, a new modeling procedure, which is suitable to describe acoustic propagation in gas mixtures, is presented. The model revises the boundary conditions which are appropriate to describe the condensation-evaporation processes taking place on a solid wall when one component of the mixture approaches saturation conditions. The general analytical solutions of these basic equations now give a unified description of acoustic propagation in an infinite, semi-infinite, or finite medium, throughout and beyond the boundary layers. The solutions account for the coupling between acoustic propagation and heat and concentration diffusion processes, including precondensation on the walls. The validity of the model and its predictive capability have been tested by a comparison with the description available in the literature of two particular systems (precondensation of propane and acoustic attenuation in a duct filled with an air-water vapor saturated mixture). The results of this comparison are discussed to clarify the relevance of the various physical phenomena that are involved in these processes. The model proposed here might be useful to develop methods for the acoustic determination of the thermodynamic and transport properties of gas mixtures as well as for practical applications involving gas and gas-vapor mixtures like thermoacoustics and acoustics in wet granular or porous media. PMID:25353596

  14. Acoustics and precondensation phenomena in gas-vapor saturated mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guianvarc'h, C.; Bruneau, M.; Gavioso, R. M.

    2014-02-01

    Starting from fundamental hydrodynamics and thermodynamics equations for thermoviscous fluids, a new modeling procedure, which is suitable to describe acoustic propagation in gas mixtures, is presented. The model revises the boundary conditions which are appropriate to describe the condensation-evaporation processes taking place on a solid wall when one component of the mixture approaches saturation conditions. The general analytical solutions of these basic equations now give a unified description of acoustic propagation in an infinite, semi-infinite, or finite medium, throughout and beyond the boundary layers. The solutions account for the coupling between acoustic propagation and heat and concentration diffusion processes, including precondensation on the walls. The validity of the model and its predictive capability have been tested by a comparison with the description available in the literature of two particular systems (precondensation of propane and acoustic attenuation in a duct filled with an air-water vapor saturated mixture). The results of this comparison are discussed to clarify the relevance of the various physical phenomena that are involved in these processes. The model proposed here might be useful to develop methods for the acoustic determination of the thermodynamic and transport properties of gas mixtures as well as for practical applications involving gas and gas-vapor mixtures like thermoacoustics and acoustics in wet granular or porous media.

  15. Characterization of Gas Amplification in Varied Gas Mixtures for Stacked Gas Electron Multiplier and Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Micropattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) represent a promising group of gas amplification technologies. Utilizing large electric fields over geometries on the order of tens of micrometers, these elements can achieve large gas amplification while minimizing field distortions by minimizing the number of ions escaping from the amplification stage. Such properties are extremely useful for readout in gaseous detectors such as Time Projection Chambers. Two types of MPGDs are of particular interest, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and Micro-mesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) detectors. These elements may be stacked, which allows for the utilization of the best properties of both, further improving the amplification performance. We report here on the characterization of 2 GEMs stacked on top of a Micromegas. In particular, I will present the dependence of gas amplification on Micromegas voltage in various gas mixtures, as well as an investigation into stability of the elements against sparking.

  16. Quantum gas mixtures in different correlation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Busch, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    We present a many-body description for two-component ultracold bosonic gases when one of the species is in the weakly interacting regime and the other is either weakly or strongly interacting. In the one-dimensional limit the latter is a hybrid in which a Tonks-Girardeau gas is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, which is an example of a class of quantum system involving a tunable, superfluid environment. We describe the process of phase separation microscopically as well as semiclassically in both situations and show that quantum correlations are maintained even in the separated phase.

  17. Trapping of gas mixtures by amorphous water ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Nun, A.; Kleinfeld, I.; Kochavi, E.; Owen, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Our studies on gas trapping in amorphous water ice at 24-100 K were extended, by using mixtures of CH4, CO, N2, and Ar, rather than single gases. In 1:1 gas:(water vapor) mixtures, the competition among these gases on the available sites in the ice showed that the trapping capacity for the various gases is determined not only by the structure and dynamics of the ice, but is also influenced by the gas itself. Whereas at 24-35 K all four gases are trapped in the ice indiscriminantly, at 50-75 K there is a clear enhancement, in the order of CH4 > CO > N2 > or approximately Ar. This order is influenced by the gas-water interaction energy, the size of the trapped gas atom or molecule, the type of clathrate-hydrate formed (I or II) and, possibly, other factors. It seems that the gas can be trapped in the amorphous ice in several different locations, each being affected in a different way by the deposition temperature and gas composition. Once a gas atom or molecule is trapped in a specific location, it is predestined to emerge in one of eight different temperature ranges, which are associated with changes in the ice. The experimentally observed enhancements, together with the findings on the gas composition of comet Halley, might enable an estimation of the gas composition in the region of comet formation.

  18. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should be used, or TLCO should be corrected to a standard inspired oxygen concentration. The range of gas mixtures used in practice and the implications for cost and accuracy have been investigated. METHODS--A questionnaire was sent to 185 respiratory units in the UK requesting information on (1) the method used to estimate TLCO, (2) the manufacturer of the equipment, (3) the mixture used, (4) whether "medical quality" gas was ordered, and (5) the level of satisfaction with supplier service. RESULTS--Replies were received from 106 units. Most used the single breath breath holding method for which 17 different test mixtures were ordered. One unit also used the single breath exhalation method. Inspired oxygen ranged from 17.94% to 25%, giving a wide variation in alveolar oxygen and hence TLCO. Forty seven units ordered a specific inspired oxygen, the rest ordering "air" as balance. The cost per litre of gas varied greatly, with the mixture 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (17.9% oxygen) and 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (18.8% oxygen) being cheapest to produce. Ordering a specific inspired oxygen concentration increased the cost. Large cylinders of gas were cheaper for the same mixture. The mixture for the exhalation method was the most expensive. Sixty seven units ordered "medical quality" gas and six assumed this was supplied. Twenty nine (27%) were dissatisfied with their supplier due to (1) poor service, (2) long delivery times, (3) costs, or (4

  19. Penning transfer in argon-based gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Ö.; Tapan, İ.; Özmutlu, E. N.; Veenhof, R.

    2010-05-01

    Penning transfers, a group of processes by which excitation energy is used to ionise the gas, increase the gas gain in some detectors. Both the probability that such transfers occur and the mechanism by which the transfer takes place, vary with the gas composition and pressure. With a view to developing a microscopic electron transport model that takes Penning transfers into account, we use this dependence to identify the transfer mechanisms at play. We do this for a number of argon-based gas mixtures, using gain curves from the literature.

  20. Gas mixture studies for streamer operated Resistive Plate Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoloni, A.; Longhin, A.; Mengucci, A.; Pupilli, F.; Ventura, M.

    2016-06-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers operated in streamer mode are interesting detectors in neutrino and astro-particle physics applications (like OPERA and ARGO experiments). Such experiments are typically characterized by large area apparatuses with no stringent requirements on detector aging and rate capabilities. In this paper, results of cosmic ray tests performed on a RPC prototype using different gas mixtures are presented, the principal aim being the optimization of the TetraFluoroPropene concentration in Argon-based mixtures. The introduction of TetraFluoroPropene, besides its low Global Warming Power, is helpful because it simplifies safety requirements allowing to remove also isobutane from the mixture. Results obtained with mixtures containing SF6, CF4, CO2, N2 and He are also shown, presented both in terms of detectors properties (efficiency, multiple-streamer probability and time resolution) and in terms of streamer characteristics.

  1. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    SciTech Connect

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-07

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl{sub 2} deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl{sub 2} in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  2. Ultraviolet-B radiation enhancement in dielectric barrier discharge based xenon chloride exciplex source by air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, P.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Vyas, V.

    2014-07-01

    A single barrier dielectric barrier discharge tube of quartz with multi-strip Titanium-Gold (Ti-Au) coatings have been developed and utilized for ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation production peaking at wavelength 308 nm. The observed radiation at this wavelength has been examined for the mixtures of the Xenon together with chlorine and air admixtures. The gas mixture composition, chlorine gas content, total gas pressure, and air pressure dependency of the UV intensity, has been analyzed. It is found that the larger concentration of Cl2 deteriorates the performance of the developed source and around 2% Cl2 in this source produced optimum results. Furthermore, an addition of air in the xenon and chlorine working gas environment leads to achieve same intensity of UV-B light but at lower working gas pressure where significant amount of gas is air.

  3. Tortuosity measurement and the effects of finite pulse widths on xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Hurlimann, M. D.; Sen, P. N.; Schwartz, L. M.; Patz, S.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    We have extended the utility of NMR as a technique to probe porous media structure over length scales of approximately 100-2000 microm by using the spin 1/2 noble gas 129Xe imbibed into the system's pore space. Such length scales are much greater than can be probed with NMR diffusion studies of water-saturated porous media. We utilized Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the xenon gas filling the pore space to study further the measurements of both the pore surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V(p), and the tortuosity (pore connectivity) of the medium. In uniform-size glass bead packs, we observed D(t) decreasing with increasing t, reaching an observed asymptote of approximately 0.62-0.65D(0), that could be measured over diffusion distances extending over multiple bead diameters. Measurements of D(t)/D(0) at differing gas pressures showed this tortuosity limit was not affected by changing the characteristic diffusion length of the spins during the diffusion encoding gradient pulse. This was not the case at the short time limit, where D(t)/D(0) was noticeably affected by the gas pressure in the sample. Increasing the gas pressure, and hence reducing D(0) and the diffusion during the gradient pulse served to reduce the previously observed deviation of D(t)/D(0) from the S/V(p) relation. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate between the long and short time limits in D(t). While the short time D(t) points lay above the interpolation line in the case of small beads, due to diffusion during the gradient pulse on the order of the pore size, it was also noted that the experimental D(t) data fell below the Pade line in the case of large beads, most likely due to finite size effects.

  4. Tortuosity measurement and the effects of finite pulse widths on xenon gas diffusion NMR studies of porous media.

    PubMed

    Mair, R W; Hürlimann, M D; Sen, P N; Schwartz, L M; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2001-01-01

    We have extended the utility of NMR as a technique to probe porous media structure over length scales of approximately 100-2000 microm by using the spin 1/2 noble gas 129Xe imbibed into the system's pore space. Such length scales are much greater than can be probed with NMR diffusion studies of water-saturated porous media. We utilized Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo NMR measurements of the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(t), of the xenon gas filling the pore space to study further the measurements of both the pore surface-area-to-volume ratio, S/V(p), and the tortuosity (pore connectivity) of the medium. In uniform-size glass bead packs, we observed D(t) decreasing with increasing t, reaching an observed asymptote of approximately 0.62-0.65D(0), that could be measured over diffusion distances extending over multiple bead diameters. Measurements of D(t)/D(0) at differing gas pressures showed this tortuosity limit was not affected by changing the characteristic diffusion length of the spins during the diffusion encoding gradient pulse. This was not the case at the short time limit, where D(t)/D(0) was noticeably affected by the gas pressure in the sample. Increasing the gas pressure, and hence reducing D(0) and the diffusion during the gradient pulse served to reduce the previously observed deviation of D(t)/D(0) from the S/V(p) relation. The Pade approximation is used to interpolate between the long and short time limits in D(t). While the short time D(t) points lay above the interpolation line in the case of small beads, due to diffusion during the gradient pulse on the order of the pore size, it was also noted that the experimental D(t) data fell below the Pade line in the case of large beads, most likely due to finite size effects. PMID:11445310

  5. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  6. Approximate Thermodynamics State Relations in Partially Ionized Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ramshaw, J D

    2003-12-30

    In practical applications, the thermodynamic state relations of partially ionized gas mixtures are usually approximated in terms of the state relations of the pure partially ionized constituent gases or materials in isolation. Such approximations are ordinarily based on an artificial partitioning or separation of the mixture into its constituent materials, with material k regarded as being confined by itself within a compartment or subvolume with volume fraction {alpha}k and possessing a fraction {beta}k of the total internal energy of the mixture. In a mixture of N materials, the quantities {alpha}k and {beta}k constitute an additional 2N--2 independent variables. The most common procedure for determining these variables, and hence the state relations for the mixture, is to require that the subvolumes all have the same temperature and pressure. This intuitively reasonable procedure is easily shown to reproduce the correct thermal and caloric state equations for a mixture of neutral (non-ionized) ideal gases. Here we wish to point out that (a) this procedure leads to incorrect state equations for a mixture of partially ionized ideal gases, whereas (b) the alternative procedure of requiring that the subvolumes all have the same temperature and free electron density reproduces the correct thermal and caloric state equations for such a mixture. These results readily generalize to the case of partially degenerate and/or relativistic electrons, to a common approximation used to represent pressure ionization effects, and to two-temperature plasmas. This suggests that equating the subvolume electron number densities or chemical potentials instead of pressures is likely to provide a more accurate approximation even in nonideal plasma mixtures.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  8. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  9. Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using mixed-ligand MOF material

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Mulfort, Karen L.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2011-01-04

    A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxiode and hydrocarbon gas using a mixed-ligand, metal-organic framework (MOF) material having metal ions coordinated to carboxylate ligands and pyridyl ligands.

  10. First proof of topological signature in the high pressure xenon gas TPC with electroluminescence amplification for the NEXT experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ferrario, P.

    2016-01-19

    The NEXT experiment aims to observe the neutrinoless double beta decay of xenon in a high-pressure 136Xe gas TPC using electroluminescence (EL) to amplify the signal from ionization. One of the main advantages of this technology is the possibility to reconstruct the topology of events with energies close to Qββ. This paper presents the first demonstration that the topology provides extra handles to reject background events using data obtained with the NEXT-DEMO prototype. Single electrons resulting from the interactions of 22Na 1275 keV gammas and electron-positron pairs produced by conversions of gammas from the 228Th decay chain were used tomore » represent the background and the signal in a double beta decay. Furthermore, these data were used to develop algorithms for the reconstruction of tracks and the identification of the energy deposited at the end-points, providing an extra background rejection factor of 24.3 ± 1.4 (stat.)%, while maintaining an efficiency of 66.7 ± 1% for signal events.« less

  11. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  12. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminatedmore » the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.« less

  13. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Cárdenas, Rosa Elia; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup ®} getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650 °C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110 °C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  14. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-15

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N{sub 2}). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  15. Plasma polymerization of an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudis, M.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby nitrogen can be incorporated into an organic film from an ethylene-nitrogen gas mixture using an internal electrode capacitively coupled radio frequency reactor. The presence of nitrogen has been shown directly by infrared transmittance spectra and electron spectroscopic chemical analysis data, and further indirect evidence was provided by dielectric measurements and by the reverse osmosis properties of the film. Preparation of a nitrogen containing film did not require vapor from an organic nitrogen containing liquid monomer. Some control over the bonding and stoichiometry of the polymer film was provided by the added degree of freedom of the nitrogen partial pressure in the gas mixture. This new parameter strongly affected the dielectric properties of the plasma polymerized film and could affect the reverse osmosis behavior.

  16. Predicting detection probabilities for gas mixtures over HSI backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-12-29

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal image data acquired by airborne detectors is an area of ongoing research. This contribution investigates the relative detectability of gas mixtures over different backgrounds and a range of plume temperatures that are warmer and cooler than the ground. The focus of this analysis to support mission planning. When the mission is intended to collect evidence of particular chemicals, the analysis presented is this report can be used to determine conditions under which useful data can be acquired. Initial analyses can be used to determine whether LWIR is useful for the anticipated gas, temperature, and background combination.

  17. Deflagration to detonation transition in combustible gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, N.N.; Panfilov, I.I.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a computational investigation of the process of deflagration to detonation transition in a combustible gas mixture. The type of combustion (i.e., deflagration or detonation) supported by a two-step reaction scheme is studied as a function of the activation energies. It is shown that both a deflagration to detonation transition and a deflagration wave that lags behind a leading shock are possible. Two types of deflagration to detonation transitions are found theoretically: initiation of detonation from the flame zone and initiation of detonation along a contact discontinuity in the compressed gas near the primary shock wave.

  18. The XENON1T Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, Ran; Aprile, Elena; Choi, Bin; Contreras, Hugo; Goetzke, Luke; Lim, Kyungeun; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio; Persiani, Rino; Plante, Guillaume; Rizzo, Alfio; Shagin, Peter

    2012-03-01

    We present the results from a facility called the XENON1T Demonstrator at Columbia University, that has been designed and built as a prototype for the XENON1T cryogenic system and TPC. Its primary goal is to demonstrate that the high LXe purity (<1 part per billion O2 equivalent) required for electrons to drift freely over a distance of 1 meter, as in the XENON1T TPC, can be achieved and on a time scale of weeks. The approach adopted in all XENON detectors thus far is that of gas purification with continuous circulation with a diaphragm pump through a heated getter. We show results for high speed recirculation, above 100 slpm, the development of a high voltage feedthrough which is radio pure and the design and application of a prototype TPC to test the purity.

  19. Modeling of non-thermal plasma in flammable gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napartovich, A. P.; Kochetov, I. V.; Leonov, S. B.

    2008-07-01

    An idea of using plasma-assisted methods of fuel ignition is based on non-equilibrium generation of chemically active species that speed up the combustion process. It is believed that gain in energy consumed for combustion acceleration by plasmas is due to the non-equilibrium nature of discharge plasma, which allows radicals to be produced in an above-equilibrium amount. Evidently, the size of the effect is strongly dependent on the initial temperature, pressure, and composition of the mixture. Of particular interest is comparison between thermal ignition of a fuel-air mixture and non-thermal plasma initiation of the combustion. Mechanisms of thermal ignition in various fuel-air mixtures have been studied for years, and a number of different mechanisms are known providing an agreement with experiments at various conditions. The problem is -- how to conform thermal chemistry approach to essentially non-equilibrium plasma description. The electric discharge produces much above-equilibrium amounts of chemically active species: atoms, radicals and ions. The point is that despite excess concentrations of a number of species, total concentration of these species is far below concentrations of the initial gas mixture. Therefore, rate coefficients for reactions of these discharge produced species with other gas mixture components are well known quantities controlled by the translational temperature, which can be calculated from the energy balance equation taking into account numerous processes initiated by plasma. A numerical model was developed combining traditional approach of thermal combustion chemistry with advanced description of the plasma kinetics based on solution of electron Boltzmann equation. This approach allows us to describe self-consistently strongly non-equilibrium electric discharge in chemically unstable (ignited) gas. Equations of pseudo-one-dimensional gas dynamics were solved in parallel with a system of thermal chemistry equations, kinetic equations

  20. The Search for Dark Matter with the XENON100 Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, Elena

    2008-11-23

    The XENON Dark Matter Experiment aims at the direct detection of dark matter Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with dual phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chambers (XeTPCs). Following the successful performance of the XENON10 detector, which has shown in 2007 the best sensitivity to spin-independent coupling of WIMPs to matter, we have designed and completed the construction of a new TPC with an active LXe shield, containing a total of 170 kg of xenon. The detector is currently undergoing final commissioning at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. I will review the XENON10 results and present the status of the XENON100 experiment.

  1. Xenon Additives Detection in Helium Micro-Plasma Gas Analytical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Electron energy spectra of Xe atoms at He filled micro-plasma afterglow gas analyzer were observed using Collisional Electron Spectroscopy (CES) method [1]. According to CES, diffusion path confinement for characteristic electrons makes it possible to measure electrons energy distribution function (EEDF) at a high (up to atmospheric) gas pressure. Simple geometry micro-plasma CES sensor consists of two plane parallel electrodes detector and microprocessor-based acquisition system providing current-voltage curve measurement in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. Electron energy spectra are deduced as 2-nd derivative of the measured current-voltage curve to select characteristic peaks of the species to be detected. Said derivatives were obtained by the smoothing-differentiating procedure using spline least-squares approximation of a current-voltage curve. Experimental results on CES electron energy spectra at 10-40 Torr in pure He and in admixture with 0.3% Xe are discussed. It demonstrates a prototype of the new miniature micro-plasma sensors for industry, safety and healthcare applications. [1]. A.A.Kudryavtsev, A.B.Tsyganov. US Patent 7,309,992. Gas analysis method and ionization detector for carrying out said method, issued December 18, 2007.

  2. Ternary gas mixtures for high-voltage industrial insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, M. O.; Chan, C. C.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1981-10-01

    Gas dielectrics for insulating power apparatus, e.g., gas insulated transmission lines (GITL), were evaluated. Particular attention was given to mixtures using large proportions of an electron moderating gas (viz., N2, CHF3, or 1,1,1-C2H3F3) and smaller quantities of two electron attaching gases: SF6 and one fluorocarbon (e.g., c-C4F8). The proportions were sought at which the three gases function best as a team, moderating free electrons from higher to lower energies and there attaching them. Small amounts of the electron attaching additives can drastically raise the dielectric strength of the moderator. Certain combinations of SF6 and fluorocarbons do not produce the undesirable spark by products associated with either SF6 or fluorocarbons alone and also show improved negative polarity impulse breakdown characteristics over pure SF6. Small scale breakdown measurements were made of various ternary mixtures in the GITL geometry. It was found that nitrogen moderates electrons to extremely low energies, where SF6 attaches; the dipolar gases moderate to somewhat higher energies, where some fluorocarbons attach best.

  3. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Scott R.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1990-01-01

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue of the combined physio-electric properties of the mixture components.

  4. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  5. Investigation of plasma-dust structures in He-Ar gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorov, S. A.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.

    2008-09-15

    The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for a He-Ar mixture. It is shown that the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses ion heating in electric field under the conventional conditions of experiments and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths, and gas pressures.

  6. Application of Two Phase (Liquid/Gas) Xenon Gamma-Camera for the Detection of Special Nuclear Material and PET Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, Daniel Nicholas

    2013-08-27

    The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) charge readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid/gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have better energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid detectors for

  7. On the Solution of a Boltzmann System for Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotirov, Alexander; Yu, Shih-Hsien

    2010-02-01

    We study the Boltzmann equation for a mixture of two gases in one space dimension with initial condition of one gas near vacuum and the other near a Maxwellian equilibrium state. A qualitative-quantitative mathematical analysis is developed to study this mass diffusion problem based on the Green’s function of the Boltzmann equation for the single species hard sphere collision model in Liu andYu (Commun Pure Appl Math 57:1543-1608, 2004). The cross-species resonance of the mass diffusion and the diffusion-sound wave is investigated. An exponentially sharp global solution is obtained.

  8. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations.

  9. Asymptotic-preserving Boltzmann model equations for binary gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Liang, Yihua

    2016-02-01

    An improved system of Boltzmann model equations is developed for binary gas mixture. This system of model equations has a complete asymptotic preserving property that can strictly recover the Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum limit with the correct constitutive relations and the correct viscosity, thermal conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients. In this equation system, the self- and cross-collision terms in Boltzmann equations are replaced by single relaxation terms. In monocomponent case, this system of equations can be reduced to the commonly used Shakhov equation. The conservation property and the H theorem which are important for model equations are also satisfied by this system of model equations. PMID:26986408

  10. Cellular detonation diffraction in gas-particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Khmel, T. A.; Kratova, Y. V.

    2010-12-01

    Diffraction of cellular heterogeneous detonation out of a channel into open half-space in a mixture of aluminum particles and oxygen is investigated numerically. The flow is found to be very similar to gas detonation diffraction. The detonation weakening behind the step results in combustion front deceleration and decoupling from the leading shock wave. Subsequent re-initiation takes place in a transverse wave. New transverse waves are generated along the expanding front. The computations that were performed show that the critical number of cells is several times less than that for gases. This is confirmed by theoretical estimates based upon the Mitrofanov-Soloukhin approach.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of convection in laser-polarized xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, R. W.; Tseng, C. H.; Wong, G. P.; Cory, D. G.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of the flow and diffusion of laser-polarized xenon (129Xe) gas undergoing convection above evaporating laser-polarized liquid xenon. The large xenon NMR signal provided by the laser-polarization technique allows more rapid imaging than one can achieve with thermally polarized gas-liquid systems, permitting shorter time-scale events such as rapid gas flow and gas-liquid dynamics to be observed. Two-dimensional velocity-encoded imaging shows convective gas flow above the evaporating liquid xenon, and also permits the measurement of enhanced gas diffusion near regions of large velocity variation.

  12. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek; Mahapatra, Rupak; Yoo, Jonghee

    2010-08-30

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  13. Solid Xenon Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Mahapatra, Rupak; Saab, Tarek; Yoo, Jonghee

    2010-08-01

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  14. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  15. Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas and a mixture of gas and liquid helium

    DOEpatents

    Dean, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium fluid comprised of a mixture of gas and boiling liquid so as to be near the same temperature but at different pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid in a go leg from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a high pressure helium gas near the normal boiling temperature of helium; then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a mixture of reduced pressure gas and boiling liquid at its boiling temperature; then by circulating the mixture in a return leg that is separated from but in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg and in the same enclosure therewith; and finally returning the resulting low pressure gas to the refrigerator for compression into a high pressure gas at T.sub.2 is a closed cycle, where T.sub.1 >T.sub.2, the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature is nearly constant along its length from the refrigerator to the expander due to the boiling of the liquid in the mixture. A heat exchanger between the go and return lines removes the gas from the liquid in the return leg while cooling the go leg.

  16. Barium Tagging for nEXO in Liquid and Gas Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Scott; Brunner, Thomas; Fudenberg, Dan; nEXO Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    nEXO is a next-generation multi-ton experiment currently under development to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe-136. A positive observation will determine the neutrino to be a Majorana particle. In order to greatly reduce backgrounds for this search, the nEXO collaboration is developing several techniques to recover and identify the decay daughter, Ba-136 (``barium tagging''). This technique may be available for a second phase of the nEXO detector and will improve the sensitivity to probe the neutrino mass scale beyond the inverted hierarchy. A setup to demonstrate Ba ion capture on a probe and subsequent identification through resonance ionization spectroscopy has been developed, and is being used to investigate possible probe substrates, including graphene. For a gas phase detector, appropriate for a later stage, a separate apparatus to extract Ba ions using an RF-only funnel has been constructed and demonstrates extraction of ions from high-pressure Xe to vacuum consistent with simulations. We will describe the status of these systems and the present results of this R&D program.

  17. Process for testing a xenon gas feed system of a hollow cathode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J. (Inventor); Verhey, Timothy R. R. (Inventor); Soulas, George C. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The design and manufacturing processes for Hollow Cathode Assemblies (HCA's) that operate over a broad range of emission currents up to 30 Amperes, at low potentials, with lifetimes in excess of 17,500 hours. The processes include contamination control procedures which cover hollow cathode component cleaning procedures, gas feed system designs and specifications, and hollow cathode activation and operating procedures to thereby produce cathode assemblies that have demonstrated stable and repeatable operating conditions, for both the discharge current and voltage. The HCA of this invention provides lifetimes of greater than 10,000 hours, and expected lifetimes of greater than 17,500 hours, whereas the present state-of-the-art is less than 500 hours at emission currents in excess of 1 Ampere. Stable operation is provided over a large range of operating emission currents, up to a 6:1 ratio, and this HCA can emit electron currents of up to 30 Amperes in magnitude to an external anode that simulates the current drawn to a space plasma, at voltages of less than 20 Volts.

  18. Production of Samples of Individual Radioxenon Isotopes Through Neutron Irradiation of Stable Xenon Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Derek A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Foltz Biegalski, Kendra M.

    2008-09-23

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. The deconvolution algorithm of the SDAT requires a library of β-γ coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes to determine isotopic ratios in a sample. In order to get experimentally produced spectra of the individual isotopes we have irradiated enriched samples of 130Xe, 132Xe, and 134Xe gas with a neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor at The University of Texas. The samples produced were counted in an Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) style β-γ coincidence detector. The spectra produced show that this method of radioxenon production yields samples with very high purity of the individual isotopes for 131mXe and 135Xe and a sample with a substantial 133mXe to 133Xe ratio.

  19. A fluidic device for measuring constituent masses of a flowing binary gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A continuous reading mass flow device was developed to measure the component flow of a binary gas mixture. The basic components of the device are a fluidic humidity sensor and a specially designed flow calorimeter. These components provide readings of gas mixture ratio, mixture heat capacity, heat dissipated by the calorimeter and the gas temperature rise across the calorimeter. These parameter values, applied in the general definitions of specific heat capacity and the heat capacity of a gas mixture, produce calculated component flow rates of the mixture being metered. A test program was conducted to evaluate both the steady state and dynamic performance of the device.

  20. Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

  1. Chemical discrimination in turbulent gas mixtures with MOX sensors validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Vergara, Alexander; Huerta, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors usually include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and to minimize turbulence. However, such a kind of experimental setup does not reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments and destroys the spatio-temporal information contained in gas plumes. Aiming at reproducing more realistic environments, we utilize a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow. For the first time, chemo-resistive gas sensors are exposed to dynamic gas mixtures generated with several concentration levels at the sources. Moreover, the ground truth of gas concentrations at the sensor location was estimated by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used a support vector machine as a tool to show that chemo-resistive transduction can be utilized to reliably identify chemical components in dynamic turbulent mixtures, as long as sufficient gas concentration coverage is used. We show that in open sampling systems, training the classifiers only on high concentrations of gases produces less effective classification and that it is important to calibrate the classification method with data at low gas concentrations to achieve optimal performance. PMID:25325339

  2. Xenon porometry at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Lounila, Juhani; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Xenon porometry is a method in which porous material is immersed in a medium and the properties of the material are studied by means of Xe129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of xenon gas dissolved in the medium. For instance, the chemical shift of a particular signal (referred to as signal D) arising from xenon inside small pockets formed in the pores during the freezing of the confined medium is highly sensitive to the pore size. In the present study, we show that when naphthalene is used as the medium the pore size distribution of the material can be determined by measuring a single one-dimensional spectrum near room temperature and converting the chemical shift scale of signal D to the pore radius scale by using an experimentally determined correlation. A model has been developed that explains the curious behavior of the chemical shift of signal D as a function of pore radius. The other signals of the spectra measured at different temperatures have also been identified, and the influence of xenon pressure on the spectra has been studied. For comparison, Xe129 NMR spectra of pure xenon gas adsorbed to porous materials have been measured and analyzed.

  3. Separation of SF6 from gas mixtures using gas hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Inuk; Lee, Seungmin; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Gang-woo; Seo, Yongwon

    2010-08-15

    This study aims to examine the thermodynamic feasibility of separating sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), which is widely used in various industrial fields and is one of the most potent greenhouse gases, from gas mixtures using gas hydrate formation. The key process variables of hydrate phase equilibria, pressure-composition diagram, formation kinetics, and structure identification of the mixed gas hydrates, were closely investigated to verify the overall concept of this hydrate-based SF(6) separation process. The three-phase equilibria of hydrate (H), liquid water (L(W)), and vapor (V) for the binary SF(6) + water mixture and for the ternary N(2) + SF(6) + water mixtures with various SF(6) vapor compositions (10, 30, 50, and 70%) were experimentally measured to determine the stability regions and formation conditions of pure and mixed hydrates. The pressure-composition diagram at two different temperatures of 276.15 and 281.15 K was obtained to investigate the actual SF(6) separation efficiency. The vapor phase composition change was monitored during gas hydrate formation to confirm the formation pattern and time needed to reach a state of equilibrium. Furthermore, the structure of the mixed N(2) + SF(6) hydrate was confirmed to be structure II via Raman spectroscopy. Through close examination of the overall experimental results, it was clearly verified that highly concentrated SF(6) can be separated from gas mixtures at mild temperatures and low pressure conditions. PMID:20704207

  4. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  5. Operation of gas electron multiplier (GEM) with propane gas at low pressure and comparison with tissue-equivalent gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nardo, L.; Farahmand, M.

    2016-05-01

    A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 μm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a 244Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×103 has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.

  6. Direct WIMP searches with XENON100 and XENON1T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfredo Davide, Ferella

    2015-05-01

    The XENON100 experiment is the second phase of the XENON direct Dark Matter search program. It consists of an ultra-low background double phase (liquid-gas) xenon filled time projection chamber with a total mass of 161 kg (62 in the target region and 99 in the active shield), installed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). Here the results from the 224.6 live days of data taken between March 2011 and April 2012 are reported. The experiment set one of the most stringent limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section to date (2 × 10-45 cm2 for a 55 Gev/c2 WIMP mass at 90 % confidence level) and the most stringent on the spin-dependent WIMP-neutron interaction (3.5 × 10-40 for a 45 GeV/c2 WIMP mass). With the same dataset, XENON100 excludes also solar axion coupling to electrons at gAe > 7.7 × 10-12 for a mass of mAxion <1 keV/c2 and galactic axion couplings by gAe > 1 × 10-12 at a mass range of mAxion = 5-10 keV/c2 (both 90 % C.L.). Moreover an absolute spectral comparison between simulated and measured nuclear recoil distributions of light and charge signals from a 241AmBe source demonstrates a high level of detector and systematics understanding. Finally, the third generation of the XENON experiments, XENON1T, is the first tonne scale direct WIMP search experiment currently under construction. The commissioning phase of XENON1T is expected to start in early 2015 followed, a few months after, by the first science run. The experiment will reach sensitivities on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section down to 2 ×10-47 cm2 after two years of data taking.

  7. Xenon spill distribution and room clearance.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, C A; Telepak, R J

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate actual xenon gas clearance times under different exhaust conditions, to compare them with the calculated clearance times, to observe the distribution of the xenon gas while it was being exhausted from the room, and to determine the cause of a stationary xenon cloud that appeared on some clinical images. Clearance times with and without a flexible exhaust hose placed next to a simulated 133Xe gas spill were compared with clearance times measured in a room with all exhaust closed off. Two gamma cameras were used to observe the transport and exhaust of xenon following a simulated spill. Clearance times with the flexible exhaust hose were less than one minute because the xenon gas was removed before it had a chance to disperse into the room. Conventional room clearance calculations based on uniform mixing and measured exhaust rates yielded a clearance time of 22 min. The source of an artifactual stationary cloud image was discovered to be a small amount of xenon trapped between the collimator and camera face. A negative pressure and dedicated exhaust can be even more effective in exhausting spilled xenon from a room than air transfer calculations predict. The authors believe the flexible hose should always be used. PMID:10524516

  8. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (left) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  9. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  10. Simulation of Gas Mixtures in RF Discharges for Nitride Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Helen H.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Tungsten and titanium nitride films have long been grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. However, there has been recent interest in low temperature growth using plasma enhanced CVD. For the present work, we focus on the radio frequency (BE) discharge characteristics of gas mixtures used in nitride deposition (for example, WF6 and ammonia). Because the radial variations for a standard 200 mm, parallel plate reactor are limited to a small zone near the edges of the electrodes, a 1-D (one-dimensional) analysis is considered. This model consists of a self-consistent, 3-D (three-dimensional) moment fluid simulation that solves the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for neutral and charged species. The results in terms of plasma structure, radical concentrations, and local deposition rate will be presented. We will also compare the 1-D results with those obtained from a 2-D hybrid plasma equipment model (HPEM) developed at the University of Illinois.

  11. Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133-xenon clearance from exercising muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.M.; Clark, S.R.; Goldberg, L.; Nelson, D.; Bonafede, R.P.; Porter, J.; Specht, D.

    1989-04-01

    Aerobic fitness was evaluated in 25 women with fibrositis, by having them exercise to volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Compared with published standards, greater than 80% of the fibrositis patients were not physically fit, as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake. Compared with matched sedentary controls, fibrositis patients accurately perceived their level of exertion in relation to oxygen consumption and attained a similar level of lactic acidosis, as assessed by their respiratory quotient and ventilatory threshold. Exercising muscle blood flow was estimated by 133-xenon clearance in a subgroup of 16 fibrositis patients and compared with that in 16 matched sedentary controls; the fibrositis patients exhibited reduced 133-xenon clearance. These results indicate a need to include aerobic fitness as a matched variable in future controlled studies of fibrositis and suggest that the detraining phenomenon may be of relevance to the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  12. Fermion-fermion interaction in a dilute gas-mixture Bose condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilyuk, T. I.

    2011-11-15

    A mixture of a one-component Bose gas and two-component Fermi gas is considered at temperatures at which the Bose gas is completely condensed. Two fermions in such a mixture can interact with each other exchanging bosons from the condensate or supercondensate. The interaction potential, a change in the effective mass, the decay, and fermion spectrum are calculated in this quantum Fermi-Bose mixture.

  13. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gas and dust mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, R. A.; Sijacki, D.; Clarke, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    We present a `two-fluid' implementation of dust in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) in the test particle limit. The scheme is able to handle both short and long stopping times and reproduces the short friction time limit, which is not properly handled in other implementations. We apply novel tests to verify its accuracy and limitations, including multidimensional tests that have not been previously applied to the drag-coupled dust problem and which are particularly relevant to self-gravitating protoplanetary discs. Our tests demonstrate several key requirements for accurate simulations of gas-dust mixtures. First, in standard SPH particle jitter can degrade the dust solution, even when the gas density is well reproduced. The use of integral gradients, a Wendland kernel and a large number of neighbours can control this, albeit at a greater computational cost. Secondly, when it is necessary to limit the artificial viscosity we recommend using the Cullen & Dehnen switch, since the alternative, using α ˜ 0.1, can generate a large velocity noise up to σv ≲ 0.3cs in the dust particles. Thirdly, we find that an accurate dust density estimate requires >400 neighbours, since, unlike the gas, the dust particles do not feel regularization forces. This density noise applies to all particle-based two-fluid implementations of dust, irrespective of the hydro solver and could lead to numerically induced fragmentation. Although our tests show accurate dusty gas simulations are possible, care must be taken to minimize the contribution from numerical noise.

  14. Buffer-gas influence on multiphoton absorption and dissociation in different gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, J. D.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.; Jovanović-Kurepa, J.

    2008-03-01

    Buffer-gas influence on the multiphoton absorption and dissociation in different mixtures was investigated using the simple method based on the empirical and theoretical vibrational energy distribution, generalized coupled two-level model and photoacoustic cell especially designed for low pressures studies. Energy transfer efficiency was analyzed by means of pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy technique. Collisional effects of buffer-gas (Ar) pressure are introduced to enhance the absorption and relaxation characteristics of irradiated absorbing molecules (SF 6). Functional behavior of mean number of absorbed photons per molecule < n> total and a dependence on buffer-gas pressure ( pbuff) which enables us to confirm or predict some physical and chemical processes are presented. Limitation of proposed model was analyzed depending on both gas pressure and laser fluence. Results are compared with other previously obtained by the same experimental technique but for different absorber and different molecular buffer-gas.

  15. Simultaneous resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization and electron avalanche ionization in gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Zhang Zhili; Miles, Richard B.

    2008-07-15

    Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI) are measured simultaneously in Ar:Xe mixtures at different partial pressures of mixture components. A simple theory for combined REMPI+EAI in gas mixture is developed. It is shown that the REMPI electrons seed the avalanche process, and thus the avalanche process amplifies the REMPI signal. Possible applications are discussed.

  16. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared analysis of gas phase cigarette smoke and other gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto, R.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. )

    1989-03-01

    A new method for the analysis of selected components in complex gas mixtures has been developed utilizing a relatively inexpensive Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a continuous flow gas cell. The method was used to monitor nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide concentrations in cigarette smoke with time. Using multivariate least-square regression analysis, it is possible to simultaneously quantitate both NO and NO{sub 2}, even in the presence of overlapping peaks. Using this method, the oxidation of nitric oxide in the presence of isoprene in cigarette smoke and in a model system was followed with time. The method also can be applied to other compounds in smoke or to any other gaseous mixture.

  17. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.

  18. [Effect of inert gas xenon on the functional state of nucleated cells of peripheral blood during freezing].

    PubMed

    Laptev, D S; Polezhaeva, T V; Zaitseva, O O; Khudyakov, A N; Utemov, S V; Knyazev, M G; Kostyaev, A A

    2015-01-01

    A new method of preservation of nucleated cells in the electric refrigerator with xenon. After slow freezing and storage is even one day at -80 °C persists for more than 60% leukocytes. Cell membranes are resistant to the vital dye. In 85% of granulocytes stored baseline lysosomal-cationic protein, reduced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity. Cryopreservation of biological objects in inert gases is a promising direction in the practice of medicine and can be an alternative to the traditional method using liquid nitrogen. PMID:26027341

  19. High-frequency sound wave propagation in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M.; Lorenzani, S.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of high-frequency sound waves in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels is investigated by using the linearized Boltzmann equation based on a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK)-type approach and diffuse reflection boundary conditions. The results presented refer to mixtures whose constituents have comparable molecular mass (like Ne-Ar) as well as to disparate-mass gas mixtures (composed of very heavy plus very light molecules, like He-Xe). The sound wave propagation model considered in the present paper allows to analyze the precise nature of the forced-sound modes excited in different gas mixtures.

  20. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  1. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  2. Metastable sound speed in gas-liquid mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursik, J. W.; Hall, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A new method of calculating speed of sound for two-phase flow is presented. The new equation assumes no phase change during the propagation of an acoustic disturbance and assumes that only the total entropy of the mixture remains constant during the process. The new equation predicts single-phase values for the speed of sound in the limit of all gas or all liquid and agrees with available two-phase, air-water sound speed data. Other expressions used in the two-phase flow literature for calculating two-phase, metastable sound speed are reviewed and discussed. Comparisons are made between the new expression and several of the previous expressions -- most notably a triply isentropic equation as used, a triply isentropic equation as used, among others, by Karplus and by Wallis. Appropriate differences are pointed out and a thermodynamic criterion is derived which must be satisfied in order for the triply isentropic expression to be thermodynamically consistent. This criterion is not satisfied for the cases examined, which included two-phase nitrogen, air-water, two-phase parahydrogen, and steam-water. Consequently, the new equation derived is found to be superior to the other equations reviewed.

  3. Dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flows is discussed with focus on characteristics of diffusion flux. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer around a triangular prism. Numerical results for the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier–Stokes–Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox et al (1976 Physica A 84 165–74). In the case of uniform flow with small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of a wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is similar to that of the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, unlike the pressure deviator, dynamic pressure and heat flux, even when the Lorentz contraction in the uniform flow becomes large, because the diffusion flux does not depend on the generic Knudsen number from its definition in Eckart’s frame. Finally, the author concludes that for accuracy diffusion flux must be calculated using the particle four-flow and averaged four velocity, which are formulated using the four velocity defined by each species of hard spherical particles.

  4. The nonlinear model for emergence of stable conditions in gas mixture in force field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalutskov, Oleg; Uvarova, Liudmila

    2016-06-01

    The case of M-component liquid evaporation from the straight cylindrical capillary into N - component gas mixture in presence of external forces was reviewed. It is assumed that the gas mixture is not ideal. The stable states in gas phase can be formed during the evaporation process for the certain model parameter valuesbecause of the mass transfer initial equationsnonlinearity. The critical concentrations of the resulting gas mixture components (the critical component concentrations at which the stable states occur in mixture) were determined mathematically for the case of single-component fluid evaporation into two-component atmosphere. It was concluded that this equilibrium concentration ratio of the mixture components can be achieved by external force influence on the mass transfer processes. It is one of the ways to create sustainable gas clusters that can be used effectively in modern nanotechnology.

  5. Venus, Earth, Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Xenon has been regarded as an important goal of many proposed missions to Venus. This talk is intended to explain why. Despite its being the heaviest gas found in natural planetary atmospheres, there is more evidence that Xe escaped from Earth than for any element apart from helium: (i) Atmospheric Xe is very strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) from any known solar system source. This suggests fractionating escape that preferentially left the heavy Xe isotopes behind. (ii) Xe is underabundant compared to Kr, a lighter noble gas that is not strongly mass fractionated in air. (iii) Radiogenic Xe is strongly depleted by factors of several to ~100 compared to the quantities expected from radioactive decay of primordial solar system materials. In these respects Xe on Mars is similar to Xe on Earth, but with one key difference: Xe on Mars is readily explained by a simple process like hydrodynamic escape that acts on an initially solar or meteoritic Xe. This is not so for Earth. Earth's Xe cannot be derived by an uncontrived mass fractionating process acting on any known type of Solar System Xe. Earth is a stranger, made from different stuff than any known meteorite or Mars or even the Sun. Who else is in Earth's family? Comets? We know nothing. Father Zeus? Data from Jupiter are good enough to show that jovian Xe is not strongly mass-fractionated but not good enough to determine whether Jupiter resembles the Earth or the Sun. Sister Venus? Noble gas data from Venus are incomplete, with Kr uncertain and Xe unmeasured. Krypton was measured by several instruments on several spacecraft. The reported Kr abundances are discrepant and were once highly controversial. These discrepancies appear to have been not so much resolved as forgotten. Xenon was not detected on Venus. Upper limits were reported for the two most abundant xenon isotopes 129Xe and 132Xe. From the limited data it is not possible to tell whether Venus's affinities lie with the solar wind, or with

  6. Hyperpolarized Xenon for NMR and MRI Applications

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Christopher; Kunth, Martin; Döpfert, Jörg; Rossella, Federica; Schröder, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) suffer from intrinsic low sensitivity because even strong external magnetic fields of ~10 T generate only a small detectable net-magnetization of the sample at room temperature 1. Hence, most NMR and MRI applications rely on the detection of molecules at relative high concentration (e.g., water for imaging of biological tissue) or require excessive acquisition times. This limits our ability to exploit the very useful molecular specificity of NMR signals for many biochemical and medical applications. However, novel approaches have emerged in the past few years: Manipulation of the detected spin species prior to detection inside the NMR/MRI magnet can dramatically increase the magnetization and therefore allows detection of molecules at much lower concentration 2. Here, we present a method for polarization of a xenon gas mixture (2-5% Xe, 10% N2, He balance) in a compact setup with a ca. 16000-fold signal enhancement. Modern line-narrowed diode lasers allow efficient polarization 7 and immediate use of gas mixture even if the noble gas is not separated from the other components. The SEOP apparatus is explained and determination of the achieved spin polarization is demonstrated for performance control of the method. The hyperpolarized gas can be used for void space imaging, including gas flow imaging or diffusion studies at the interfaces with other materials 8,9. Moreover, the Xe NMR signal is extremely sensitive to its molecular environment 6. This enables the option to use it as an NMR/MRI contrast agent when dissolved in aqueous solution with functionalized molecular hosts that temporarily trap the gas 10,11. Direct detection and high-sensitivity indirect detection of such constructs is demonstrated in both spectroscopic and imaging mode. PMID:22986346

  7. Experimental and theoretical characterization of a multi-wavelength DBD-driven exciplex lamp operated with mercury bromide/rare gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guivan, Mykola M.; Malinina, Antonina A.; Brablec, Antonin

    2011-06-01

    Emission spectra from an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with HgBr2/He or HgBr2/Xe/Kr mixtures, as well as the electrical characteristics, were investigated at repetition frequencies of sinusoidal voltage pulses up to 125 kHz. In the spectra, the study revealed radiation from HgBr(B-X, C-X) exciplex molecules, atomic lines of mercury and rare gases, and in mixtures with xenon, radiation of XeBr(B-X, B-A) exciplex molecules. Regularities in the spectral characteristics of the radiation from the gas-discharge plasma were discussed. The electron energy distribution function, the specific energy lost in the processes involving electrons, the electron temperature and density, and the rate constants of elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the components of the working mixture were calculated as functions of the reduced field E/N. The high-frequency atmospheric-pressure barrier discharge in mixtures of mercury dibromide with gases can be used in multi-wavelength exciplex lamps, operating in the UV and visible regions.

  8. Two-dimensional simulation of the development of an inhomogeneous volume discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, Yu. I. Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G.

    2013-05-15

    The kinetic processes accompanying plasma column formation in an inhomogeneous discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture at a pressure of 4 atm were investigated by using a two-dimensional model. Two cathode spots spaced by 0.7 cm were initiated by distorting the cathode surface at local points, which resulted in an increase in the field strength in the cathode region. Three regimes differing in the charging voltage, electric circuit inductance, and electric field strength at the local cathode points were considered. The spatiotemporal distributions of the discharge current; the electron density; and the densities of excited xenon atoms, HCl(v = 0) molecules in the ground state, and HCl(v > 0) molecules in vibrational levels were calculated. The development of the discharge with increasing the electron density from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} was analyzed, and three characteristic stages in the evolution of the current distribution were demonstrated. The width of the plasma column was found to depend on the energy deposited in the discharge. The width of the plasma column was found to decrease in inverse proportion to the deposited energy due to spatiotemporal variations in the rates of electron production and loss. The calculated dependences of the cross-sectional area of the plasma column on the energy deposited in the discharge agree with the experimental results.

  9. Xenon and Other Volatile Anesthetics Change Domain Structure in Model Lipid Raft Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Weinrich, Michael; Worcester, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 160 years, but the molecular mechanisms of action continue to be investigated. Direct interactions with ion channels received much attention after it was found that anesthetics do not change the structure of homogeneous model membranes. However, it was recently found that halothane, a prototypical anesthetic, changes domain structure of a binary lipid membrane. The noble gas xenon is an excellent anesthetic and provides a pivotal test of the generality of this finding, extended to ternary lipid raft mixtures. We report that xenon and conventional anesthetics change the domain equilibrium in two canonical ternary lipid raft mixtures. These findings demonstrate a membrane-mediated mechanism whereby inhalation anesthetics can affect the lipid environment of trans-membrane proteins. PMID:24299622

  10. Gas-phase detonation propagation in mixture composition gradients.

    PubMed

    Kessler, D A; Gamezo, V N; Oran, E S

    2012-02-13

    The propagation of detonations through several fuel-air mixtures with spatially varying fuel concentrations is examined numerically. The detonations propagate through two-dimensional channels, inside of which the gradient of mixture composition is oriented normal to the direction of propagation. The simulations are performed using a two-component, single-step reaction model calibrated so that one-dimensional detonation properties of model low- and high-activation-energy mixtures are similar to those observed in a typical hydrocarbon-air mixture. In the low-activation-energy mixture, the reaction zone structure is complex, consisting of curved fuel-lean and fuel-rich detonations near the line of stoichiometry that transition to decoupled shocks and turbulent deflagrations near the channel walls where the mixture is extremely fuel-lean or fuel-rich. Reactants that are not consumed by the leading detonation combine downstream and burn in a diffusion flame. Detonation cells produced by the unstable reaction front vary in size across the channel, growing larger away from the line of stoichiometry. As the size of the channel decreases relative to the size of a detonation cell, the effect of the mixture composition gradient is lessened and cells of similar sizes form. In the high-activation-energy mixture, detonations propagate more slowly as the magnitude of the mixture composition gradient is increased and can be quenched in a large enough gradient. PMID:22213660

  11. Buffer gas-induced resonance vibrational polarizability in the SF6-rare gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanin, Michael O.; Burtsev, Andrey P.; Kerl, Klaus; Kisliakov, Ivan M.

    2001-04-01

    Mixed second refractivity virial coefficients BRab(ω) have been evaluated from the analysis of the pressure broadened ν3≈930 cm-1 34SF6 IR absorption band profile in mixtures with Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe buffer gases at relative densities up to 150 Amagat. The values of the BRab(ω) in the resonance region are found to be orders of magnitude greater compared to those observed for the neat gases in the spectral regions far from resonance. The experimental results are compared with the predictions of the dynamic DID model for the buffer gas-induced vibrational pair polarizability. The DID model reproduces surprisingly well the frequency variation of BRab in the range of the band wings for the heavier buffer gases, but significantly deviates from experiment for the SF6-Ne mixture.

  12. Pathway to Cryogen Free Production of Hyperpolarized Krypton-83 and Xenon-129

    PubMed Central

    Six, Joseph S.; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Stupic, Karl F.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 129Xe and hp 83Kr for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically obtained through spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) in gas mixtures with dilute concentrations of the respective noble gas. The usage of dilute noble gases mixtures requires cryogenic gas separation after SEOP, a step that makes clinical and preclinical applications of hp 129Xe MRI cumbersome. For hp 83Kr MRI, cryogenic concentration is not practical due to depolarization that is caused by quadrupolar relaxation in the condensed phase. In this work, the concept of stopped flow SEOP with concentrated noble gas mixtures at low pressures was explored using a laser with 23.3 W of output power and 0.25 nm linewidth. For 129Xe SEOP without cryogenic separation, the highest obtained MR signal intensity from the hp xenon-nitrogen gas mixture was equivalent to that arising from 15.5±1.9% spin polarized 129Xe in pure xenon gas. The production rate of the hp gas mixture, measured at 298 K, was 1.8 cm3/min. For hp 83Kr, the equivalent of 4.4±0.5% spin polarization in pure krypton at a production rate of 2 cm3/min was produced. The general dependency of spin polarization upon gas pressure obtained in stopped flow SEOP is reported for various noble gas concentrations. Aspects of SEOP specific to the two noble gas isotopes are discussed and compared with current theoretical opinions. A non-linear pressure broadening of the Rb D1 transition was observed and taken into account for the qualitative description of the SEOP process. PMID:23209620

  13. Data set from chemical sensor array exposed to turbulent gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    A chemical detection platform composed of 8 chemo-resistive gas sensors was exposed to turbulent gas mixtures generated naturally in a wind tunnel. The acquired time series of the sensors are provided. The experimental setup was designed to test gas sensors in realistic environments. Traditionally, chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and minimize turbulence. Instead, we utilized a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that generate two gas plumes. The plumes get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow and reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments. Hence, the gas sensors can capture the spatio-temporal information contained in the gas plumes. The sensor array was exposed to binary mixtures of ethylene with either methane or carbon monoxide. Volatiles were released at four different rates to induce different concentration levels in the vicinity of the sensor array. Each configuration was repeated 6 times, for a total of 180 measurements. The data is related to "Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry", by Fonollosa et al. [1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+senso+rarray+exposed+to+turbulent+gas+mixtures. PMID:26217747

  14. Data set from chemical sensor array exposed to turbulent gas mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    A chemical detection platform composed of 8 chemo-resistive gas sensors was exposed to turbulent gas mixtures generated naturally in a wind tunnel. The acquired time series of the sensors are provided. The experimental setup was designed to test gas sensors in realistic environments. Traditionally, chemical detection systems based on chemo-resistive sensors include a gas chamber to control the sample air flow and minimize turbulence. Instead, we utilized a wind tunnel with two independent gas sources that generate two gas plumes. The plumes get naturally mixed along a turbulent flow and reproduce the gas concentration fluctuations observed in natural environments. Hence, the gas sensors can capture the spatio-temporal information contained in the gas plumes. The sensor array was exposed to binary mixtures of ethylene with either methane or carbon monoxide. Volatiles were released at four different rates to induce different concentration levels in the vicinity of the sensor array. Each configuration was repeated 6 times, for a total of 180 measurements. The data is related to “Chemical Discrimination in Turbulent Gas Mixtures with MOX Sensors Validated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry”, by Fonollosa et al. [1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+senso+rarray+exposed+to+turbulent+gas+mixtures. PMID:26217747

  15. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-07-07

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  16. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-10-27

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  17. Calculation of the relative speed of sound in a gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, M J; Maitland, G

    1975-12-01

    Since the frequency spectrum of a voice signal is directly dependent on the velocity of sound, studies of speech spectra include the problem of calculating the speed of sound in the gas mixture being used. A computer program written in BASIC has been developed to calculate the speed of sound relative to air in various diving gas mixtures. In addition, a set of tables available as a separate technical report has been generated using this program. These tables are designed to provide a standard reference for reporting spectral shifts in speech due to different gas mixtures under normal diving conditions. PMID:1226588

  18. Process for the separation of components from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1973-10-01

    A process for the removal, from gaseous mixtures of a desired component selected from oxygen, iodine, methyl iodide, and lower oxides of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is described. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatmospheric pressure to preferentially absorb the desired component in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed constituents of the gaseous mixture are withdrawn from the absorption zone. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in the desired component is withdrawn separately from the zone, following which the desired component is recovered from the fluorocarbon absorbent. (Official Gazette)

  19. Chemically-bound xenon in fibrous silica.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Räsänen, Markku; Gerber, R Benny

    2014-06-21

    High-level quantum chemical calculations reported here predict the existence and remarkable stability, of chemically-bound xenon atoms in fibrous silica. The results may support the suggestion of Sanloup and coworkers that chemically-bound xenon and silica account for the problem of "missing xenon" (by a factor of 20!) from the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. So far, the host silica was assumed to be quartz, which is in contradiction with theory. The xenon-fibrous silica molecule is computed to be stable well beyond room temperature. The calculated Raman spectra of the species agree well with the main features of the experiments by Sanloup et al. The results predict computationally the existence of a new family of noble-gas containing materials. The fibrous silica species are finite molecules, their laboratory preparation should be feasible, and potential applications are possible. PMID:24807740

  20. Xenon Blocks Neuronal Injury Associated with Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; David, Hélène N.; Vallée, Nicolas; Meckler, Cedric; Demaistre, Sebastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, about 30% of patients suffering neurologic decompression sickness (DCS) exhibit incomplete recovery. Since the mechanisms of neurologic DCS involve ischemic processes which result in excitotoxicity, it is likely that HBO in combination with an anti-excitotoxic treatment would improve the outcome in patients being treated for DCS. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of the noble gas xenon in an ex vivo model of neurologic DCS. Xenon has been shown to provide neuroprotection in multiple models of acute ischemic insults. Fast decompression compared to slow decompression induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a well-known marker of sub-lethal cell injury. Post-decompression administration of xenon blocked the increase in LDH release induced by fast decompression. These data suggest that xenon could be an efficient additional treatment to HBO for the treatment of neurologic DCS. PMID:26469983

  1. Xenon Blocks Neuronal Injury Associated with Decompression.

    PubMed

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; David, Hélène N; Vallée, Nicolas; Meckler, Cedric; Demaistre, Sebastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2015-01-01

    Despite state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment, about 30% of patients suffering neurologic decompression sickness (DCS) exhibit incomplete recovery. Since the mechanisms of neurologic DCS involve ischemic processes which result in excitotoxicity, it is likely that HBO in combination with an anti-excitotoxic treatment would improve the outcome in patients being treated for DCS. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of the noble gas xenon in an ex vivo model of neurologic DCS. Xenon has been shown to provide neuroprotection in multiple models of acute ischemic insults. Fast decompression compared to slow decompression induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a well-known marker of sub-lethal cell injury. Post-decompression administration of xenon blocked the increase in LDH release induced by fast decompression. These data suggest that xenon could be an efficient additional treatment to HBO for the treatment of neurologic DCS. PMID:26469983

  2. Hyperpolarized xenon magnetic resonance of the lung and the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Arvind Krishnamachari

    2001-04-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a new diagnostic modality that has been used successfully for lung imaging. Xenon is soluble in blood and inhaled xenon is transported to the brain via circulating blood. Xenon also accumulates in the lipid rich white matter of the brain. Hyperpolarized xenon can hence be used as a tissue- sensitive probe of brain function. The goals of this study were to identify the NMR resonances of xenon in the rat brain and evaluate the role of hyperpolarized xenon for brain MRI. We have developed systems to produce sufficient volumes of hyperpolarized xenon for in vivo brain experiments. The specialized instrumentation developed include an apparatus for optical pump-cell manufacture and high purity gas manifolds for filling cells. A hyperpolarized gas delivery system was designed to ventilate small animals with hyperpolarized xenon for transport to the brain. The T1 of xenon dissolved in blood indicates that the lifetime of xenon in the blood is sufficient for significant magnetization to be transferred to distal tissues. A variety of carrier agents for intravenous delivery of hyperpolarized xenon were tested for transport to distal tissues. Using our new gas delivery system, high SNR 129Xe images of rat lungs were obtained. Spectroscopy with hyperpolarized xenon indicated that xenon was transported from the lungs to the blood and tissues with intact magnetization. After preliminary studies that indicated the feasibility for in vivo rat brain studies, experiments were performed with adult rats and young rats with different stages of white matter development. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed the prominence of one peak from xenon in the rat brain, which was assigned to brain lipids. Cerebral brain perfusion was calculated from the wash-out of the hyperpolarized xenon signal in the brain. An increase in brain perfusion during maturation was observed. These experiments showed that hyperpolarized xenon MRI

  3. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of moderately dense gas mixtures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeham, W. A.; Kestin, J.; Mason, E. A.; Sandler, S. I.

    1972-01-01

    Derivation of a simple, semitheoretical expression for the initial density dependence of the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gaseous mixtures in terms of the appropriate properties of the pure components and of their interaction quantities. The derivation is based on Enskog's theory of dense gases and yields an equation in which the composition dependence of the linear factor in the density expansion is explicit. The interaction quantities are directly related to those of the mixture extrapolated to zero density and to a universal function valid for all gases. The reliability of the formulation is assessed with respect to the viscosity of several binary mixtures. It is found that the calculated viscosities of binary mixtures agree with the experimental data with a precision which is comparable to that of the most precise measurements.

  4. GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC RETENTION PARAMETERS DATABASE FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURE COMPOSITION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composition management of mixed refrigerant systems is a challenging problem in the laboratory, manufacturing facilities, and large refrigeration machinery. Ths issue of composition management is especially critical for the maintenance of machinery that utilizes zeotropic mixture...

  5. Preliminary performance of the Brayton 4.25 inch radial compressor operating in a helium xenon gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asadourian, A. S.; Hecker, T. P.; Kruchowy, R.

    1971-01-01

    Compressor performance was mapped during the Brayton cycle power system testing. The range of testing included three shaft speeds: the design speed of 36,000 rpm, 10 percent overspeed (39,600 rpm), and 10 percent underspeed (32,400 rpm). A range of compressor inlet temperatures from 60 F to 120 F and discharge pressures from 20 to 45 psia were included. The effects of turbine inlet temperatures (from 1200 F to 1600 F) on the compressor were also studied. The data presented include plots of weight flow, compressor pressure ratio, efficiency, and temperature-rise ratio.

  6. Gas puff Z-pinches with deuterium-krypton gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Timothy; McKee, Erik; Covington, Aaron; Ivanov, Vladimir; Wessel, Frank; Rahman, Hafiz

    2015-11-01

    We discuss experiments with single-shell, pure and mixed-gas loads on the zebra pulsed-power generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF). These experiments are modeled using the MACH2 code and provide input and benchmarking for further models and experiments on upcoming staged Z-pinch (SZP) studies under an ARPA-E program. The 1MA-70ns rise time discharge of Zebra produces bursts of both high and low energy X-rays and neutrons if deuterium gas is present. The gas is injected from the (grounded) anode to cathode as an expanding cylindrical shell of approximately 4cm diameter. A pulsed valve and a flow-forming nozzle determine the details of the gas target geometry which is imaged as a density map using a UV excited fluorescent tracer (LIF). The gases imaged are pure Kr and D2 and binary mixtures thereof. A pure D2 pinch produces a (yet to be optimized) neutron yield in the 1e10 regime. Additional diagnostics include a 2-frame Schlieren 1064nm IR imaging diagnostic, which provides information on the implosion dynamics of the pinch. Support for this work comes from DOE/NNSA (grant # DE-NA0002075) and the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  7. Multifrequency laser probing of CO-containing gas mixtures excited in a pulsed discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Ionin, Andrei A; Klimachev, Yu M; Kozlov, A Yu; Kotkov, A A; Rulev, O A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V

    2007-03-31

    The method of multifrequency laser probing is developed which can be used for diagnostics of the temperature and population of vibrational levels in gas mixtures containing CO molecules in excited vibrational states. The method is tested by studying the dynamics of the gas temperature and population of vibrational levels of the CO molecule in gas mixtures excited by a pulsed discharge. It is shown that the method provides the reduction of the gas temperature measurement error down to 3%. It is found that the population of lower vibrational levels in the CO-O{sub 2} mixture can exceed the population of levels in CO-He and CO-N{sub 2} laser mixtures by several times. (active media)

  8. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  9. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  10. Recovering Residual Xenon Propellant for an Ion Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Skakkottai, P.; wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2006-01-01

    Future nuclear-powered Ion-Propulsion- System-propelled spacecraft such as Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) will carry more than 10,000 kg of xenon propellant. Typically, a small percentage of this propellant cannot be used towards the end of the mission because of the pressure drop requirements for maintaining flow. For large missions such as JIMO, this could easily translate to over 250 kg of unusable xenon. A proposed system, the Xenon Recovery System (XRS), for recovering almost all of the xenon remaining in the tank, would include a cryopump in the form of a condenser/evaporator that would be alternatively cooled by a radiator, then heated electrically. When the pressure of the xenon in the tank falls below 0.7 MPa (100 psia), the previously isolated XRS will be brought online and the gas from the tank would enter the cryopump that is initially cooled to a temperature below saturation temperature of xenon. This causes xenon liquefaction and further cryopumping from the tank till the cryopump is full of liquid xenon. At this point, the cryopump is heated electrically by small heaters (70 to 80 W) to evaporate the liquid that is collected as high-pressure gas (<7 MPa; 1,000 psia) in an intermediate accumulator. Check valves between the tank and the XRS prevent the reverse flow of xenon during the heating cycle. The accumulator serves as the high-pressure source of xenon gas to the Xenon Feed System (XFS) downstream of the XRS. This cycle is repeated till almost all the xenon is recovered. Currently, this system is being baselined for JIMO.

  11. Gas gain limitation in low pressure proportional counters filled with TEG mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, T. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Proportional counters filled with tissue equivalent gas mixtures (TEPC) can be used to simulate interactions and energy transferred to small tissue volumes. One criteria which allows to use TEPC as the dose meter is that the particle ranges are larger compared to the gas volume. TEPC achieve this by operating at low gas pressures. Single ionization events dominate the distribution of low-LET radiation at low gas pressure and therefore their detection is of primary importance, a high gas gain is necessary. Therefore gas gain factor has been measured for Methane- and Propane-based tissue equivalent gas mixtures. The highest stable gas gains, second ionization Townsend coefficient and electron avalanche dimensions have been determined.

  12. Grad's moment method for relativistic gas mixtures of Maxwellian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.; Marques, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of relativistic gases are analyzed within the framework of Boltzmann equation by using Grad's moment method. A relativistic mixture of r constituent is characterized by the moments of the distribution function: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. By using Eckart's decomposition and introducing 13r + 1 scalar fields - related with the four-velocity, temperature of the mixture, particle number densities, diffusion fluxes, non-equilibrium pressures, heat fluxes, and pressure deviator tensors - Grad's distribution functions are obtained. Grad's distribution functions are used to determine the third-order tensors and their production terms for mixtures whose constituent's rest masses are not too disparate, so that it follows a system of 13r + 1 scalar field equations. By restricting to a binary mixture characterized by the six fields of partial particle number densities, four-velocity and temperature, the remainder 21 scalar equations are used to determine the constitutive equations for the non-equilibrium pressures, diffusion fluxes, pressure deviator tensors, and heat fluxes. Hence the Navier-Stokes and generalized Fourier and Fick laws are obtained and the transport coefficients of bulk and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, diffusion, thermal-diffusion, and diffusion-thermal are determined. Analytic expressions for the transport coefficients in the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic limiting cases are given. Furthermore, solutions of the relativistic field equations for the binary mixture are obtained in form of forced and free waves. In the low frequency limiting case the phase velocity and the attenuation coefficient are determined for forced waves. In the small wavenumber limiting case it is shown that there exist four longitudinal eigenmodes, two of them corresponding to propagating sound modes and two associated with non-propagating diffusive modes.

  13. Measurements of laminar burning velocities for natural gas-hydrogen-air mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Ke; Liu, Bing; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Deming

    2006-07-15

    Laminar flame characteristics of natural gas-hydrogen-air flames were studied in a constant-volume bomb at normal temperature and pressure. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained at various ratios of hydrogen to natural gas (volume fraction from 0 to 100%) and equivalence ratios (f from 0.6 to 1.4). The influence of stretch rate on flame was also analyzed. The results show that, for lean mixture combustion, the flame radius increases with time but the increasing rate decreases with flame expansion for natural gas and for mixtures with low hydrogen fractions, while at high hydrogen fractions, there exists a linear correlation between flame radius and time. For rich mixture combustion, the flame radius shows a slowly increasing rate at early stages of flame propagation and a quickly increasing rate at late stages of flame propagation for natural gas and for mixtures with low hydrogen fractions, and there also exists a linear correlation between flame radius and time for mixtures with high hydrogen fractions. Combustion at stoichiometric mixture demonstrates the linear relationship between flame radius and time for natural gas-air, hydrogen-air, and natural gas-hydrogen-air flames. Laminar burning velocities increase exponentially with the increase of hydrogen fraction in mixtures, while the Markstein length decreases and flame instability increases with the increase of hydrogen fractions in mixture. For a fixed hydrogen fraction, the Markstein number shows an increase and flame stability increases with the increase of equivalence ratios. Based on the experimental data, a formula for calculating the laminar burning velocities of natural gas-hydrogen-air flames is proposed. (author)

  14. Current assessment of the potential of dielectric gas mixtures for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, D. W.; James, D. R.; Pace, M. O.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1984-04-01

    The need for more efficient, economical electrical power transmission and distribution has given impetus to the investigation of new insulating gases. Since no single gas meets all of the multiple needs and operating conditions that exist in power apparatus, mixtures were studied with the goal of tailoring the dielectric for a specific application by exploiting the properties of the component gases. Research results on dielectric gas mixtures and assesses the potential of such mixtures for industrial applications are reviewed. The topics considered include electrical breakdown characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and economics.

  15. Electron temperature and density measurement of tungsten inert gas arcs with Ar-He shielding gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Marques, J.-L.; Forster, G.; Schein, J.

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostics of atmospheric welding plasma is a well-established technology. In most cases the measurements are limited to processes using pure shielding gas. However in many applications shielding gas is a mixture of various components including metal vapor in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Shielding gas mixtures are intentionally used for tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding in order to improve the welding performance. For example adding Helium to Argon shielding gas allows the weld geometry and porosity to be influenced. Yet thermal plasmas produced with gas mixtures or metal vapor still require further experimental investigation. In this work coherent Thomson scattering is used to measure electron temperature and density in these plasmas, since this technique allows independent measurements of electron and ion temperature. Here thermal plasmas generated by a TIG process with 50% Argon and 50% Helium shielding gas mixture have been investigated. Electron temperature and density measured by coherent Thomson scattering have been compared to the results of spectroscopic measurements of the plasma density using Stark broadening of the 696.5 nm Argon spectral line. Further investigations of MIG processes using Thomson scattering technique are planned.

  16. 49 CFR 173.305 - Charging of cylinders with a mixture of compressed gas and other material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gas and other material. 173.305 Section 173.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Packaging § 173.305 Charging of cylinders with a mixture of compressed gas and other material. (a) Detailed requirements. A mixture of a compressed gas and any other material must be shipped as a compressed gas if...

  17. 49 CFR 173.305 - Charging of cylinders with a mixture of compressed gas and other material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gas and other material. 173.305 Section 173.305 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Packaging § 173.305 Charging of cylinders with a mixture of compressed gas and other material. (a) Detailed requirements. A mixture of a compressed gas and any other material must be shipped as a compressed gas if...

  18. Direct nuclear excitation of a He-3 - CO2 gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1981-01-01

    Probe measurements using a continuous wave CO2 laser have been carried out on a He-3 - CO2 gas mixture directly excited by the He-3(n,p)H-3 reaction. At a gas pressure of 1 atm and thermal neutron flux up to 10 to the 17th n/sq cm sec, total extinction of the probe beam was observed. Addition of N2 to the gas mixture (up to 20%) produced a media such as is used in electric discharge CO2 lasers. However, this mixture produced the same results as the He-3 - CO2 mixture. Absorption of the laser beam indicates that with direct nuclear excitation, it is the lower laser level which is excited. Therefore direct nuclear pumping of a CO2 laser does not appear feasible.

  19. Numerical simulation of the passive gas mixture flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Martin; Pelant, Jaroslav

    2015-05-01

    We work with the system of equations describing non-stationary compressible turbulent multicomponent flow in the gravitational field, and we focus on the numerical solution of these equations. In these computations we assume the mixture of perfect inert gases. The thermodynamic constants are functions in time and space. The finite volume method is used. In order to solve the local boundary problem at each mesh face, we use the original analysis of the exact solution of the Riemann problem. The roughness of the surface is simulated via the specific dissipation at the wall. We show the computational results obtained with the own-developed code (C,FORTRAN) for the solution of the 3D compressible turbulent mixture flow. The originality of this work lies with the special handling of the boundary conditions, which shows superior behavior, and own computational code.

  20. Nanostructure synthesis from high velocity gas mixture flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebrov, Aleksey K.

    2014-12-01

    The synthesis of nanostructures is an emerging field of science, modern physics and technologies. The gas dynamic methods have become the instrument of fundamental researches and new basis of vacuum technologies. The gas jet deposition has taken important place in surface modification: deposition of metal, semiconductor, polymer films. History of rarefied gas dynamics and space sciences gave birth to fundamental knowledge for the progress in vacuum nanoscience and nanotechnology. Diamond synthesis holds a special place using the chemical vapor deposition method, based on processes in low density gases. The science on nanostructure synthesis now is on the boundary of new breakthroughs.

  1. [Xenon CT CBF mapping derived from two minutes inhalation].

    PubMed

    Toshima, R; Toyohara, K; Ebisawa, T; Ishikawa, K; Karashima, H; Shimojo, S; Miyahara, T

    1988-04-01

    Although xenon enhanced CT method for local cerebral blood flow measurement has been brought into a clinical practice, the technique has inherent limitations including anesthetic effects and expensive cost of xenon by a large consumption. To overcome these problems a modified method with a short-duration inhalation was developed and its validity was attested. Siemens Somatom SF with a resolution of 256 X 256 pixels and a scan time of 10 seconds was used. The subjects inhaled 50% Xe/O2 gas mixture from an apparatus consisted of Douglas bag and an open circuit. Xenon concentration in the expired gas was continuously monitored and estimated for arterial blood concentration by using a hematocrit correction. PaCO2 was monitored throughout the study. At the starting point and the endpoint of the inhalation two scans were performed respectively. Thus obtained four images were processed for CT noise cancellation, summation and subtraction to produce an in vivo autoradiography image. Local CBF was calculated from equations derived from the autoradiographic technique with a fixed partition coefficient of lambda = 1. Computer simulation studies were performed to find the optimal scan point to obtain an autoradiographic image and to estimate the calculation errors of this method. One minute and forty-five seconds was found to be the optimal scan point to gain an autoradiographic image in view of a balance between linearity of CBF/enhancement curve and total amount of tissue enhancement. The theoretical errors due to the assumption for a fixed partition coefficient were calculated to be 8% underestimation for gray matter and 5% overestimation for white matter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3401410

  2. Investigation of xenon metastable atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Happer, William

    2007-06-01

    The electron configuration of a xenon atom in its metastable state consists of tightly bound core electrons with a single missing electron in the 5P shell, and a loosely bound ``valence electron'' in the 6S shell. For our current work, we have been using pyrex cells with internal tungsten electrodes, filled with isotopically enriched Xe129 gas. Ti-sapphire laser is used to pump the metastable atom from 6S2 to 6P2 and 6P3 at 823nm and 882nm respectively. The absorption spectrum is able to resolve the hyperfine structure of Xe129 in 6S2, 6P2 and 6P3 state. The hyperfine coefficients for 6S2, 6P2 agree with previously reported measurements. And the hyperfine coefficient for 6P3 state has not been reported before. If the pumping wavelength is locked at any one of the hyperfine transitions of Xenon129 atom, zero-field magnetic resonances of metastable Xenon atoms could be observed by pumping with circularly polarized laser beam. Since relaxation between magnetic sublevels is very fast due to the big depolarization collisional cross section, the linewidth of the magnetic resonant signal is broad.

  3. Effects of various gas mixtures on plasma nitriding behavior of AISI 5140 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Karakan, Mehmet; Alsaran, Akguen; Celik, Ayhan

    2002-10-15

    AISI 5140 steel was plasma nitrided at various gas mixtures of nitrogen, hydrogen, and argon to investigate the actions of hydrogen and argon on plasma nitriding. The structural and mechanical properties of ion-nitrided AISI 5140 steel have been assessed by evaluating composition of phases, surface hardness, compound layer thickness, and case depth by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the growth of compound layer can be controlled and the diffusion improved when the gas mixture includes H{sub 2} gas. Additionally, it was determined that the amount of Ar in dual gas mixture must be at 20% minimum to obtain distinctive surface hardness and compound layer thickness.

  4. Rayleigh-Brillouin Scattering in Binary-Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Z.; Ubachs, W.; Marques, W.; van de Water, W.

    2015-06-01

    Precise measurements are performed on spectral line shapes of spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in mixtures of the noble gases Ar and Kr, with He. Admixture of a light He atomic fraction results in marked changes of the spectra, although in all experiments He is merely a spectator atom: it affects the relaxation of density fluctuations of the heavy constituent, but its contribution to the scattered light intensity is negligibly small. The results are compared to a theory for the spectral line shape without adjustable parameters, yielding excellent agreement for the case of binary monatomic gases, signifying a step towards modeling and understanding of light scattering in more complex molecular media.

  5. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. Measuring and Modeling Xenon Uptake in Plastic Beta-Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, R.; Hayes, J. C.; Harper, W. W.; Humble, P.; Ripplinger, M. D.; Stephenson, D. E.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The precision of the stable xenon volume measurement in atmospheric monitoring radio-xenon systems is a critical parameter used to determine the activity concentration of a radio-xenon sample. Typically these types of systems use a plastic scintillating beta-cell as part of a beta-gamma detection scheme to measure the radioactivity present in the gas sample. Challenges arise when performing the stable xenon calculation during or after radioactive counting of the sample due to xenon uptake into the plastic beta-cells. Plastic beta cells can adsorb as much as 5% of the sample during counting. If quantification is performed after counting, the uptake of xenon into the plastic results in an underestimation of the xenon volume measurement. This behavior also causes what is typically known as 'memory effect' in the cell. Experiments were conducted using a small volume low pressure range thermal conductivity sensor to quantify the amount of xenon uptake into the cell over a given period of time. Understanding the xenon uptake in the cell provides a better estimate of the stable volume which improves the overall measurement capability of the system. The results from these experiments along with modeling will be presented.

  7. Some possibilities of using gas mixtures other than air in aerodynamic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Dean R

    1956-01-01

    A study is made of the advantages that can be realized in compressible-flow research by employing a substitute heavy gas in place of air. The present report is based on the idea that by properly mixing a heavy monatomic gas with a suitable heavy polyatomic gas, it is possible to obtain a heavy gas mixture which has the correct ratio of specific heats and which is nontoxic, nonflammable, thermally stable, chemically inert, and comprised of commercially available components. Calculations were made of wind-tunnel characteristics for 63 gas pairs comprising 21 different polyatomic gases properly mixed with each of three monatomic gases (argon, krypton, and zenon).

  8. Cryogenic process for removing acidic gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Ginnasi, A.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.; Vetere, A.

    1985-04-30

    Low temperature treatments are combined with solvent treatments using particularly selective solvents for stripping acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide from natural gas or from synthetic gases. The preferred solvents are a wide range of compounds having an esteric or an etheric function in their molecule, but there are also examples of compounds which have the two functions simultaneously. The stripping process is comparatively simple, is efficient, especially for high contents of acidic gases in the raw gas streams, and is economically acceptable.

  9. Cryogenic process for fractionally removing acidic gases from gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gazzi, L.; Cotone, G.; Ginnasi, A.; Rescalli, C.; Soldati, G.; Vetere, A.

    1985-07-16

    A process is described for stripping acidic gases, mainly hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, from natural gas or synthesis gas, especially when the percentages of such acidic gases are high and the conventional processes become economically objectionable. The process is based on the use of a number of selective solvents, generally belonging to the class of esters, ethers, mixed ester-ethers and lactones, in combination with sequential absorbing cycles which start from the stripping of hydrogen sulphide, and comprise the regeneration of the solvents used by several expansion cycles: H2S and CO2 are recovered and the regenerated solvents recycled.

  10. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  11. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  12. Inflammable Gas Mixture Detection with a Single Catalytic Sensor Based on the Electric Field Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ziyuan; Tong, Min-Ming; Meng, Wen; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to analyze mixtures of inflammable gases with a single catalytic sensor. The analysis technology was based on a new finding that an electric field on the catalytic sensor can change the output sensitivity of the sensor. The analysis of mixed inflammable gases results from processing the output signals obtained by adjusting the electric field parameter of the catalytic sensor. For the signal process, we designed a group of equations based on the heat balance of catalytic sensor expressing the relationship between the output signals and the concentration of gases. With these equations and the outputs of different electric fields, the gas concentration in a mixture could be calculated. In experiments, a mixture of methane, butane and ethane was analyzed by this new method, and the results showed that the concentration of each gas in the mixture could be detected with a single catalytic sensor, and the maximum relative error was less than 5%. PMID:24717635

  13. Sub-shock formation in Grad 10-moment equations for a binary gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, Marzia; Conforto, Fiammetta; Martalò, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The shock structure problem for Grad 10-moment equations for an inert binary mixture is investigated: necessary conditions for the formation of sub-shocks in fields of only one gas or of both components are rigorously obtained, and a detailed comparison with the shock-wave structure of its principal sub-system (deduced assuming vanishing viscous stress tensors) and of the equilibrium Euler sub-system is performed. Some numerical simulations for a mixture of argon and helium are presented.

  14. Numerical simulation of the passive gas mixture flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Martin; Pelant, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the numerical solution of the equations describing the non-stationary compressible turbulent multicomponent flow in gravitational field. The mixture of perfect inert gases is assumed. We work with the RANS equations equipped with the k-omega and the EARSM turbulence models. For the simulation of the wall roughness we use the modification of the specific turbulent dissipation. The finite volume method is used, with thermodynamic constants being functions in time and space. In order to compute the fluxes through the boundary faces we use the modification of the Riemann solver, which is the original result. We present the computational results, computed with the own-developed code (C, FORTRAN, multiprocessor, unstructured meshes in general).

  15. Two-phase turbine engines. [using gas-liquid mixture accelerated in nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.; Hays, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a two-phase turbine which utilizes a uniform mixture of gas and liquid accelerated in nozzles of the types reported by Elliott and Weinberg (1968). The mixture acts directly on an axial flow or tangential impulse turbine or is separated into gas and liquid streams which operate separately on a gas turbine and a hydraulic turbine. The basic two-phase cycles are examined, taking into account working fluids, aspects of nozzle expansion, details of turbine cycle operation, and the effect of mixture ratio variation. Attention is also given to two-phase nozzle efficiency, two-phase turbine operating characteristics and efficiencies, separator turbines, and impulse turbine experiments.

  16. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Concentric Annular Flows of Binary Inert Gas Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, R. S.; Martin, J. J.; Yocum, D. J.; Stewart, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of heat transfer and pressure drop of binary inert gas mixtures flowing through smooth concentric circular annuli, tubes with fully developed velocity profiles, and constant heating rate are described. There is a general lack of agreement among the constant property heat transfer correlations for such mixtures. No inert gas mixture data exist for annular channels. The intent of this study was to develop highly accurate and benchmarked pressure drop and heat transfer correlations that can be used to size heat exchangers and cores for direct gas Brayton nuclear power plants. The inside surface of the annular channel is heated while the outer surface of the channel is insulated. Annulus ratios range 0.5 < r* < 0.83. These smooth tube data may serve as a reference to the heat transfer and pressure drop performance in annuli, tubes, and channels having helixes or spacer ribs, or other surfaces.

  17. The Xenon record of Earth's early differentiaiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peto, M. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kelley, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Xenon isotopes in mantle derived rocks provide information on the early differentiation of the silicate mantle of our planet. {131,132 134,136}Xe isotopes are produced by the spontaneous fission of two different elements: the now extinct radionuclide 244Pu, and the long-lived 238U. These two parent nuclides, however, yield rather different proportion of fissiogenic Xenon isotopes. Hence, the proportion of Pu- to U-derived fission xenon is indicative of the degree and rate of outgassing of a mantle reservoir. Recent data obtained from Iceland in our lab confirm that the Xenon isotopic composition of the plume source(s) is characterized by lower 136Xe/130Xe ratios than the MORB source and the Iceland plume is more enriched in the Pu-derived Xenon component. These features are interpreted as reflecting different degrees of outgassing and appear not to be the result of preferential recycling of Xenon to the deep mantle. To further investigate how representative the Icelandic measurements might be of other mantle plumes, we measured noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) in gas-rich basalt glasses from the Rochambeau Ridge (RR) in the Northern Lau Basin. Recent work suggests the presence of a "Samoan-like" OIB source in the northern Lau Basin and our measurements were performed on samples with plume-like 3He/4He ratios (15-28 RA) [1]. The Xenon isotopic measurements indicate that the maximum measured 136Xe/130Xe ratios in the Rochambeau samples are similar to Iceland. In particular, for one of the gas rich samples we were able to obtain 77 different isotopic measurements through step-crushing. Preliminary investigation of this sample suggests higher Pu- to U-derived fission Xenon than in MORBs. To quantitatively evaluate the degree and rate of outgassing of the plume and MORB reservoirs, particularly during the first few hundred million years of Earth's history, we have modified a geochemical reservoir model that was previously developed to investigate mantle overturn and mixing

  18. CO2 + N2O mixture gas hydrate formation kinetics and effect of soil minerals on mixture-gas hydrate formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkh-Amgalan, T.; Kyung, D.; Lee, W.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 mitigation is one of the most pressing global scientific topics in last 30 years. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHGs) defined by the Kyoto Protocol and its global warming potential (GWP) of one metric ton is equivalent to 310 metric tons of CO2. They have similar physical and chemical properties and therefore, mixture-gas (50% CO2 + 50% N2O) hydrate formation process was studied experimentally and computationally. There were no significant research to reduce N20 gas and we tried to make hydrate to mitigate N20 and CO2 in same time. Mixture gas hydrate formation periods were approximately two times faster than pure N2O hydrate formation kinetic in general. The fastest induction time of mixture-gas hydrate formation observed in Illite and Quartz among various soil mineral suspensions. It was also observed that hydrate formation kinetic was faster with clay mineral suspensions such as Nontronite, Sphalerite and Montmorillonite. Temperature and pressure change were not significant on hydrate formation kinetic; however, induction time can be significantly affected by various chemical species forming under the different suspension pHs. The distribution of chemical species in each mineral suspension was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model, PHREEQC, and used for the identification of hydrate formation characteristics in the suspensions. With the experimental limitations, a study on the molecular scale modeling has a great importance for the prediction of phase behavior of the gas hydrates. We have also performed molecular dynamics computer simulations on N2O and CO2 hydrate structures to estimate the residual free energy of two-phase (hydrate cage and guest molecule) at three different temperature ranges of 260K, 273K, and 280K. The calculation result implies that N2O hydrates are thermodynamically stable at real-world gas hydrate existing condition within given temperature and pressure. This phenomenon proves that mixture-gas could be

  19. Ring-shaped electric discharge as an igniter of gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhudarov, E. M.; Berezhetskaya, N. K.; Kop'ev, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Popov, N. A.; Taktakishvili, M. I.; Temchin, S. M.

    2010-09-01

    Results are presented from experimental studies of ignition of a stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture in a closed chamber by a ring electric discharge. It is shown that the process of fast (explosive) ignition of the reactor volume starts on the axis of the ring, near its centre, i.e. at a distance from the annular region of power deposition. Experimental evidence suggests that the ignition of a combustible gas mixture near the axis is triggered by strong gas-dynamic perturbations converging to the axis, radially propagating from the ring discharger.

  20. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  1. Diffusion of relativistic gas mixtures in gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric is studied on the basis of a relativistic Boltzmann equation in the presence of gravitational fields. A BGK-type model equation of the collision operator of the Boltzmann equation is used in order to compute the non-equilibrium distribution functions by the Chapman-Enskog method. The main focus of this work is to obtain Fick’s law without the thermal-diffusion cross-effect. Fick’s law has four contributions, two of them are the usual terms proportional to the gradients of concentration and pressure. The other two are of the same nature as those which appear in Fourier’s law in the presence of gravitational fields and are related to an acceleration and a gravitational potential gradient, but unlike Fourier’s law these last two terms are of non-relativistic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the coefficients of diffusion depend on the gravitational potential and become smaller than those in its absence.

  2. Shock wave processes in collisional gas particle mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmel, T. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Structures and propagation of shock waves in high density particle suspensions in gas are investigated theoretically and numerically. A physical and mathematical model which takes into account integral collisions between the particles on the basis of molecular-kinetic approaches of theory of granular materials is applied. The possibility of different types of shock waves, including double front structures is revealed. The role of particle collisions in the dynamics of particle dense layer expansion under an influence of divergent shock wave and in processes of shock wave diffraction past a backward-facing step is analyzed.

  3. Nonequilibrium vibrational excitation of molecules behind a shock front in a gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobkin, S. V.; Son, E. E.

    1981-10-01

    It is shown that when a shock wave propagates in a light gas with a small admixture of heavy gas, the nonequilibrium vibrational excitation of molecules of the heavy gas can occur. In this case, the vibrational temperature can increase to values exceeding the gas temperature behind the shock wave, in contrast to the equilibrium case. Vibrational energy in a shock wave in a mixture of helium and uranium hexafluoride is calculated as an example. The possibility of experimentally observing this effect is discussed.

  4. Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresel, P. E.; Waichler, S. R.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hayes, J. C.; McIntyre, J. I.; Giles, J. R.; Sondrup, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site show radioxenon and stable xenon isotopic signatures that are indicative of transuranic waste. Radioxenon analysis has greater sensitivity due to the lower background concentrations and indicates spontaneous fission due to the short half life of the isotopes. Stable isotope ratios may be used to distinguish irradiated fuel sources from pure spontaneous fission sources and are not as dependent on rapid release from the waste form. The release rate is dependent on the type of waste and container integrity and is the greatest unknown in application of this technique. Numerical multi-phase transport modeling of burial grounds at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory indicates that, under generalized conditions, the radioxenon isotopes will diffuse away from the waste and be found in the soil cap and adjacent to the burial ground at levels many orders of magnitude above the detection limit.

  5. Environmental Applications of Stable Xenon and Radioxenon Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P. Evan; Olsen, Khris B.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2008-06-01

    Improved detection capabilities are needed at several Department of Energy sites to make remedial decisions about facilities and landfill cleanup. For facility monitoring air samples can be collected from within a facility and analyzed for short lived radioxenons to estimate inventories of residual plutonium holdup within the facility. For landfill cleanup activities soil gas sampling for xenon isotopes can be used to define the locations of spent fuel and transuranic wastes. Short-lived radioxenon isotopes are continuously produced by spontaneous fission of plutonium-240 in transuranic wastes. Large volume soil-gas samples provide extremely sensitive measurement of radioxenon in the subsurface; a characteristic of transuranic waste. The analysis employs a modified Automated Radioxenon Sampling and Analysis (ARSA) system. Proof of principle measurements at a Hanford Site liquid waste disposal site showed xenon-133 at levels in soil gas are approximately 16,000 times the detection limit and lower levels of xenon-135 from the spontaneous fission of plutonium-240 were also measured. Stable xenon isotopes are also produced by spontaneous fission but are subject to background concentrations in ambient air samples (facilities) but less so in soil gas where free exchange with ambient air is restricted. Rare gas mass spectrometry is used for highly precise stable xenon isotopic measurements. Stable xenon isotopic ratios from fission are distinct from natural xenon background ratios. Neutron capture on xenon-135 produces an excess of xenon-136 above fission ratios and thus provides a means of distinguishing reactor sources (e.g. spent fuel) from separated transuranic materials (plutonium).

  6. A Study for Health Hazard Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Evaporated from the Tear Gas Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eun-Kyo; Yi, Gwang-Yong; Chung, Kwang-Jae; Shin, Jung-Ah; Lee, In-Seop

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the health hazard of those exposed to methylene chloride by assessing its atmospheric concentration when a tear gas mixture was aerially dispersed. The concentration of methylene chloride ranged from 311.1-980.3 ppm (geometric mean, 555.8 ppm), 30 seconds after the dispersion started. However, the concentration fell rapidly to below 10 ppm after dispersion was completed. The concentration during the dispersion did not surpass the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 'immediately dangerous to life or health' value of 2,300 ppm, but did exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists excursion limit of 250 ppm. Since methylene chloride is highly volatile (vapor pressure, 349 mmHg at 20℃), the postdispersion atmospheric concentration can rise instantaneously. Moreover, the o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile formulation of tear gas (CS gas) is an acute upper respiratory tract irritant. Therefore, tear gas mixtures should be handled with delicate care. PMID:22953168

  7. Variable-temperature cryogenic trap for the separation of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a continuous variable-temperature U-shaped cold trap which can both purify vacuum-line combustion products for subsequent stable isotopic analysis and isolate the methane and ethane constituents of natural gases. The canister containing the trap is submerged in liquid nitrogen, and, as the gas cools, the gas mixture components condense sequentially according to their relative vapor pressures. After the about 12 min required for the bottom of the trap to reach the liquid-nitrogen temperature, passage of electric current through the resistance wire wrapped around the tubing covering the U-trap permits distillation of successive gas components at optimal temperatures. Data on the separation achieved for two mixtures, the first being typical vacuum-line combustion products of geochemical samples such as rocks and the second being natural gas, are presented, and the thermal behavior and power consumption are reported.

  8. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).

  9. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO[sub x] concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.

  10. Characterization and control of exhaust gas from diesel engine firing coal-water mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1990-03-01

    Exhaust from the GE-TS single cylinder diesel engine, fitted with hardened metal, and diamond-tipped metal fuel injection nozzles, and firing coal-water mixture (CWM) has been characterized with respect to gas composition, particulate size distribution, and particulate filtration characteristics. The measured flue gas compositions are roughly in keeping with results from combustion calculations. The time variations of the hydrocarbon, CO, and NO{sub x} concentrations are also understood in terms of known reaction mechanisms.