Science.gov

Sample records for xiaolong qin shin

  1. QIN 2013 meeting agenda

    Cancer.gov

    i Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) Annual Meeting March 4 5, 2013 Monday March 4, 2013 7:30 Gathering and loading of slides 8:00 Challenges for the Meeting Robert Nordstrom, Lead Program Director Welcome from Paula Jacobs,

  2. QIN Newsletter 1

    Cancer.gov

    MR techniques in the Quantita- tive Imaging Network. Dr. Nordstrom, pro- gram director at NCI for the QIN, has briefed Dr. Fennessy on the structure of the network and the need to begin selecting individuals to serve on the five working groups.

  3. Shin splints (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stress syndrome in which pain occurs along the tibia (shin bone) in the front of the lower ... area the lower leg muscles' attachment to the tibia. Shin splints are typically caused from intense or ...

  4. TianQin mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Mei, Jianwei; Shao, Chenggang; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Michail

    We introduce the mission concept of TianQin, a spaceborne gravitational waves detector. TianQin will be consisted of three drag-free satellites, forming an equilateral-triangle constellation and orbiting Earth with an altitude of about 105 km. The major scientific goal of TianQin is to detect possible gravitational radiation from Hm Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527), a candidate ultracompact white dwarf binary with a putative orbital period of about 321.5 s. Based on current best models of the binary system, we expect SNR ≥10 after 3 month of observation, given that the noise is dominated by 1 pm Hz-1/2 in position noise and 3×10-15 m s-2 Hz-1/2 in residual acceleration. The progress of preliminary study will be presented in the conference.

  5. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have

  6. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have…

  7. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent and treat shin splints? J Fam Pract . 2008;57:406-408. PMID: 18544325 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544325 . Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, Amendola A. Leg pain and exertional compartment syndromes In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ...

  8. Shin splints--a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, P

    1985-01-01

    "Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately. Images p132-a PMID:3907743

  9. TianQin: a space-borne gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Li-Sheng; Duan, Hui-Zong; Gong, Yun-Gui; Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Qi; Mei, Jianwei; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Toth, Viktor T.; Tu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Yamin; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhan, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yonghe; Zharov, Vladimir; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2016-02-01

    TianQin is a proposal for a space-borne detector of gravitational waves in the millihertz frequencies. The experiment relies on a constellation of three drag-free spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Inter-spacecraft laser interferometry is used to monitor the distances between the test masses. The experiment is designed to be capable of detecting a signal with high confidence from a single source of gravitational waves within a few months of observing time. We describe the preliminary mission concept for TianQin, including the candidate source and experimental designs. We present estimates for the major constituents of the experiment’s error budget and discuss the project’s overall feasibility. Given the current level of technological readiness, we expect TianQin to be flown in the second half of the next decade.

  10. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late

  11. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late…

  12. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  13. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  14. Videodisks Offer a Detailed Portrait of Qin, the First Chinese Emperor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Project Emperor-I has issued two interactive videodiscs on China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di. The videodiscs contain film footage from the archaeological excavation in China, images of artifacts, interviews with Qin specialists, and the full text of articles about the ancient burial site. Development of the videodiscs for scholars involved…

  15. Soccer shin guard reactions: allergic and irritant reactions.

    PubMed

    Powell, Douglas; Ahmed, Sartaj

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the worldwide popularity of soccer among youth and the common requirement of the use of protective shin guards, reports of allergy to shin guards is sparse. This is surprising in light of the fact that this equipment is often made of materials that are reported to cause allergies, and that friction and moisture from the use of these shin guards during the sport would seem to predispose soccer players to the development of an allergic response. We present eight patients that presented for evaluation of dermatitis under their shin guards--some of which had allergy to their shin guards and some of which were diagnosed as having an irritant reaction. PMID:20487661

  16. Non-healing, non-tender ulcer on shin.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jane; Wong, Emily

    2015-07-01

    Our patient's history provided 2 important clues (one vascular, one not) to explain the painless ulcer that had been on his right shin for a year. A punch biopsy made the diagnosis clear. PMID:26324960

  17. Comparison of soccer shin guards in preventing tibia fracture.

    PubMed

    Francisco, A C; Nightingale, R W; Guilak, F; Glisson, R R; Garrett, W E

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of shin guards in protecting against tibia fracture in soccer players. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the material and structural differences in shin guard design and the protection provided. Twenty-three commercially available shin guards were tested on a model leg containing a synthetic tibia that had been calibrated against human cadaver specimens. Each guard was categorized into one of four material types: plastic (N = 9), fiberglass (N = 6), compressed air (N = 4), and Kevlar (N = 4). The maximum combined force at the ends of the tibia, the principal strain on the posterior side of the tibia, and the contact time of the impact were measured using a drop track impact simulation. Shin guards provided significant protection from tibia fracture at all drop heights. The average guard reduced force by 11% to 17% and strain by 45% to 51% compared with the unguarded leg. At the higher drop heights, material composition and structural characteristics of the shin guards showed significant differences in protective abilities. These findings indicate that all shin guards provide some measure of protection against tibia fracture, although the level of protection may vary significantly among the different guards. PMID:10751000

  18. The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.

    PubMed

    Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

    2003-02-01

    The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

  19. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are

  20. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  1. [The medical system around the time of unification of the Qin dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-lin

    2009-01-01

    The State of Qin had formulated a series of relatively complete medical systems which covered the aspects such as the systems of medical officer, military doctor, sanitation and epidemic prevention, the administrations of the invalid, old and young, the medical literatures and legal medicine, around the time of the first unified feudal dynasty establishment in Chinese history. The medical officer system related to the appointment, removal, reward and punishment of medical officials; the sanitation and epidemic prevention related to the mice prevention, fire smoking and isolation; the medicolegal system involved the medicolegal organizations, death examinations, test reports etc. All of the above systems not only inherited the successful experiences in traditional medical systems of the State of Qin before the time of unification, but also absorbed the advantages of medical systems throughout the whole country after the time of unification,which had far-reaching effects on the Han dynasty and successive generations. PMID:19824354

  2. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  3. [Textual research of scabies in the Warring States and Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Luo, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    Scabies, a kind of skin disease frequently seen in the period of Warring States and Qin-Han Dynasties. By investigating the epidemic condition, disease title, recognition on the disease and the prevention and its treatment through the textual documents, unearthed texts, and dictionaries of this period, it can be seen that "scabies" refers to the itching and corrugation of skin. It was also called "jia" (scar) and belonged to the "dry itching"disease. At that time, people also knew the seasonal, and geographical rules of its incidence and its pathogenic agent, the scabies parasite (sacoptic mite). Treatments included hot compress, rubbing, bathing, and internal medications, mostly inherited in later generations. PMID:25579210

  4. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium. PMID:24564138

  5. Remarks on the Qin-Ma parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Oh, Sechul

    2011-07-01

    Recently, Qin and Ma (QM) have advocated a new Wolfenstein-like parametrization of the quark mixing matrix based on the triminimal expansion of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) parametrization. The CP-odd phase in the QM parametrization is around 90° just as that in the CKM parametrization. We point out that the QM parametrization can be readily obtained from the Wolfenstein parametrization after appropriate phase redefinition for quark fields and that the phase δ in both QM and CKM parametrizations is related to the unitarity angles α, β and γ, namely, δ = β + γ or π - α. We show that both QM and Wolfenstein parametrizations can be deduced from the CKM and Chau-Keung-Maiani ones. By deriving the QM parametrization from the exact Fritzsch-Xing (FX) parametrization of the quark mixing matrix, we find that the phase of the FX form is in the vicinity of -270° and hence sin δ ≈ 1. We discuss the seeming discrepancy between the Wolfenstein and QM parametrizations at the high order of λ ≈ |Vus |.

  6. Heterotypic piRNA Ping-Pong requires qin, a protein with both E3 ligase and Tudor domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Xu, Jia; Koppetsch, Birgit S; Wang, Jie; Tipping, Cindy; Ma, Shengmei; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2011-11-18

    piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. Reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage--catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila melanogaster--expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. We show that qin, a piRNA pathway gene whose protein product contains both E3 ligase and Tudor domains, colocalizes with Aub and Ago3 in nuage, a perinuclear structure implicated in transposon silencing. In qin mutants, less Ago3 binds Aub, futile Aub:Aub homotypic Ping-Pong prevails, antisense piRNAs decrease, many families of mobile genetic elements are reactivated, and DNA damage accumulates in nurse cells and oocytes. We propose that Qin enforces heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3, ensuring that transposons are silenced and maintaining the integrity of the germline genome. PMID:22099305

  7. Heterotypic piRNA Ping-Pong Requires Qin, a Protein with Both E3 ligase and Tudor Domains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao; Xu, Jia; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Wang, Jie; Tipping, Cindy; Ma, Shengmei; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. Reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavagecatalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila melanogasterexpand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. We show that qin, a piRNA pathway gene whose protein product contains both E3 ligase and Tudor domains, co-localizes with Aub and Ago3 in nuage, a perinuclear structure implicated in transposon silencing. In qin mutants, less Ago3 binds Aub, futile Aub:Aub homotypic Ping-Pong prevails, antisense piRNAs decrease, many families of mobile genetic elements are reactivated, and DNA damage accumulates in nurse cells and oocytes. We propose that Qin enforces heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3, ensuring that transposons are silenced and maintaining the integrity of the germline genome. PMID:22099305

  8. Cardiovascular Benefits of Acupressure (Jin Shin) Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Kristina L.; Hernndez, Theresa D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Acupressure, a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment, uses fingertips, rather than needles, to stimulate acupoints on the skin and has been implicated as a successful treatment for a variety of medical disorders. However, acupressures underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One theory is that acupoint stimulation modulates autonomic nervous system activity. Previous studies have suggested that acupressure may positively affect heart rate and blood pressure. The current study investigated the effects of a type of acupressure, Jin Shin, on cardiovascular function in stroke survivors, a population that could especially benefit from a treatment promoting cardiovascular health. The study tested the hypothesis that active acupressure treatments would reduce heart rate and blood pressure (i.e., induce a greater relaxation response) above and beyond that seen during placebo acupressure treatments. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover design was utilised, in which 16 participants received 8 weeks of either active or placebo acupressure followed by washout and crossover into the opposite treatment condition. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken throughout treatments. Results Active acupressure treatments were associated with a significantly greater (p = .043, partial ?2 =.30) and faster (p = .002, partial ?2 = .76) reduction in heart rate compared to that seen during placebo treatments. No treatment effect on blood pressure was found. Conclusions Active acupressure reduced heart rate significantly more than did placebo acupressure during treatments. Although no treatment effect on blood pressure was found, this could be due to 67% of participants taking antihypertensive medications during the study. PMID:20178877

  9. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  10. An Interview with Dr. Shin'ichi Suzuki at the Talent Education Institute, Matsumoto, Japan, on 18 April 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilli, Susan; Suzuki, Shin'ichi

    1992-01-01

    Shin-ichi Suzuki, founder of the Talent Education Movement and creator of the Sukuzi Method of musical training, responds to a variety of questions concerning his philosophy of life and lifelong education. (DMM)

  11. [The life and works of Han Shin Gwang: a midwife and nurse of Korean modern times].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ggodme

    2006-06-01

    Han Shin Gwang, born in an early Christian family in Korea in 1902, could get western education different from the ordinary Korean girls in that period. She participated in the 1919 Samil Independence Movement in her teens, and got nursing and midwifery education in a missionary hospital. She got a midwife license and worked as a member in an early mother-and-child health center. She organized 'Korean Nurses' Association (see text)' in 1924 and focused on public health movement as the chairwoman. She actively participated in women's movement organizations, and Gwangjoo Student's Movement. She was known to be a representative of leading working women, and wrote articles on woman's right, the needs and works of nurses and midwives. From late Japanese colonial period, she opened her own clinic and devoted herself to midwifery. After the Korean Liberation in 1945, she began political movement and went in for a senate election. During the Korean War, she founded a shelter for mothers and children in help. After the War, she reopened a midwifery clinic and devoted to the works of Korean Midwives' Association. Han Shin Gwang's life and works belong to the first generation of Korean working women in modern times. She actively participated in women's movement, nurses' and midwives professional movement, Korea liberation movement, and mother-and-child health movement for 60 years. Her life is truly exemplary as one of the first generation of working women in modern Korea, distinguished of devotion and calling. PMID:17214427

  12. Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

  13. A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. Results In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ?perR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ?perR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ?perR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (?dpr and ?dpr?perR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ?perR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoterEGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. Conclusions These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis. PMID:22646062

  14. The relationship of heel contact in ascent and descent from jumps to the incidence of shin splints in ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Gans, A

    1985-08-01

    I conducted a study to determine whether ballet dancers with a history of shin splints make heel contact on ascent and descent from jumps less often than dancers without this history. Sixteen dancers were filmed as they executed a sequence of jumps at two different speeds. Eight of the subjects had a history of shin-splint pain; eight had no such history. The film was viewed on a Super 8 movie projector. Heel contacts on ascent and descent from jumps were counted. Double heel strikes (heel rise between landing and pushing off) were also counted. A nonparametric t test showed no differences between the two groups in the number of contacts on ascent or descent. The dancers with a history of shin splints, however, demonstrated more double heel strikes (p = .02) than the other group. Clinically, this finding may represent a lack of control or a tight Achilles tendon or both. Further study is necessary to confirm these theories. For treatment and prevention of shin splints, a clinician must evaluate a dancer's jumping technique and then provide systematic training to develop the skin strength, flexibility, and coordination that make up control. PMID:4023066

  15. Does Gracilis Tendon Harvest During ACL Reconstruction with a Hamstring Autograft Affect Torque of Muscles Responsible for Shin Rotation?

    PubMed Central

    Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a combined semitendinosus and gracilis (STGR) graft there are large deficits in the internal rotation strength, which has led some authors to recommend harvest of only ST tendon whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the isometric (IT) and peak torque (PT) of the muscles responsible for shin rotation in patients after ACLR with an ST or with an STGR graft. Material/Methods Twenty patients with an ST graft and 20 patients with a combined STGR graft underwent a 6-month postoperative rehabilitation program after ACLR. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the IT and PT of the muscles responsible for internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the shin were measured. The results were compared to the results of a control group. Additionally, to determine the reliability of the dynamometer for clinical research, a test-retest assessment was performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups of participants. Nevertheless, in the STGR group there was a statistically significant difference between the IT of muscles internally rotating the shin in the involved knee and uninvolved knee at 25° of the internal shin rotation. Conclusions Comparison of IT and PT measurements performed after 24 weeks of postoperative rehabilitation generally showed no differences between patients after ACLR with the use of ST graft and patients who received a combination graft consisting of STGR. Nevertheless, there was an influence of GR harvest on internal shin rotation torque at a deep internal rotation angle. PMID:26190033

  16. A giant mass on the left shin: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lixia; Su, Juan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    A woman presented to our department with an asymptomatic progressive peripherally expanding skin lesion on her left shin for 6 years. The doctor in a local clinic considered it was a deep fungal infection, however, treatment with itraconazole systemically was ineffective. A second biopsy showed papillomatous hyperplasia and a central keratin-filled crater with a buttress like extension of surrounding epidermis and a well-demarcated regular base. In the upper dermis, diffused infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells was observed with perivascular infiltrate. Deeper dermis, appendageal structures and subcutaneous tissue were unremarkable. Periodic acid-schiffic staining and diamine silver staining of the specimen were negative. A diagnosis of Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM) was finally established. PMID:25973123

  17. A giant mass on the left shin: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lixia; Su, Juan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    A woman presented to our department with an asymptomatic progressive peripherally expanding skin lesion on her left shin for 6 years. The doctor in a local clinic considered it was a deep fungal infection, however, treatment with itraconazole systemically was ineffective. A second biopsy showed papillomatous hyperplasia and a central keratin-filled crater with a buttress like extension of surrounding epidermis and a well-demarcated regular base. In the upper dermis, diffused infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells was observed with perivascular infiltrate. Deeper dermis, appendageal structures and subcutaneous tissue were unremarkable. Periodic acid-schiffic staining and diamine silver staining of the specimen were negative. A diagnosisof Keratoacanthoma centrifugum marginatum (KCM) was finally established. PMID:25973123

  18. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  19. LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS IN RUNNING ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF MEDIAL SHIN PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Medial shin pain (MSP) is a common complaint that may stop an athlete from running. No previous study has identified deficits in pelvic, hip or knee motion as potential contributing factors to MSP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics during running between uninjured athletes and those with MSP. Secondary analyses investigated differences in limbs between groups and differences between sexes. Methods: This case-control study investigated fourteen runners aged 18–40 years old with a history of unilateral MSP and fourteen runner controls. Three dimensional lower quarter kinematics were captured as runners ran on a treadmill. Specifically, peak hip internal rotation (IR), frontal plane pelvic tilt (PT) excursion, and knee flexion were examined. Results: Groups were similar in age, mass, height, and training mileage. Subjects with a history of MSP demonstrated significantly greater frontal plane PT (P = 0.002, Effect size = 0.55) and peak hip IR (P = 0.004, Effect size = 0.51); and less knee flexion (P = 0.02, Effect size = 0.46) than the control group. No significant difference was found in kinematics of the MSP group during their involved side stance phase as compared to their non-involved side. Conclusions: Runners with MSP displayed greater PT excursion, peak hip IR, and decreased knee flexion while running as compared to a control group. These results should help guide treatment for the running athlete that experiences MSP. Level of Evidence: 3b PMID:22893855

  20. Single-dose Toxicity of ShinYangHur Herbal Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongcheol; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the single-dose toxicity of ShinYangHur (SYH) herbal acupuncture injected into the muscles of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The SYH herbal acupuncture was made in a clean room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI, Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice, K-GMP). After the mixing process with sterile distilled water, the pH was controlled to between 7.0 and 7.5. Then, NaCl was added to make a 0.9% isotonic solution by using sterilized equipment. All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of SYH herbal acupuncture, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy was used to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above outcomes suggest that treatment with SYH herbal acupuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence. PMID:26120490

  1. [PECULIARITIES OF BONE TISSUE MORPHOGENESIS DURING SHIN LENGTHENING USING THE METHOD OF TRANSOSSEOUS DISTRACTION OSTEOSYNTHESIS WITH THE INCREASED DAILY RATE].

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Ye N; Stepanov, M A

    2015-01-01

    Histogenesis of bone tissue was studied in 25 adult mongrel dogs under conditions of automatic shin lengthening by the technique of transosseous distraction osteosynthesis with the daily rate of 3 mm in 120 repeats using the methods of light, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, immunohistochemistry and morphometry. During the distraction period, cellular heteromorphism and proliferative activity of the cells of connective tissue interlayer and periosteum were clearly detected in the interfragmental diastasis. In the post-distraction period, the reduction of cellular heteromorphism and the increase of the biosynthetic activity of the osteoblastic cells were observed while the provisional endosteal bone regenerate of normotrophic type with the signs of organotypic reorganization was formed. Intramembranous osteogenesis was noted at all the stages of the experiment. The organ-specific nature of the newly formed bone occured by 30 days after the apparatus removal. Bone tissue plasticity and the conditions of high-fractional distraction allow to increase the daily rate of leg lengthening up to 3 mm, as well as to provide the formation of weight-bearing bone part during 45 days, thereby reducing by 31% the duration of the period of fixator use for shin lengthening in comparison with that one adopted in classic technique with the daily rate not exceeding 1 mm. PMID:26234044

  2. Metabonomic study on the plasma of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Ge Gen Qin Lian Decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyun; Xu, Guoliang; Li, Jia; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong; Li, Bingtao; Tu, Jun; Zhang, Huashan

    2016-02-20

    Changes in endogenous metabolites in the plasma of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with Ge Gen Qin Lian Decoction (GGQLD) were studied. The endogenous compounds in plasma were detected using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Rats were divided into three groups: control, model, and administration (4.95g crude drug/kg body weight). After the final administration, plasma samples from the three groups were analyzed using metabonomics. The three sample groups could be clearly distinguished. The administration group exhibited a distinct return to the levels of phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine of the control group according to the principal component analysis score, and the corresponding biomarkers were defined. Significant changes in endogenous metabolites, such as dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, cholylglycine, and pantothenic acid, were identified in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These biochemical changes are associated with the metabolism of sphingolipids, fats, and acetyl coenzyme-A, which could be useful to further investigate the characteristics of STZ-induced diabetes mellitus and the therapeutic mechanism of action of GGQLD. This metabonomic analysis could provide a useful starting point toelucidate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of GGQLD in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26744987

  3. Winter and summer characteristics of airborne particles inside emperor Qin's Terra-Cotta Museum, China: a study by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tafeng; Cao, Junji; Ho, Kinfai; An, Zhisheng; Lee, Shuncheng; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Li, Hua

    2011-09-01

    Day- and nighttime total suspended particulate matter was collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-Cotta Museum in winter and summer 2008. The purpose was to characterize the winter and summer differences of indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilation conditions, namely the Exhibition Hall and Pit No. 1. The morphology and elemental composition of two season samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It is found that the particle size, particle mass concentration, and particle type were associated with the visitor numbers in the Exhibition Hall and with the natural ventilation in Pit No. 1 in both winter and summer. Evident winter and summer changes in the composition and physicochemical properties of the indoor suspended particulate matters were related to the source emission and the meteorological conditions. Particle mass concentrations in both halls were higher in winter than in summer. In winter, the size of the most abundant particles at the three sites were all between 0.5 and 1.0 microm, whereas in summer the peaks were all located at less than 0.5 microm. The fraction of sulfur-containing particles was 2-7 times higher in winter than in summer. In addition to the potential soiling hazard, the formation and deposition of sulfur-containing particles in winter may lead to the chemical and physical weathering of the surfaces of the terra-cotta statues. PMID:22010376

  4. Lactococcus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yan-tsai-shin (fermented broccoli stems).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-sheng; Otoguro, Misa; Lin, Yu-hsuan; Pan, Shwu-fen; Ji, Si-hua; Yu, Chi-rong; Liou, Min-shiuan; Chang, Yu-chung; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2014-01-01

    A coccal-shaped organism, designated 516(T), was isolated from yan-tsai-shin (fermented broccoli stems), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain 516(T) had 98.9?% sequence similarity to that of the type strain Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T). Comparison of three housekeeping genes, rpoA, rpoB and pheS, revealed that strain 516(T) was well separated from Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T). DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain 516(T) had low DNA relatedness with Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T) (46.1?%). The DNA G+C content of strain 516(T) was 38.1 mol% and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0 (22.7?%), C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c (17.9?%) and summed feature 7 (29.0?%). Based on the evidence, strain 516(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the name Lactococcus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 516(T) (?=?NBRC 109475(T)?=?BCRC 80576(T)). PMID:24067730

  5. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Rastalsky, Naina; Choy, Edwin; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged bisphosphonate use has been associated with increased risk of atypical femoral fractures. Very few cases of atypical femoral fractures have been reported with denosumab. We report a case of bilateral tibial stress reactions in a 60-year-old man with no history of osteoporosis who was on prolonged high-dose denosumab for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. He presented with a 3-month history of pain in his bilateral shins worsening with activity and improving with rest. Although initial radiographs were unremarkable, he was found to have changes consistent with a stress reaction on magnetic resonance imaging of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, bilateral tibial stress reactions have not been previously reported with anti-resorptive therapies (neither bisphosphonates nor denosumab). Our case is intriguing in terms of the development of stress reactions as a precursor to stress fractures which may also relate to atypical fractures. Our case suggests a possible association between denosumab use and stress reactions. Of note the indication for denosumab in our case was for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dose is substantially higher than the FDA approved dose for osteoporosis treatment. Although rare, clinicians should consider the possibility of stress fractures in patients on anti-resorptive medications such as denosumab, especially when a patient presents with new onset thigh pain, hip pain or pain over an area affecting the long bones. Evaluation by imaging of affected areas should be pursued to enable early detection and intervention, as well as prevention of morbidity and associated ongoing risk to the patient. PMID:26117225

  6. [The influence of the C-leg knee-shin system from the Otto Bock Company in the care of above-knee amputees. A clinical-biomechanical study to define indications].

    PubMed

    Wetz, H H; Hafkemeyer, U; Drerup, B

    2005-04-01

    The C-Leg microprocessor-controlled knee-shin system for the above-knee amputees is introduced as a dramatic improvement over all other prosthetic knees. This is due to its combination of on-board microprocessor and the hydraulic controls acting both on the swing and stance phase. A more secure, natural and efficient gait is expected. Following the recommendations of Otto Bock the indications for the prescription of the C-leg are: Amputees with mobility level "able to walk outdoors without limitations" (AK3) and "able to walk outdoors without limitations plus engage in high performance activities" (AK4) if they face at least one extra obstacle as listed in the Otto Bock catalogue of indications. In this article it is aimed to critically review the indications for the C-leg. In particular the question is posed, whether a different or sophisticated indication of mobility levels might be suggested. Therefore this study does not concentrate on the 3C-100 C-Leg((R)) component but on the system patient + C-leg. So the testing is done by comparing the C-Leg against the regular knee, which is assumed to be an adequate choice for this patient and to which he is accustomed. So far 25 patients with activity levels AK 2 (5), AK 3 (13) and AK 4 (7) have participated in the study. 23 patients, i.e. all patients except one AK 2 and one AK 3 exhibit functional improvement at least according to one criterion. On the other side, only three patients (2 AK 4), fulfill all criteria of functional improvement, which have been defined for this test. It is concluded, that multi-handicapped patients of all activity levels generally experience substantial improvement due to this system. AK 2 patients may show significant functional improvement. As a prerequisite, however, they must not exhibit deficiencies regarding stump movement, muscular status or cognitive abilities. Active patients (AK 3 and AK 4) benefit in the majority of cases. However, some highly active patients of AK 4 complain about interferences between their intended movement and the microprocessor control of knee movements. PMID:15812621

  7. Acceptance of the 2014 Houtermans Award by Liping Qin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Liping

    2015-06-01

    Thank you for the very kind words, Rick. Thank you EAG for the award and Nicolas Dauphas for the nomination. When I look at the list of previous recipients of this award, I saw many familiar names who have made major contributions to the field of geochemistry. I am humbled by this recognition. I would like to take this moment to thank all individuals who have generously helped me along the way. I would not be standing here today without them.

  8. QIN “Radiomics: The Process and the Challenges”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Virendra; Gu, Yuhua; Basu, Satrajit; Berglund, Anders; Eschrich, Steven A.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Forster, Kenneth; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Dekker, Andre; Fenstermacher, David; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Hall, Lawrence O; Lambin, Philippe; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    “Radiomics” refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large potential subject pool. Radiomic data are in a mineable form that can be used to build descriptive and predictive models relating image features to phenotypes or gene-protein signatures. The core hypothesis of radiomics is that these models, which can include biological or medical data, can provide valuable diagnostic, prognostic or predictive information. The radiomics enterprise can be divided into distinct processes, each with its own challenges that need to be overcome: (i) image acquisition and reconstruction (ii) image segmentation and rendering (iii) feature extraction and feature qualification (iv) databases and data sharing for eventual (v) ad hoc informatic analyses. Each of these individual processes poses unique challenges. For example, optimum protocols for image acquisition and reconstruction have to be identified and harmonized. Also, segmentations have to be robust and involve minimal operator input. Features have to be generated that robustly reflect the complexity of the individual volumes, but cannot be overly complex or redundant. Furthermore, informatics databases that allow incorporation of image features and image annotations, along with medical and genetic data have to be generated. Finally, the statistical approaches to analyze these data have to be optimized, as radiomics is not a mature field of study. Each of these processes will be discussed in turn, as well as some of their unique challenges and proposed approaches to solve them. The focus of this article will be on images of non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC. PMID:22898692

  9. [A brief history of osteo-traumatology of the pre-Qin period].

    PubMed

    Li, A

    1996-05-01

    Historical materials from oracle inscriptions to Mawangdui Ancient Books are summarized. Research is made on four aspects, including recognition on bone, wounds to bone, and bone diseases, osteological treatment by drugs, acu-moxibustion, massage and Daoyin, traumatological medical jurisprudence and prevention of such diseases. This fills the gap left out in the developmental history of osteo-traumatology. PMID:11613349

  10. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  11. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  12. A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following are

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IPN localizations of Konus short GRBs (Pal'shin+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal'Shin, V. D.; Hurley, K.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V.; Cline, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.; Gold, R.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Savchenko, V.; Smith, D. M.; Hajdas, W.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Palmer, D.; Yamaoka, K.; Ohno, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hanabata, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tashiro, M.; Terada, Y.; Murakami, T.; Makishima, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Fishman, G.; Connaughton, V.; Boer, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E.; Rossi, F.; Feroci, M.; Amati, L.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.; Del, Monte E.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Vanderspek, R.; Ricker, G.

    2013-09-01

    Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, ~18/yr, exceeds that of many individual experiments. (3 data files).

  14. QIN. Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio, and pharmacokinetic modeling considerations in Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Huang, Wei; Rooney, William D.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in MRI technology, Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI is approaching the capability to simultaneously deliver both high spatial- and temporal-resolutions for clinical applications. However, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) considerations, and their impacts regarding pharmacokinetic modeling of the time-course data continue to represent challenges in the design of DCE-MRI acquisitions. Given that many acquisition parameters can affect the nature of DCE-MRI data, minimizing tissue-specific data acquisition discrepancy (among sites and scanner models) is as important as synchronizing pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. For cancer related DCE-MRI studies where rapid contrast reagent (CR) extravasation is expected, current DCE-MRI protocols often adopt a 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence to achieve spatial-temporal resolution requirements. Based on breast and prostate DCE-MRI data acquired with different FLASH sequence parameters, this paper elucidates a number of SNR and CNR considerations for acquisition optimization and pharmacokinetic modeling implications therein. Simulations based on ROI data further indicate that the effects of intercompartmental water exchange often play an important role in DCE time-course data modeling, especially for protocols optimized for post-CR SNR. PMID:22795931

  15. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. [Comparative analysis of the position of the graft in the femur after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction done through the front inner portal and through the shin bone].

    PubMed

    Harhaji, Vladimir; Ninkovi?, Srdjan; Milojevi?, Zoran; Till, Viktor; Risti?, Vladimir; Harhaji, Sanja; Janji?, Natasa; Milankov, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most common surgically treated knee ligament. If we take into account the fact that incidence of ACL injuries is growing, it is clearly that the interest of orthopedic surgeons for this pathology is also growing. Increasing number of this operations leads to increasing of complications, which requires its analysis. One of the most common failure of ACL reconstruction is a bad position of the graft in the femoral condyle. This study aimed to analyze the positioning of the graft in to the femur by two generally accepted techniques--transtibial technique and technique through the antero-medial portal. The analysis included postoperative radiographs in 60 patients, of whom 30 were operated by transtibial technique and 30 by technique through anteromedial portal. Radiographic analysis involved the measurement of the AP digital imaging, the tunnel projection X ray measurements and measurements of the computed tomography (CT), which was here a control method. The accuracy of measurement was set at 0.5 degrees or 1 min. All radiographs were made in the same way according to the literature. The results showed that the neoligaments were placed lower in the femoral condyle by technique through anteromedial portal than by transtibial technique, and the difference was statistically significant (on tunnel X ray by anteromedial portal screws were average placed at 50.0 degrees and 10:20 am, and by transtibial technique at 37.5 degrees or 10:45 am). Based on the results, it was concluded that the neoligaments were positioned closer to its anatomical position by technique through anteromedial portal. PMID:24298743

  18. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Jo CH, Shin JS, Shin WH, Lee SY, Yoon KS, Shin S. Platelet-rich plasma for arthroscopic repair of medium to large rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2015 43(9):2102-2110. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0363546515587081). PMID:26729728

  19. A Method of DTM Construction Based on Quadrangular Irregular Networks and Related Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    A new method of DTM construction based on quadrangular irregular networks (QINs) that considers all the original data points and has a topological matrix is presented. A numerical test and a real-world example are used to comparatively analyse the accuracy of QINs against classical interpolation methods and other DTM representation methods, including SPLINE, KRIGING and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). The numerical test finds that the QIN method is the second-most accurate of the four methods. In the real-world example, DTMs are constructed using QINs and the three classical interpolation methods. The results indicate that the QIN method is the most accurate method tested. The difference in accuracy rank seems to be caused by the locations of the data points sampled. Although the QIN method has drawbacks, it is an alternative method for DTM construction. PMID:25996691

  20. A Method of DTM Construction Based on Quadrangular Irregular Networks and Related Error Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mengjun; Wang, Mingjun; Du, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    A new method of DTM construction based on quadrangular irregular networks (QINs) that considers all the original data points and has a topological matrix is presented. A numerical test and a real-world example are used to comparatively analyse the accuracy of QINs against classical interpolation methods and other DTM representation methods, including SPLINE, KRIGING and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). The numerical test finds that the QIN method is the second-most accurate of the four methods. In the real-world example, DTMs are constructed using QINs and the three classical interpolation methods. The results indicate that the QIN method is the most accurate method tested. The difference in accuracy rank seems to be caused by the locations of the data points sampled. Although the QIN method has drawbacks, it is an alternative method for DTM construction. PMID:25996691

  1. Synthesis, characterization and applications of carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolated bifunctionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots in cellular internalization mediated by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lo, Shih-Yen; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are widely used in biomedical imaging studies and pharmaceutical research. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of small peptides that are able to traverse cell membrane and deliver a variety of cargoes into living cells. CPPs deliver QDs into cells with minimal nonspecific absorption and toxic effect. In this study, water-soluble, monodisperse, carboxyl-functionalized indium phosphide (InP)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs coated with polyethylene glycol lipids (designated QInP) were synthesized for the first time. The physicochemical properties (optical absorption, fluorescence and charging state) and cellular internalization of QInP and CPP/QInP complexes were characterized. CPPs noncovalently interact with QInP in vitro to form stable CPP/QInP complexes, which can then efficiently deliver QInP into human A549 cells. The introduction of 500nM of CPP/QInP complexes and QInP at concentrations of less than 1?M did not reduce cell viability. These results indicate that carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolylated (PEGylated) bifunctionalized QInP are biocompatible nanoparticles with potential for use in biomedical imaging studies and drug delivery applications. PMID:23792556

  2. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who

  3. Fractured diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis in an adolescent soccer player.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Daniel L; Shaw, Thomas; Allen, Marque; Marin, James

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis is a rare cause of symptomatic shin pain with exertion. In this case, a 14-year-old male soccer player presented with atraumatic right shin pain made worse with running. Computed tomography revealed heterotopic ossification, or synostosis, of the tibial-fibular syndesmosis. The patient's symptoms improved with rest, without the need for operative intervention. PMID:25171880

  4. Quantitative Imaging Network Working Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The QIN is linked at several levels. A Steering Committee has governance oversight of the network. While this provides the administrative coordination and communication points of contact between program staff and the individual centers, the Steering Committee

  5. Sendai virus-mediated expression of reprogramming factors promotes plasticity of human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Islam, S M Rafiqul; Suenaga, Yusuke; Takatori, Atsushi; Ueda, Yasuji; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kawana, Hidetada; Itami, Makiko; Ohira, Miki; Yokoi, Sana; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor that originates from multipotent neural crest cells. NB cell populations that express embryonic stem cell-associated genes have been identified and shown to retain a multipotent phenotype. However, whether somatic reprogramming of NB cells can produce similar stem-cell like populations is unknown. Here, we sought to reprogram NB cell lines using an integration-free Sendai virus vector system. Of four NB cell lines examined, only SH-IN cells formed induced pluripotent stem cell-like colonies (SH-IN 4F colonies) at approximately 6weeks following transduction. These SH-IN 4F colonies were alkaline phosphatase-positive. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicated identical genomic aberrations in the SH-IN 4F cells as in the parental cells. SH-IN 4F cells had the ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers invitro, but rather formed NBs invivo. Furthermore, SH-IN 4F cells exhibited resistance to cisplatin treatment and differentiated into endothelial-like cells expressing CD31 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that SH-IN 4F cells are partially reprogrammed NB cells, and could be a suitable model for investigating the plasticity of aggressive tumors. PMID:26190440

  6. Sendai virus-mediated expression of reprogramming factors promotes plasticity of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Rafiqul; Suenaga, Yusuke; Takatori, Atsushi; Ueda, Yasuji; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kawana, Hidetada; Itami, Makiko; Ohira, Miki; Yokoi, Sana; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor that originates from multipotent neural crest cells. NB cell populations that express embryonic stem cell-associated genes have been identified and shown to retain a multipotent phenotype. However, whether somatic reprogramming of NB cells can produce similar stem-cell like populations is unknown. Here, we sought to reprogram NB cell lines using an integration-free Sendai virus vector system. Of four NB cell lines examined, only SH-IN cells formed induced pluripotent stem cell-like colonies (SH-IN 4F colonies) at approximately 6 weeks following transduction. These SH-IN 4F colonies were alkaline phosphatase-positive. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicated identical genomic aberrations in the SH-IN 4F cells as in the parental cells. SH-IN 4F cells had the ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers in vitro, but rather formed NBs in vivo. Furthermore, SH-IN 4F cells exhibited resistance to cisplatin treatment and differentiated into endothelial-like cells expressing CD31 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that SH-IN 4F cells are partially reprogrammed NB cells, and could be a suitable model for investigating the plasticity of aggressive tumors. PMID:26190440

  7. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva n?g?rjuna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in F shu? f y? j?ng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zh?u hu b?i y?f?ng written by To Hng-j?ng and S?n S?-mi?o who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Su?rutasa hit? and 'J?nzh?n-sh'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Su?rutasa hit? which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hit?. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lng sh p s y?n ln(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva N?g?rjuna) or Lng sh ln and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lng sh p s y?n ln was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Ti?n zh j?ng ln y?n mentioned in Wi ti m yo(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shng do ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lng sh. Although Ti?n zh j?ng ln y?n introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this regard. Thereafter, Ti png shng hu f?ng (Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) compiled by a national agency at the beginning of the Song Dynasty period introduced Lng sh p s y?n ln without clear indication of the reference. Contemporary with this book, many ophthalmological books such as M chun y?n k? lng m ln(Longmu's Ophthalmology Secretly Handed Down) were published. As Chinese culture was spreading out into surrounding countries, medical knowledge was also introduced to Korean peninsula and Japan. The ophthalmological knowledge contained in Lng sh p s y?n ln was also reflected and some parts of it were introduced in I shin b? in Japan. Based on the policy decision of King Sejong, the fourth king of Joseon Dynasty, large scaled promoting projects of medical knowledge was established. It is notable that the Ui bang ryu chwi compiled as a result of the synthesis of the medical treatises available at that time initiated by King Sejong contained a considerable part of Lng sh p s y?n ln in reedited form that had already passed into oblivion in China. The intellectuals in Joseon Dynasty who participated in the compilation of Ui bang ryu chwi not only indicated that Lng sh p s y?n ln was a medical text published in the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties in China but also clearly indicated the textual reference and left the original text for later generation without modifying the contents. According to the Ui bang ryu chwi, the Lng sh p s y?n ln indicated that the core causes of eye diseases were heat, winds, and three body fluids(trido a) and contained the analyses of symptoms, related treatments, and several analyses of wrong treatments. In addition, Lng sh p s y?n ln explained diverse eye diseases through more than 30 medical treatments. In particular, this book accurately described golden needle acupuncture for treatment of a Ni-zhng understood to be cataract. Therefore, this book is a significant textual record in the history of ophthalmological medicine in East

  8. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... (Shin, J.J., Godfrey, H.P., & Cabello, F.C. ``Expression and localization of BmpC in Borrelia... membrane of Borrelia burgdorferi by monospecific anti- recombinant BmpA rabbit antibodies.'' Infection...

  9. Diagnosis of NF1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thinning of the shin bone Tumor on the optic nerve that may interfere with vision Epilepsy (seizure ... may include congenital defects of the bone, scoliosis, optic glioma and neurological impairment leading to learning disability ...

  10. Molecular Targets Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    front row: Jason Evans, Heidi Bokesch, Emily Whitson-Whennen, Hee Jae Shin, Wendy Popplewell, Kirk Gustafson, Lauren Krumpe, Anne Powell*, Shilpa Kurian, Carrie Saucedo back row: Jennifer Wilson, Tad Guszczynski, Laura Cartner, Lana Crutchley, Alan Masche

  11. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePLUS

    ACL reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the ligament in the center of your knee. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) keeps your shin bone (tibia) in place. A tear of this ligament can cause your ...

  12. Osteotomy of the knee

    MedlinePLUS

    Osteotomy of the knee is surgery that involves making a cut in one of the bones in your lower leg. This can be ... surgery done on the shin bone below the knee cap. Femoral osteotomy is surgery done on the ...

  13. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, ... on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

  14. Blount disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is most often needed if braces do not work, or if the problem is not diagnosed until the child is older. Surgery may involve cutting the shin bone to place it in the proper position. Sometimes the bone ...

  15. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  16. Kakuna taibaiensis sp. n. and a newly recorded species of Dicranotropis (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-Juan; Xie, Qi; Qiao, Li; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the delphacid genus Kakuna Matsumura, Kakuna taibaiensis Ren & Qin, sp. n. is described from Mt. Taibai in Shaanxi Province, China. Dicranotropis montana (Horvath, 1897) is reported for the first time from China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the two species are given. PMID:25349503

  17. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children

  18. China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

    These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)

  19. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  20. ACL and differentiability of a generalization of quasi-conformal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. R.

    2008-10-01

    It is established that Q-homeomorphisms (in the sense of O. Martio) defined in \\mathbb{R}^n, n\\geq2, are absolutely continuous on lines. Furthermore, they belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1} and are differentiable almost everywhere for Q\\in L^{1}_{\\mathrm{loc}}.

  1. Identifying the Generation Gap in Higher Education: Where Do the Differences Really Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula; Qin, Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of incoming college students come complete with new technological skills and, seemingly, new expectations for learning. Yet how different are these students from the ones educators have encountered in the past? Under the auspices of Northern Arizona University's e-Learning Center, Paula Garcia and Jingjing Qin investigated the…

  2. Effects of different sitting positions on skin temperature of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair. PMID:26355265

  3. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  4. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Crous) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora leucadendri (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora snelliana (Reichert) U. Braun, H.D. Shin, C. Nakash. & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; Typifications: Epitypifications - Pseudocercospora angolensis (T. Carvalho & O. Mendes) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora araliae (Henn.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora cercidis-chinensis H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora corylopsidis (Togashi & Katsuki) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora dovyalidis (Chupp & Doidge) Deighton, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis (Chupp) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo, Pseudocercospora humuli (Hori) Y.L. Guo & X.J. Liu, Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lyoniae (Katsuki & Tak. Kobay.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora lythri H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora sambucigena U. Braun, Crous & K. Schub., Pseudocercospora stephanandrae (Tak. Kobay. & H. Horie) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora viburnigena U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Xenostigmina zilleri (A. Funk) Crous; Lectotypification - Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton; Neotypifications - Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W. Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo. PMID:24014898

  5. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they…

  6. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... & Steel Corp., Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., Tension Steel Industries Co., Ltd., and Yieh Phui Enterprise Co... Request for Revocation in Part, 78 FR 38924 (June 28, 2013). On July 25, 2013, Petitioner withdrew its... Corp.; (4) Tension Steel Industries Co., Ltd.; and (5) Yieh Phui Enterprise Co., Ltd. This review...

  7. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they

  8. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.

  9. What Are Knee Problems?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bằng tiếng Việt ) NIH Consensus Development Conference on Total Knee Replacement Order a NIAMS publication to be mailed ... shin bone). It is easily injured if the knee is twisted while bearing weight. A partial or total tear may occur. If the tear is tiny, ...

  10. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and

  11. 76 FR 60871 - In the Matter of Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ..., Kentucky (``Lexmark''). 75 FR 62564- 65 (Oct. 12, 2010). The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of... interest, and bonding. 76 FR 41822-24 (July 15, 2011). On August 1, 2011, Lexmark submitted an initial...Zone.com Inc. and Inkjet Superstore) of Los Angeles, California (``IJSS''); Chung Pal Shin (d/b/a...

  12. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  13. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  14. Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin

  15. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Jeffries, S.J.; Hobbs, R.C.; Bowlby, C.E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  16. Correction to "Effects of Innovative WALKBOT Robotic-Assisted Locomotor Training on Balance and Gait Recovery in Hemiparetic Stroke: A Prospective, Randomized, Experimenter Blinded Case Control Study With a Four-Week Follow-Up".

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Yang, Li; Park, In Jae; Kim, Eun Joo; Park, Min Su; You, Sung Hyun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Shin, Yong-Il

    2015-11-01

    In the above-named work, [ibid., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 636-642, Jul. 2015], the following information should have appeared in the first footnote: "Soo-Yeon Kim and Li Yang contributed equally to this paper. Yong-Il Shin is the corresponding author." PMID:26560084

  17. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  18. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…

  19. 77 FR 30530 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... applicants have filed with the Federal Maritime Commission an application for a license as a Non-Vessel... Qualifying Individual (QI) for a license. Interested persons may contact the Office of Transportation..., Officers: Hyung K. Shin, President/CFO (Qualifying Individual), Yung H. Cho, Secretary, Application...

  20. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  1. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  2. a Review of the Method of Moho Fold Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Lim, M.; Park, Y.; Rim, H.

    2010-12-01

    We review the method of Moho fold estimation and its validation introduced in the recently published papers by Shin et al.(2009, 2007) and by Jin et al.(1994). The Tibetan Plateau, the study area of the papers, is greatly affected by heavy compression between Eurasian and Indian Plates and consequently has particular deformation structures related with the tectonic collisional environment, including possible buckling of very deep Moho. The recent method suggested by Shin et al.(2009) enables one to reveal the three-dimensional structure of the Moho fold and to validate it in direction, amplitude, and wavelength of the fold by comparing with other geophysical (e.g. an elastic plate model under horizontal loading) or geodetic (e.g. current crustal movement by GPS) evidences. We also review the several particular features of the Moho fold beneath Tibet. Finally, in the viewpoint of Moho fold estimation, we present a comparison of the recent global gravity models; both of satellite-based models (GGM03S, EIGEN-5S, ITG-GRACE2010S, GOCO01S, and GO_CONS_GCF_2DIR) and combination models including terrestrial gravimetry (GGM03C, EIGEN-5C, EGM2008, EIGEN-GL04C, and EIGEN51C). Reference: [1] Jin, Y. et al., 1994, Nature, 371, 669-674. [2] Shin, Y. H. et al., 2009, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L01302, doi:10.1029/2008GL036068. [3] Shin, Y. H. et al., 2007, Geophysical Journal International, 170, 971-985.

  3. 77 FR 55807 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 40565 (July 10, 2012). On August 15, 2012, the.... (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel Corp.), Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., and Tension Steel... Corp.); and (3) Tension Steel Industries Co. Ltd. Partial Rescission The applicable regulation, 19...

  4. Case Records of the Mass General Hospital. Case 7-2015: A 25-year-old man with oral ulcers, rash, and odynophagia.

    PubMed

    Unizony, Sebastian H; Kim, Nancy D; Hoang, Mai P

    2015-02-26

    A 25-year-old man presented with oral ulcers and odynophagia. On examination, there were scattered pink papules and plaques on the trunk, thighs, and buttocks and multiple raised, erythematous nodules on both shins. A diagnostic procedure was performed. PMID:25714165

  5. Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

  6. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of

  7. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  8. Cultural Translation in Two Directions: The Suzuki Method in Japan and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Suzuki Method represents a significant contribution by a Japanese, Suzuki Shin'ichi (1898-1998), to the teaching of musical instruments worldwide. Western observers often represent the method as "Japanese," although it could be called "Western" with equal justification. Suzuki left no detailed description of his method. Consequently, it is…

  9. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  10. 78 FR 71563 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...; 2011-2012, 78 FR 34335 (June 7, 2013) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective November 29, 2013. FOR... FR 19369 (May 7, 1984) (Order). \\5\\ See Memorandum from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary... of review. Because Shin Yang's weighted-average dumping margin is not zero or de minimis (i.e.,...

  11. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  12. Reinstatement of Distantasca Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) as a valid genus with new species and new combinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fletcher, Murray J; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Distantasca Dworakowska originally established as a genus but more recently has been treated as a subgenus of Empoasca Walsh. Here we reinstate Distantasca as a valid genus and provide a revised diagnosis. New combinations created are Distantasca atika (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca barawa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca bulbosa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latava (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latibasis (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., Distantasca paraterminalis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca riora (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca rokasa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca serratipenis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca tiaca (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tna (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tuberculata (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., all from Empoasca (Distantasca). Distantasca terminalis (Distant) and D. faciata Dworakowska are reinstated from Empoasca (Distantasca). Two new species, Distantasca longihamatilis Zhang & Liu and Distantasca ricina Zhang & Liu spp. nov. are described and illustrated. Empoasca (Empoasca) smithi Fletcher & Donaldson, 1992 is transferred into the genus as Distantasca smithi (Fletcher & Donaldson). PMID:25283902

  13. Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field'[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J.; Guillebon, Loiec de

    2012-09-15

    The geometric analysis of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field by Liu and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] is reformulated in terms of the spatial angles that represent the instantaneous orientation of the magnetic field. This new formulation, which includes the equation of motion for the pitch angle, clarifies the decomposition of the gyroangle-averaged equation of motion for the gyrophase into its dynamic and geometric contributions.

  14. Improvement of Efficient Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Based on Bell States and Continuous Variable Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gan

    2014-07-01

    Yuan et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 51:3443, 2012) proposed a multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol using Bell states and continuous variable operations. Zhang and Qin (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52:3953, 2013) showed that their protocol is not secure. In this paper, we will give an improvement of Yuan et al. protocol. Our improved protocol can stand against not only Zhang et al. attack strategies, but also the other ones efficiently.

  15. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jesus

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  16. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy matters such as the BPA direct sale of energy proposal, identify key business opportunities like charcoal production and train QIN members in business building, and establish a renewable energy education program and center to enhance the education of QIN youth and market to schools and community colleges in Western Washington. Overall, this final report includes the final Renewable Energy Plan for the QIN, the final Financial Analysis, and appendices. The two final plans are the culmination of research and planning represented by the appendices.

  17. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  18. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement with simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices

  19. China seeks Korean partners

    SciTech Connect

    Hyoungjin Kim

    1993-03-03

    In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May.

  20. Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, J.Z.; Nakashima, C.; Nishikawa, J.; Shin, H.-D.; Park, J.-H.; Jama, A.N.; Groenewald, M.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Cercospora coniogrammes Crous & R.G. Shivas, Cercospora delaireae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora euphorbiae-sieboldianae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora pileicola C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora vignigena C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin. Typifications: epitypifications - Cercospora alchemillicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Cercospora althaeina Sacc., Cercospora armoraciae Sacc., Cercospora corchori Sawada, Cercospora mercurialis Pass., Cercospora olivascens Sacc., Cercospora violae Sacc.; neotypifications - Cercospora fagopyri N. Nakata & S. Takim., Cercospora sojina Hara. PMID:24014899

  1. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Nylon friction dermatitis: A distinct subset of macular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Somani, V K; Hari, S; Sita, V N; Razvi, F

    1995-01-01

    43 patients were taken up for the study, all of whom were asymptomatic and presented with bluish black pigmentation. 23 patients presented with pigmentation which was proximal and distal to the bony prominences, all of whom gave a history of using nylon scrubbers during bathing. 20 patients gave no history of friction and the pigmentation was present on the extensor forearms, shins and upper back. Histopathological examination confirmed amyloid deposits. PMID:20952929

  3. Surface analysis using shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Feng; Tian, Xiang Dong; Li, Song Bo; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi Lin; Ding, Yong; Wu, Yuan Fei; Zeng, Yong Ming; Chen, Qi Zhen; Ren, Bin; Wang, Zhong Lin; Tian, Zhong Qun

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful fingerprint vibrational spectroscopy with a single-molecule detection limit, but its applications are generally restricted to 'free-electron-like' metal substrates such as Au, Ag and Cu nanostructures. We have invented a shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique, using Au-core silica-shell nanoparticles (Au@SiO(2) NPs), which makes SERS universally applicable to surfaces with any composition and any morphology. This protocol describes how to prepare shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) with different well-controlled core sizes (55 and 120 nm), shapes (nanospheres, nanorods and nanocubes) and shell thicknesses (1-20 nm). It then describes how to apply SHINs to Pt and Au single-crystal surfaces with different facets in an electrochemical environment, on Si wafer surfaces adsorbed with hydrogen, on ZnO nanorods, and on living bacteria and fruit. With this method, SHINs can be prepared for use in ~3 h, and each subsequent procedure for SHINERS measurement requires 1-2 h. PMID:23237829

  4. Quantitative SHINERS analysis of temporal changes in the passive layer at a gold electrode surface in a thiosulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Leitch, J Jay; Zhou, Chunqing; Mirza, Jeff; Li, Song-Bo; Tian, Xiang-Dong; Huang, Yi-Fan; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Baron, Janet Y; Choi, Yeonuk; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Shell-isolated gold nanoparticles (SHINs) were employed to record shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectra (SHINERS) of a passive layer formed at a gold surface during gold leaching from thiosulfate solutions. The (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and a sodium silicate solution were used to coat gold nanoparticles with a protective silica layer. This protective silica layer prevented interactions between the thiosulfate electrolyte and the gold core of the SHINs when the SHINs-modified gold electrode was immersed into the thiosulfate lixiviant. The SHINERS spectra of the passive layer, formed from thiosulfate decomposition, contained bands indicative of hydrolyzed APTES. We have demonstrated how to exploit the presence of these APTES bands as an internal standard to compensate for fluctuations of the surface enhancement of the electric field of the photon. We have also developed a procedure that allows for removal of the interfering APTES bands from the SHINERS spectra. These methodological advancements have enabled us to identify the species forming the passive layer and to determine that the formation of elemental sulfur, cyclo-S8, and polymeric sulfur chains is responsible for inhibition of gold dissolution in oxygen rich thiosulfate solutions. PMID:25751526

  5. 3D Slicer as an image computing platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open-source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

  6. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

  7. [Passive SLF spectrum analysis for tracing the mining dynamic of CBM].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-bo; Qin, Qi-ming; Li, Bai-shou

    2011-07-01

    Exploration and development of the coal-bed methane (CBM) is very important to economics, environment and society. It is a key factor to trace and assess the process of the coal-bed gas mining dynamically for its efficient development. In the present article, based on the theory of natural resources super low frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detecting, the method that uses the SLF to trace the coal-bed gas mining dynamic is introduced. The field tests in 2007 and 2010 in the Qin-Shui basin, Shanxi province of China indicate that this method is efficient for the dynamic of the coal-bed gas mining. PMID:21942047

  8. The Organization of Knowledge Spaces for a Virtual Learning Environment Supported by a Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Terence R.; Agapova, Olga; Freeston, Michael; Ushakov, Alex

    This paper represents the combined work of the whole of the ADEPT Knowledge Organization Team. Other members are: Olha Buchel, Jim Frew, Linda Hill, Richard Mayer, Jian Qin, Laura Smart, and Tim Tierney. The Alexandria Digital Library Project is developing a concept-based learning environment for the sciences. In this paper, we briefly discuss: the rationale for the approach; the structure of the concept model and correlative relationships between concepts; the components and associated services of the concept-based learning environment; and planned and potential applications of the learning environment.

  9. Astronomy and City Planning in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, David W.

    By the beginning of the formative period of Chinese civilization in the early second millennium BCE, astronomical knowledge was already being applied to the cardinal orientation of cities and monumental architecture. This focus is most strongly manifested in the symbolic orientation of imperial capitals. Beginning with the First Emperor of Qin's creation of the unified empire in 221 BCE, a traditional linkage between the ruler and the supra-visible power located at the Celestial Pole led to even greater focus on architectural conformity with the circumpolar skyscape.

  10. The imprint of Chinas first emperor on the distant realm of eastern Shandong

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.; Hui, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Imperial expansion is recurrent in human history. For early empires, such as in ancient China, this process generally is known from texts that glorify and present the perspective of victors. The legacy of the Qin king, Shihuangdi, who first unified China in 221 BC, remains vital, but we have few details about the consequences of his distant conquests or how they changed the path of local histories. We integrate documentary accounts with the findings of a systematic regional survey of archaeological sites to provide a holistic context for this imperialistic episode and the changes that followed in coastal Shandong. PMID:20194758

  11. Specialized Initiatives - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    CIP has sponsored a number of programs for specific purposes, using set-aside funds. Among these are Phase 2 N01 ProgramIn-Vivo Cellular & Molecular Imaging Centers (ICMICs) Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies (QIN) Network for Translational Research (NTR): Optical Imaging in Multimodal Platforms Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) The Interagency Council on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology (ICBIO) was developed as a means for developers of new imaging techniques to seek advice on the best way to proceed to commercialize their ideas, and Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

  12. Reply to 'Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2006-07-15

    In the preceding Comment [Jian-Zhong Du, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fu-Chen Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 016301 (2006)], it has been shown that in a quantum secret sharing protocol proposed in [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], one of the receivers can cheat by splitting the entanglement of the carrier and intercepting the secret, without being detected. In this reply we show that a simple modification of the protocol prevents the receivers from this kind of cheating.

  13. A targeted strategy to analyze untargeted mass spectral data: Rapid chemical profiling of Scutellaria baicalensis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry and key ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Li, Ru; Song, Wei; Miao, Wen-Juan; Liu, Jia; Chen, Hu-Biao; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2016-04-01

    Structural identification of natural products by tandem mass spectrometry requires laborious spectral analysis. Herein, we report a targeted post-acquisition data processing strategy, key ion filtering (KIF), to analyze untargeted mass spectral data. This strategy includes four steps: (1) untargeted data acquisition by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/orbitrap-MS); (2) construction of a key ion database according to diagnostic MS/MS fragmentations and conservative substructures of natural compounds; (3) high-resolution key ion filtering of the acquired data to recognize substructures; and (4) structural identification of target compounds by analyzing their MS/MS spectra. The herbal medicine Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) was used to illustrate this strategy. Its extract was separated within 20min on a C18 column (1.8μm, 2.1×150mm) eluted with acetonitrile, methanol, and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The compounds were detected in the (-)-ESI mode, and their MS/MS spectra were recorded in the untargeted manner. Key ions were then filtered from the LC/MS data to recognize flavones, flavanones, O-/C-glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides. Finally, a total of 132 compounds were identified from Huang-Qin, and 59 of them were reported for the first time. This study provides an efficient data processing strategy to rapidly profile the chemical constituents of complicated herbal extracts. PMID:26952367

  14. Fatigue propagation behaviour of short cracks (1-2 mm) in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    ESDU 93033 presents data that compare the behavior of long and short cracks which are longer than the typical microstructural dimension but are not substantially larger than the radius of the plastic zone at the crack tip. Experimental data extracted from the literature for crack growth rate under constant amplitude loading are presented graphically against stress intensity factor range for both long and short cracks at various stress ratios in air for AISI 4340, HY 130, AISI 1045, SAE 0030 (UNS J 03010), and AISI 1020. In addition, there are data obtained in vacuum for E460, and in salt solution and sea water for HY 130. Data in air for E460, A508, QIN, and 304 are for only one stress ratio (but include the effect of sea water for QIN). Data for AISI 316 are for short cracks only in air at two stress ratios and for EN5 are for short and long cracks in sea water and one stress ratio only. No consistent relationship between yield strength and either short or long crack growth behavior was found, but where a short crack effect was evident the threshold value of stress intensity factor range was lower than for long cracks, and the crack growth rate at low values of stress intensity factor range was greater.

  15. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: Chinas initial political unification and its aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neolithic (ca. 80001900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during QinHan times and for the longer dure. PMID:25775557

  16. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan; Qin Hong

    2011-05-15

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  17. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  18. Separating Plasma and Blood Cells by Dielectrophoresis in Microfluidic Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Liao, Zhi-Feng

    In this paper, a dielectrophoretic (DEP) micro separator is studied for plasma-blood separation. DEP forces created by non-uniform electric fields are used as deflected forces to deplete blood cells from side walls at a given inlet flow rate (Qin). Then one can extract plasma through a microchannel on side wall at certain extraction flow rate (Qp). In this experiment, saline isotonic solution is chosen as dilute solution for whole blood. The minimum dilute ratio (whole blood: saline dilute) is found to be 1:3 for DEP to substantially deplete blood cells from side walls. Exraction of plasma from whole blood sample by DEP force is also investigated. Experimental results show blood cells do not enter side channel by DEP force at inlet flow rate Qin=0.5 ?1/min when plasma extract flow rates is Qp ? 0.3 ?1/min. By calculating pure plasma extraction volume fraction, the efficiency in current experiment can reach as high as 20% if dilute ratio 1:3 of whole blood sample is considered.

  19. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China's initial political unification and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M; Nicholas, Linda M

    2015-07-28

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000-1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900-221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin-Han times and for the longer dure. PMID:25775557

  20. In Vivo Stable Tumor-Specific Painting in Various Colors Using Dehalogenase-Based Protein-Tag Fluorescent Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.; Karassina, Natasha; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Lynch, David; Hoyt, Clifford; Levenson, Richard; Los, Georgyi V.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2010-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence cancer imaging is an important tool in understanding tumor growth and therapeutic monitoring and can be performed either with endogenously produced fluorescent proteins or exogenously introduced fluorescent probes bound to targeting molecules. However, endogenous fluorescence proteins cannot be altered after transfection, thus requiring rederivation of cell lines for each desired color, while exogenously targeted fluorescence probes are limited by the heterogeneous expression of naturally occurring cellular targets. In this study, we adapted the dehalogenase-based protein-Tag (HaloTag) system to in vivo cancer imaging. By introducing highly expressed HaloTag receptors (HaloTagR) in cancer cells coupled with an externally injected a range of fluorophore-conjugated dehalogenase-reactive sequences. Tumor nodules arising from a single transfected cell line were stably labeled with fluorescence varying in emission spectra from green to near infrared. After establishing and validating a SHIN3 cell line stably transfected with HaloTagR (HaloTagR-SHIN3), in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging studies were performed in live animals using a peritoneal dissemination model. The tumor nodules arising from HaloTagR-SHIN3 could be successfully labeled by 4 different fluorophore-conjugated HaloTag-ligands each emitting light at different wavelengths. These fluorophores could be alternated on serial imaging sessions permitting assessment of interval growth. Fluorescence was retained in histological specimens after fixation. Thus, this tagging system proves versatile both for in vivo and in vitro imaging without requiring modification of the underlying cell line. Thus, this strategy can overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of endogenous fluorescent proteins and exogenous targeted optical agents in current use. PMID:19514716

  1. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous microcirculation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  2. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous micro- circulation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, 0 deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, 0 deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P < 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar-X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  3. The trend of digital control system design for nuclear power plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. H.; Jung, H. Y.; Yang, C. Y.; Choe, I. N.

    2006-07-01

    Currently there are 20 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, and 6 more units are under construction in Korea. The control systems of those NPPs have also been developed together with the technology advancement. Control systems started with On-Off control using the relay logic, had been evolved into Solid-State logic using TTL ICs, and applied with the micro-processors since the Yonggwang NPP Units 3 and 4 which started its construction in 1989. Multiplexers are also installed at the local plant areas to collect field input and to send output signals while communicating with the controllers located in the system cabinets near the main control room in order to reduce the field wiring cables. The design of the digital control system technology for the NPPs in Korea has been optimized to maximize the operability as well as the safety through the design, construction, start-up and operation experiences. Both Shin-Kori Units 1 and 2 and Shin-Wolsong Units 1 and 2 NPP projects under construction are being progressed at the same time. Digital Plant Control Systems of these projects have adopted multi-loop controllers, redundant loop configuration, and soft control system for the radwaste system. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Distributed Control System (DCS) are applied with soft control system in Shin-Kori Units 3 and 4. This paper describes the evolvement of control system at the NPPs in Korea and the experience and design improvement through the observation of the latest failure of the digital control system. In addition, design concept and its trend of the digital control system being applied to the NPP in Korea are introduced. (authors)

  4. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  5. Simplified variant of an optical chip to evaluate aggregation of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toderi, Martín. A.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.; Castellini, Horacio V.

    2015-06-01

    Traditional techniques to evaluate the aggregation of red blood cells by optical methods require large sample volume and provide parameters that vary significantly from one method to another. A simplified variant of a chip system previously developed by Shin et al. (2009)1 based on light transmission for measuring erythrocyte aggregation is presented. Through a detailed analysis of intensity versus time curves, relevant information about erythrocyte aggregation and its variables is obtained. Parameters that provide more accuracy for the diagnosis of patients in order to have an immediate application in Clinical Medicine are proposed.

  6. Dynamical Evolution of a Doubly Quantized Vortex Imprinted in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, A. Muoz; Delgado, V.

    2006-11-01

    The recent experiment by Shin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.160406] on the decay of a doubly quantized vortex is analyzed by numerically solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Our results demonstrate that the vortex decay is mainly a consequence of dynamical instability. The monotonic increase observed in the vortex lifetimes is a consequence of the fact that the measured lifetimes incorporate the time it takes for the initial perturbation to reach the central slice. When considered locally, the splitting occurs approximately at the same time in every condensate.

  7. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  8. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements. PMID:16494054

  9. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica with sequential occurrence in a patient: report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rupley, Katherine A.; Riahi, Ryan R.; Hooper, Deirdre OBoyle

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) and necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) are granulomatous diseases of undetermined etiology. Rarely, both dermatoses have been reported to occur concomitantly in patients. GA and NL are characterized histologically by areas of necrobiosis of collagen. The two diseases share some common characteristics, which may suggest that these dermatoses could occur as a spectrum in some patients or possibly share a similar pathogenesis. We report on a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of NL on the anterior shins that later developed lesions of GA on the breasts, trunk, and wrist. We also review the literature and discuss the characteristics of patients with concomitant GA and NL. PMID:25692078

  10. Radio sociology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, George W., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    A work was conducted, using radio telemetry, to locate a migrating, radio-tagged, sharp-shinned hawk. The hawk was monitored through the noise radiation it created. The hawk was found. During this study, it was found that the concentration of population corresponds with areas of increased noise temperature. Through this study, a bigger study was planned. The study would involved the relationship between a place's radiation signature and its other attributes, such as economic type, population, geographic concentration. The method of radio sociology would be used to track the sources of radio noise.

  11. Sweet's syndrome associated with cellulitis - a challenging diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Cristina; Santos, Rui; Pereira, Teresa; Brito, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis with worldwide distribution that has been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, drugs, and pregnancy. The disease is idiopathic in up to 50% of patients. A 64-year-old woman, diagnosed with right limb cellulitis (4 days of evolution), was seen at our department, due to persistent cellulitis and progressive appearance of painful nodules and plaques in both shins and the right forearm (2 days of evolution). Taken together, clinical, laboratory and pathological data suggested the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome, probably secondary to cellulitis of the right inferior limb. We suggest that cellulitis may be associated with Sweet's syndrome, a rare association in the literature.

  12. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica with sequential occurrence in a patient: report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rupley, Katherine A; Riahi, Ryan R; Hooper, Deirdre O'Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) and necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) are granulomatous diseases of undetermined etiology. Rarely, both dermatoses have been reported to occur concomitantly in patients. GA and NL are characterized histologically by areas of necrobiosis of collagen. The two diseases share some common characteristics, which may suggest that these dermatoses could occur as a spectrum in some patients or possibly share a similar pathogenesis. We report on a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of NL on the anterior shins that later developed lesions of GA on the breasts, trunk, and wrist. We also review the literature and discuss the characteristics of patients with concomitant GA and NL. PMID:25692078

  13. Stress fractures of the tibia and medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Benjamin C; McCollum, Graham A; Elliot, Robin; Williams, Andy; Calder, James D F

    2013-06-01

    Tibial diaphyseal stress fractures are rare in the general population, but are more frequently seen in the athletic and military communities. The diagnosis of this problem may be problematic and needs to be considered in all athletes and military recruits who present with shin or ankle pain. The female triad in athletes (low-energy availability/disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis/osteopenia) should be considered in those women who sustain this injury. Management is usually conservative with a variety of rehabilitation programs suggested, but a pragmatic approach is to manage the patient symptomatically. PMID:23707181

  14. Measuring nonlinear behavior in time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-12-01

    Stationary Test is an important test in detect the time series behavior since financial and economic data series always have missing data, structural change as well as jumps or breaks in the data set. Moreover, stationary test is able to transform the nonlinear time series variable to become stationary by taking difference-stationary process or trend-stationary process. Two different types of hypothesis testing of stationary tests that are Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test are examine in this paper to describe the properties of the time series variables in financial model. Besides, Least Square method is used in Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to detect the changes of the series and Lagrange multiplier is used in Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin test to examine the properties of oil price, gold price and Malaysia stock market. Moreover, Quandt-Andrews, Bai-Perron and Chow tests are also use to detect the existence of break in the data series. The monthly index data are ranging from December 1989 until May 2012. Result is shown that these three series exhibit nonlinear properties but are able to transform to stationary series after taking first difference process.

  15. Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

    2014-08-01

    Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (p<0.05) in TVCs were observed at the flank, shin, brisket and neck. These differences can be attributed to possible deficiencies in the implementation of the HACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se. PMID:24769148

  16. Necrobiosis lipoidica: A clinicopathological study in the Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2013-01-01

    Context: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis that is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus. Most of the current knowledge about this entity is from western literature. Aims: This study evaluates the clinicohistological features of NL in an Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical features, associated comorbidities, and biopsies of all patients with NL over a period of one year. Results: Five cases of NL were seen during the duration of the study. The preliminary clinical diagnosis ranged from sarcoidosis to tinea incognito. The commonest clinical presentation in the Indian scenario was of asymptomatic erythematous to skin-colored plaques and nodules on the shins with or without central atrophy. The most common site of involvement was the shin (3 of 5 patients). NL was associated with Diabetes mellitus in only two cases, both of whom were male patients. On histology, various patterns of inflammation were seen including the palisading, interstitial, and mixed granulomatous infiltrates. One patient had sarcoidal granulomas in association with an interstitial pattern. Features seen consistently in all cases include perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates, and fibroplasia. Interstitial mucin deposition was not observed in any of the biopsies. Conclusion: The diagnosis of NL was missed in most cases due to the rarity of the disease, absence of concomitant diabetes, and atypical presentations. Histology was a useful tool in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:24350007

  17. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1α, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria neosaccardoi Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New combinations - Parastagonospora avenae (A.B. Frank) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phaeosphaeria papayae (Speg.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudocercospora domingensis (Petr. & Cif.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria unedonis (Roberge ex Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides pini-thunbergii (S. Kaneko) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina abeliceae (Hiray.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina azaleae (Voglino) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina berberidis (Niessl) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina betulae (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina cercidis (Fr.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina menispermi (Thüm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina musiva (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina oxyacanthae (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina patriniae (Miura) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina populicola (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina quercicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina rhabdoclinis (Butin) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria castaneicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous. Typifications: Epitypifications - Phaeosphaeria oryzae I. Miyake, Phaeoseptoria papayae Speg.; Neotypification - Hendersonia paludosa Sacc. & Speg. PMID:24014902

  18. 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent developments in high resolution imaging technology of subsurface objects involves a combination of different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic). A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data due to their differing physical nature. For example, in conducting media, which is typical of the Earth's interior, EM energy propagation is defined by a diffusive mechanism and may be characterized by two specific length scales: wavelength and skin depth. However, the propagation of seismic signals is a multiwave process and is characterized by a set of wavelengths. Thus, to consistently treat seismic and electromagnetic data an additional length scale is needed for seismic data that does not directly depend on a wavelength and describes a diffusive process, similar to EM wave propagation in the subsurface. Works by Brown et al.(2005), Shin and Cha(2008), and Shin and Ha(2008) suggest that an artificial damping of seismic wave fields via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach to obtain a seismic data that have similar spatial resolution to EM data. The key benefit of such transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets: seismic (Brown et al.,2005; Shin and Cha,2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman,2008; Newman et al.,2010). With the recent interest in the Laplace-Fourier domain full waveform inversion, 3D fourth and second-order finite-difference schemes for modeling of seismic wave propagation have been developed (Petrov and Newman, 2010). Incorporation of attenuation and anisotropy into a velocity model is a necessary step for a more realistic description of subsurface media. Here we consider the extension of our method which includes attenuation and VTI anisotropy. Our approach is based on the integro-interpolation technique for velocity-stress formulation. Seven averaging elastic coefficients and three averaging densities are necessary to describe the heterogeneous medium with VTI anisotropy. The resulting system is solved with iterative Krylov methods. The developed method will be incorporated in an inversion scheme for joint seismic-electromagnetic imaging. References. Brown, B.M., M. Jais, I.W. Knowles, 2005, A variational approach to an elastic inverse problem: Inverse Problems, 21, 1953-1973. Commer, M., G. Newman, 2008, New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion: Geophysical Journal International, 172, 513-535. Newman, G. A., M. Commer and J.J. Carazzone, 2010, Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy: Geophysics 75, 51-61 Petrov, P.V., G. A. Newman (2010), Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling, Abstract T21A-2140 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec. Shin, C. , W. Ha, 2008, A comparison between the behavior of objective functions for waveform inversion in the frequency and Laplace domains: Geophysics, 73, 119-133. Shin, C. , Y. H. Cha, 2008. Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain: Geophysical Journal International, 173, 922-931.

  19. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative imaging of the subsurface objects is essential part of modern geophysical technology important in oil and gas exploration and wide-range engineering applications. A significant advancement in developing a robust, high resolution imaging technology is concerned with using the different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic) sense the subsurface structure. A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data (electromagnetic and seismic) due to their differing physical nature - diffusive and attenuated propagation of electromagnetic energy and nonlinear, multiple scattering wave propagation of seismic energy. Recent progress has been reported in the solution of this problem by reducing the complexity of seismic wave field. Works formed by Shin and Cha (2009 and 2008) suggests that low-pass filtering the seismic trace via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach for obtaining seismic data that has similar spatial resolution to EM data. The effect of Laplace- Fourier transformation on the low-pass filtered trace changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from multi-wave propagation to diffusion. The key benefit of transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets seismic (Shin and Cha, 2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman 2008, Newman et al., 2010). Moreover the different data sets can also be matched for similar and consistent resolution. Finally, the low pass seismic image is also an excellent choice for a starting model when analyzing the entire seismic waveform to recover the high spatial frequency components of the seismic image; its reflectivity (Shin and Cha, 2009). Without a good starting model full waveform seismic imaging and migration can encounter serious difficulties. To produce seismic wave fields consistent for joint imaging in the Laplace-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

  20. [Using delta34S-SO4(2-) and Delta15N-NO3-, delta18O-NO3- to Trace the Sources of Sulfur and Nitrate in Lihu Lake Undergound Water, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Qiong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Fang; Pan, Mou-cheng; Yu, Shi

    2015-08-01

    To reveal the temporal and spatial variation pattern of groundwater chemistry in Lihu Lake and explore the causes for the change of water quality through analysis of sulfur isotope and nitrogen-oxygen isotope, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and protection of karst water resources. Several groundwater samples, collected from January to December in 2010 and May, October in 2014 were monitored to analyze the chemical composition of conventional water and the characteristics of delta34S-SO4(2-), and delta15N-NO3-. The results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical type of the underground water was HCO3-Ca type and effected by the seasonal precipitation and human activity, the temporal and spatial variation of the main cations was obvious. (2) The sulfur concentration in the underground river was slightly decreased since the operation of the sewage plant, however, the sulfur concentration was still high. The nitrate pollution aggravated in the year 2014 compared to 2010. Impacted by human activity, the concentration of sulfur and nitrate was higher in the upstream Nandan river, Layi cave and the midstream Liangfeng cave, and Gantianba than in the downstream Xiaolong cave. (3) The delta34S-SO4(2-) value ranged from -4.12%o to -0.93%o. It was inferred that the emission of sulfur oxides through burning coal resulted in the rainwater acidification, which input a large amount of SO4(2-) into the underground water in the form of acid rain. (4) The delta15N-N03- value ranged from 0.26%o to 11.58%o, with an average value of 7.61%o, the delta18O-NO3- value ranged from -2.33%o to 21.76%o, with an average value of 9.38%o. In combination of the composition analysis of nitrogen-oxygen isotope of nitrate, it was believed that soil organic nitrogen, manure and sewage were the main sources of nitrate in the groundwater and the main causes for aggravation of nitrate pollution of the underground water. PMID:26592016

  1. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the invited speakers, all the participants and organizing committee of the ICC3. I am pleased to publish the Proceedings of the Symposium 1 of ICC3. I hope that the papers contained in these Proceedings will prove helpful to Professors, researchers and students in improving the fields of Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials. Masatomo Yashima April 2011 Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

  2. [Analysis on theory of meridians and acupuncture manipulation based on ancient Shushu].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2009-10-01

    The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and related expositions of foreign scholars are consulted, and Shushu theory is compared with the recordation in ancient medical books so as to probe into the relationship between Shushu and theory of meridians together with acupuncture manipulation. It is found that the eleven meridians system is the mathematical foundation of Five Shu Poits, Yuan-primary acupoints and the acupoints of all over the body, and which plays an important role in the theories of TCM. The exterior-interior relationship between viscera and meridians and circulation of ying-qi can be executed on the establishments of twelve meridians system. Shushu can affect needling instrument, needling methods, contraindications, etc. The construction of the meridians theory is full of philosophical dialectics, and it has certain subjectivity but does not influence the ancients to observe physiological phenomenon of viscera and meridians generally. PMID:19873918

  3. ydfD encodes a novel lytic protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hisako; Awano, Naoki; Inouye, Masayori

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria carry a number of genes that cause cell growth arrest or cell lysis upon expression. Notably, defective prophages retain many lysis proteins. Here, we identified a novel lytic gene, ydfD, on the Qin prophage segment of the Escherichia coli genome. YdfD lyses 99.9% of cells within 2 h of its induction. The co-expression of the upstream gene, dicB, encoding a cell division inhibitor, as well as sulA, encoding another cell division inhibitor, abolished YdfD-induced cell lysis. These results imply that YdfD-induced lysis is a cell division-dependent event. We further found that by deleting the hydrophobic 22-residue N-terminal domain, the resulting 42-residue C-terminal domain was still toxic to cause cell lysis. We propose that YdfD, associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, inhibits an essential cellular process(s). PMID:26887840

  4. Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chih-Kang

    2010-03-01

    Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional limit is studied on ultra-thin lead (Pb) films down to two atomic layers, where only a single channel of quantum well states exist. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that local superconducting order remains robust until two atomic layers, where the transition temperature abruptly plunges to lower values depending sensitively on the exact atomic structure of the film. Our result shows that Cooper pairs can still form in the last two dimensional channel of electron states, although their binding are strongly affected by the substrate [1]. In this presentation, I will also discuss this new result in comparison with several recent experimental results on ultra-thin metallic films performed using local STS probes and macroscopic transport measurements.[4pt] [1] ``Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit,'' Shengyong Qin, Jungdae Kim, Qian Niu and Chih-Kang Shih, Science 324, 1314 (2009).

  5. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical approaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus techniques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  6. Removal of maxillary sinus metallic foreign body like a hand sewing needle by magnetic iron.

    PubMed

    Shao, Linqin; Qin, Xiurong; Ma, Yingwei

    2014-01-01

    Metallic foreign bodies are rarely found in the maxillary sinus, and usually they have a dental origin. Two main surgical app-roaches are currently used for the removal of foreign bodies in the maxillary sinus: the bone flap and the endoscopic sinus tech-niques. However, the treatment is not only surgical removal. We are reporting one case of foreign body like a hand sewing needle entered into the maxillary sinus through an unusual route- carious deciduous molar tooth. It was diagnosed by three-dimensional images from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and removed by a simple procedure, with magnetic iron, thereby avoiding the risk of damage to a large portion of the alveolar bone near the maxillary sinus. How to cite this article: Shao L, Qin X, Ma Y. Removal of Maxillary Sinus Metallic Foreign Body Like a Hand Sewing Needle by Magnetic Iron. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):61-64. PMID:25206242

  7. The prevalence of mind-body dualism in early China.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2011-07-01

    We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. PMID:21658101

  8. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  9. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-01

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  10. LANDSAT monitoring of Lake Erie for phycocyanin content in cyanobacteria blooms from 06/2006-10/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Robert

    An algorithm for mapping phycocyanin content (PC) in lake water from LANDSAT TM satellite data was derived in the past from Western Lake Erie data for July 1, 2000, and found to be robust when applied to a withheld LANDSAT TM and in situ water data set for September 27, 2000 (Vincent et al, 2004). This same algorithm was applied to LANDSAT 5 data of Path 20 Row 31 (Toledo Frame) and Path 19 Row 31 (Cleveland Frame) in Western Lake Erie on overpass dates with less than 30 This work was funded by NOAA Contract Award NA06OAR4600197. Reference Vincent, R.K., X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J.Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, Phycocyanin Detection from LANDSAT TM Data for Mapping Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp 381-392, 2004.

  11. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi ??) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi ????) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu ???) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi ??). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  12. Statistics of event by event fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimaran, P.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2010-09-01

    Following Hwa and Wu [R.C. Hwa, Y. Wu, Phys. Rev. C 60 (1999) 0544904], we characterize the fluctuation behavior of the hadron density produced during quark-hadron phase transition, as modeled by a 2D Ising model. Using a recently developed discrete wavelet based approach, the scaling behavior is studied at temperatures below, at and above Tc. At Tc, we find the Hurst exponent H?1, as observed in a recent experimental finding [L. Qin, M. Ta-chung, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 014011]. However, as compared to the R/S analysis, which yields only the Hurst exponent, our local approach finds a correlation behavior and multifractal properties at temperatures below, at and above Tc. We find evidence for a transition from Brownian to fractional Browian motion near Tc. The correlation behavior compares well with the results obtained from a continuous wavelet based average wavelet co-efficient method, as well as with Fourier power spectral analysis.

  13. Selected trace metals (As, Cd and Hg) distribution and contamination in the coastal wetland sediment of the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huayang; Lin, Jinqin; Liang, Kai; Xia, Zhen

    2013-01-15

    Contamination with As, Cd and Hg, their spatial and temporal distribution are reported from the coastal wetland sediments of the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. The content of As, Cd, Hg and TOC in surface sediments is 8.15.8 ?g g?, 0.080.14?g g?, 0.0340.028 ?g g? and 0.450.39%, respectively. The mean sedimentation rates are 0.93-1.37 cm year? during 1920s to 2008 determined by ?Pb and ?Cs dating in three cores. The vertical profiles of As, Cd and Hg content in the cores retrieved from Qin and Nanliu River estuaries show increasing trends during 1985-2008 due to anthropogenic impact caused by local economic development. Locally the surface sediments have potential ecological risk of As to benthos according to the NOAA sediment quality guidelines. PMID:23122625

  14. Identification of landslide spatial distribution and susceptibility assessment in relation to topography in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianqi; Peng, Jianbing; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Tieming; Liu, Na; Li, Yazhe; Ma, Penghui

    2015-09-01

    Landslides are among the most serious of geohazards in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi, China, and are responsible for extensive human and property loss. In order to understand the distribution of landslides and assess their associated hazards in this region, we used a combination of frequency analysis, logistic analysis, and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, with consideration of the spatial distribution of landslides. Using the GIS approach, the five key factors of surface topography, including slope gradient, topographic wetness index (TWI), height difference, profile curvature and slope aspect, were considered. First, the distribution and frequency of landslides were considered in relation to all of the five factors in each of three sub-regions susceptible to landslides (Qin Mountain, Li Mountain, and Loess Tableland). Secondly, each factor's influence was determined by a logistic regression method, and the relative importance of each of these independent variables was evaluated. Finally, a landslide susceptibility map was generated using GIS tools. Locations that had recorded landslides were used to validate the results of the landslide susceptibility map and the accuracy obtained was above 84%. The validation proved that there is sufficient agreement between the susceptibility map and existing records of landslide occurrences. The logistic regression model produced acceptable results (the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve were 0.865, 0.841, and 0.924 in the Qin Mountain, Li Mountain and Loess Tableland). We are confident that the results of this study can be useful in preliminary planning for land use, particularly for construction work in high-risk areas.

  15. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished. PMID:24429033

  16. The roles of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in algebra problem solving: a case of using cognitive modeling to inform neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Danker, Jared F; Anderson, John R

    2007-04-15

    In naturalistic algebra problem solving, the cognitive processes of representation and retrieval are typically confounded, in that transformations of the equations typically require retrieval of mathematical facts. Previous work using cognitive modeling has associated activity in the prefrontal cortex with the retrieval demands of algebra problems and activity in the posterior parietal cortex with the transformational demands of algebra problems, but these regions tend to behave similarly in response to task manipulations (Anderson, J.R., Qin, Y., Sohn, M.-H., Stenger, V.A., Carter, C.S., 2003. An information-processing model of the BOLD response in symbol manipulation tasks. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 10, 241-261; Qin, Y., Carter, C.S., Silk, E.M., Stenger, A., Fissell, K., Goode, A., Anderson, J.R., 2004. The change of brain activation patterns as children learn algebra equation solving. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 5686-5691). With this study we attempt to isolate activity in these two regions by using a multi-step algebra task in which transformation (parietal) is manipulated in the first step and retrieval (prefrontal) is manipulated in the second step. Counter to our initial predictions, both brain regions were differentially active during both steps. We designed two cognitive models, one encompassing our initial assumptions and one in which both processes were engaged during both steps. The first model provided a poor fit to the behavioral and neural data, while the second model fit both well. This simultaneously emphasizes the strong relationship between retrieval and representation in mathematical reasoning and demonstrates that cognitive modeling can serve as a useful tool for understanding task manipulations in neuroimaging experiments. PMID:17355908

  17. Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of strongly interacting Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirotzek, Andre; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Sommer, Ariel; Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Strongly interacting Fermi gases exhibit a rich phase diagram in the BEC-BCS crossover. In recent experiments we have used radio frequency spectroscopy to probe two physically very different regimes: 1.) We have observed Spin-Polarons in a highly imbalanced Fermi mixture. A single spin down atom immersed in a spin up Fermi sea dresses itself with a cloud of majority atoms, thus forming a Spin-Polaron. rf spectroscopy can directly reveal the polaron and allows for an experimental measure of the quasiparticle residue Z and the chemical potential ? of this Fermi liquid. At a critical interaction strength, the transition to two-particle molecular binding is observed. 2.) rf spectroscopy of quasiparticles in a polarized superfluid allowed us to determine the superfluid gap ? and has demonstrated the importance of the Hartree energy U in rf spectra [1]. [1] Andre Schirotzek, Yong-il Shin, Christian H. Schunck and Wolfgang Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 140403 (2008)

  18. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

  19. Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a rare skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Carla Natalie; Green, Ruth; Khan, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented to the plastic surgery outpatient department with a nodular lesion to her shin. This nodule had increased in size, but was slow growing. The patient had a history of sun-damaged skin. On visual examination, the lesion was thought to be a naevus or basal cell carcinoma. The nodule was excised. Histologically, the lesion was classified as a primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. Currently, there is only one other paper that describes this rare skin cancer. As a result of the histological findings, the lesion margin was further excised. The wound failed to heal as expected due to the patient developing a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. She is currently being closely monitored due to the unknown pathway the carcinoma may take. PMID:26472290

  20. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  1. [The antifungal and immunomodulating lymphotropic therapy of candidiasis of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Shumski?, A V; Pozharitskaia, M M; Iurchenko, E V

    1996-01-01

    Lymphotropic and endolymphatic therapy was carried out in 52 patients with candidiasis of the buccal mucosa. After preliminary injection of lidase, levorin was injected subcutaneously in the middle third of the shin to patients in a standing posture, after which a cuff with 45-50 mm Hg pressure was placed on the femur for 2-2.5 hours. Immunocorrector thymogen was injected in the submaxillary and chin lymph nodes. A course consisted of 5-6 sessions. The status of the buccal mucosa normalized after treatment. Contamination of the mucosa with yeast cells appreciably decreased, the content of substances with medium-molecular mass in the saliva reduced, and cellular and humoral immunity parameters normalized. PMID:8992656

  2. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin etal. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis ofkeloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-?, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling. PMID:26802232

  3. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  4. Identification of a high-risk anterior tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    The patient was a deployed 34-year-old female soldier with a chief complaint of bilateral anterior shin pain for the past 8 weeks. Due to concern for a stress fracture, radiographic views of the bilateral tibia and fibula were completed, which revealed cortical thickening through the anterior midtibial regions bilaterally, consistent with stress reactive changes. Furthermore, a transverse lucency through the anterior cortex of the anterior right midtibial region was noted, which was consistent with a stress fracture. The patient was immediately placed in a short leg cast and was given strict non-weight-bearing instructions for gait. She was subsequently evacuated to her home duty station for consultation with an orthopaedic surgeon to determine if surgical intervention was warranted. This report illustrates the importance of identifying stress fractures considered to be high risk. PMID:21169720

  5. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  6. Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed.

  7. Hawk migration over White Marsh, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackman, C.D.; Henny, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The average number of hawks observed per hour in autumn migration between 1951-1954 and 1958-1961 at White Marsh, Maryland, was compared. The counts indicated that the status of the ten species observed may be divided into three categories: (1) relatively stable species (red-tailed hawk), (2) declining species (sparrow hawk, red-shouldered hawk, osprey, marsh hawk, and broad-winged hawk), and (3) rapidly declining species (peregrine falcon, Cooper?s hawk, bald eagle, and sharp-shinned hawk). The findings from this study are in agreement with the available literature and the status of the populations appears to be related to the food habits of the species.

  8. Electrical conductivity enhanced dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the effects of electrical conductivity of the constituents on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. The time-dependent internal electric fields are first derived, which can be induced by an applied ac field in dielectric measurement or stress in piezoelectric measurement. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the electrical conductivities and the frequency of measurement, which can be significant for ceramic/polymer composites possessing high conductivity in the matrix phase. The model provides an explanation to the surprisingly high piezoelectric d33 values reported by, e.g., Chen et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 65, 194 (1998)]. Explicit expressions for the transient and steady-state responses are given and the effective permittivity, d33, d31, and dh coefficients have been derived.

  9. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  10. Sulfur spring dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chieh-Chi; Wu, Yu-Hung

    2014-11-01

    Thermal sulfur baths are a form of balneotherapy promoted in many cultures for improvement of skin conditions; however, certain uncommon skin problems may occur after bathing in hot sulfur springs. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple confluent, punched-out, round ulcers with peripheral erythema on the thighs and shins after bathing in a hot sulfur spring. Histopathologic examination revealed homogeneous coagulation necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis. Tissue cultures showed no evidence of a microbial infection. The histopathologic findings and clinical course were consistent with a superficial second-degree burn. When patients present with these findings, sulfur spring dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the patient's clinical history is crucial for correct diagnosis. PMID:25474449

  11. Design Issues Affecting Pipings Associated with a New Moisture Separator Reheater

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung-Keun, Kim; Jae-Kyoung, Cho

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes the piping design effects on a New Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) in Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SKN 1 and 2) being under the construction in Korea. This SKN 1 and 2 has the same arrangement of a Turbine-Generator set as one of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant Units ( OPR 1000 ) in commercial operation. The Turbine-Generator Supplier has developed a new Moisture Separator Reheater which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections respectively, at both ends of the shell side of the vessel in comparison to MSR of OPR 1000 which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections at only one end. The different locations of reheaters in MSR cause changes in the associated pipings such as 2. stage reheater heating steam, 2. stage reheater drain, shell drain, drain tank location and tank condensate drainage pipings. (authors)

  12. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    : p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical. PMID:22653125

  13. Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.

  14. Evolution of gout: "malignant" change over time?

    PubMed

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-10-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  15. R and D of energy saving and new energy utilization in Japanese marine engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, N.; Murayama, Y.; Tamaki, H.; Tokuda, S.

    1982-08-01

    As well known, Japanese shipbuilding and marine engineering industry has been one of the biggest in the world, and a lot of efforts have been made on energy saving and new energy development for the last several years, resulting in production of quite economical and energy saving ships and marine engines using all kinds of possible engineering methods. Also much promising research utilizing oceanic energy is under way for the ships of post-oil future. In this paper, first, the remarkable developments of energy saving in conventional marine engines and ship hulls, especially in diesel ships, in Japan are shown. Then, some studies on future marine engine systems and utilization of oceanic energy represented by ''Shin Aitoku Maru'' and other research on future windmill ships are described.

  16. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  17. Two-dimensional dynamics of expansion of a degenerate Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazets, Igor E.

    2012-11-01

    Expansion of a degenerate Bose gas released from a pancakelike trap is numerically simulated under the assumption of separation of the motion in the plane of the loose initial trapping and the motion in the direction of the initial tight trapping. The initial conditions for the phase fluctuations are generated using the extension to the two-dimensional case of the description of the phase noise by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. The numerical simulations, taking into account both the finite size of the two-dimensional system and the atomic interactions, which cannot be neglected on the early stage of expansion, did not reproduce the scaling law for the peaks in the density fluctuation spectra experimentally observed by Choi, Seo, Kwon, and Shin [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.125301 109, 125301 (2012)]. The latter experimental results may thus require an explanation beyond our current assumptions.

  18. Solitary intraosseous myofibroma of the tibia in an adult patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, S.; Kosashvili, Y.; Sidon, E.; Fichman, S.; Cohen, N.; Velkes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Myofibromas are mesenchymal tumors showing myofibroblastic differentiation and found most frequently in the head and neck region. While several cases of myofibromas have been reported in adults, they have not been described in long bones of the appendicular skeleton. We describe an otherwise healthy young woman who presented with a progressive incapacitating pain in her right shin. Imaging studies revealed a well-circumscribed osteolytic lesion with slight marginal sclerosis confined to the proximal tibia metaphysis, without a soft tissue component. Surgical intervention was performed and histological examination identified a myofibroma. This case represents an extremely rare occurrence of an intraosseous myofibroma involving a long bone in an adult patient. Although solitary myofibroma is a rare lesion in the skeletal bones of adults we believe it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a solitary lytic mass in bone, especially if it is associated with pain.

  19. Ehlers-Danlos type VIII. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Karrer, S; Landthaler, M; Schmalz, G

    2000-06-01

    Ehlers-Danlos type VIII is a rare disorder characterized by soft, hyperextensible skin, abnormal scarring, easy bruising, and generalized periodontitis with early loss of teeth. To illustrate the clinical dermatological and dental features, we present the case history of a 20-year-old patient who has suffered from poor healing of wounds at the shins and knees since childhood, which have developed into hyperpigmented atrophic scars. In the course of orthodontic treatment during the last 3 years, severe apical root resorption, gingival recession, and loss of alveolar bone were observed. Family history was noncontributory for any skin or tooth disorders. The typical clinical signs confirmed the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIII. As there is no specific treatment for the disorder, management is limited to the symptomatic treatment of the dental disease. It seems advisable to consider carefully the indications for orthodontic treatment in patients with Ehlers-Danlos type VIII syndrome. PMID:11218502

  20. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity. PMID:3681443

  1. Evolution of gout: “malignant” change over time?

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  2. Dramatic response of chronic ulcerating necrobiosis lipoidica to ultraviolet A1 phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Radakovic, Sonja; Weber, Marko; Tanew, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    We report on a 52-year-old female patient with chronic, ulcerating necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) who dramatically responded to ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) phototherapy. The patient had NL on her right shin for more than 30 years without evidence of diabetes mellitus. Treatment with a variety of local and systemic agents failed to prevent progression into ulceration, which necessitated repeated surgical interventions in the past. When the patient presented again with torpid ulcers at the periphery of previously grafted skin, high-dose UVA1 phototherapy was initiated. Improvement occurred rapidly and after 22 irradiations and a total exposure dose of 1480 J/cm, the ulcers had healed completely. During a follow-up period of 6 years,two minor recurrences were successfully retreated with UVA1 phototherapy. PMID:21140992

  3. The importance of challenging your diagnosis even in straightforward cases.

    PubMed

    Maus, Erik Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The art of diagnosis consists in the recognition of signs and symptoms and their interpretation under the light of individual circumstances obtained from the patient's history. In medicine we encounter cases that are straightforward and cases that are complex as they are the result of a rare disease or of uncommon presentation of a common disorder. We present in this paper the case of a patient with a non-healing traumatic wound to her shin, which after unsuccessful treatments was biopsied and an unexpected diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum was made. This led to the institution of disease-targeted wound care leading to complete resolution in a short period of time. PMID:22847565

  4. The importance of challenging your diagnosis even in straightforward cases

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Erik Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The art of diagnosis consists in the recognition of signs and symptoms and their interpretation under the light of individual circumstances obtained from the patient's history. In medicine we encounter cases that are straightforward and cases that are complex as they are the result of a rare disease or of uncommon presentation of a common disorder. We present in this paper the case of a patient with a non-healing traumatic wound to her shin, which after unsuccessful treatments was biopsied and an unexpected diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum was made. This led to the institution of disease-targeted wound care leading to complete resolution in a short period of time. PMID:22847565

  5. A fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray image and 3D CT images for TKA surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumihito; O. D. A, Prima; Uwano, Ikuko; Ito, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray films (two-dimensional Computed Radiography (CR) images) and three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) images for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery planning. The position of the each bone, such as femur and tibia (shin bone), in X-ray film and 3D CT images is slightly different, and we must pay attention how to use the two different images, since X-ray film image is captured in the standing position, and 3D CT is captured in decubitus (face up) position, respectively. Though the conventional registration mainly uses cross-correlation function between two images,and utilizes optimization techniques, it takes enormous calculation time and it is difficult to use it in interactive operations. In order to solve these problems, we calculate the center line (bone axis) of femur and tibia (shin bone) automatically, and we use them as initial positions for the registration. We evaluate our registration method by using three patient's image data, and we compare our proposed method and a conventional registration, which uses down-hill simplex algorithm. The down-hill simplex method is an optimization algorithm that requires only function evaluations, and doesn't need the calculation of derivatives. Our registration method is more effective than the downhill simplex method in computational time and the stable convergence. We have developed the implant simulation system on a personal computer, in order to support the surgeon in a preoperative planning of TKA. Our registration method is implemented in the simulation system, and user can manipulate 2D/3D translucent templates of implant components on X-ray film and 3D CT images.

  6. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  7. Atopic dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Arkwright, Peter D; Stafford, Judith C; Sharma, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with atopic dermatitis (AD) that did not respond to standard therapy. She was avoiding dairy, egg, and wheat in her diet because of a history of skin flares. Her weight gain was poor, and laboratory test results showed low iron and zinc levels. Over the previous 6 months, she had been prescribed numerous courses of antibiotics, but, despite this, she continued to have secondary skin infections as well as deep circumscribed erosions on her shins. She was awake much of the night because of scratching and displayed repetitive and habitual behavior. She also had troublesome allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with positive allergy testing results to house dust mite. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from her skin, which was successfully treated with appropriate antibiotics and flares controlled with topical antiseptics and better personal and caregiver hygiene. Although milk, egg, and wheat specific IgE were raised, these foods were successfully reintroduced back into her diet with improvement of her nutritional status and no flare of her AD. In view of her habitual behavior and family history of obsessive compulsive disorder, she underwent cognitive behavioral therapy, and her general well-being, sleep, and ulcers over her shins improved. Despite high house dust mite-specific IgE, house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy led to no additional improvement in her AD although it did improve her rhinitis. Although there may be no "quick fixes" in patients with AD, the clinician should be aware of antimicrobial, allergen, and educational and/or behavioral interventions, which may greatly improve eczema severity and the patient's well-being. PMID:25017525

  8. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on the public enterprise sites and the improvement of labor conditions for Korean laborers. PMID:25608504

  9. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

  10. Radial diffusion comparing a THEMIS statistical model with geosynchronous measurements as the outer boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hudson, M. K.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The outer boundary energetic electron flux is used as a driver in radial diffusion calculations, and its precise determination is critical to the solution. A new model was proposed recently based on THEMIS measurements to express the boundary flux as three fit functions of solar wind parameters in a response window, that depend on energy and which solar parameter is used: speed, density, or both (Shin and Lee, 2013). The Dartmouth radial diffusion model has been run using LANL geosynchronous satellite measurements as the outer boundary for a one-month interval in July to August 2004 and the calculated phase space density (PSD) is compared with GPS measurements at the GPS orbit (L=4.16), at magnetic equatorial plane crossings, as a test of the model. We also used the outer boundary generated from the Shin and Lee model and examined this boundary condition by computing the error relative to the simulation using a LANL geosynchronous spacecraft data-driven outer boundary. The calculation shows that there is overestimation and underestimation at different times, however the new boundary condition can be used to drive the radial diffusion model generally, producing the phase space density increase and dropout during a storm with a relatively small error. Having this new method based on a solar wind parametrized data set, we can run the radial diffusion model for storms when particle measurements are not available at the outer boundary. We chose the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) as an example and compared the result with MHD/test-particle simulations (Hudson et al., 2012), obtaining much better agreement with PSD based on GPS measurements at L=4.16 using the diffusion model, which incorporates atmospheric losses.

  11. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Findings Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. Conclusions The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed the extracts can inhibit SRB, IB and TGB with moderate to highly efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes extracts potential to be used as bifunctional oil field chemicals. PMID:23816431

  12. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, Ph. Guenter, S.; Koenies, A.; Pinches, S.D.

    2007-09-10

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) with analytical results, ideal MHD codes, drift-kinetic codes and other codes based on kinetic models are reported.

  13. Initiation of Sprite Streamers from Natural Mesospheric Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are large, luminous electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere caused by intense cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. They manifest a possible, impulsive coupling mechanism between low atmospheric regions and the upper atmosphere. Their dynamics are governed by filamentary plasma discharges, of tens to hundreds of meter wide, known as streamers. The propagation properties of sprite streamers have been well studied by past work [e.g., Liu, et al., JGR, 114, A00E02, 2009; Liu et al, JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009; Luque and Ebert, Nat. Geosci., 2, 757, 2009; Liu, GRL, 37, L04102, 2010; Luque and Ebert, GRL, 37, L06806, 2010]. However, how sprite streamers are initiated is not well understood. Recent high-speed images show that mesospheric/lower ionospheric structures are frequently involved in initiation of sprite streamers [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., Surv. Geophys., 34, 769, 2013; Qin et al., Nat. Comm., 5, 2014]. Although earlier theoretical and numerical studies routinely used strong plasma inhomogeneities to initiate streamers, it is only recently that inhomogeneities are concluded to be required for sprite streamer initiation [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011; Liu et al., PRL, 109, 025002, 2012; Kosar et al., JGR, 117, A08328, 2012; Kosar et al, GRL, 40, 6282, 2013]. However, the inhomogeneities used in various models are rather ad hoc and often unrealistic. In this talk, we present numerical simulations to show naturally-existing mesospheric structures, such as those produced by gravity waves via instability and breaking [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003], can initiate sprite streamers under the influence of the measurement-inferred lightning field. Evidence from high-speed video observations supporting this theory is discussed. This mechanism naturally explains many aspects of observed sprite streamer initiation including variability in the delay of sprite initiation, sprites caused by weak lightning, optical signatures of streamer initiation, initiation of isolated streamers from different sites, etc. In addition, the dependence of the initiation process on the mesospheric structures can potentially be utilized to study those structures at sprite initiation altitudes, which at present are nearly impossible to be observed by other means.

  14. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  16. A peptide of the RGS domain of GRK2 binds and inhibits Gαq to suppress pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah M; Gao, Erhe; Cohen, Maya; Lieu, Melissa; Kurt Chuprun, J; Koch, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a critical role in cardiac function by regulating GPCR activity. GRK2 suppresses GPCR signaling by phosphorylating and desensitizing active GPCRs, and through protein-protein interactions that uncouple GPCRs from their downstream effectors. Several GRK2 interacting partners, including Gαq, promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, which leads to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of GRK2 interacts with and inhibits Gαqin vitro. We generated TgβARKrgs mice with cardiac-specific expression of the RGS domain of GRK2 and subjected these mice to pressure overload to trigger adaptive changes that lead to heart failure. Unlike their nontransgenic littermate controls, the TgβARKrgs mice exhibited less hypertrophy as indicated by reduced left ventricular wall thickness, decreased expression of genes linked to cardiac hypertrophy, and less adverse structural remodeling. The βARKrgs peptide, but not endogenous GRK2, interacted with Gαqand interfered with signaling through this G protein. These data support the development of GRK2-based therapeutic approaches to prevent hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27016525

  17. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia). PMID:24774895

  18. [Characteristics of acupoint selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for vertigo in history: a data mining research].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shou, Yi-Xia; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The data mining technique is adopted to analyze characteristics and rules of acupoint and meridian selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo at different time periods in the ancient. The data is collected from literature regarding acupuncture-moxibustion from the pre-Qin period to the end of Qing Dynasty, so as to establish a clinical literature database of ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo. Data mining method is applied to analyze the commonly used meridians, acupoints and special acupoints in different dynasties, also possible rules are explored. Totally 82 pieces of prescription of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo are included. In the history the leading selection of acupoitns are Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (GV 23) and Jiexi (ST 41) while that of meridians are mainly three yang meridians of foot and the Governor Vessel, especially the acupoints on the Bladder Meridian of foot yangming had the highest utilization rate, accounting for 23.04%. The acupoint selection is characterized by special acupoint, accounting for 80.6%, among which the crossing points are the most common choice. Distal-proximal acupoints combination is the most frequent method. The results indicate that the ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo focused on acupoints in the yang meridians, and the specific acupoints play an essential role in prescription; also the principle of syndrome differentiation and selecting acupoints along the meridians could be seen. PMID:25022134

  19. An early Jurassic dextral strike-slip system in southern South China and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Ductile shear structure of the Guanging-Bobai fault belt in the SW part of the Qin-Hang belt, South China, has been investigated and interpreted in terms of radiometric dating data. A series of ductile shear zones occurs within the fault belt with deformation and metamorphic features indicative of formation under medium temperature and pressure conditions. The foliation such formed is steeply dipping and bears a gently plunging lineation, which along with the dextral kinematic indicators determines a broad NE-SW-trending dextral strike-slip regime responsible for the development of these shear zones. Field overprinting relationships indicate that this dextral shear is pre-dated by the Indosinian (P2-T) NNE-verging thrusting and post-dated by the Yanshanian (J2-K2) SE-verging thrusting, and thus occurred during a transitional period between the two orogenies. 40Ar-39Ar radiometric dating on muscovite from mylonites further constrains timing of the dextral shear to the Early Jurassic (187-193 Ma). Based on the coeval tectonic framework of eastern Asia, we propose here that the dextral strike-slip system was initiated by the far-field oblique stress field from the incipient subduction of the Izanagi oceanic plate. An offset continental margin of the South China plate may have been created in response to this transcurrent movement along the fault belt, dissecting and displacing not only a relict Caledonian foreland basin, but also an Indosinian magmatic belt.

  20. Gut Microbiome and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shalimar

    2014-01-01

    Nan Qin1,2, Fengling Yang1, Ang Li1, Edi Prifti3, Yanfei Chen1, Li Shao1,2, Jing Guo1, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier3, Jian Yao1,2, Lingjiao Wu1, Jiawei Zhou1, Shujun Ni1, Lin Liu1, Nicolas Pons3, Jean Michel Batto3, Sean P. Kennedy3, Pierre Leonard3, Chunhui Yuan1, Wenchao Ding1, Yuanting Chen1, Xinjun Hu1, Beiwen Zheng1,2, Guirong Qian1, Wei Xu1, S. Dusko Ehrlich3,4, Shusen Zheng2,5 and Lanjuan Li1,2 Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis. Nature. 2014 Jul 23 [Epub ahead of print]. 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China;2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China;3Metagenopolis, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78350 Jouy en Josas, France;4King's College London, Centre for Host-Microbiome Interactions, Dental Institute Central Office, Guy's Hospital, London Bridge, London SE1 9RT, UK;5Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, 310003 Hangzhou, China. PMID:25755571

  1. Interaction forces between nanoparticles in Lennard-Jones (L-J) solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Indrajit; Mukherjee, Ashim K.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular simulations, such as Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) have been recently used for understanding the forces between colloidal nanoparticles that determine the dispersion and stability of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein we review the current status of research in the area of nanoparticles immersed in L-J solvents. The first study by Shinto et al. used large smooth spheres to depict nanoparticles in L-J and soft sphere solvents. The nanoparticles were held fixed at a particular interparticle distance and only the solvents were allowed to equilibrate. Both Van-der-waals and solvation forces were computed at different but fixed interparticle separation. Later Qin and Fitchthorn improved on this model by considering the nanoparticles as collection of molecules, thus taking into the account the effect of surface roughness of nanoparticles. Although the inter particle distance was fixed, the rotation of such nanoparticles with respect to each other was also investigated. Recently, in keeping with the experimental situation, we modified this model by allowing the nanoparticles to move and rotate freely. Solvophilic, neutral and solvophobic interactions between the solvent atoms and those that make up the nanoparticles were modelled. While neutral and solvophobic nanoparticles coalesce even at intermediate distances, solvophilic nanoparticles are more stable in solution due to the formation of a solvent shield.

  2. First-Principles Study of Superconductivity in Ultra- thin Pb Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffsinger, Jesse; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, superconductivity in ultrathin layered Pb has been confirmed in samples with as few as two atomic layers [S. Qin, J. Kim, Q. Niu, and C.-K. Shih, Science 2009]. Interestingly, the prototypical strong-coupling superconductor exhibits different Tc's for differing surface reconstructions in samples with only two monolayers. Additionally, Tc is seen to oscillate as the number of atomic layers is increased. Using first principles techniques based on Wannier functions, we analyze the electronic structure, lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling for varying thicknesses and surface reconstructions of layered Pb. We discuss results as they relate to superconductivity in the bulk, for which accurate calculations of superconducting properties can be compared to experiment [W. L. McMillan and J.M. Rowell, PRL 1965]. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR07-05941, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by the Lawrencium computational cluster resource provided by the IT Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231)

  3. An Efficient Implementation Scheme for the Moving Grid Method Based on Delaunay Graph Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuli; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jianfei; Yuan, Mingwu

    2010-05-01

    Dynamic grid algorithm is essential for numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems with moving boundaries that require the mesh to be movable or deformable. This paper investigates the computational cost of the dynamic grid deformation method proposed by X. Q. Liu, N. Qin et al. (see Journal of Computational Physics, 211, 2006, pp.405-423). This method can deal with the large dynamical deformation of a mesh with any given topology based on the Delaunay graph mapping of the original mesh. Facing to the most time consuming parts of the Liu's approach, a high efficient algorithm and implementation scheme are presented to speed up the method. We have two main improvements. First, a fast locating technique is developed to locate the background element for the mesh points. Second, an efficient scheme is proposed that avoids most of repeated calculations in relocating the mesh points in the graph. Time complexity analysis indicates that the proposed algorithm and implementation scheme has gained substantial speedup compared with the Liu's original approach, while the memory requirement is even decreased. Several testing examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  4. Empirical processes with estimated parameters under auxiliary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genz, Michael; Haeusler, Erich

    2006-02-01

    Empirical processes with estimated parameters are a well established subject in nonparametric statistics. In the classical theory they are based on the empirical distribution function which is the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator for a completely unknown distribution function. In the presence of some "nonparametric" auxiliary information about the distribution, like a known mean or a known median, for example, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator is a modified empirical distribution function which puts random masses on the observations in order to take the available information into account [see Owen, Biometrika 75 (1988) 237-249, Ann. Statist. 18 (1990) 90-120, Empirical Likelihood, Chapman & Hall/CRC, London/Boca Raton, FL; Qin and Lawless, Ann. Statist. 22 (1994) 300-325]. Zhang [Metrika 46 (1997) 221-244] has proved a functional central limit theorem for the empirical process pertaining to this modified empirical distribution function. We will consider the corresponding empirical process with estimated parameters here and derive its asymptotic distribution. The limiting process is a centered Gaussian process with a complicated covariance function depending on the unknown parameter. The result becomes useful in practice through the bootstrap, which is shown to be consistent in case of a known mean. The performance of the resulting bootstrap goodness-of-fit test based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic is studied through simulations.

  5. Spatial profiles of methane at the Swiss Plateau: A confrontation between measurements and emission inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Buchmann, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide are the two most prominent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a detailed knowledge about their sources is essential for climate predictions (Solomon et al., 2007). The knowledge about greenhouse gas fluxes is usually merged, albeit including considerable uncertainties, to emission inventories. To increase the quality of the inventories a comparison with measurements is necessary. We evaluate the values given by a Swiss emission inventory with regard to atmospheric measurements of methane in Switzerland. Spatial profiles of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated at the Swiss Plateau during two consecutive warm and sunny summer days in July 2012. For the mobile methane and carbon dioxide measurements a LGR methane analyser and a LI-COR closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA) were mounted on a car together with an AIRMAR WeatherStation to track geodetic-coordinates and meteorological parameters. First results of the measurements including aerial profiles of the greenhouse gases and bin-averaged elevation profiles of methane and temperature will be presented and a highly-resolved methane emission inventory will be evaluated in comparison with the spatial profiles of atmospheric methane at the Swiss Plateau. References: Solomon, S., Qin D., et al. (Eds.) (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 S. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  6. Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ku; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Huang, Chia-Hui; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2009-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction. PMID:19298708

  7. Eventually Periodic Solutions of a Max-Type Difference Equation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Qiuli; Liu, Xin-He; Tao, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    We study the following max-type difference equation xn = max⁡{An/xn−r, xn−k}, n = 1,2,…, where {An}n=1+∞ is a periodic sequence with period p and k, r ∈ {1,2,…} with gcd(k, r) = 1 and k ≠ r, and the initial conditions x1−d, x2−d,…, x0 are real numbers with d = max⁡{r, k}. We show that if p = 1 (or p ≥ 2 and k is odd), then every well-defined solution of this equation is eventually periodic with period k, which generalizes the results of (Elsayed and Stevic´ (2009), Iričanin and Elsayed (2010), Qin et al. (2012), and Xiao and Shi (2013)) to the general case. Besides, we construct an example with p ≥ 2 and k being even which has a well-defined solution that is not eventually periodic. PMID:25101315

  8. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making. PMID:26401812

  9. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  10. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  11. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Nickel Monoboride, NiB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudreau, E. S.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, D. W.; Adam, Allan G.

    2015-06-01

    Diatomic nickel boride, NiB, has been produced in the UNB laser ablation molecular jet source. Survey spectra, taken at medium resolution with a pulsed dye laser in the 415 - 510 nm region, showed an intense band system which had previously been observed and assigned as a 2?3/2 - 2?+ transition by Zhen et al. Using a single frequency ring dye laser, we have obtained high resolution spectra of the 0-0, 2-0 and 3-0 bands of the most abundant isotopologue, 58Ni11B, and the 2-0 band of 60Ni11B. The rotational analysis showed that the transition was from an ? = 0.5 upper state to the ground X2?+ state. The data were found to fit equally well as 2?+ - 2?+ or 2?1/2 - 2?+. The fine structure e/f parity splitting was examined for each of the two options in an attempt to determine the identity of the upper state. Partially resolved hyperfine structure due to the 11B nuclear spin, I = 3/2, was observed and analyzed to try and determine the nature of the boron atom contribution to the ground 2?+ state configuration. The results of the rotational and hyperfine structure analysis will be discussed. J-f. Zhen, L. Wang, C-b. Qin, Q. Zhang, Y. Chen, Chinese J. Chem. Phys. 23, 626 (2010).

  12. Slicing and Binding by Ago3 or Aub Trigger Piwi-Bound piRNA Production by Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Bo W; Tipping, Cindy; Ge, Daniel Tianfang; Zhang, Zhao; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-09-01

    In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. Here, we report that RNA cleavage by Argonaute3 initiates production of most Piwi-bound piRNAs. We find that the cardinal function of Argonaute3, whose piRNA guides predominantly correspond to sense transposon sequences, is to produce antisense piRNAs that direct transcriptional silencing by Piwi, rather than to make piRNAs that guide post-transcriptional silencing by Aubergine. We also find that the Tudor domain protein Qin prevents Aubergine's cleavage products from becoming Piwi-bound piRNAs, ensuring that antisense piRNAs guide Piwi. Although Argonaute3 slicing is required to efficiently trigger phased piRNA production, an alternative, slicing-independent pathway suffices to generate Piwi-bound piRNAs that repress transcription of a subset of transposon families. This alternative pathway may help flies silence newly acquired transposons for which they lack extensively complementary piRNAs. PMID:26340424

  13. Striping noise mitigation in ATMS brightness temperatures and its impact on cloud LWP retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuan; Zou, Xiaolei

    2015-07-01

    Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provides global distributions of microwave brightness temperature measurements at 22 temperature and humidity sounding channels twice daily. However, the differences between observations and brightness temperature simulations exhibit a systematic along-track striping noise for all channels. In this study, a set of 22 "optimal" filters is designed to remove the striping noise in different channels. It is shown that the original method for ATMS striping noise mitigation developed by Qin et al. can be simplified and made suitable for use in an operational context. Impacts of striping noise mitigation on small-scale weather features are investigated by comparing ATMS cloud liquid water path (LWP) retrieved before and after striping noise mitigation. It is shown that the optimal filters do not affect small-scale cloud features while smoothing out striping noise in brightness temperatures. It is also shown that the striping noise is present in the LWP retrievals if the striping noise in brightness temperatures of ATMS channels 1 and 2 is not removed. The amplitude of the striping noise in LWP is linearly related to the magnitude of striping noise in ATMS brightness temperature observations.

  14. Baicalein prevents human prion protein-induced neuronal cell death by regulating JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-02-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the protease-insensitive isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein. Human prion protein fragment 106?126 [PrP (106?126)] contains most of the pathological characteristics associated with PrPSc. Although a number of compounds have been identified to inhibit PrP accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro, there is currenlty no treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) Georgi (known as Huang-qin in traditional Chinese medicine) has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of baicalein on the development of prion diseases using SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells in vitro. We found that baicalein protected the cells against PrP?induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction using ROS detection assay and MTP assay. We demonstrated that baicalein treatment regulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by using western blot analysis and Annexin V assay. Our data suggest that baicalein has potential for use as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases. PMID:25435015

  15. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100??g BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-? in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100??g BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  16. Excess FoxG1 causes overgrowth of the neural tube.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Sara; Vogt, Peter; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    The winged helix transcription factor FoxG1 (Bf-1, qin) plays multiple roles in the development of the telencephalon, with different parts of the protein affecting either proliferation or differentiation. We examined the consequences of over-expression, via retroviral expression, of FoxG1 on the growth of different regions of the chicken brain. Excess expression of FoxG1 caused a thickening of the neuroepithelium, and ultimately large outgrowths of the telencephalon and mesencephalon. In contrast, the myelencephalon appeared unaffected, exhibiting normal apoptosis and growth characteristics. A DNA binding defective form of FoxG1 did not exhibit these abnormalities, suggesting that these effects are due to FoxG1's function as a transcriptional repressor. To examine the means by which excess FoxG1 caused overgrowth of the brain, we examined alterations in cell proliferation and death. No increase in proliferation was noted in any portion of the neural tube, rather a significant decrease in neuroepithelial apoptosis was seen. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for winged helix factors in the regulation of neural cell apoptosis. PMID:14608667

  17. Constraining supernova equations of state with equilibrium constants from heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Hagel, Kris; Natowitz, Joseph; Rpke, Gerd; Typel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Cluster formation is a fundamental aspect of the equation of state (EOS) of warm and dense nuclear matter such as can be found in supernovae (SNe). Similar matter can be studied in heavy-ion collisions (HICs). We use the experimental data of Qin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 172701 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.172701] to test calculations of cluster formation and the role of in-medium modifications of cluster properties in SN EOSs. For the comparison between theory and experiment we use chemical equilibrium constants as the main observables. This reduces some of the systematic uncertainties and allows deviations from ideal gas behavior to be identified clearly. In the analysis, we carefully account for the differences between matter in SNe and HICs. We find that, at the lowest densities, the experiment and all theoretical models are consistent with the ideal gas behavior. At higher densities ideal behavior is clearly ruled out and interaction effects have to be considered. The contributions of continuum correlations are of relevance in the virial expansion and remain a difficult problem to solve at higher densities. We conclude that at the densities and temperatures discussed mean-field interactions of nucleons, inclusion of all relevant light clusters, and a suppression mechanism of clusters at high densities have to be incorporated in the SN EOS.

  18. Spectral control in laser restoration of archaeological treasurers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    1994-10-01

    When created in 210 BC, the 6,000 terra cotta warriors of the Mount Li tomb near the ancient imperial Chinese capital city of Xi'an were emblazoned with dramatic colors. Previously, it had been thought that this polychrome glaze had been entirely consumed in an inferno that swept the tomb shortly after its completion. Careful manual control of laser divestment experiments on the statues during the archaeological excavation of the site has revealed that faint charred vestiges of the original polychromatic glaze still exist. Unfortunately, as a consequence of the long burial, the terra cotta statues with their cooked polychrome glazes are encased in tenacious mineral deposits. Consequently, laser removal of the mineral encrustation requires tedious human implementation in order to avoid damaging the very delicate underlying statue surfaces. A real-time spectral control system for precise automated laser cleaning of archaeological objects is described. It has improved the results, accelerated the process, and relieved the operator tedium in the recovery of this Qin Dynasty polychrome as well as in the cleaning of ancient coins from other archaeological sites.

  19. Calculation of the shangyuan jinian elapsed-year-since--grand-epoch of the kaixi calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. X.

    2007-01-01

    Gauss C.F. (1777-1855) pointed out in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) that linear congruences came from the problems of calendars: ``This usage arose in the problem of chronology when we seek to determine what Julian year it is whose indiction, golden number, and solar cycle are given.'' The Problem of Zhili Yanji (Design for a Calendar by Means of the Sexagenary Cycle) in Qin Jiushao's Shushu Jiuzhang ( Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections ) (A.D. 1247) recorded the design development of the Kaixi Calendar (1207-1251) which was the unique existent material recorded during this period of more than 1000 years when the algorithm of Shangyuan Jinian Elapsed-Year-since--Grand-Epoch used by ancient and medieval Chinese calendarists until A.D. 1280. It is devoted to restituting the full calculation of this data by analysising original thought on concept about linear congruences for the conditions of the Grand-Epoch, the cycle consonant principle, the concept of the Qiyuan Solar-period, the reason for the Ruyuansui Entry-of-Solar-period, the Dayan method and the counting process for the Yuansu Number-of-Solar-period.

  20. On the form of ROCs constructed from confidence ratings.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2002-03-01

    A classical question for memory researchers is whether memories vary in an all-or-nothing, discrete manner (e.g., stored vs. not stored, recalled vs. not recalled), or whether they vary along a continuous dimension (e.g., strength, similarity, or familiarity). For yes-no classification tasks, continuous- and discrete-state models predict nonlinear and linear receiver operating characteristics (ROCs), respectively (D. M. Green & J. A. Swets, 1966; N. A. Macmillan & C. D. Creelman, 1991). Recently, several authors have assumed that these predictions are generalizable to confidence ratings tasks (J. Qin, C. L. Raye, M. K. Johnson, & K. J. Mitchell, 2001; S. D. Slotnick, S. A. Klein, C. S. Dodson, & A. P. Shimamura, 2000, and A. P. Yonelinas, 1999). This assumption is shown to be unwarranted by showing that discrete-state ratings models predict both linear and nonlinear ROCs. The critical factor determining the form of the discrete-state ROC is the response strategy adopted by the classifier. PMID:11911394

  1. Effects of support unloading on inhibitory processes in motoneurons pools of postural muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueva, Tatiana; Zakirova, Albina; Tomilovskaya, Elena

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of support unloading on characteristics of shin extensor muscles (m.soleus and m.gastrocnemius lat.) motor units` (MU) activity evoked by electrical stimulation and intensity of spinal inhibitory processes. Conditions of support unloading were reproduced by "dry" immersion (DI), that it seen to be is the most adequate ground simulation model of weightlessness [Shulzhenko E.B. et al, 1976]. The experiments were performed with participation of 10 healthy men of 20-27 years old. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. In the first one (control group) the subjects stayed in DI for 3 days without any other influences; in the second one (experimental group) in the course of DI the mechanical stimulation of soles support zones in the regimen of locomotion was applied daily for 20 min at the beginning of each hour for 6 hours per day [Kozlovskaya I.B., 2007]. MUs activity of shin muscles (mm. gastrocnemius lat. and soleus) was recorded with needle concentric electrodes during execution of the task of maintaining a small plantar flexion effort (not stronger than 7% of maximal voluntary contraction force). Single electrical pulses 0,1 ms duration were applied to n.tibialis during spontaneous MU activity. The duration of silent period (SP) following H-reflex response and presence of rebound phenomenon - an increase of MU activity at the end of SP, that is usually observed under normal conditions and reflects trace of inhibitory and excitatory processes in motoneurons pools, were analyzed [Person R.S., 1985]. Experiments were performed before, on the 2nd and 3d day of DI and on the 2nd day after its accomplishment. The Wilcoxon nonparametric criteria were used for statistical data analysis. Exposure to the conditions of support unloading was followed by significant decline of SP duration. The mean of SP duration in shin muscles before DI was 22731,4 ms. On the 2nd and 3rd days of DI in the control group it decreased in m. soleus significantly (p<0,05) - reaching 117,623,8 ms and 100,122,6 ms, respectively. Analogous, but non-significant changes were observed in m. gastrocnemius lat. The rebound phenomenon in the course of DI in this group was not observed. In the group with mechanical stimulation of the soles support zones the duration of SP in m. soleus on the 2nd and 3rd days of DI remained close to that of control - 208,123,4 ms and 210,220,7 ms, respectively. Duration of SP in m.gastrocnemius lat. decreased too, but not as much as it was in the control group. The rebound phenomenon in the experimental group was also unchanged. Thus, withdrawal of support was followed by decline of strength of inhibitory processes that followed evoked responses. Under these conditions application of artificial support eliminated the described above effects. The study was supported by RFBR grant NN 13-04-12091-OFI-m and 11-04-01240-a.

  2. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to an experiment that is suitable for older students, Circles of Light--The Mathematics of Rainbows at http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/. Frederick J. Wicklin and Paul Edelman of the University of Minnesota note that this comprehensive lab is based on a module developed by Steven Janke. Go back to About Rainbows to link to a Java applet, allowing you to change the incident angle and color of light striking a water droplet. This great teaching device is from Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taiwan Normal University at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html. And while you are here in this site (choose English or Chinese), look at the more than 30 Java applets created by F.-K. Hwang at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/index.html. The interactive applet on Shadow/Image and Color is great fun, (http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow /shadow.html). From mixing colors, we can go to Thomas Chasteen's fine work at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html for an animation (and movie also) of how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). This colorful graphic, showing incoming parallel white light, is clipped from that monochromator animation. While you are here at this site at Sam Houston State University, look at the other great animations and movies, including a movie showing solution-phase chemiluminescence at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html. So now that we have explored the breaking down of light into its component colors, we need to also look at another process--polarizing light. Let's go to Science Media's comprehensive site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) to examine polarized light ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm). Of course, most sunglasses polarize light--bringing us back to the question of the rainbow again. Explore here for a while--appreciate the beautiful visible electromagnetic spectrum at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-visib.jpg. Great spectroscopy tutorials from Brian Tissue of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are found at Science Media's site. One of my favorite graphics ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif) reminds us of why light is electromagnetic radiation. But how to we actually see color? Go to the Access Excellence Classic Collection sponsored by Genentech, Inc. (http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/). From here, go to How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision at http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.html. Here are good graphics and explanations of the roles of rod and cone cells, and lots more! And marvel a little the next time you see a rainbow. World Wide Web Addresses About Rainbows http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan--Blue- Skies http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html Why is the Sky Blue http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml Patterns in NatureLight and Optics Activities http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml Circles of Lightthe Mathematics of Rainbows http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/ The Physics of a Rainbow http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html The NTNU Virtual Physics Laboratory http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /index.html Shadow/Image and Color http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow/shadow.html Thomas Chasteen's Chemistry-Based QuickTime Movies, Animations, and Streaming Audio http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html Tuneable Monochromator http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif The Chemiluminescence Home Page http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html Science Hypermedia Home Page http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia Polarimetry http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm The Visible Spectrum http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-visib.jpg Propagation Direction of Electromagnetic Radiation http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif Access Excellence Classic Collection http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/ How We SeeThe First Steps of Human Vision http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.html access date for all sites: April 1999

  3. Measuring the risk of sustaining injury in sport a novel approach to aid the re-design of personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Velani, Nikunj; Wilson, Ollie; Halkon, Ben J; Harland, Andy R

    2012-09-01

    Despite the possibilities offered by new approaches in design and advances in materials and manufacturing methods, few items of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in sport have seen significant change for many decades. A major reason for this is the tradition and conservative attitudes associated with many sports, although the absence of appropriate tools and techniques to assist the design and development process has also played a large part. The aim of this study was to develop the first stage of a method of identifying specific regions of the human anatomy that are at the greatest risk of sustaining injury during participation in sports in which the player is subjected to multiple ballistic impacts. It is proposed that the findings could be used to confirm future designs of sports PPE. Previous studies have identified the amount and the location of the protection provided by current commercially available products but, until now, no evidence has been reported to determine what protection is required based on an understanding of the likely impact and the anatomy of the athlete. Using the leg and cricket as examples of an anatomical feature and a sporting application respectively, the severity and probability of injury due to ball impacts typically observed in play are quantified, with respect to their location on the leg, to estimate the level of risk in that region. Results show that the level of risk is greatest in the shin regions of the front leg, suggesting that this region should be offered the greatest degree of protection, as is generally the case in commercially available leg guard designs. Conversely, however, the inner region of the midshin of the back leg is at the lowest risk, suggesting that protection in this region might be substantially reduced, a feature which is certainly not included in current product; such a reduction may significantly enhance the ergonomic performance of the leg guard design. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that the method offers the potential to quantify the relative risk of sustaining injury, in a sports specific application, as a function of location on the body and is thus a potentially useful design tool for design engineers of sports PPE. Given the embryonic nature of this approach, however, a number of assumptions and additional considerations is presented which reveal that, whilst the technique offers additional design insight, further research is required before it should be applied to equipment design. PMID:22245636

  4. Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin-NMP1 Conjugate: A Near Infrared (NIR)-Activatable Fluorescence Imaging Agent to Detect Peritoneal Ovarian Cancer Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Vinita M.; Sano, Kohei; Yu, Zhanqian; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L.; Ptaszek, Marcin; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM) and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it. hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by co-localizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 hours of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1. We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity. PMID:22799539

  5. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8?h in intervals of 4?s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ? = 0.92? ?0.13. The random walk hypothesis (? = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (? = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey-Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ? = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ? = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r2 = 0.9? ?0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5?mm to over 10?mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from the isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  6. PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2009 (IW-SMI 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masato; Ishii, Shin; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Masato

    2009-11-01

    Statistical mechanical informatics (SMI) is an approach that applies statistical-mechanics techniques developed for many-body problems in natural science to information sciences. SMI has been extensively applied to various research fields of information sciences, including in particular information and communication theory, probabilistic inference, and combinatorial optimization problems, and has brought about novel advances in these fields. From a formal point of view, the most significant advantage of the SMI approach would be that it facilitates our look at hierarchical organization of a complex system, on the basis of which reduction of many `microscopic' degrees of freedom is performed to obtain a `macroscopic' description of the system with a small number of parameters, which is in turn utilized to analyze the system microscopically. Hierarchy, reduction, and macroscopic description should also be essential in order to understand biological systems. These observations imply that the conceptual framework of SMI should be extensible to various research fields in bioinformatics, and new theoretical frameworks for bioinformatics will be established from the system science viewpoint. To advance research activities in these directions, however, interactions between SMI and bioinformatics are needed. The International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics has been organized in order to explore such new directions for SMI and bioinformatics through interactions between various research disciplines, and to incubate joint research initiatives. This workshop, held at Mielparque-Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 13-16 September 2009, and sponsored by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas `Deepening and Expansion of Statistical Mechanical Informatics (DEX-SMI)' (Head investigator: Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Tokyo Institute of Technology) (Project http://dex-smi.sp.dis.titech.ac.jp/DEX-SMI), was intended to provide leading researchers in the fields of DNA microarray analysis, brain science, medical engineering and mathematical biology, to exchange advanced findings on and to detail achievements in bioinformatics and statistical mechanics. We would like to thank the contributors of the workshop as well as all the participants, who have enjoyed the workshop as well as their stay in Kyoto. This successful workshop will stimulate further development of the interdisciplinary research field of bioinformatics and SMI. Editors Masato Inoue Shin Ishii Yoshiyuki Kabashima Masato Okada The IW-SMI 2009 Organizing Committee Masato Okada, General Chair (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Vice-General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii, Program Chair (Kyoto University) Masato Inoue, Publications Chair (Waseda University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka (Kyoto University)

  7. The effective latent heat of aqueous nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soochan; Taylor, Robert A.; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Phelan, Patrick E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions, popularly termed nanofluids, have been extensively investigated for their thermal and radiative properties (Eastman et al 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 457; Keblinski et al 2005 Mater. Today 8 36-44 Barber et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-13 Thomas and Sobhan 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-21 Taylor et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-11 Fang et al 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1736-42 Otanicar et al 2010 J. Renew. Sustainable Energy 2 03310201-13 Prasher et al 2006 ASME J. Heat Transfer 128 588-95 Shin and Banerjee 2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4 Taylor and Phelan 2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48 Ameen et al 2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44 Lee et al 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 1-4). Such work has generated great controversy, although it is (arguably) generally accepted today that the presence of nanoparticles rarely leads to useful enhancements in either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer. On the other hand, there are still examples of unanticipated enhancements to some properties, such as the specific heat of molten salt-based nanofluids reported by Shin and Banerjee (2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4) and the critical heat flux mentioned by Taylor and Phelan (2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48). Another largely overlooked example is the reported effect of nanoparticles on the effective latent heat of vaporization (hfg) of aqueous nanofluids, as reported by Ameen et al (2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44). Through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling supplemented with limited experimental data they found that hfg increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, for Pt nanoparticles (MD) and Al2O3 nanoparticles (experiments). Here, we extend those exploratory experiments in an effort to determine if hfg of aqueous nanofluids can be manipulated, i.e., increased or decreased by the addition of graphite or silver nanoparticles. Our results to date indicate that, yes, hfg can be substantially impacted, by up to 30% depending on the type of nanoparticle. Moreover, in this paper, we report further experiments with changing surface area based on volume fraction (0.005 to 2%) and various nanoparticle sizes to investigate the mechanisms for hfg modification in aqueous graphite and silver nanofluids.

  8. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Dsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lv.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jrst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

  9. Galactosyl human serum albumin-NMP1 conjugate: a near infrared (NIR)-activatable fluorescence imaging agent to detect peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Vinita M; Sano, Kohei; Yu, Zhanqian; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L; Ptaszek, Marcin; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-08-15

    Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM), and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it. hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by colocalizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 h of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1. We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity. PMID:22799539

  10. Ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica to a teenager with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    PubMed

    P?tra?cu, Virgil; Giurc?, Claudia; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Many skin lesions are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2, due to the use of antidiabetics or to metabolic and endocrine disorders caused by this disease. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) occurs more frequently in patients with DM. Painful ulcerations may occur on NL areas in about 20-25% of the cases and usually they are related to trauma. We present the case of a teenager, male, 17-year-old, having NL with multiple plaques, some of them spontaneously ulcerated after about 33 months of onset. He is known with type 1 DM from 2.5 years and the NL preceding the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with about six months, presented erythematous-infiltrative skin plaques, some ulcerated for about three months, interesting both shins. Based on clinical, histopathological and paraclinical examinations, we established the following diagnoses: ulcerated NL, type 1 DM, moderate mixed dyslipidemia, class I obesity; commissural candidiasis, juvenile acne. Under treatment with Pentoxifyllinum, Sulodexidum, Ketotifenum and topical therapy with 0.2% Hyaluronic acid two months later, we have managed to heal two of the three ulcerated plaques and of the third has become superficial. We applied 0.5% Fluocortolonum on non-ulcerated plaques recording an improvement after two weeks of treatment. NL is a skin disease with a predilection for the shins, more frequent in patients with diabetes and is a part of palisading granulomatous dermatitis, which leads to skin atrophy. NL is found in the 0.3-1.2% of diabetic patients and is rare in children with diabetes (0.006%). It is more common in the patients with type 1 DM. The onset is in the third decade in diabetic patients and in the fourth decade in non-diabetics. There is no consensus concerning the treatment of NL, and the results are often modest. Antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids (local and general), immunomodulatory drugs, cyclins, wide synthetic antipaludics, heparin, Thalidomide are used. NL treatment is very difficult, especially in the ulcerated forms. Many of the drugs listed have proven efficacy only in isolated cases. Studies are necessary on large series of patients to determine the optimal therapy of NL. PMID:24715184

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 ; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  12. Large-scale development of lithium batteries for electric vehicles and electric power storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Kohki; Horiba, Tatsuo

    In Japan there was a dramatic increase in the production of lithium secondary batteries which reached a value of 210 billion yen in 1997. There are signs that this trend is increasing. These lithium batteries are presently used as small portable power sources. For these uses there has been a broadening in the research and development of lithium batteries. At the same time, advances in the research of large type lithium batteries for electric vehicles and dispersed-type electric power storage systems have been conducted on a grand scale by Japanese universities, government research laboratories and private companies. The level of activity in the research and development of lithium batteries in Japan is apparent by the state of related patent applications and number of papers presented at meetings held in Japan. LIBES is at the center of the research and development into large-type lithium batteries in Japan. Hitachi, and Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery, as members of LIBES, are carrying out the research and development of large-type lithium batteries for electric-power storage. In FY1997, the 250 W h cells, made of 10 wt.% silver-graphite anodes and spinel-type manganese oxide cathodes, which were connected together and stacked in a series of eight to make a 2 kW h module, produced desirable results and showed the prospects for good safety.

  13. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  14. [Clinical-genetic characteristics of limb girdle-muscular dystrophy type 2A].

    PubMed

    Dadali, E L; Shagina, O A; Ryzhkova, O P; Rudenskaia, G E; Fedotov, V P; Poliakov, A V

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of the molecular genetic study of 26 patients, aged from 12 to 60 years, from 24 unrelated families with limb girdle-muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A. The disease duration varied from 6 months to 30 years. The diagnosis of LGMD 2capital A, Cyrillic was confirmed by molecular genetic methods basing on the presence of a CAPN3 mutation in homozygous, compound-heterozygous and heterozygous state. The Leyden-Moebius variant that is characterized by the primary affection of muscles of pelvic girdle and shin with the gradual progression of the pathological process in shoulder girdle muscles was the most frequent in the Russian population. Tip-toe walking or difficulties in walking upstairs and running were the first symptoms reported by patients. In contrast to criteria of the European Neuromuscular Center, the characteristic symptoms of the disease were early contractures of ankle joints and pseudohypertrophy of gastrocnemius muscles. The major c.550delA mutation in the CAPN3 gene was identified in 70% of Russian patients. PMID:20517216

  15. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  16. The utility of anatomic diagnosis for identifying femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Baba, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We describe a case in which an anatomic diagnosis was useful for diagnosing and estimating the cause of femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery. A 49-year-old female received general and epidural anesthesia for radical ovarian cancer surgery. Although injection pain was noted in the left medial shin with 1 % mepivacaine administered as a test dose, the catheter was left indwelling because it improved her symptoms. The surgery, which lasted 195 min, was performed in the lithotomy position, and a self-retained retractor was used to gain a good surgical field. Postoperatively, the patient complained of difficulty in stretching her knee joint and left lower limb paresthesia that did not improve after stopping continuous epidural administration. A spinal cord injury related to epidural anesthesia was suspected because the sites of sensory impairment and epidural injection pain were the same; however, the patient had greater weakness of the quadriceps muscle than the iliopsoas, and no other muscle weakness was observed. These findings and previous reports suggest that her femoral nerve palsy was caused by compression of the inguinal ligament from the self-retaining retractor and lithotomy position. Twenty months after surgery, her muscle strength had fully recovered. PMID:26661449

  17. A report of five cases of self-mutilation for the purpose of insurance fraud.

    PubMed

    Hedjazi, Arya; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Razieh; Mahmoudi, Danesh; Ghadipasha, Masoud

    2013-08-01

    Self-mutilation means direct and deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue without intending suicide. Some of the forensic referrals are the fraudulent persons who wish to obtain insurance benefits by simulating self-induced harms as injuries due to accidents. In this article we report five cases of self-mutilation for the purpose of obtaining insurance payments. These cases were interesting because of the following reasons: (1) Fracture of the tibia bone for the purpose of obtaining insurance payments is extremely rare. To our knowledge, the specialised literature does not present a similar case study as we described here. (2) In the cases we describe here, nobody had prior history of social and psychiatric problems and violence. In addition, on examination, no sign of previous scars was found in the whole body skin. (3) Self-mutilation injuries are often painless, parallel and delicate lines which are most frequently in the upper limb opposite to the dominant hand and in the areas that can be easily reached. In one of our cases, self-mutilation of the leg shin and the dominant hand were on the same side of the body. (4) In our study, all of the cases had high school education and were from small counties. Four patients were within the age range of 20-30 years, living in a populous family (six-member family) and of middle socioeconomic status. These results are consistent with previously available data for self-mutilation in Iran. PMID:23910851

  18. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 20 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joules effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  19. Reliability and validity of instrumented soccer equipment.

    PubMed

    Akins, Jonathan S; Heebner, Nicholas R; Lovalekar, Mita; Sell, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90-98; RMSE < 5). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention. PMID:25734398

  20. [The essay on separation of dispensary from medical practice written by Yukichi Fukuzawa].

    PubMed

    Amano, H; Kawabuchi, M; Tanaka, Y; Saitou, A; Sugihara, M

    1993-01-01

    In November 1891, the union of pharmacists submitted the petitions letter on revision of the Law No. 10 issued on March 15, 1889, because by this law physicians acquired the right to dispense medicine rather than to give prescriptions to their patients. Yukichi Fukuzawa criticized the above mentioned problems and he contributed essays to the famous newspaper, Jiji-shin-pou in december 1891. Principles of his essays were as follows: 1) separation of dispensary from medical practice widely done in western countries were important from scientific viewpoint; 2) however, both physicians and patients had no concept on total medical fee which was consistent with consultation fee and charge for medicines. Thus, patients in Japan have been receiving medicines from physicians customarily over several hundred years; 3)introduction of new system on separation of dispensary from medical practice would cause troubles, because additional payment at the pharmacy should be required other than payment for physicians; 4)he was aware that opportunities to commit sick persons to doctor's care would be decreased especially in case of poor persons. Compared the public opinion to the separation of dispensary from medical practice of present day, there was found no difference on the attitude of Japanese people in these hundred years. PMID:11639721

  1. Primary, large extra-axial chordoma in proximal tibia: a rare case report with literature review and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat

    2016-03-01

    Primary extra-axial chordomas have been rarely documented, especially in the appendicular bones. Until now, nine such cases, objectively confirmed with positive brachyury immunostaining, have been reported. A 42-year-old male presented with pain in his right tibial tuberosity (shin) of 2-3 years duration without any associated swelling. He denied complaints related to any other lesion elsewhere in his body. Plain radiograph of his lower limbs revealed a large, eccentric, well-defined, lytic lesion containing internal septae with a narrow zone of transition and a sclerotic medullary border in the upper metaphysis of his right tibia, associated with a pathological fracture. There was no other lesion identified in his spine on radiographic imaging. Biopsy sections revealed a tumour composed of polygonal cells with moderate to abundant eosinophilic to vacuolated/'bubbly' cytoplasm (physaliphorous cells) arranged in lobules within a conspicuous myxoid matrix. By immunohistochemistry, tumour cells were diffusely positive for pan cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK19, S100P, meso (HBME1) and Brachyury/T. Diagnosis of an a primary extra-axial chordoma was finally rendered. Subsequently, the patient underwent bone grafting from his iliac crest. The present case constitutes as the 11th documented case of an extra-axial, intraosseous chordoma and the 10th such case occurring in the appendicular bones. Literature review of similar cases; their diagnostic mimics along with diagnostic and therapeutic implications of such cases are discussed herewith. PMID:26522887

  2. New insights into the families of PLC enzymes: looking back and going forward

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A study in this issue of the Biochemical Journal by Harden and colleagues, in association with one published in the Biochemical Journal very recently [Hwang, Oh, Shin, Kim, Ryu and Suh (2005) Biochem. J. 389, 181–186], have defined a new member of the superfamily of PLC (phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C) enzymes, PLCη. Two isoforms, PLCη1 and PLCη2, and their splice variants add to the molecular diversity of PLC enzymes. The studies of PLCη regulation suggest that at least some splice variants of PLCη2 could be regulated by the G-protein subunits Gβγ. As two other families, PLCβ and PLCϵ, are also regulated through heterotrimeric G-proteins, this finding reveals further complexity and possible interplay between different PLC families and their regulatory networks. At this point, when it is likely that the PLCη family completes the effort of identifying new members of this related group of PLC enzymes, I also discuss some more general concepts of PLC regulation and catalysis, and challenges awaiting their further studies. PMID:16238548

  3. The Influence in Airforce Soldiers Through Wearing Certain Types of Army-Issue Footwear on Muscle Activity in the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities. 37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing – one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris. When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

  4. Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

  5. Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fishers exact test, p = 0.04). Mann-Whitneys U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage ( p < 0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

  6. Muli-state operation in quantum dot channel FETs incorporating spatial wavefunction-switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Baskar, K.; Karmakar, S.; Chan, P.-Y.; Suarez, E.; Miller, B.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2012-02-01

    Three-state behavior has been demonstrated in Si and InGaAs quantum dot gate (QDG) field-effect transistorsootnotetextS. Karmakar, et al., J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1746, 2011.^,ootnotetextF Jain, J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1717, 2011. (FETs). Recently, spatial wavefunction switchedootnotetextIbid. (SWS) and quantum dot channelootnotetextF. Jain et al., Proc. II-VI Workshop, Oct.2011. (QDC) FETs have been reported to exhibit four-state operation. This paper presents simulations of versatile combinations of SWS features in QDC channels to optimally design multi-state transport in FETs that have the potential of scaling to sub-12nm regime. A QDC-FET channel is modeled as having superlattice-like mini-energy bands where the carrier wavefunctions are transferred across the channel as drain voltage is changed, producing step-like multi-state electrical characteristics. This behavior is analogous to that of single electron transistors.ootnotetextS. J. Shin, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 103101, 2010. The difference is that QDC devices use more than a few electrons and operate at room temperature. The SWS feature additionally provides carrier transfer from lower to upper dot layer(s) in a QDC having more than one layer of quantum dots.

  7. Participation in sports clubs is a strong predictor of injury hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence. PMID:18435690

  8. CD metrology for avoiding shrinkage of ArF resist patterns in 100 nm ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Tae-Jun; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2002-07-01

    ML 4689-80 CD Metrology for Avoiding Shrinkage of ArF Resist Patterns in 100nm ArF Lithography Tae-Jun You, Cheolkyu Bok, Ki-Soo Shin Hynix Semiconductor, San 136-1 Amiri, Bubal-eub, Ichon-si, Kyongki-do 467-701, Korea We have observed CD(Critical Dimension) shrinkage of acrylate type ArF resist patterns during SEM measurement. CD change was 30% shrinkage for line pattern and 10% expansion for contact hole patterns after 30 times measurement. CD shrinkage was proportion to line pattern size but no relation with LER(Line Edge Roughness). We confirm that CD shrinkage different from resist to resist and SEM measurement condition. CD shrinkage was bigger for acrylate type resist than COMA(Cyclo Olefin Maleic Anhydride) type resist and smaller at lower electron voltage and current conditions. In order to get the improvement of CD shrinkage, we performed electron-beam curing before SEM measurement. Above (see paper for formula) electron-beam dose condition, CD shrinkage improved from 10% to 3%. However, this method caused OPC(Optical Proximity Correction) issue as CD also changed after electron-beam curing. Therefore, we tried to develop a new measurement method instead of applying additional process technique. In this paper, we will describe our CD measurement method, Off-Site measurement technique, for 100nm DRAM lithography. The Off-Site CD measurement repeatability (formula available in paper) was controlled below (see paper).

  9. Role of glycine-534 and glycine-1179 of human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) in drug-mediated control of ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Szakcs, G; Ozvegy, C; Bakos , E; Sarkadi, B; Vradi, A

    2001-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) (P-glycoprotein), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, causes multidrug resistance by an active transport mechanism, which keeps the intracellular level of hydrophobic compounds below a cell-killing threshold. Human MDR1 variants with mutations affecting a conserved glycine residue within the ABC signature of either or both ABC units (G534D, G534V, G1179D and G534D/G1179D) were expressed and characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell membranes. These mutations caused a loss of measurable ATPase activity but still allowed ATP binding and the formation of a transition-state intermediate (nucleotide trapping). In contrast with the wild-type protein, in which substrate drugs accelerate nucleotide trapping, in the ABC signature mutants nucleotide trapping was inhibited by MDR1-substrate drugs, suggesting a miscommunication between the drug-binding site(s) and the catalytic domains. Equivalent mutations of the two catalytic sites resulted in a similar effect, indicating the functional equivalence of the two sites. On the basis of these results and recent structural information on an ABC-ABC dimer [Hopfner, Karcher, Shin, Craig, Arthur, Carney and Tainer (2000) Cell 101, 789-800], we propose a key role of these glycine residues in the interdomain communication regulating drug-induced ATP hydrolysis. PMID:11336637

  10. Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome according to the Fascial Distortion Model: A Prospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Finze, Susanne; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS. PMID:25379543

  11. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study. PMID:21665190

  12. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  13. Sensitive ?-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on ?-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-?Gal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-?Gal sensitively detects intracellular ?-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1?mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  14. Role of interfacial charge in the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the effects of compensating charges (at the inclusion-matrix interface) on the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the deformation of the inclusion particles due to the applied stress in the piezoelectric measurement. The relative significance of this contribution is mainly determined by the amount of compensating interfacial charge, which is significantly governed by the degrees of poling of the constituent materials in the composite sample. This model provides an explanation to an anomaly in the piezoelectric coefficients of 0-3 composite samples with the matrix and inclusion phases polarized in opposite directions. Explicit expressions in closed form have been derived for the effective d33, d31, and dh coefficients. After taking into consideration the degree of poling of the constituents and the effects of the compensating interfacial charges, theoretical predictions show good agreement with published experimental data. Goodness of fit is not limited to low volume concentration of inclusions.

  15. Low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model for unsteady turbulent boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur; Barnett, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions used in low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models suggests that they are not suitable for the near-wall region of unsteady turbulent boundary layers, where the flow is characterized by rapid changes in phase. An improved low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model is developed in this paper. The near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions in this model are formulated as functions of the local turbulent Reynolds numbers instead of the inner variable y(+). The present model also has the correct asymptotic behavior in the near-wall region. The turbulence model has been incorporated in an unsteady boundary-layer code and validated for unsteady turbulent boundary layers with and without adverse pressure gradients. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. For the cases tested, the present model correctly predicts the unsteady near-wall flow and the unsteady shin friction at various frequencies.

  16. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E; Seité, Sophie; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Scheen, André; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM) and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis) are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren’s disease) have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo) were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between “dry skin,” xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. PMID:23696712

  17. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  18. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites. PMID:17587678

  19. Overuse injuries in classical ballet.

    PubMed

    Khan, K; Brown, J; Way, S; Vass, N; Crichton, K; Alexander, R; Baxter, A; Butler, M; Wark, J

    1995-05-01

    Successful management of classical ballet dancers with overuse injuries requires an understanding of the art form, precise knowledge of anatomy and awareness of certain conditions. Turnout is the single most fundamental physical attribute in classical ballet and 'forcing turnout' frequently contributes to overuse injuries. Common presenting conditions arising from the foot and ankle include problems at the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsal stress fractures, flexor hallucis longus tendinitis and anterior and posterior ankle impingement syndromes. Persistent shin pain in dancers is often due to chronic compartment syndrome, stress fracture of the posteromedial or anterior tibia. Knee pain can arise from patellofemoral syndrome, patellar tendon insertional pathologies, or a combination of both. Hip and back problems are also prevalent in dancers. To speed injury recovery of dancers, it is important for the sports medicine team to cooperate fully. This permits the dancer to benefit from accurate diagnosis, technique correction where necessary, the full range of manual therapies to joint and soft tissue, appropriate strengthening programmes and maintenance of dance fitness during any time out of class with Pilates-based exercises and nutrition advice. Most overuse ballet conditions respond well to a combination of conservative therapies. Those dancers that do require surgical management still depend heavily on ballet-specific rehabilitation for a complete recovery. PMID:7618011

  20. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (20082009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 12 (? = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (? = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (? = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  1. Conference Committees: Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Gnther Schmahl University Gttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

  2. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  3. Evaluation of a flexible force sensor for measurement of helmet foam impact performance.

    PubMed

    Ouckama, Ryan; Pearsall, David J

    2011-03-15

    The association between translational head acceleration and concussion remains unclear and provides a weak predictive measure for this type of injury; thus, alternative methods of helmet evaluation are warranted. Recent finite element analysis studies suggest that better estimates of concussion risk can be obtained when regional parameters of the cranium, brain and surrounding tissues are included. Lacking, however, are empirical data at the head-helmet interface with regards to contact area and force. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a system to capture the impact force distribution of helmet foams. Thirteen Flexiforce() sensors were arranged in a 5 5 cm array, secured to a load cell. Three densities of foam were repeatedly impacted with 5 J of energy during ambient (20C) and cold (-25C) conditions. RMS error, calculated relative to the global force registered by the load cell, was <1.5% of the measurement range during individual calibration of the Flexiforce() sensors. RMS error was 5% of the measured range for the global force estimated by the sensor array. Load distribution measurement revealed significant differences between repeated impacts of cold temperature foams for which acceleration results were non-significant. The sensor array, covering only 36% of the total area, possessed sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture dynamic load distribution patterns. Implementation of this force mapping system is not limited to helmet testing. Indeed it may be adopted to assess other body regions vulnerable to contact injuries (e.g., chest, hip and shin protectors). PMID:21194694

  4. Establishment and characterization of a novel ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell line, TU-OS-4, that overexpresses EGFR and HER2.

    PubMed

    Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kato, Misaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Oishi, Tetsuro; Shimada, Muneaki; Sato, Shinya; Naniwa, Jun; Sato, Seiya; Nonaka, Michiko; Kudoh, Akiko; Terakawa, Naoki; Kigawa, Junzo; Harada, Tasuku

    2012-12-01

    A new line of human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cells, TU-OS-4, was established and characterized. The cells showed a short, spindle-shaped morphology and grew in monolayers without contact inhibition while forming an arrangement resembling a jigsaw puzzle. Chromosome numbers ranged from 55 to 73. The proliferation rate was lower than other serous adenocarcinoma cell lines tested (KF, SHIN-3, and SK-OV-3), and the doubling time was 53.3 h. Western blot analysis showed that TU-OS-4 cells overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2, and phosphorylated HER2 protein. The IC(50) values to cisplatin, paclitaxel, and lapatinib were 25.8 μM, 686 nM, and 183 nM, respectively. Heterotransplantation in nude mice reflected the original tumor of the cells. These results suggested that this cell line would be useful to study chemoresistant mechanisms and contribute to establishing novel treatment strategies for patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:23274876

  5. Exact Green's functions for a Brownian particle reversibly binding to a fixed target in a finite, two-dimensional, circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Greens functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Greens functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Greens function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Greens function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.

  6. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  7. X-Ray Pulse Selector With 2 ns Lock-in Phase Setting And Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenau, B.; Raebiger, J.; Polachowski, S.; Fremerey, J.K.

    2004-05-12

    Selector devices, which are based on magnetically suspended, high speed triangular shutter rotors, have been designed and built in cooperation with ESRF, APS, and recently Spring-8 for time resolved studies with isolated x-ray pulses at white beam lines. The x-ray pulse selection is accomplished by means of a beam channel along one of the edges of the triangular rotor, which opens once per revolution. Entrance and exit apertures of the channel can be designed wedge shaped for variable tuning of the channel height between 0.1 mm to 0.9 mm. At the 1 kHz maximum operation frequency of a 220 mm diameter disk with 190 mm channel length, the practicable open times of the channel are demonstrated to range down to 200 ns. The selector drive electronics is directly coupled to the storage ring RF clock for rotational phase control. It allows for continuous selector operation in phase locked mode to the temporal pulse structure of the synchrotron at 2 ns RMS stability. The phase angle between the pulse transmission period and the synchrotron bunch sequence can be adjusted with similar precision for X-ray pulse selection according to the experimental needs. ID09, Michael Wulff ; BioCARS 14-BM, Reinhard Pahl; BL40-XU, Shin-ichi Adachi.

  8. Study of fine sediments for making lightweight aggregate.

    PubMed

    Hung, Meng-Feng; Hwang, Chao-Lung

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the recycling of the fine sediments of Shih-Men Reservoir to manufacture lightweight aggregate. By qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fine sediment and sintered aggregate through soil test, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, a strategy of recycling fine sediment as aggregate for other similar material is proposed. The test results indicate that such fine sediment can be classified as low plastic clay, and clay of such chemical composition is located in the Riley's 'area of bloating'. The particle density of sintered lightweight aggregate decreases when the sintering temperature increases especially above 1200 degrees C due to phase transformation and formation of a vitrified layer on the surface through subsequent dehydration, bloating and collapsing stages. Our findings show that the fine sediment of Shin-Men Reservoir could be a suitable raw material for making expanded lightweight aggregate sintered at 1200 to 1300 degrees C for 10 to 12 min by a programmable furnace and a diffusion process. PMID:17985670

  9. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  10. [Dermoid tumor in left cerebellum--A case report (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, I; Kikuchi, H; Furuse, S; Karasawa, J; Manabe, T

    1976-06-01

    This paper describes a dermoid tumor which developed in the dorso-lateral area of the left cerebellar hemisphere. It is the first to be reported in Japan. The patient was a 31 year old female who suffered from severe occipital headaches, frequent vomiting and gait disturbances. Neurological findings on admission included marked bilateral choked discs, horizontal nystagmus on gaze to the left, and poor coordination on the finger to nose test, nose-finger-nose test and and heel-shin test on the left side. Left suboccipital craniectomy was performed. A tumor was found which displaced the left cerebellum anteromedially and inferiorly. The postero-lateral surface of the tumor was adherent to the overlying dura matter. It was completely removed and found to be about the size of a hen's egg. It contained a yellow, porridge-like substance and short hairs. Histological examination of the capsule of the tumor showed stratified squamous epithelium and cutaneous structures, such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The diagnosis was dermoid tumors. We could find as many as 78 cases of the posterior fossa dermoids in the literature. In 72 cases (92.4%), the mass existed along the midline in the posterior fossa. The dermoids developed in the cerebellar hemisphere were reported in only 6 cases (7.6%) including the present case. Laterally growing dermoids are considered to be very rare. The pathogenesis is discussed and the literature reviewed. PMID:1034891

  11. Pathological laughing as a manifestation in a clinically isolated brainstem syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Belgin; Oner, Yusuf; Batur, Hale; Nazliel, Bijen; Cengiz, Bulent; Tali, Turgut

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of pathological laughing and crying in multiple sclerosis (MS) is 10%. It has been speculated that the anatomical lesion responsible for the pathological laughing is located in the pontine base, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum. We report an 18-year-old male patient presenting with pathological laughing and hypomania. In his neurological examination, he had a euphoric effect with ataxic walking and dysarthria speech. He had a bilateral conjugated gaze limitation, with a prominent bilateral horizontal nystagmus on left gaze, dysmetria, dysdiadokokinesia, and remarkable dysfunction in a heel-to-shin test on the left. The IgG index in cerebrospinal fluid was normal with an oligoclonal band was present. In cranial MRI, there was a lesion on central pons which was hypointense in T1 images with contrast enhancement and hyperintense in T2 and flair images. Also another lesion in right brachium pontis which did not contrast enhancement but was hyperintense on T2 and flair images was present. There was an elevation of myoinositol/creatine ratio and choline and a reduction of NAA in proton MR spectroscopy. MR spectroscopic evaluation of the patient demonstrated the demyelination process. There has been no report of patients in whom pathological laughter was the presenting symptom of clinically isolated brainstem syndrome. PMID:18826440

  12. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  13. [A neurophysiologic study of sleep in children during the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Fantalova, V L; She?nkman, O G; Molodtsova, E M

    1976-01-01

    Polygraphic investigation of day sleep has been carried out in thirty suckling infants (aged from 25 days to 12 months). EEG, OCG, SGR, respiration ECG, muscular activity, and in some infants, also rheographic parameters (REG and RG of the shin) have shown that already at an early nursing age, states of drowsiness, falling asleep, light and medium depth and deep slow sleep set in, as well as the so-called rapid sleep which occurs only after slow sleep. The denotation of the slow sleep stages is based on the classification by Loomis et al., though their electroenecepholographic expression in the infant is in many ways peculiar and undergoes certain dynamics during the first year of life. Peculiarities of the central area EEG have been exhibited in all the age groups, and it has been assumed that the central parts of the cortex of a suckling infant are a kind of "window" into the subcortical parts. While EEG, displaying new forms of activity at certain stages of sleep undergo distinct age changes, vegetative sleep manifestations display only some age depending quantitative differences. Thus, at the nursing age the mechanisms of electroencephalographic and vegetative sleep manifestations are of different degree of maturity: they possess a considerable autonomy, although they function in concord. PMID:1274430

  14. Steady State Properties of Magnetron Sputter Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, C. H.; Shin, Y. K.; Park, J. S.; Lee, J. K.; Moon, Y. S.; Chung, T. H.

    1998-10-01

    Results of the particle simulation of a magnetron sputter are presented. By a kinetic code OOPIC, we obtain the spatial profiles of plasma density, potential, and velocity distribution-function along with the electron and ion temperature, the current density, and the deposition profiles at the substrate. The current density from simulation is compared with the Child-Langmuir law applied to the magnetron discharge ( K. Kuwahara and H. Fujiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 22, 442 (1994).), and the global model ( H.J. Lee and J.K. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1, 35, 6252 (1996).) (J.K. Lee, L. Meng, Y.K. Shin, H.J. Lee and T.H. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl., Phys. Part 1, 36, 5714 (1997).) (M. Yoon, S.C. Kim, H.J. Lee and J.K. Lee, J. Korean Phy. Soc., 32(5), L635 (1998).) to estimate the steady state properties of magnetron sputter. When normalized to above Child-Langmuir law, the current density profile from simulation converges. The velocity distribution-function of electron is Maxwellian, but that of ions is non-Maxwellian near the cathode with majority in the energy range below 50 eV which shows the need for particle simulation.

  15. 2-D Simulation and Breakdown Characteristics of PDP Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. K.; Shon, C. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, W.; Lee, J. K.

    1998-10-01

    Fluid and hybrid simulations for PDP cell are presented and benchmarked by the comparison with a particle code OOPIC. Fluid simulation based on our previous code (J.K. Lee, L. Meng, Y.K. Shin, H.J. Lee and T.H. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl., Phys. Part 1, 36, 5714 (1997); ibid), 36 (5A), 2874 (1997). has an advantage of saving computation time, but it has an inherent assumption for velocity distributions. Kinetic simulation yields the ion energy distribution which plays an important role in secondary electron emission and MgO sputtering but it is not efficient computationally. Combining the advantages of fluid and kinetic codes, various hybrid methods using the Monte-Carlo collision are employed. The breakdown characteristics of PDP cells in various geometry are compared. The current absorbed at the dielectric above the anode electrode is linearly proportional to the applied voltage but the half width of the current pulse is not. If the cell voltage does not vanish after the discharge-turnoff, quasi-neutrality inside the cell does not hold.

  16. Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, I.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Kim, M.-H.; Lee, H. S.; Moon, D.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Nam, S. H.; Shin, S.; Cho, Moohyun

    2014-05-15

    After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si ) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan.

  17. Characterization of a novel photoresist redistribution material for advanced packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2002-07-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is primarily driven by electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a 27% compound annual rate and it is expected that by 2005 over 60% of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic materials that are optimized for these applications. Flip chip packaging frequently uses one or more redistribution levels to increase the number of pads that can be bumped in the minimum form factor. The redistribution level requires a photosensitive dielectric material to be used as a permanent insulating layer. The mechanical, electrical and lithographic properties of the material for this level are all important. This study will characterize a novel photosensitive siloxane material (Shin-Etsu SINRT Photoresist) for the use in the redistribution layer. Siloxanes are a good choice for redistribution because of their excellent physical properties, ease of processing and relatively low curing temperatures. The lithographic performance of SINR photoresist has been optimized using a broad band 1X stepper to control critical dimensions (CD). This study evaluates process capability at multiple exposure wavelengths and post exposure bake (PEB) conditions. Cross sectional SEM analysis, process linearity, Bossung plots and process windows are used to establish the lithographic capabilities. Material modifications also were investigated to control the photoresist sidewall angles.

  18. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  19. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

  20. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors. PMID:9950339

  1. Elaborated 1H NMR study for the ligitional behavior of two thiosemicarbazide derivatives towards some heavy metals (Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III)), thermal, antibacterial and antifungal studies.

    PubMed

    el-Metwaly, Nashwa M; Refat, Moamen S

    2011-10-15

    A new series of heavy metal complexes are prepared. Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III) are the metal ions used in complexation with two thiosemicarbazide ligands. The IR and (1)H NMR spectra of the free ligands display their presence in thiole-thione forms coincide with each other. The IR spectra of the complexes support the presence of 2:2 molar ratio (M:HL) with HL(1) ligand and 1:1 beside 1:2 with HL(2). The ligand coordinates as bi molecules in some complexes and displays two tautomer forms at the same complex molecule (1)H NMR spectra of Sn(II) and Sb(III) complexes were done and comes coincide with IR data. The electronic spectral analysis displays a lower shift appearance in n??* charge transfer band in most isolated complexes. As well as, a new band is shinned in visible region with Sb(III), Bi(III) complexes and Sn(II)-HL(2). This band is pointed to its use in spectrophotometric analysis for these metal ions. The TG analysis for all isolated compounds was briefly discussed. The molecular modeling parameters support the stability of thiole form of the free ligands in comparing with their thiones by a small difference. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were studied against some organisms and reveal the priority of most investigated complexes. PMID:21767980

  2. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Clio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (? 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  3. Comparison of sheath thickness obtained from the theories of ion correction in the floating potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyeong Sik; Hwang, Kwang Tae; Choe, Ik Jin; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-10-01

    In the cold plasmas, when the cylindrical probe is used to measure the ion density, an expansion of the sheath thickness related to the sheath voltage increases the ion current. The expansion of the sheath thickness results in an incorrect measurement of ion current. To measure ion density correctly, the sheath thickness should be considered. In the collisionless sheath, the sheath thickness can be calculated by the Child- Langmuir (CL) theory or the Allen-Boyd-Reynolds(ABR) theory. We measured the sheath thicknesses using the floating harmonics method [1] and the cut-off method by the microwave [2], and the results compared with the CL theory [3] and ABR theory [4] in the floating potential. The sheath thicknesses obtained from the ABR theory were in good agreement with the experimental results. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang and C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys., 101, 033305 (2007)[0pt] [2] J.H. Kim, S.C. Choi, Y.H. Shin, and K. H. Chung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2706 (2004)[0pt] [3] FF Chen, JD Evans, D Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1449 (2002)[0pt] [4] F. F. Chen and D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 8, 5051 (2001)

  4. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  5. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Bailey, Nicholas P; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

    2015-06-28

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed. PMID:26133435

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  7. Temperature dependence of the complex effective piezoelectric coefficient of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Poon, Y. M.; Shin, F. G.

    2002-09-01

    Temperature dependence of the complex effective piezoelectric coefficient d31* for a ferroelectric 0-3 composite of small ceramic volume fraction has been studied. Theoretical predictions are based on our previously derived explicit expression of d31 for a dilute dispersion of spherical particles in a continuous matrix [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, Ferroelectrics 264, 39 (2001); J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)]. Comparison is made with the well-known Furukawa's model and their experimental measurements on a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/epoxy composite with 13 vol % PZT [T. Furukawa, K. Fujino, and E. Fukada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2119 (1976)], covering a wide temperature range from -140 to +140 degC. The real part and the imaginary part of the effective piezoelectric coefficient for the composite are investigated separately. Predictions for the real part of d31* agree well with the observed values for temperatures larger than 60 degC, but are larger than the observed values for lower temperatures, while predictions for the imaginary part of d31* give fairly good agreement with the experimental data throughout the temperature range.

  8. Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, Clara; Frontino, Giulio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Battaglino, Roseila; Favalli, Valeria; Ferro, Giusy; Rubino, Chiara; Del Barba, Paolo; Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Meschi, Franco; Chiumello, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous dermatitis that usually appears in the lower extremities. It affects about 0.31.2% of diabetic patients, the majority of whom have type 1 diabetes. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are still unclear. NL is characterized by skin rash that usually affects the shins. The average onset is 30 years, with females being affected more commonly. There are very few reported cases of necrobiosis lipoidica in children. Case report: We report a case of a 16 year old girl affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (15 years disease duration) who developed an erythematous nodular rash on the lower extremities and interscapular area. In the suspect of necrobiosis lipoidica, a skin biopsy was performed (lower extremities and interscapular area). The microscopic evaluation of the pretibial lesions was suggestive of necrobiosis lipoidica. The smaller lesions in the interscapular area showed signs of perivascular dermatitis which could be consistent with early stages of necrobiosis lipoidica. Local treatment with tacrolimus determined a progressive improvement of the lesions. Conclusion: In patients with T1DM, diagnosis of NL of the lower legs is usually unequivocal. However, diagnosis may be more challenging in the presence of lesions with recent onset and/or atypical clinical presentation and unusual site. In these cases, NL must always be taken in consideration in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong/late treatment decisions and progression to ulceration. PMID:24575162

  9. Necrobiosis Lipoidica: Early Diagnosis and Treatment with Tacrolimus

    PubMed Central

    Patsatsi, A.; Kyriakou, A.; Sotiriadis, D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) with atypical early lesions and good response to topical tacrolimus. NL is a disease with clinical features that are seldom misinterpreted. Often histology just confirms the clinician's diagnosis. Only in rare cases, the clinical presentation and the involved body sites may be misleading. A 67-year-old diabetic woman was admitted to our department with a well-defined, persistent plaque on her left arm and on her right shin. Histologic examination of both lesions revealed features of NL despite the dissimilar clinical presentation. The patient was treated with 0.1% topical tacrolimus ointment twice daily for 8 weeks and once daily for 8 weeks. A significant improvement and no further lesions were observed after 1 year of follow-up. A high index of suspicion regarding NL lesions with atypical clinical presentation on different body sites is advised in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong treatment decisions and ulceration. Additionally, it appears that topical tacrolimus treatment is an effective therapeutic option in patients with recent, non-ulcerated NL lesions. PMID:21577369

  10. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  11. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome according to the fascial distortion model: a prospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Finze, Susanne; Bader, Rainer; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS. PMID:25379543

  12. Role of Photons, Ion Implantation and Mixing in Sub-threshold Selective Etching of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeb, Juline; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Kamp, Tom; Paterson, Alex

    2012-10-01

    As device sizes shrink, control of selectivity and damage during plasma etching becomes important. Recent literature reports the role of photons in the cleaving of surface and sub-surface Si-Si bonds which may initiate Si etching by radicals, even below the threshold energies needed for ion-assisted etch.footnotetextH. Shin, W. Zhu, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(2), 021306 (2012). Simultaneous effects of photons and ion penetration can degrade the selectivity. Photon assisted Si etching in below-threshold ion energies in Cl2 plasmas reported 4-10 nm/Min. etch rate.footnotetextIbid. We investigated the effects of photons in sub-threshold etching of Si in HBr/He/O2 plasmas. As photons with wavelengths <170 nm have enough energy to cleave Si-Si bonds, we concentrated on 58.4 nm photons emitting from He(2 ^1p) and 130nm photons emitted by O(3s) which can penetrate 10nm intoe Si.footnotetextJ. R. Woodworth, M. E. Riley, V. A. Amatucci, T. W. Hamilton, and B. P. Aragon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 45 (2001). This paper will discuss the role of photons and mixing in silicon-dioxide/silicon etching using modeling & simulation, experiments and diagnostics.

  13. Pairing and superfluidity in a gas of strongly interacting fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    Ultracold quantum degenerate Fermi gases provide a remarkable opportunity to study superfluidity with the control and precision of atomic physics. We have studied a two-component gas of lithium-6 atoms for various strengths of the interactions and population imbalances and obtained the phase diagram for the superfluid and normal phases. Below a tricritical temperature, the first order phase transition is observed through a discontinuity of the density at the superfluid-to-normal phase boundary. Insight into the nature of fermionic pairing is obtained through RF spectroscopy. In the superfluid system studied previously which consists of atoms in the two lowest hyperfine states (the 1-2 mixture), RF spectra could not be consistently interpreted due to strong final state interactions. We find that a 1-3 mixture is stable and yields clean pair dissociation spectra from which we obtain the size of the superfluid pairs. The value of 1.4/kF is smaller than the interparticle spacing and constitutes the smallest pair size observed in any fermionic superfluids. This work was done in collaboration with Yong-Il Shin, Christian Schunck, and Andre Schirotzek.

  14. Dielectric shell isolated and graphene shell isolated nanoparticle enhanced Raman spectroscopies and their applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Anema, Jason R; Wandlowski, Thomas; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique that provides fingerprint vibrational information with ultrahigh sensitivity. However, only a few metals (gold, silver and copper) yield a large SERS effect, and they must be rough at the nanoscale. Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) was developed to overcome the long-standing materials and morphological limitations of SERS. It has already been applied in a variety of fields such as materials science, electrochemistry, surface science, catalysis, food safety and the life sciences. Here, the principles and applications of SHINERS are highlighted. To provide an understanding of the plasmonics involved, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations and single nanoparticle SHINERS experiments are reviewed. Next, various shell-isolated nanoparticle (SHIN) types are described. Then a number of applications are discussed. In the first application, SHINERS is used to characterize the adsorption processes of pyridine on Au(hkl) single-crystal electrode surfaces. Then, SHINERS' applicability to food inspection and cultural heritage science is demonstrated by the detection of parathion and fenthion pesticides, and Lauth's violet (thionine dye). Finally, graphene-isolated Au nanoparticles (GIANs) are shown to be effective for multimodal cell imaging, photothermal cancer therapy and photothermally-enhanced chemotherapy. SHINERS is a fast, simple and reliable method, suitable for application to many areas of science and technology. The concept of shell-isolation can also be applied to other surface-enhanced spectroscopies such as fluorescence, infrared absorption and sum frequency generation. PMID:26426491

  15. Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In a changing climate the non-steady state series of climatic characteristics will affect on the groundwater recharge.. A well-tested approach to calculating water flux through the vadoze zone is the application of Richard’s equations for a heterogeneous one-domain porosity continuum with specially formulated atmospheric boundary conditions at the ground surface. In this approach the climatic parameters are reflected in upper boundary conditions, while the recharge series is the flux through the low boundary. In this work developed by authors code Surfbal that simulates water cycle at surface of topsoil to take into account the various condition of precipitation transformation at the surface in different seasons under different vegetation cover including snow accumulation in winter and melting in spring is used to generate upper boundary condition at surface of topsoil for world-wide known Hydrus-1D code (Simunek et al, 2008). To estimate the proposal climate change effect we performed Surfbal and Hydrus simulation using the steady state climatic condition and transient condition due to global warming on example of Moscow region, Russia. The following scenario of climate change in 21 century in Moscow region was selected: the annual temperature will increase on 4C during 100 year and annual precipitation will increase on 10% (Solomon et al, 2007). Within the year the maximum increasing of temperature and precipitation falls on winter time, while in middle of summer temperature will remain almost the same as observed now and monthly precipitation. For simulating climate input the weather generator LARSWG (Semenov and Barrow 1997) was trained for generation daily meteorological records for both steady state and transient climatic conditions and two 100 year of meteorological series of minimum and maximum of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation were generated. The numerical experiment for studying of transient climate on groundwater was performed for typical vadoze zone parameters of western part of Moscow Artesian basin. As the result, the 100 years series of recharge were simulated. Examination of stochastic properties of simulated time-series and comparative analysis series for the transient and for the steady state conditions shows the trend of increasing of recharge in this region in transient climate. Analysis of daily and monthly simulated water balance shows that this increasing is result of winter snow melting and winter infiltration into thaw topsoil. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant 08-05-00720a REFERENCES Semenov M.A and Barrow E.M., 1997. Use of a stochastic weather generator in the development of climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 35:397-414 Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue "Vadose Zone Modeling", 7(2), 587-600. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  16. Trace-Element Diffusion Coefficients in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandler, C.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2006-12-01

    We have undertaken chemical diffusion experiments at 1300C to determine both crystal/melt partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients for a wide range of trace elements in forsteritic olivine. Experiments were conducted at 1 atm under controlled fO2 for up to 25 days using synthetic melts made to a composition in equilibrium with olivine for major elements, and doped with selected trace elements. The melt was put into a 5 mm diameter cylindrical hole in gem quality San Carlos olivine crystals drilled paralell to the a axis. Diffusion profiles were obtained both for trace elements that were added to the starting material and diffuse into the olivine, and also for several trace elements present at natural abundances in the olivine that diffuse out. The profiles were measured across sections perpendicular to crystal/melt boundary at a variety of crystallographic orientations (confirmed by EBSD) by laser-ablation ICP-MS. A thin laser slit oriented parallel to the crystal/melt interface was traversed from the melt through the crystal. Element concentrations were fitted to the diffusion equation to obtain both diffusion coefficients and concentrations at the crystal/melt interface, and hence partition coefficients. Calculated diffusivities for many trace elements (Ca, REE, Y, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, Na, Li, Be, Ti) are relatively fast (D = 10-16 to 10^{-13 m2/s at 1300C). The diffusion of Li in olivine (approx. D = 10^{-15} m2/s) is only slightly slower than REEs and similar to divalent cations, in good agreement with inferences from zoning profiles in natural olivine [1]. This rate is considerably slower than for plagioclase and clinopyroxene [2], a result which has important implications for interpreting Li isotopic data from mantle-derived rocks. The fastest diffusing trace element we observe is Be. Applying our diffusion and partition coefficients to the model of Qin et al. [3], we calculate that the REEs of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the mantle will extensively re-equilibrate with external magma in weeks (heavy REEs) to a few years (light REEs). These timescales are significantly shorter than the times estimated for the production and extraction of magma from the mantle or magma residence in the lower crust, implying anomalous melt inclusions are probably not a direct result of melting of heterogeneities in the mantle. Instead, anomalous melt inclusions likely form by assimilation processes shortly before eruption [4] and so may be useful monitors of such processes. Refs: [1] Parkinson et al., Abstract, Goldschmidt Conference 2006; [2] Coogan et al., EPSL 240, 415-424 (2005); [3] Qin et al. Am. Min. 77, 565-576 (1992); [4] Danyushevsky et al., J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553 (2004).

  17. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  18. Radiation disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    Three lines of research have been pursued over the 18-month period since program funding began on 22 June 1989. These are (1) providing computer graphic representation of the physical models of tetrahedral network glass structure that Dr. Carol Marians had developed during a previous DOE-funded program, to assign coordinates to the tetrahedron vertices, and to minimize the energies of these configurations in order to provide a relaxed set of coordinates which could be compared to diffraction data; (2) establishing an ion implantation facility at MIT in order to initiate ion implantation into pyrophosphates in order to investigate radiation-induced disorder of partial network structures; and (3) exploring information about amorphization and glass network structure that can be adduced from energy-filtered electron diffraction patterns of silica polymorphs rendered progressively metamict by electron irradiation. These avenues have been explored by Professor Hobbs, Dr. Uma Jain, a physicist from University of Delhi, and Professor Amitabh Jain, head of the ion implantation facility at IIT Delhi (both of whom spent the 1989-90 academic year on sabbatical stays at MIT); Mr. Adam Clayton Powell IV, an MIT undergraduate research assistant who has worked with Dr. Uma Jain; and Messrs. A.N. Sreeram, a talented experimental ceramist who has just received his M.S. degree from Alfred University under the direction of Professor Arun Varshneya, and L.C. Qin, an experienced electron microscopist who has just completed his M.S. work at Northwestern University under the guidance of Professor Laurie Marks.

  19. The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-08-01

    All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing. PMID:22855815

  20. Effects of FUT1 gene mutation on resistance to infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Liu, W J; Yang, L G; Sargent, C A; Liu, H B; Wang, C; Liu, X D; Zhao, S H; Affara, N A; Liang, A X; Zhang, S J

    2012-03-01

    Alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for regulating the expression of Escherichia coli F18 receptor gene (ECF18R) which promotes adherence of Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and Verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) via F18 fimbriae. In order to illustrate the polymorphisms of FUT1 and their effects on resistance to natural infection by Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Symdrome Virus (PRRSV) and Haemophilus parasuis, the distributions of different genotypes and the relative risks of disease incidence in pigs were investigated. A total of 1,041 pigs representing three European breeds (Duroc, Landrace and LargeWhite), five Chinese local breeds (Wild pig, Small MeiShan, QinPing, JinHua, and JianLi) and three commercial populations (LargeWhite × JianLi, Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite and Duroc × wild pig) were selected to analyze the genotype of the FUT1 gene by PCR-RFLP. Only the GG genotype associated with susceptibility to ECF18 bacteria was detected in Chinese local pig breeds and a population of LargeWhite × JianLi, while the AA genotype which confers resistance to ECF18 was detected in two European breeds (Duroc and LargeWhite), two populations of Duroc × wild pig and Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite. Regarding relative risk of incidence, Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite with genotypes GG or AG showed greater relative risk (OR = 2.040, P = 0.025; OR = 1.750, P = 0.081, respectively) than those with genotype AA during natural infection by both PRRSV and Haemophilus parasuis. It can be concluded that the mutation of FUT1 gene might play a role in pig infection by multi-pathogens, and that AA may be a favourable genotype for increasing the resistance to disease. PMID:21695432

  1. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  2. Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin

    2003-01-21

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

  3. [Analysis on characteristics of meridians and acupoints of acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Yu-Lan; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Qin, Hai-Zhi; Chen, Da-Shuai; Liu, Ting; Li, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory. PMID:24377223

  4. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kuchark, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26428288

  5. Xinyinqin: a computer-based heart sound simulator.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X X; Pei, J H; Xiao, Y H

    1995-01-01

    "Xinyinqin" is the Chinese phoneticized name of the Heart Sound Simulator (HSS). The "qin" in "Xinyinqin" is the Chinese name of a category of musical instruments, which means that the operation of HSS is very convenient--like playing an electric piano with the keys. HSS is connected to the GAME I/O of an Apple microcomputer. The generation of sound is controlled by a program. Xinyinqin is used as a teaching aid of Diagnostics. It has been applied in teaching for three years. In this demonstration we will introduce the following functions of HSS: 1) The main program has two modules. The first one is the heart auscultation training module. HSS can output a heart sound selected by the student. Another program module is used to test the student's learning condition. The computer can randomly simulate a certain heart sound and ask the student to name it. The computer gives the student's answer an assessment: "correct" or "incorrect." When the answer is incorrect, the computer will output that heart sound again for the student to listen to; this process is repeated until she correctly identifies it. 2) The program is convenient to use and easy to control. By pressing the S key, it is able to output a slow heart rate until the student can clearly identify the rhythm. The heart rate, like the actual rate of a patient, can then be restored by hitting any key. By pressing the SPACE BAR, the heart sound output can be stopped to allow the teacher to explain something to the student. The teacher can resume playing the heart sound again by hitting any key; she can also change the content of the training by hitting RETURN key. In the future, we plan to simulate more heart sounds and incorporate relevant graphs. PMID:8591549

  6. Some eigenvalue problems for the vectorial Hill's equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao-Liang

    2000-06-01

    Let Q(x) be a smooth n-by-n real symmetric matrix-valued periodic function, Q(x + 1) = Q(x). For 0?a?1 let ?m(a) denote the mth eigenvalue of the Dirichlet eigenvalue problem y''(x) + [?In-Q(x + a)]y(x) = 0, y(0) = y(1) = 0. We prove that if, for each m, ?m(a) is a constant function which is of multiplicity n, then Q(x) is of the form qIn, where q is a real constant. Using a similar method and the stability theory developed by M G Krein for the periodic linear Hamiltonian systems, we prove that if Q(x) is even, and ?m(a) is a constant function of multiplicity n for all m exceeding some index m0, then the continuous spectrum of the vectorial Hill's operator -(d2/dx2) + Q(x) contains the half-line [?m0,?). In addition to the previous results, we prove that, for the case n = 2, if Q(x) is a periodic even solution of the matrix Korteweg-de Vries equation Q'''(x)-3[Q'(x)Q(x) + Q(x)Q'(x)] + Q'(x) = 0, assuming its period to be one for convenience, then the continuous spectrum of the vectorial Hill's operator also contains a half-line [nQ,?), where nQ is a Dirichlet eigenvalue of the operator -(d2/dx2) + Q(x) on the interval [0,1].

  7. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually. PMID:25993834

  8. An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

    1997-07-01

    Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

  9. Polymorphisms in the TSHR (thyrotropin receptor) gene on chromosome 14q31 are not associated with mental retardation in the iodine-deficient areas of China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting-Wei; Zhang, Fu-Chang; Gao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Li; Gao, Xiao-cai; Ma, Jie; Yang, Maosheng; Ji, Qian; Duan, Shi-wei; Zheng, Zi-jian; Li, Rui-lin; Feng, Guo-yin; St Clair, David; He, Lin

    Mental retardation (MR) is one of the most frequent handicaps among children. Fetal iodine deficiency disorder (FIDD) is the commonest cause of preventable MR. However, not everyone in the iodine-deficient areas is affected and familial aggregation is common. This suggests that genetic factors may play an important role. Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in fetal and early postnatal brain development. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) receptor (TSHR) is located on the surface of thyroid cells and binds TSH. It results in the production of thyroid hormones via the activation of adenylate cyclase and phospatidylinositol-dependent signaling pathways. Some researchers formulated the hypothesis that TSH receptor expression in the brain may be involved in local thyroid homeostasis through TSH stimulating the DIO2 activity. In the previous study, we have proposed that DIO2 may protect against FIDD in the iodine-deficient areas of China. The TSHR gene, which located on chromosome 14q31 is a potential candidate gene for susceptibility to FIDD. To investigate the potential genetic contribution of TSHR gene, we performed a case-control association study in Chinese Han population from the Qin-Ba mountain regions using four common SNPs in the gene (rs2284716, rs917986, rs2075173 and rs2075179). Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD was observed between rs2284716 and rs917986 and between rs2075173 and rs2075179. Single-locus analysis found that all four SNPs in TSHR gene showed no association after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype analysis showed no significant differences in frequency for three sets of haplotypes based on the pariwise LD results. In conclusion, our association results suggest that TSHR gene is not a susceptibility gene for FIDD in the iodine-deficient areas of China. PMID:15911145

  10. Locating Radio Noise from Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Mezentsev, A.; Watson, R.; Gaffet, S.; Astin, I.; Evans, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into exponentially growing streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010). The acceleration of the electrons to a few eV results in the radiation of a small amount of electromagnetic energy. The incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the low frequency radio noise from sprites near ~40 km height (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this theoretically predicted radiation was recently confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). To locate the radio noise from sprites in the sky, an interferometric network of low frequency radio receivers was developed (Mezentsev and Fullekrug, JGR, 2013). The key parameter for the interferometric signal processing is the frequency dependent wave propagation velocity of the radio waves within the Earth's atmosphere. This wave propagation velocity is determined by the wave number vector which needs to be inferred from the measurements. Here we adapt and subsequently apply array analyses which have been developed for seismic and infrasound arrays to determine the horizontal wave number vectors of ~20-24 kHz radio waves measured with an array of ten radio receivers distributed over an area of ~1 km 1 km. It is found that the horizontal slowness of ~20-24 kHz radio waves ranges from ~2.7 ns/m to ~4.1 ns/m depending on the arrival azimuth of the radio wave. For comparison, an electromagnetic wave in vacuum has a slowness of ~3.34 ns/m. A larger slowness indicates an apparent velocity which is smaller than the speed of light and a smaller slowness indicates that the radio wave arrives at the array from an elevation angle. The observed variability of the observed slowness almost certainly results from the distance dependent superposition of the transverse electric and magnetic TEn and TMn radio wave propagation modes.

  11. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  12. The principal indecomposable modules of the dilute Temperley-Lieb algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellette, Jonathan; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2014-11-01

    The Temperley-Lieb algebra {TL}n(? ) can be defined as the set of rectangular diagrams with n points on each of their vertical sides, with all points joined pairwise by non-intersecting strings. The multiplication is then the concatenation of diagrams. The dilute Temperley-Lieb algebra {dTL}n(? ) has a similar diagrammatic definition where, now, points on the sides may remain free of strings. Like {TL}n, the dilute {dTL}n depends on a parameter ? in {C}, often given as ? = q + q-1 for some qin {C}^. In statistical physics, the algebra plays a central role in the study of dilute loop models. The paper is devoted to the construction of its principal indecomposable modules. Basic definitions and properties are first given: the dimension of {dTL}n, its break up into even and odd subalgebras and its filtration through n + 1 ideals. The standard modules {S}_{n,k} are then introduced and their behaviour under restriction and induction is described. A bilinear form, the Gram product, is used to identify their (unique) maximal submodule {R}_{n,k} which is then shown to be irreducible or trivial. It is then noted that {dTL}n is a cellular algebra. This fact allows for the identification of complete sets of non-isomorphic irreducible modules and projective indecomposable ones. The structure of {dTL}n as a left module over itself is then given for all values of the parameter q, that is, for both q generic and a root of unity.

  13. Reply to the comment on “Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess” by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Zhao, Z.; Song, C. H.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, J.; Martín-Pérez, A.; Martín-García, R.; Wang, X. X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M. H.; Meléndez, A.

    2010-10-01

    Guo's et al. comments on our paper (Z.T. Guo, J.Y, Ge, G.Q. Xiao, Q.Z. Hao, H.B. Wu, T. Zhan, L. Liu, L. Qin, F.M. Zeng, B.Y. Yuan, Comment on "Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess" by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51], Sedimentary Geology, 2010-this issue) mostly stress their previous data and their model of configuration and evolution of the study area; it is not a real discussion of the sedimentological features we describe. In this reply we will discuss some of the key features of the basin configuration, correlations and sedimentology of the Tinshui basin. Our work has followed the common procedures used in stratigraphy and sedimentology and so we can confirm our interpretation on basin configuration and correlations. In all cases we have taken into account previous papers, including those of Guo's group. In addition the sedimentological model we proposed is new due to the lack of previous sedimentological studies, including facies analysis and petrography, in the studied area. Our model of a continental alluvial-lacustrine basin fits well with other well-known examples over the world and explains clearly the lateral facies transitions across the basin. It is not the aim of this reply to discuss all the previous papers by Guo's group, but to reply to their main comments on our paper.

  14. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions. PMID:24175515

  15. Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  16. ABCG2: the molecular mechanisms of urate secretion and gout.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Owen M

    2015-09-15

    The human propensity for high levels of serum uric acid (SUA) is a trait that has defied explanation. Is it beneficial? Is it pathogenic? Its role in the human diseases like gout and kidney stones was discovered over a century ago [Richette P, Bardin T. Lancet 375: 318-328, 2010; Rivard C, Thomas J, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ. Rheumatology (Oxford) 52: 421-426, 2013], but today emerging new genetic and epidemiological techniques have revived an age-old debate over whether high uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) independently increase risk for diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease [Feig DI. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 14: 346-352, 2012; Feig DI, Madero M, Jalal DI, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ. J Pediatr 162: 896-902, 2013; Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. JAMA 300: 924-932, 2008; Wang J, Qin T, Chen J, Li Y, Wang L, Huang H, Li J. PLoS One 9: e114259, 2014; Zhu P, Liu Y, Han L, Xu G, Ran JM. PLoS One 9: e100801, 2014]. Part of the mystery of the role uric acid plays in human health stems from our lack of understanding of how humans regulate uric acid homeostasis, an understanding that could shed light on the historic role of uric acid in human adaptation and its present role in human pathogenesis. This review will highlight the recent work to identify the first important human uric acid secretory transporter, ABCG2, and the identification of a common causal ABCG2 variant, Q141K, for hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:26136557

  17. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  18. Modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI): a real-time drought monitoring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Abduwasit; Qin, Qiming; Teyip, Tashpolat; Li, Zhao-Liang

    Soil moisture and vegetation growth are the most direct and important indicators of drought events and, therefore, an understanding of vegetation and soil spectral behavior is critical to the drought estimation. Recently, Ghulam et al. [Ghulam, A., Qin, Q., Zhan, Z., 2006. Designing of the perpendicular drought index. Environmental Geology, doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0544-2 (accessed March 8, 2007).] established the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI) that is based on an extensive analysis of spatial distribution features of soil moisture in NIR-Red spectral space. In this paper, an improved drought monitoring method, the Modified Perpendicular Drought Index (MPDI), is developed introducing vegetation fraction, which takes into account both soil moisture and vegetation growth. To validate the drought indices proposed by this paper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) images from different times registered over different eco-systems with various drought conditions are used to calculate the PDI and MPDI over ground measuring points. The PDI and MPDI are then compared to an in-situ drought index obtained from field measurements made synchronously with the satellite overpass, including the bulk soil moisture content at different soil depths, field moisture capacity, wilting coefficient, etc. It is evident from the results that the PDI and the MPDI is highly accordant with in-situ drought values with the highest correlation ( R2 = 0.8134) found between the MPDI and an in-situ drought index derived from 0-20 cm mean soil moisture. This study concludes that the PDI and the MPDI provide quite similar results for bare soil surfaces, especially in the early stages of vegetation growth. However, the MPDI demonstrates a much better performance in measuring vegetated surfaces since it takes into account both soil moisture and vegetation growth in the modeling process. The MPDI has the potential to provide a simple and real-time drought monitoring method in the remote estimation of drought phenomena.

  19. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they have them in differing degrees. PMID:26016698

  20. Study on the Main Components Interaction from Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae and Their Dissolution In Vitro and Intestinal Absorption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Xiaobin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    The Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple is the basic components of Chinese herbal preparations (Shuang-Huang-Lian tablet, Yin-Qiao-Jie-Du tablet and Fufang Qin-Lan oral liquid), and its pharmacological effects were significantly higher than that in Flos Lonicerae or Fructus Forsythiae, but the reasons remained unknown. In the present study, pattern recognition analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap MS system were performed to study the chemical constitution difference between co-decoction and mixed decoction in the term of chemistry. Besides, the pharmacokinetics in vivo and intestinal absorption in vitro combined with pattern recognition analysis were used to reveal the discrepancy between herb couple and single herbs in the view of biology. The observation from the chemical view in vitro showed that there was significant difference in quantity between co-decoction and mixed decoction by HCA, and the exposure level of isoforsythoside and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in co-decoction, higher than that in mixed decoction, directly resulted in the discrepancy between co-decoction and mixed decoction using both PCA and HCA. The observation from the pharmacokinetics displayed that the exposure level in vivo of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A, higher than that in single herbs, was the main factor contributing to the difference by both PCA and HCA, interestingly consistent with the results obtained from Caco-2 cells in vitro, which indicated that it was because of intestinal absorption improvement of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A that resulted in a better efficacy of herb couple than that of single herbs from the perspective of biology. The results above illustrated that caffeic acid derivatives in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple could be considered as chemical markers for quality control of its preparations. PMID:25275510

  1. An Introduction to the Major NSFC Program 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, S.; Xiao, W.

    2013-12-01

    Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed about 250 million years ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. So far, most Pangea reconstructions assume that continental blocks in East Asia had never become parts of Pangea before its breakup. In these reconstruction models, configurations of East Asian blocks in Pangea were mainly based on geological and paleomagnetic data before the 1990's but did not fully consider recent data produced by Chinese researchers about collisional mountain belts between continental blocks in East Asia. To precisely reconstruct the East Asian blocks in Pangea, the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) recently set up a Major NSFC Program entitled 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'. On the basis of summarizing and integrating previous data, this major program will carry out detailed field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological, paleomagnetic and paleontonological investigations on key segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Central China Orogenic Belt and Paleo-Tethys Belt, which assembled major continental blocks in East Asia, in order to determine the timing and processes of opening and closuring of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, Proto-Tethyan Ocean (Qin-Qi-Kun Ocean) and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The program will not only answer where, when and how continental blocks in East Asia were assembled and whether or not they had become parts of Pangea before the breakup of the supercontinent, but will also improve and develop the theory of plate tectonics. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41190070, 41190075)

  2. Dependence of Positive and Negative Sprite Morphology on Lightning Characteristics and Upper Atmospheric Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Carrot sprites, exhibiting both upward and downward propagating streamers, and columniform sprites, characterized by predominantly vertical downward streamers, represent two distinct morphological classes of lightning driven transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere. In the present work, a two-dimensional cylindrically symmetric plasma fluid model is applied in framework of a two-step technique, in which we couple the large-scale halo dynamics and development of small-scale streamers [Qin et al., GRL, 39, L05810, 2012]. The modeling is used to simulate sprite-halo events over a timescale of 5 ms in order to study the dependence of sprite morphology on lightning characteristics and upper atmospheric ambient conditions. The most significant associative detachment process O-+N2?e+N2O [e.g., Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012] in sprite chemistry has been taken into account. It is found that lightning characteristics, namely the total charge moment change, the impulsiveness of the initial lightning pulse, the continuing current, and the lightning polarity, have a significant impact on sprite morphology. For example, it is found that columniform sprites are produced in sub-breakdown conditions, and that continuing current is of essential importance to the development of the upper diffuse region of carrot sprites. Most interestingly, we suggest that negative sprites should be necessarily carrot sprites produced by large charge moment changes. We also find different charge moment change thresholds for the initiation of positive and negative sprites, which are 320 C km and 500 C km, respectively, under typical nighttime conditions assumed in this study. This difference represents one of the major factors in the polarity asymmetry between +CGs and -CGs in producing sprite streamers. We further demonstrate that lower magnitude of ambient mesospheric conductivity leads to smaller threshold charge moment changes required for the production of carrot sprites.

  3. Deep magma feeding system of Fuji volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, E.; Asano, K.; Nakajima, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fuji volcano is known for its perfect cone shape and it is the largest among Japanese Quaternary volcanoes. For the last 100kya, Fuji has erupted dominantly basalt magma (>>99 vol%), but its eruption style changed (from debris flow and tephra dominant Ko-Fuji or Older Fuji, to lava flow dominant Shin-Fuji or Younger Fuji) at ~15 kya BP. The incompatible trace element composition of the magma changed abruptly between Ko-Fuji and Shin-Fuji. The origin of the voluminous yet monotonous basalt production and the simultaneous changes in volcanic style and magma chemistry in Fuji volcano have been discussed but remain unanswered. Here we report the first high-pressure melting experimental results on Fuji Basalt (Hoei-IV, AD1707) and demonstrate that its main magma chamber is located at ca.25km depth (Asano et al, this conference). We also show seismic tomographic images of Fuji volcano for the first time, which reveal the existence of strong upwelling flow in the mantle and its connection to the voluminous lower crustal magma chamber (Fig.1). The chemistry of Fuji magma is buffered by a lower crustal AFC magma chamber located at 25-35km depth. Mantle derived primitive basalt (FeO/MgO~1.0, saturated with mantle peridotite assemblage, oliv+opx+cpx) changes to evolved basalt (FeO/MgO~2.0, saturated with lower crustal gabbroic assemblage, opx+cpx+pl) by the AFC process. Very frequent low frequency earthquakes just above the magma chamber (red circles in Fig.1) may be due to the injection of basalt magma and/or fluids (Ukawa, 2007). The total lack of silica-rich rocks (basaltic andesite and andesite) in Fuji volcano must be due to the special location of the volcano. As shown in Fig.1 (solid line), the plate boundary between the Eurasia plate and the subducting Phillipine sea plate is located just beneath Fuji volcano (~5 km depth). Large tectonic stress and deformation associated with the plate boundary inhibit the survival of a shallow level magma chamber, which would allow the evolution of basalt to silica-rich magma (as observed in nearby volcanoes, e.g., Hakone, Izu Oshima). The change in volcanic eruption style may be understood by assuming the existence of a glacier (or thick ice-cap) during Ko-fuji. A landslide occurred at ~17 ky and a large part of its volcanic edifice, including the summit of Ko-fuji, has been lost. This landslide would have been triggered by melting of the glacier and should have caused a significant deloading effect on the magma feeding system.ig.1 NS cross section beneath Fuji Volcano. dVs tomographic image with +-9% deviation.

  4. 16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

  5. 16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Y.

    2004-12-01

    On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

  6. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-01

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation.Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05319f

  7. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to ?k{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=?{sub i}(?k{sub FA}??k{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of ?k are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of ?k of new designed assemblies as close to ?k{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  8. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 10(-6) to 7.2 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely. PMID:26492351

  9. Catalytic activity of methanol in all-vapor subsecond clathrate-hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. Paul

    2014-04-01

    Methanol's property as a catalyst in the formation of gas clathrate hydrates has been recognized for several years and was recently employed in a broad ranging study [K. Shin, K. A. Udachin, I. L. Moudrakovski, D. M. Leek, S. Alavi, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 8437 (2013)]. A new measure of that activity is offered here from comparative rates of formation of methanol (MeOH) clathrate hydrates within our all-vapor aerosol methodology for which tetrahydrofuran (THF) and other small ethers have set a standard for catalytic action. We have previously described numerous examples of the complete conversion of warm all-vapor mixtures to aerosols of gas clathrate hydrates on a sub-second time scale, generally with the catalyst confined primarily to the large cage of either structure-I (s-I) or structure-II (s-II) hydrates. THF has proven to be the most versatile catalyst for the complete subsecond conversion of water to s-II hydrate nanocrystals that follows pulsing of appropriate warm vapor mixtures into a cold chamber held in the 140-220 K range. Here, the comparative ability of MeOH to catalyze the formation of s-I hydrates in the presence of a small-cage help-gas, CO2 or acetylene, is examined. The surprising result is that, in the presence of either help gas, CH-formation rates appear largely unchanged by a complete replacement of THF by MeOH in the vapor mixtures for a chamber temperature of 170 K. However, as that temperature is increased, the dependence of effective catalysis by MeOH on the partial pressure of help gases also increases. Nevertheless, added MeOH is shown to markedly accelerate the s-II THF-CO2 CH formation rate at 220 K.

  10. Eye Shape Using Partial Coherence Interferometry, Autorefraction and SD OCT

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Konynenbelt, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral refraction and retinal shape may influence refractive development. Peripheral refraction has been shown to have a high degree of variability and can take considerable time to perform. SD OCT and peripheral axial length measures may be more reliable, assuming that the retinal position is more important than the peripheral optics of the lens/cornea. Methods 79 subjects right eyes were imaged for this study (age range: 22 to 34 yr, refractive error: −10 to +5.00.) Thirty deg SD OCT (Spectralis, Heidleberg) images were collected in a radial pattern along with peripheral refraction with an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon Auto-refractor) and peripheral axial length measurements with partial coherence interferometry (PCI) (IOLmaster, Zeiss). Statistics were performed using repeat measures ANOVA in SPSS (IBM), Bland-Altman analyses, and regression. All measures were converted to diopters to allow direct comparison. Results SD OCT showed a retinal shape with an increased curvature for myopes compared to emmetropes/hyperopes. This retinal shape change became significant around 5 deg. The SD OCT analysis for retinal shape provides a resolution of 0.026 dipopters, which is about ten times more accurate than using autorefraction or clinical refractive techniques. Bland-Altman analyses suggest that retinal shape measured by SD OCT and the PCI method were more consistent with one another than either was with AR. Conclusions With more accurate measures of retinal shape using SD OCT, consistent differences between emmetrope/hyperopes and myopes were found nearer to the fovea than previously reported. Retinal shape may be influenced by central refractive error, and not merely peripheral optics. Partial coherence interferometry and SD OCT appear to be more accurate than autorefraction, which may be influenced other factors such as fixation and accommodation. Autorefraction does measure the optics directly, which may be a strength of that method. PMID:25437906

  11. Proton pump inhibitors and pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S; Dhingra, Reena; Ryckewaert, Lori; Bonner, Dave

    2009-01-01

    There may be a relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and iron absorption. PPIs may decrease the amount of iron absorbed gastrointestinally specifically due to alteration of the pH in the duodenum. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that includes an urge to move legs, accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs; the urge to move begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, the urge to move is partially or totally relieved by movement, and the urge is worse or only occurs at night. In the majority of the restless leg syndrome population, the sensation is deep seated, often described as being in the shin bones, and most commonly felt between the knee and ankle. It may be described as a creepy, shock-like, tense, electric, buzzing, itchy, or even numb sensation. A subpopulation of this restless leg syndrome patient population experiences restless leg syndrome associated pain (RLSAP) that has been described as a deep "achy pain." This pain has not been found to be relieved by many of the typical over the counter analgesics. Often, constant movement of the legs appears to be the only remedy, as these sensations usually appear during periods of rest. Furthermore, there appears to be an association between iron deficiency and those suffering from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). The authors theorize that there may be a possible correlation between PPIs and the symptoms (e.g. pain) associated with RLS. The authors propose that PPIs, such as omeprazole, may interfere with iron absorption in certain patients and that a subpopulation of patients who develop significant iron deficiency characterized by low serum ferritin levels while on PPIs may also develop RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP). While there is no robust direct evidence to support any associations of PPIs and iron deficiency or PPIs associated with RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP), it is hoped that this manuscript may spark research efforts on this issue. PMID:19935988

  12. Frontal lobe ataxia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    The precise anatomy and physiology of human walking remains poorly understood. The frontal lobes appear crucial, and, on the basis of clinical observation, contribute to the control of truncal motion, postural responses, and the maintenance of equilibrium and locomotion. The rich repertoire of frontal gait disorders gives some indication of this complexity. Variable combinations of disequilibrium with a wide stance base, increased body sway and falls, loss of control of truncal motion, locomotor disability with gait ignition failure, start hesitation, shuffling, and freezing are encountered in diseases of the frontal lobes. Furthermore, the pattern of gait may change as the frontal disease progresses. The slowness of walking, lack of heel-shin or upper limb ataxia, dysarthria or nystagmus distinguishes the wide stance base from cerebellar gait ataxia. A lively facial expression, normal voluntary movements of the upper limbs, upper motor neuron signs, and the absence of a rest tremor distinguish the hypokinetic elements from Parkinson's disease. Poor truncal mobility, impaired postural responses, and falls after the slightest perturbation eventually make walking impossible even though simple leg movements may still be possible while seated or lying. One or more of these features usually predominates in the initial presentation of a frontal gait syndrome. Accordingly, there is considerable variation in the manner of presentation and evolution of frontal gait disorders. The gait syndrome is accompanied by frontal motor and cognitive changes, which may be subtle or overshadowed by the gait disorder. This complexity of clinical presentation accounts for the plethora of descriptions from "frontal ataxia" to "gait apraxia". As suggested in the original descriptions of frontal ataxia, the spectrum of gait disturbance is likely to be due to damage to frontal cortex and its connections with subcortical structures including the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and the brainstem. PMID:21827922

  13. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly apologize for any delays in the editing process.

  14. Correlates and Escitalopram Treatment Effects on Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the correlates of sleep disturbance and to assess escitalopram treatment effects of depression on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design: A cross-sectional study in patients with ACS within 2 w post-ACS, and a 24-w double-blind controlled trial of escitalopram against placebo for patients with ACS who have comorbid depressive disorders. Setting: A university hospital in South Korea. Participants: There were 1,152 patients with ACS who were consecutively recruited. Of 446 patients with comorbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to the trial. Measurements and Results: Sleep disturbance was evaluated by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed, including cardiovascular risk factors, current cardiac status, and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were most strongly and consistently associated with sleep disturbance. In addition, older age, female sex, hypertension, and more severe ACS status were associated with certain aspects of sleep disturbance. Escitalopram was significantly superior to placebo for improving sleep disturbance over the 24-w treatment period. These effects were substantially explained by improvement in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Depression screening is indicated in patients with acute coronary syndrome with sleep disturbance. Successful treatment of depression has beneficial effects on sleep outcomes in these patients. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier for the 24-w drug trial, NCT00419471. Citation: Kim JM, Stewart R, Bae KY, Kang HJ, Kim SW, Shin IS, Hong YJ, Ahn Y, Jeong MH, Yoon JS. Correlates and escitalopram treatment effects on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS. SLEEP 2015;38(7):11051111. PMID:25581916

  15. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  16. Potential Magma Chambers beneath the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan: Results from Magnetotelluric Survey and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Previous earthquakes analysis indicated existing seismicity anomaly beneath Tatun volcano, Taiwan, possibly caused by the fluid activity of the volcano. Helium isotope studies also indicated that over 60% of the fumarolic gases and vapors originated from deep mantle in the Tatun volcano area. The chemistry of the fumarolic gases and vapors and seismicity anomaly are important issues in view of possible magma chamber in the Tatun volcano, where is in the vicinity of metropolitan Taipei, only 15 km north of the capital city. In this study magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and monitoring were deployed to understand the geoelectric structures in the Tatun volcano as Electromagnetic methods are sensitive to conductivity contrasts and can be used as a supplementary tool to delineate reservoir boundaries. An anticline extending more than 10 km beneath the Chih-Shin-Shan and Da-You-Kan areas was recognized. Low resistivity at a shallow and highly porous layer 500m thick might indicate circulation of heated water. However, a high resistivity layer at depth between 2 and 6 km was detected. This layer could be associated with high micro-earthquakes zone. The characteristics of this layer produced by either the magma chamber or other geothermal activity were similar to that of some other active volcanic areas in the world. At 6 km underground was a dome structure of medium resistivity. This structure could be interpreted as a magma chamber in which the magma is possibly cooling down, as judged by its relatively high resistivity. The exact attributes of the magma chamber were not precisely determined from the limited MT soundings. At present, a joint monitors including seismic activity, ground deformation, volcanic gases, and changes in water levels and chemistry are conducted by universities and government agencies. When unusual activity is detected, a response team may do more ground surveys to better determine if an eruption is likely.

  17. [Electrochemical deposition of copper by using ionic liquids as additive and its surface-enhanced Raman scatting effect].

    PubMed

    Xu, Cun-ying; Yan, Lei; Liu, Ya-wei; Li, Yan; Hua, Yi-xin; Zhang, Peng-xiang

    2010-10-01

    The use of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as green media for electrochemical application has attracted great attention recently. However, the effects of RTILs used as additives for electrodeposition of metals have hardly been explored. In the present work, the electrochemical deposition of copper was investigated on a pure copper plate from acid cupric sulfate solutions in the presence of RTILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim] BF4) additive by cyclic voltammetric technique, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For comparison, the electrodeposition of copper from acid cupric sulfate solutions was also investigated. The voltammograms showed that the cathodic peak potential shifted toward more negative potential and cathodic peak current increased when 1.0 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) [bmim] BF4 was added into acid cupric sulfate solutions. SEM images indicated that the shinning electrodeposits of copper were lamellar structure and the size of layered grain decreased with addition of [bmim]BF4 additive. The XRD results indicated that copper deposits exhibited face-centered cubic structure and (220) highly preferred orientation. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of copper deposits were measured by using methyl orange (MO) as the probe molecules. The copper electrodeposit obtained in acid cupric sulfate solutions with [bmim]BF4 is shown to be excellent substrate for SERS measurements, demonstrating significant enhancement and good stability. The enhancement factor was calculated to be up to 4.7 x 10(5). It was also found that copper electrodeposit stored for 60 days in air shows no significant degradation in its sensitivity. PMID:21137394

  18. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

  19. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada & Katsuki) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium lythri (Westend.) U. Braun & H.D. Shin, comb. nov., Zasmidium wikstroemiae (Petch) U. Braun, comb. nov. PMID:22815589

  20. Professional footwear evaluation for clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Min-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2007-03-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that nursing professionals experience a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) than most other occupational groups. Most nursing activities require standing and walking for prolonged periods. Such job requirements may contribute to MSD problems in the lower extremities. Thus, wearing comfortable nursing shoes is essential to reduce the lower-extremity discomfort for clinical nurses. The objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate three brands of commercially available nursing footwear and identify the important shoe features for adequate shoe support during nursing activities, and (2) to assess the effect of wearing compression hosiery by measuring the biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical responses of test participants. The method of this study involved two phases. First, field observations were conducted to collect job demand data, including walking speed, and the ratios of walking, standing, and sitting. Second, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the functions of professional nursing footwear and examine the influence of compression hosiery on lower extremity discomfort relief. Measurements included electromyography (EMG) of the lower leg, joint range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity, foot pressure, ground reaction force (GRF), and subjective discomfort ratings for the lower body and feet. Summarizing the findings of this study, comfortable footwear for nursing professionals should emphasize a footbed with arch support outside with 1.5 cm thickness of EVA materials in the metatarsal zone and heel height between 1.8 and 3.6 cm; this can minimize foot pressure distribution, impact force, and increase shin and ankle comfort. In addition, wearing compression hosiery is recommended to alleviate lower body and foot discomfort for clinical nurses. PMID:16765904

  1. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  2. PCR detection of Babesia ovata from questing ticks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-04-01

    Babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle. In the present study, we analyzed tick DNA samples (n=1459) prepared from questing ticks collected from various cattle pastures in Hokkaido (Shibecha, Taiki, Otofuke, Memuro, and Shin-Hidaka districts) and Okinawa (Yonaguni Island) prefectures of Japan for B. ovata. When all the tick DNA samples were screened by a previously described B. ovata-specific apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, none of the DNA samples was positive. Therefore, we developed a PCR assay based on the protozoan beta-tubulin (?-tubulin) gene to detect B. ovata from ticks in Japan. In the specificity test, the PCR assay amplified the expected 444-bp target gene fragment from B. ovata DNA. No PCR products were amplified from DNA samples from other blood pathogens, bovine blood, or ticks. In addition, the PCR assay detected 100 fg of B. ovata-genomic DNA extracted from an in vitro culture of the parasites. Subsequently, when all the tick DNA samples were screened by this new PCR assay, 18 were positive for B. ovata. Positive samples were found only in the Yonaguni and Memuro areas. In Okinawa, where all the ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, 9.7% of the samples were PCR-positive, while a single tick (Ixodes ovatus) from Memuro was infected with B. ovata. When the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed, they formed a separate clade containing a previously described ?-tubulin gene sequence from B. ovata (Miyake strain), confirming that the PCR assay had detected only B. ovata from the tick DNA samples. This is the first report that describes the PCR detection of B. ovata in ticks. The findings warrant transmission experiments to evaluate I. ovatus as a potential vector of B. ovata. PMID:24572609

  3. Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Longmire, Michelle R.; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared fluoresce-guidance can be used for the detection of small cancer metastases and can aid in the endoscopic management of cancer. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved fluorescence agent. Through non-specific interactions with serum proteins, ICG achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. Yet, ICG demonstrates rapid clearance from the circulation. Therefore, ICG may be an ideal contrast agent for real-time fluorescence imaging of tumors. To evaluate the usefulness of real-time dual fluorescence and white light endoscopic optical imaging to detect tumor implants using the contrast agent ICG, fluorescence-guided laparoscopic procedures were performed in mouse models of peritoneally disseminated ovarian cancers. Animals were administered intravenous ICG or a control contrast agent, IR800-conjugated to albumin. The ability to detect small ovarian cancer implants was then compared. Using the dual view microendoscope, ICG clearly enabled visualization of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastatic nodules derived from SHIN3 and OVCAR5 cells at 6 and 24 h after injection with significantly higher tumor-to-background ratio than the control agent, (IR800-albumin p<0.001). In conclusion, ICG has the desirable properties of having both EPR effects and rapid clearance for the real-time endoscopic detection of tiny ovarian cancer peritoneal implants compared to a control macromolecular agent with theoretically better EPR effects but longer circulatory retention. Given that ICG is already FDA-approved and has a long track record of human use, this method could be easily translated to the clinic as a robust tool for fluorescence-guided endoscopic procedures for the management and treatment of cancer. PMID:21469142

  4. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Hkan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s?1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (110 cm s?1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central processing. PMID:24600368

  5. Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L.; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H. Jasmine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) (median = 780 CFU/m3) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10)), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO2 level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  7. New Therapy Using Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters for Decubitus Ulcers and Stasis Dermatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kazuki; Matsumaru, Katsuhiko; Hirai, Ikuko; Takae, Yujiro; Andoh, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In daily practice, it is common to experience difficulty in treating decubitus ulcers (pressure ulcers, also known as decubitus ulcers) and stasis dermatitis of the lower limbs. We hereby report that omega-3-acid ethyl esters were remarkably effective when administered to cases of refractory pressure ulcers and stasis dermatitis for the purpose of improving the blood flow and promoting blood circulation. Case Presentation: Case 1: A 21-year-old Japanese female with lower-body paralysis. Pressure ulcers appeared on the heel and first toe of her left lower extremity. Although the patient had been treated with various ointments such as dimethyl isopropylazulene and 0.9% iodine-containing ointment, the course showed no improvement, so omega-3-acid ethyl esters was administered orally, completely healing the ulcer of the first toe in 10 weeks. Case 2: A 76-year-old Japanese male. The patient had been treated on an outpatient basis for 15 years due to hypertension, heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Two years prior to this presentation, stasis dermatitis occurred in the lower limbs and at the end of last year, erosive ulcers appeared on the front part of the lower-right thigh and shin. Although treatment with various topical ointment and dressings was performed, the course showed no improvement. Oral administration of omega-3-acid ethyl esters was initiated. At 12 weeks, his condition entered the white phase and healed almost completely. Conclusions: This report is the first to document other treatment possibilities for pressure ulcer and/or stasis dermatitis in cases where the use of topical applied ointments and medications is difficult. This new therapy may therefore help physicians to treat pressure ulcers and stasis dermatitis. PMID:25763242

  8. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  9. SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Shinohara, Iku; Yamamoto, Yukio; Okada, Tatsuaki; Okumura, Hayato

    SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will observe the distribution of the elements and minerals on the surface, the surface and sub-surface structure, the gravity field, the remnant of the magnetic field and the environment of energetic particles and plasma of the Moon. The Relay satellite 'OKINA' will relay the Doppler ranging signal between the Main Orbiter and the ground station for the world's first direct measurement of he gravity field in the farside of the Moon. The differential VLBI Radio-Sources on board the Relay satellite "OKINA" and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA' are used to determine the gravity field of the Moon most precisely. SELENE data will be used for studying 'lunar origin and evolution' and "exploration" of the Moon and will be archived and distributed in PDS-like format with the descriptions of data format and technical information. This PDS-like format is slightly different from catalog for search and order in catalog DB (some keyword (attribute) and value definition are different). Thus, to establish the catalog interoperability function with PDS/NASA and PSA/ESA by using PDAP, it is necessary to develop PDS label (keyword and value) mapping software to translate SELENE PDS like label extracted from SELENE product to PDS compatible PDS-label and archive such the label information to our prototype catalog database We also implemented the retrieving prototype system to access that prototype catalog database. Those systems were finished to implement by the end of this March. This paper describes the result of this prototype development and evaluation report. In addition, this paper shows some proposal to PDAP system through this prototype effort.

  10. Pain site frequency and location in sickle cell disease: the PiSCES project.

    PubMed

    McClish, Donna K; Smith, Wally R; Dahman, Bassam A; Levenson, James L; Roberts, John D; Penberthy, Lynne T; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Bovbjerg, Viktor E

    2009-09-01

    Treatment options for sickle cell disease (SCD) pain could be tailored to pain locations. But few epidemiologic descriptions of SCD pain location exist; these are based on few subjects over short time periods. We examined whether SCD pain locations vary by disease genotype, gender, age, frequency of pain, depression, pain crisis or healthcare utilization. We enrolled 308 adults with SCD in 2002-2004. Subjects kept daily pain diaries for up to 6months, including a body chart. Mixed model and generalized estimating equations were employed for analyses. Two hundred and sixty subjects completed at least one body chart. An average of 3.3/16 sites (25%) were painful. The number of pain sites varied by age, depression, frequent pain days, crisis and unplanned hospital/ED utilization. Lower back, knee/shin and hip, hurt on average more than a third of pain days, while jaw and pelvis hurt on fewer than 10% of days. Odds of a crisis were increased substantially when pain was in the arm, shoulder, upper back, sternum, clavicle, chest or pelvis (OR>1.5) while the odds of unplanned utilization were substantially increased for the sternum, clavicle and chest (OR>2.0). Pain in SCD varies considerably both within and between subjects, although it occurs most commonly in the lower back and lower extremities. The number and location of pain sites vary significantly by age, frequent pain, crisis and utilization. Identification and understanding of combinations of pain location and intensity may help to understand the etiology of SCD and improve SCD management. PMID:19631468

  11. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-?. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on cytokine related diseases/syndromes is necessary. PMID:19818374

  12. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  13. A new ankle foot orthosis for running.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David; Moore, Allan; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2009-09-01

    Traumatic knee injuries in automobile accidents and sports often lead to damage of the peroneal nerve. A lack of control of muscles innervated by the peroneal nerve due to this damage, results in the inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot and to extend the toes. This condition is commonly known as foot drop. Foot drop reduces the stability in the body while walking and running and may also cause injury due to lack of foot clearance during the swing phase of the gait. Traditionally, an ankle foot orthosis (AFO), comprised of a moulded sheet of plastic that conforms around the posterior calf and distally contains all or part of the calcaneous as well as the plantar foot, is used to treat foot drop. The intent of this orthosis is to dorsiflex the foot to provide clearance during the swing phase of walking and running. Traditional AFO results in increased pressures due to a decrease in dorsiflexion range of motion at the ankle and make the orthosis increasingly uncomfortable to wear. Several other existing designs of foot drop AFO suffer from similar inadequacies. To address these issues, a new AFO was developed. The device was successfully used by one person with foot drop without issues for more than one year. This new design conforms to the lower anterior shin and dorsum of the foot using dorsiassist Tamarack ankle joints to allow for greater plantar and dorsiflexion range of motion. While still limiting ankle inversion it does allow for more ankle eversion. This orthosis can be discretely worn inside shoes due to its smaller size, and can be worn for a longer period of time without discomfort. PMID:19658009

  14. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool. PMID:17144922

  15. Evolution of low flows in Czechia revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvinka, O.

    2015-06-01

    Although a nationwide study focusing on the evolution of low flows in Czechia was conducted in the past, a need for the revision of the results has arisen. By means of the trend analysis, which specifically considers the presence of significant serial correlation at the first lag, the former study highlighted areas where 7-day low flows increase or decrease. However, taking into account only the lag-one autoregressive process might still have led to the detection of so-called pseudo-trends because, besides short-term persistence, also long-term persistence may adversely influence the variance of the test statistic when the independence among data is required. Therefore, one should carefully investigate the presence of persistence in time series. Before the trend analysis itself, the authors' previous studies aimed at the discrimination between short memory processes and long memory processes employing jointly the Phillips-Perron test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. This analysis was accompanied by the Hurst exponent estimation. Here, the subsequent identification of trends is carried out using three modifications of the Mann-Kendall test that allow different kinds of persistence. These include the Bayley-Hammersley-Matalas-Langbein-Lettenmaier equivalent sample size approach, the trend-free pre-whitening approach and a block bootstrap with automatic selection of the block length, which was applied for the first time in hydrology. The general results are similar to those presented in the former study on trends. Nevertheless, the divergent minimum discharges evolution in the western part of Czechia is now much clear. Moreover, no significant increasing trend in series incorporating Julian days was found.

  16. Non-random association between vowel sounds and colors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Nam, Ho-Sung; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that graphemes of similar sound tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors in grapheme-color synesthesia (Asano & Yokosawa, 2011; 2012; Shin & Kim, 2014). A work in our group also showed that graphemes sharing phonetic rules - i.e., the place and the manner of articulation - tend to induce similar synesthetic colors (Kang et al., ASSC 2014). In the present study, we investigated whether phonetic properties are associated with colors in a specific manner even when other visual and linguistic features of graphemes are removed. We employed Haskins Laboratories articulatory synthesizer to generate vowel sounds as our stimuli by systematically manipulating gender (male and female voice) and tongue body position ('frontness' and 'height') (Iskarous et al. 2010, Nam et al. 2004). Four Korean grapheme-color synesthetes and nine non-synesthetes underwent a modified version of the standardized color-matching procedure (Eagleman et al., 2007) where they matched colors three times for each auditorily presented vowel sound. The matched RGB values were converted to HSV values and to CIE Lab color coordinates. Results showed the difference in both saturation and value of matched colors between male and female voices in most participants. However, only the synesthetes showed a consistent trend; male voices were associated with less saturated and darker colors than were female voices. In addition, saturation and value of the matched colors were higher for the vowel sounds generated at front. For the four participants (two synesthetes and two non-synesthetes) who showed statistically significant color-matching consistency, the front and high vowel stimuli were associated with brighter colors (L), and the high vowel stimuli were matched with more greenish colors (a*) on a red-green color axis. These results imply that the association between phonetic features and colors is not random, and this synesthetic association might be extended to individuals without synesthesia. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325818

  17. Endosymbiotic Mycobacterium chelonae in a Vermamoeba vermiformis strain isolated from the nasal mucosa of an HIV patient in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Vlchez, Alfonso Martn; Mena, Rosmery; Zuiga, Johanna; Cermeo, Pablo; Martn-Navarro, Carmen Ma; Gonzlez, Ana C; Lpez-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, Mara; Piero, Jos E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    In March 2010, a 35 year-old HIV/AIDS female patient was admitted to hospital to start treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since during a routine control a dramatic decrease in the CD4(+) levels was detected. At this stage, a nasal swab from each nostril was collected from the patient to include it in the samples for the case study mentioned above. Moreover, it is important to mention that the patient was diagnosed in 2009 with invasive pneumococcal disease, acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The collected nasal swabs from both nostrils were positive for Vermamoeba vermiformis species which was identified using morphological and PCR/DNA sequencing approaches. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the amoebic strain to belong to V.vermiformis species. Molecular identification of the Mycobacterium strain was carried out using a bacterial universal primer pair for the 16S rDNA gene at the genus level and the rpoB gene was amplified and sequenced as previously described to identify the Mycobacterium species (Shin et al., 2008; Sheen et al., 2013). Homology and phylogenetic analyses of the rpoB gene confirmed the species as Mycobacterium chelonae. In parallel, collected swabs were tested by PCR and were positive for the presence of V.vermiformis and M.chelonae. This work describes the identification of an emerging bacterial pathogen,M.chelonae from a Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) strain belonging to the species V.vermiformis that colonized the nasal cavities of an HIV/AIDS patient, previously diagnosed with TB. Awareness within clinicians and public health professionals should be raised, as pathogenic agents such as M.chelonae may be using FLA to propagate and survive in the environment. PMID:24594260

  18. New data on the Late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Syria, applied to its origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Sharkov, E. V.; Golovin, D. I.; Chernyshev, I. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Ivanova, T. P.; Bachmanov, D. M.; Rukieh, M.; Ammar, O.; Minini, H.; Al Kafri, A.-M.; Ali, O.

    2011-01-01

    New data on geology and 21 K-Ar dates of the Late Oligocene-Quaternary basalts in Syria, combined with analysis of the new and previous data are used to reconstruct the volcanic history and relations between it and tectonic events. Volcanism began at the end of Oligocene (26-24 Ma) and was concentrated in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene along a N-trending band, which stretches from the Jebel Arab (Harrat Ash Shaam) up to Kurd Dagh and southern Turkey. Activity waned in the Middle Miocene (17-12 Ma), but was resumed in the same band in the Tortonian and increased in the Messinian and Early Pliocene (6.3-4 Ma), when volcanism spread to the Shin Plateau and its coastal extension. After a brief hiatus 4-3.5 Ma, volcanism became still more intensive and spread from the N-trending band to the east into the northern margin of the Mesopotamian Foredeep and to the west into the Dead Sea Transform zone. Additional eruptions continued into the Holocene. Volcanism lasted > 25 million years in the Jebel Arab Highland and > 15 million years in the Aleppo Plateau. The long duration of volcanism in the same parts of the moving Arabian plate and absence of records of one-way migration of the activity mean that the magmatic sources moved together with the plate, i.e., they were situated within the lithosphere mantle. Coincidence of the tectonic and volcanic stages of the Arabian plate development proves that volcanic activity depended on the geodynamic situation, caused by the plate motion. Situated within the lithosphere, magmatic sources within this transverse band were possibly caused by thermal and deforming influences of the asthenospheric lateral flow, moved laterally from the Ethiopia-Afar deep superplume.

  19. Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusell Tiede, Vance

    2010-01-01

    Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

  20. [A case of phenytoin intoxication induced by hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Horii, K; Fujitake, J; Tatsuoka, Y; Ishikawa, K; Shimbo, S

    1991-05-01

    A 42-year-old woman who presented phenytoin intoxication induced by acute hypothyroidism was reported. She had a 29-year history of hypothyroidism and a 18-year history of epilepsy. She was treated with phenytoin (PHT) 100 mg, mephobarbital (MPB) 200 mg, valproic acid (VPA) 400 mg and thyroid powder 100 mg daily for 2 years. She had no medical problem until she noticed gait disturbance and diplopia which appeared 1 month after sudden withdrawal of thyroid powder. On admission, she was somnolent and somewhat disoriented. She had nystagmus in horizontal direction of gaze. Her speech was slurred and she could not sit nor stand due to trunkal ataxia. There was prominent intentional tremor in finger-nose test and heel-shin test showed severe ataxia. Blood cell count and blood chemistry examinations were normal. Serum PHT, phenobarbital (PB) levels were elevated as to 26.4, 36.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. VPA level was low. The endocrinological examinations revealed primary hypothyroidism. EEG showed generalized slow background, but cranial MRI, EMG, SEP and ECG were normal. Thyroxine (T4) administration was started soon, and in the course of thyroid hormone replacement, her cerebellar symptoms gradually improved and serum PHT level decreased even to the subtherapeutical level with the same amount of antiepileptic drugs treatment. By the 40th day of admission, thyroid function became normal and cerebellar signs disappeared, however, she needed 200 mg PHT daily to obtain good control of epilepsy. Cerebellar symptoms of this patient were thought to be PHT intoxication rather than ataxia caused by hypothyroidism itself from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1934766

  1. Ionospheric disturbances by volcanic eruptions by GNSS-TEC: Comparison between Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.; Takeo, A.; Cahyadi, M. N.; Aditiya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic waves from volcanic eruptions are often observed as infrasound in near fields. Part of them propagate upward and disturb the ionosphere, and can be observed in Total Electron Content (TEC) data derived by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the past, Heki (2006 GRL) detected ionospheric disturbances by the 2004 explosion of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, and Dautermann et al. (2009 JGR) studied the 2003 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies. Here we present new examples, and try to characterize such disturbances. We first show TEC disturbances by the 2014 February Plinian eruption (VEI 4) of the Kelud volcano, East Java, Indonesia (Figure), observed with a regional GNSS network.The 2014 Kelud eruption broke a lava dome made by 2007 eruption and created a new creator. Significant disturbances were detected with four GPS and two GLONASS satellites, and the wavelet analyses showed that harmonic oscillations started at ~16:25 UT and continued nearly one hour. The frequency of the oscillation was ~3.8 mHz, which coincides with the atmospheric fundamental mode. We also confirmed concentric wavefronts, moving outward by ~0.8m/sec (stronger signals on the northern side). These features are similar to the 2003 Soufriere Hills case, although the signals in the present Kelud case is much clearer. Next, we compare them with ionospheric disturbances by Vulcanian explosions that occurred recently in Japan, i.e. the 2004 Asama case and the 2009 Sakurajima, and the 2011 Shin-moedake eruptions. They are characterized with one-time N-shaped disturbances possibly excited by the compression of the air above the vents. On the other hand, data from nearby seismometers suggested that atmospheric oscillations of various frequencies were excited by this continuous Plinian eruption. Part of such oscillations would have grown large due to atmospheric resonance.

  2. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 7.1 to 12.8 6.8 (mean SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials. PMID:23835634

  3. Characterization of 100 micron thick positive photoresist on 300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott; Abreau, Kelly

    2005-05-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a thirty percent compound annual rate and it is expected that in the near future over sixty percent of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic equipment and materials that are optimized for these applications. Due to the constantly shrinking bump pitch, it is critical to show excellent CD uniformity across the entire 300 mm wafer surface for feature sizes as small as 70 microns. Flip chip packaging as well as Nanotechnology (MEMS) applications frequently use one or more very thick photoresist layers for electroplating applications. The plating levels require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and electroplating with conventional equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. Additionally the process times for coating, baking, exposure and development must be considered since these impacts the overall cost of ownership of the lithography cell. For thick photoresist layers the sidewall profile, plating resistance and postplating stripability are important characteristics. This study will characterize a novel single coat, positive tone photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR 7120-20) used in electroplating levels up to 100 ?m thick on 300 mm wafers exposed with the Ultratech Spectrum 300e2 stepper and coated and developed with a Steag Hamatech Modutrack system. Process capability is determined by analyzing photoresist film thickness uniformity and critical dimension (CD) control across the wafer. Basic photoresist characterization techniques such as cross sectional SEM analysis are used to establish lithographic capabilities. This study shows excellent adhesion to copper with no surface treatment and no photoresist popping during exposure or post exposure bake (PEB). High aspect ratio, lead-free, solder structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability.

  4. A novel photosensitive material for redistribution and stress buffer reduction on 300mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott

    2006-03-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flipchip packaging is currently growing at a 25% compound annual rate and it is expected that 90% of all 65 nm logic devices will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership, it is imperative to employ lithographic materials that are optimized for these applications and that meet all device specifications. Bump processing typically has one or more levels that require a permanent layer either to relieve stress on the die (stress buffer layer) or to redistribute electrical connections (redistribution layer). Since these layers remain on the wafer, the mechanical and electrical properties of the material are as important as the lithographic properties. This study will characterize a novel negative, siloxane (Shin-Etsu SINR (R)) photoresist for the redistribution and stress buffer application on 300 mm wafers. Siloxanes are a good choice for redistribution and stress buffer layers because of their excellent physical properties, ease of processing and relatively low cure temperatures. The lithographic performance of the SINR is optimized using a broad band, low numerical aperture, 1X stepper. This study evaluates softbake, post exposure bake (PEB), develop conditions and exposure optimization. Due to decreasing feature size at the redistribution level, it is critical to demonstrate CD uniformity and resolution across the entire 300 mm wafer surface. While the CD uniformity data is collected on 300 mm wafers, all process optimization results will be applicable for all standard wafer sizes. The physical properties of the SINR material are evaluated through curing temperature studies and sputtering tests.

  5. Mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jason M; Rimmer, Christopher C; Driscoll, Charles T; McFarland, Kent P; Iigo-Elias, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Despite growing concerns over mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife on a global scale, little is known about Hg bioaccumulation in the New World tropics. From 2005 to 2011, we monitored Hg concentrations in blood of nine avian species occupying a geographic range of tropical wet broadleaf sites on the island of Hispaniola, including eight passerines (two Nearctic-Neotropical migrant and six resident species) and one top order predatory accipiter. Invertivorous songbirds were further differentiated by foraging guild, with six species of ground-foragers and two species of foliage-gleaners. Blood Hg concentrations were orders of magnitude higher in birds sampled in central and southern cloud forest sites (1,000-1,800 m elevation) than in northern and northeastern rainforest sites (50-500 m elevation), with migratory and resident species both showing 2-20 greater blood Hg concentrations in cloud forests than in rainforests. Within cloud forest sites, ground-foraging species had higher Hg concentrations than foliage-gleaning species. Top order predatory sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) had the highest blood Hg concentrations among all species, suggesting that Hg biomagnification is occurring in terrestrial forests of Hispaniola. Two migrant songbird species overwintering on the island had higher blood Hg concentrations than have been recorded on their North American breeding grounds. Future studies should seek to elucidate sources of variation in atmospheric Hg deposition on Hispaniola and to quantify the dynamics of Hg cycling in tropical forest ecosystems, which may differ in important ways from patterns documented in temperate forest ecosystems. PMID:23076839

  6. The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Smith, S A

    1992-03-01

    A small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. Gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. The tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. Two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the humeroscapular bone to the proximal humerus: one passes to the proximal edge of the pectoral crest of the humerus, and the other passes to the ventral tubercle of the humerus. The bone was described as the humeroscapular bone in reference to a similar fibrocartilaginous structure possessed by some birds. The humeroscapular bone is present in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), the screech owl (Otus asio), the barred owl (Strix varia), the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicencis), the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and the sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). The bone is absent in the barn owl (Tyto alba), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the golden eagle (Aquila chysaetos), and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), though some of these species possessed a similar fibrocartilaginous structure. Whether the humeroscapular structure develops as bone or cartilage in a given species may be related to other morphological features of the wing, and/or to characteristics of the predatory behavior of the species. Clinicians and anatomists dealing with birds of prey must be aware of the presence of the humeroscapular bone to avoid misinterpreting it as a fracture fragment. PMID:1585989

  7. Impact of Exposure Uncertainty on the Association between Perfluorooctanoate and Preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project Population

    PubMed Central

    Avanasi, Raghavendhran; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M.; Savitz, David A.; Bartell, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in exposure estimates from models can result in exposure measurement error and can potentially affect the validity of epidemiological studies. We recently used a suite of environmental models and an integrated exposure and pharmacokinetic model to estimate individual perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) serum concentrations and assess the association with preeclampsia from 1990 through 2006 for the C8 Health Project participants. Objectives The aims of the current study are to evaluate impact of uncertainty in estimated PFOA drinking-water concentrations on estimated serum concentrations and their reported epidemiological association with preeclampsia. Methods For each individual public water district, we used Monte Carlo simulations to vary the year-by-year PFOA drinking-water concentration by randomly sampling from lognormal distributions for random error in the yearly public water district PFOA concentrations, systematic error specific to each water district, and global systematic error in the release assessment (using the estimated concentrations from the original fate and transport model as medians and a range of 2-, 5-, and 10-fold uncertainty). Results Uncertainty in PFOA water concentrations could cause major changes in estimated serum PFOA concentrations among participants. However, there is relatively little impact on the resulting epidemiological association in our simulations. The contribution of exposure uncertainty to the total uncertainty (including regression parameter variance) ranged from 5% to 31%, and bias was negligible. Conclusions We found that correlated exposure uncertainty can substantially change estimated PFOA serum concentrations, but results in only minor impacts on the epidemiological association between PFOA and preeclampsia. Citation Avanasi R, Shin HM, Vieira VM, Savitz DA, Bartell SM. 2016. Impact of exposure uncertainty on the association between perfluorooctanoate and preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project population. Environ Health Perspect 124:126–132; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409044 PMID:26090912

  8. [Memoirs on Chlorodyne and Shinyaku].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dr. J. Collins Browne, a British army surgeon in India, invented a secret remedy for cholera-infected patients in the fifth decade of the 19th century. After his resignation from the army, the formula was given to a pharmacist in London for the purpose of manufacture and marketing as a patented medicine named Chlorodyne. Chlorodyne was well-accepted as paregoric for several decades. The formula of Chlorodyne was adopted in the 3rd Revision of the British Pharmacopoeia (1885) as "Compound Tincture of Chloroform and Morphine." In 1906, the 3rd Revision of Japanese Pharmacopoeia listed "Compound Tincture and Morphine" according to the formula of the 4th Revision of British Pharmacopoeia (1898). References written in 1870 and 1873 recorded the importation of Chlorodyne to Japan. In 1871, Dr. Jyun Matsumoto, Chief Military Surgeon Major General advised the manufacturers of traditional medicines to produce patented medicines to spread in western countries. Preparations of formula seeming to resemble Chlorodyne was named "Shinyaku" and were marketed from 1872. The name Shinyaku represented a medicine of marvellous efficacy, because the word split, Shin and Yaku, means "divine or almighty" and "medicine," respectively. Although the orginal formula of Shinyaku was not preserved, modifications of the formula were made to meet legal restrictions over the change of time. Needless to say, Morphine hydrochloride, Diluted hydrocyanic acid and tincture of Indian hemp were replaced with other ingredients to assure safety and lately Chloroform deleted from the formula as well. Shinyaku enjoyed good sales for a long time owing to its efficacy of restorative and refrigerant. PMID:11624349

  9. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  10. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J Zagrodzinski, Alexei Zhedanov

  11. 1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  12. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-28

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid "omics"-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation. PMID:26415633

  13. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure. PMID:24698386

  14. UVA1 phototherapy for treatment of necrobiosis lipoidica.

    PubMed

    Beattie, P E; Dawe, R S; Ibbotson, S H; Ferguson, J

    2006-03-01

    The primary cause of collagen degeneration in necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is proposed to be immunologically mediated vascular disease. Ultraviolet (UV)A1 has been used successfully to treat scleroderma in which both vascular damage and collagen dysregulation also occur. We treated six patients with NL [(five women; mean age of 32 years (range 22-70) and mean disease duration of 2.9 years (range 6 months to 5 years)] with a high-output ultraviolet (UV)A1 2-kW filtered metal halide source (Dr Hnle; Dermalight ultrA 1) having an emission spectrum of 340-440 nm. All patients had NL on the shins, which had been unresponsive to potent topical corticosteroid therapy (n = 6) and had responded minimally or not at all to TL-01 UVB (n = 2), topical psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) soaking (n = 2) or oral PUVA (n = 1) therapy. Patients received a variable number of total exposures (15-51), given 3-5 times weekly. NL resolved completely in one patient; this patient had minimal improvement after the first course of 16 exposures, but after a further 13 exposures, resolution occurred 6 months later. Two subjects obtained moderate improvement in their overall disease severity after 15 and 24 exposures, while two had only minimal improvement after 15 and 51 exposures. The remaining patient had no improvement after 16 treatments. Patients with the shortest disease duration had the greatest response. UVA1 therapy may be of benefit for the treatment of NL as an adjuvant therapy to topical corticosteroids or as a second-line alternative to other phototherapies, and may have a superior outcome in a proportion of patients. PMID:16487100

  15. Method To Detect Only Live Bacteria during PCR Amplification.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Qin, Tian; Taniai, Hiroaki; Seki, Masanori; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2008-07-01

    Ethidium monoazide (EMA) is a DNA cross-linking agent and eukaryotic topoisomerase II poison. We previously reported that the treatment of EMA with visible light irradiation (EMA + Light) directly cleaved chromosomal DNA of Escherichia coli (T. Soejima, K. Iida, T. Qin, H. Taniai, M. Seki, A. Takade, and S. Yoshida, Microbiol. Immunol. 51:763-775, 2007). Herein, we report that EMA + Light randomly cleaved chromosomal DNA of heat-treated, but not live, Listeria monocytogenes cells within 10 min of treatment. When PCR amplified DNA that was 894 bp in size, PCR final products from 10(8) heat-treated L. monocytogenes were completely suppressed by EMA + Light. When target DNA was short (113 bp), like the hly gene of L. monocytogenes, DNA amplification was not completely suppressed by EMA + Light only. Thus, we used DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV and mammalian topoisomerase poisons (here abbreviated as T-poisons) together with EMA + Light. T-poisons could penetrate heat-treated, but not live, L. monocytogenes cells within 30 min to cleave chromosomal DNA by poisoning activity. The PCR product of the hly gene from 10(8) heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells was inhibited by a combination of EMA + Light and T-poisons (EMA + Light + T-poisons), but those from live bacteria were not suppressed. As a model for clinical application to bacteremia, we tried to discriminate live and antibiotic-treated L. monocytogenes cells present in human blood. EMA + Light + T-poisons completely suppressed the PCR product from 10(3) to 10(7) antibiotic-treated L. monocytogenes cells but could detect 10(2) live bacteria. Considering the prevention and control of food poisoning, this method was applied to discriminate live and heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells spiked into pasteurized milk. EMA + Light + T-poisons inhibited the PCR product from 10(3) to 10(7) heat-treated cells but could detect 10(1) live L. monocytogenes cells. Our method is useful in clinical as well as food hygiene tests. PMID:18448692

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  17. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the regions. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin that can be attributed to natural gas fugitive emissions has been determined to be 71 +/- 9%. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011).

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  19. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the authors of all accepted papers for their high quality and fruitful contributions. Special thanks are due to all reviewers for their careful critical reading of the manuscripts and useful comments and suggestions. We do hope that this volume will be beneficial for readers to their future research endeavours and careers. We also gratefully acknowledge tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially CMSE Conference Secretary Ms. Liu Qin, Editor Anete Ashton and all the Editorial Board members in IOP Publishing for their support in producing the proceedings of this event. Guest Editors: Prof. Harry E. Ruda University of Toronto, Canada Dr. Alexander Khotsianovsky Pisarenko Institute of Problems of Strength of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

  20. Noncommutative Lvy Processes for Generalized (Particularly Anyon) Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo?ejko, Marek; Lytvynov, Eugene; Wysocza?ski, Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Let {T=R^d} . Let a function {QT^2toC} satisfy {Q(s,t)=overline{Q(t,s)}} and {|Q(s,t)|=1}. A generalized statistics is described by creation operators {partial_t^dagger} and annihilation operators ? t , {tin T}, which satisfy the Q-commutation relations: {partial_spartial^dagger_t = Q(s, t)partial^dagger_tpartial_s+?(s, t)} , {partial_spartial_t = Q(t, s)partial_tpartial_s}, {partial^dagger_spartial^dagger_t = Q(t, s)partial^dagger_tpartial^dagger_s}. From the point of view of physics, the most important case of a generalized statistics is the anyon statistics, for which Q( s, t) is equal to q if s < t, and to {bar q} if s > t. Here {qinC} , | q| = 1. We start the paper with a detailed discussion of a Q-Fock space and operators {(partial_t^dagger,partial_t)_{tin T}} in it, which satisfy the Q-commutation relations. Next, we consider a noncommutative stochastic process (white noise) {?(t)=partial_t^dagger+partial_t+?partial_t^daggerpartial_t} , {tin T} . Here {?inR} is a fixed parameter. The case ? = 0 corresponds to a Q-analog of Brownian motion, while ? ? 0 corresponds to a (centered) Q-Poisson process. We study Q-Hermite ( Q-Charlier respectively) polynomials of infinitely many noncommutatative variables {(?(t))_{tin T}} . The main aim of the paper is to explain the notion of independence for a generalized statistics, and to derive corresponding Lvy processes. To this end, we recursively define Q-cumulants of a field {(?(t))_{tin T}}. This allows us to define a Q-Lvy process as a field {(?(t))_{tin T}} whose values at different points of T are Q-independent and which possesses a stationarity of increments (in a certain sense). We present an explicit construction of a Q-Lvy process, and derive a Nualart-Schoutens-type chaotic decomposition for such a process.

  1. Nucleosynthetic Nd isotope anomalies in primitive enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2013-11-01

    We carried out stepwise dissolutions of four primitive enstatite chondrites (EC) belonging to the EH subgroup. Large Nd isotope anomalies are found in the most refractory phases, dissolved using strong acids. Residues are characterized by excesses in 142Nd and deficits in 145Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd isotopes. The Nd anomalies measured in the ALHA77295 residue are even greater than those measured in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite (CC) using a similar analytical technique (Qin et al., 2011). Once corrected for a common Sm/Nd evolution, the 142Nd excess in the ALHA77295 residue is equal to 700 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard value. The Nd isotope patterns measured in EC and CC residues can be adjusted to coincide by adding a small amount of an s-process-rich carrier phase such as SiC and 0.075% is required to fit the ALHA7795 residue. Small isotope differences still persist between these residues even if they can be considered similar within error. In enstatite chondrites, residues have a deficit in 150Nd similar to or smaller than that measured in 148Nd, whereas in SiC extracted from carbonaceous chondrites or in whole rock, the deficit in 150Nd is always greater than that in 148Nd. Moreover in a binary 142Nd-148Nd diagram, the best-fit lines obtained for leachates and residues from carbonaceous chondrites and enstatite chondrites have slightly different slopes. For the same 148Nd/144Nd ratio, the anomalous component in an enstatite chondrite has a higher 142Nd/144Nd ratio compared to carbonaceous chondrites, a feature already observed at the whole rock scale. Our results suggest that different chondrite groups sample different reservoirs of presolar grains formed in different environments. Assuming that the carrier of this anomalous component measured in residues of enstatite chondrites are SiC, our results may suggest that different meteorite parent bodies sample reservoirs of presolar SiC formed in different stellar environments. This could explain why ALHA77295, the sample which is the most enriched in presolar grains, has a bulk 142Nd isotope composition similar to the terrestrial value. Further investigation of enstatite chondrites is needed to test whether the isotope composition of the most refractory phases is similar to that measured in carbonaceous chondrites and in particular the 144Sm that is a p-process isotope only. Finally this study highlights the difficulty of interpreting the 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites since incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula creates significant 142Nd variation, as shown by ALHA77295.

  2. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Hanna, E.; Palmer, S.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    We have used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the 2003 and 2005-2007 melt seasons to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance observations. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage is observed across the ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern areas compared to the south-west. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. A correlation was found between the annual peak in total lake area and modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a future warmer climate (Meehl et al., 2007), Greenland supra-glacial lakes can be expected to form at higher altitudes and over a longer time period than is presently the case, expanding the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al., 2008) with potential consequences for ice sheet discharge (Zwally et al., 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage. Science, 5877, 778-781. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., Weaver, A.J. & Zhao, Z.C. (2007). Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Zwally, H.J., Abdalati, W., Herring, T., Larson, K., Saba, J. & Steffen, K. (2002). Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow. Science, 297, 218-221.

  3. The Impact of Gender on Timeliness of Narcolepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Won, Christine; Mahmoudi, Mandana; Qin, Li; Purvis, Taylor; Mathur, Aditi; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the impact of gender in narcoleptic patients on timeliness of diagnosis, symptomology, and health and lifestyle impairment Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 109 consecutive patients (68 women) with newly diagnosed narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, from a University sleep disorders center. Consecutive patients were administered an 8-page questionnaire at the time of their diagnosis regarding sleep habits, medications, and medical conditions, lifestyle impairments, as well as details regarding narcolepsy-related symptoms. Results: Men and women presented with remarkably similar narcolepsy related symptoms, yet women were more likely to be delayed in diagnosis; 85% of men were likely to be diagnosed by 16 years after symptom onset, compared to 28 years in women. More women were likely to remain undiagnosed at any given time point after symptom onset (hazard ratio for diagnosis of men compared to women 1.53; 95% CI 1.01-2.32; p = 0.04). Men and women reported similar degree of subjective sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (mean 16.2 4.5; p = 0.18), though women demonstrated significantly more severe objective sleepiness on multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) (mean sleep latency in women = 5.4 min ( 4.1), in men 7.4 min ( 3.5); p = 0.03). Despite being more objectively sleepy, women were less likely to report lifestyle impairments in the areas of personal relationships (71% men, 44% women, p = 0.01) and physical activity (36% men, 16% women, p = 0.02), but were also more likely to self-medicate with caffeine (63.4% men, 82.4% women; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Narcolepsy impacts men and women's health and lifestyle differently, and may cause delays diagnosis for women. Citation: Won C; Mahmoudi M; Qin L; Purvis T; Mathur A; Mohsenin V. The impact of gender on timeliness of narcolepsy diagnosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):89-95. PMID:24426826

  4. Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader. The results indicate, in particular, that a charge moment change of 390 C km in a +CG can lead to leader initiation from a 457 m tower approximately 15 km from the +CG, in good agreement with observations reported in [Stanley and Heavner, 2003]. We report detailed relationships, including analytical estimates and numerical modeling results, providing information on the charge moment charges versus tower height and radial position with respect to +CG required for initiation of upward leaders.

  5. Conductivity Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle Along Profiles in the Northeastern Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhan, Y.; Chen, X.; Sun, Y.; Tang, J.

    2006-12-01

    Some MT surveys in northeastern Tibet plateau and Ordos block have produced electrical profiles that cross both undeformed crustal blocks and the highly deformed boundary belts between the blocks. 2-D electrical structures obtained using similar inversion techniques show similar characteristics among profiles in various regions. A 950 km profile taken near the convergence of the Tibet Plate (TP) and North China plate (NC), in the northeastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, extended in a northeasterly direction from the northeastern margin of the TP, crossing the North-South Seismotectonic Belt (NSSB) and ending in the Ordos block (OD) of the NC. A second, 1050 km long profile in same direction extended from NSSB, crossing the OD and the Shanxi fault depression, ending in the North China plain basin. Six crustal blocks can be distinguished using these profiles. From southwest to northeast: Bayan Har (BH), Qin-Qi (QQ), NSSB (the Western Boundary belt of the Ordos block, WBO), the Ordos block, the Eastern Boundary belt of the OD (EBO, including the Luliang uplift, Shanxi fault depression and Taihang uplift) and the North China plain basin. The BH, QQ and OD lithospheric blocks exhibit similar structure. The upper crust is highly resistive; the upper part of the lower crust represents a low-resistivity layer, which generally increases with depth from the bottom- most crust into the upper mantle. This pattern is similar to that in relatively stable blocks in other regions of contnental China and represents typical electrical layering of the crust in slightly deformed or undeformed blocks. The crust in the WBO has been significantly deformed. Electrical layering is nonexistent and the structure is complex, lacking a large region of low resistivity. The EBO has similar crustal structure to the WBO but with less complexity. The OD lithosphere is laterally inhomogeneous, exhibiting three sub-blocks. Seismic reflection/refraction data corroborate the difference in the crustal structure between the blocks and their boundary belts. Our results suggest that the combined action of northeastward force by the TP in the southwest with resistance by the NC to the east have combined to form the structure along two profiles.

  6. Geochemical Characteristics And Zones Of Surface Snow On East Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.

    2004-12-01

    Geochemical characteristics and zones of surface snow on east Antarctic Ice Sheet Jiancheng KANG1,4, Leibao LIU1, Dahe QIN2, Dali WANG1, Jiahong WEN1, Dejun TAN1, Zhongqin LI2, Jun LI3 & Xiaowei ZHANG1,4 1 Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200129, China; 2 Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; 3 Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC, Private Bag 80 Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia; 4 Geography Department of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China Correspondence should be addressed to Jiancheng KANG (email: kangjc@sh163.net, kangjc@126.com ) Abstract The surface-snow geochemical characteristics are discussed on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, depending on the stable isotopes ratios of oxygen and hydrogen, concentration of impurities (soluble-ions and insoluble micro-particle) in surface snow collected on the ice sheet. The purpose is to study geochemical zones on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and to research sources and transportation route of the water vapor and the impurities in surface snow. It has been found that the ratio coefficients, as S1, d1 in the equation OD = S1O18O + d1, are changed near the elevation 2000m on the ice sheet. The weight ratio of Cl-/Na+ at the area below the elevation of 2000m is close to the ratio in the sea salt; but it is about 2 times that of the sea salt, at the inland area up to the elevation of 2000m. The concentrations of non-sea-salt Ca2+ ion (nssCa2+) and fine-particle increase at the interior up to the elevation 2000m. At the region below the elevation of 2000m, the impurity concentration is decreasing with the elevation increasing. Near coastal region, the surface snow has a high concentration of impurity, where the elevation is below 800m. Combining the translating processes of water-vapor and impurities, it suggests that the region up to the elevation 2000m is affected by large-scale circulation with longitude-direction, and that water-vapor and impurities in surface snow come from long sources. The region below the elevation 2000m is affected by some strong cyclones acting at peripheral region of the ice sheet, the sources of water and impurities could be at high latitude sea and coast. The area below elevation 800m is affected by local coastal cyclones. Keywords: Antarctic Ice Sheet, Snow, Geochemical Zones

  7. Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully. PMID:20429879

  8. Melt inclusion re-equilibration with complex shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, P.; Plank, T.; Lloyd, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    Volatile diffusion in melts and most crystals is fast, for example minutes to hours for H2O diffusion through typical volcanic olivines of a few hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. This character of fast diffusion and re-equilibration has been used recently to derive magma ascent rates via volatile concentrations in melt inclusions, channels and crystal phases (i.e., pyroxene and olivine). When assessing the amount of diffusive re-equilibration, previous models have used a spherical framework and melt inclusions located in the center of crystals (e.g., Qin et al., Am. Mineral. 77, 565, 1992; Cottrell et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 3, 2001). However, melt inclusions occur randomly within crystals of different shapes and a spherical model with a melt inclusion in the center can significantly underestimate the degree of re-equilibration. Off-center melt inclusions close to the edge of a crystal may equilibrate up to an order of magnitude faster than centrally located melt inclusions. Furthermore, multiple melt inclusions or melt channels may lead to different re-equilibration rates than isolated melt inclusions. For example, non-equilibrated melt embayments may significantly inhibit re-equilibration of the melt inclusion, due to slower diffusive loss in the direction of the embayment. Thus, to constrain the ascent dynamics of an individual eruption from specific volatile diffusion profiles in crystals and melt inclusions requires taking into account the complex shapes associated with natural melt inclusions and their encompassing crystals. We present a numerical diffusion model that can address complex melt inclusion geometries and crystal shapes with different time-dependent diffusive properties and boundary conditions (e.g., degassing and continuous volatile loss in the surrounding melt as magma ascends). Moreover, we explore the effect of multiple melt inclusions, which can significantly delay re-equilibration, and melt channels that have a more variable affect. In addition to the application to volatile diffusion in magmatic crystals the model also applies to elemental diffusion profiles generated during other magmatic processes and time scales, such as magma mixing or xenocryst entrainment.

  9. PREFACE: The International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, David; Xue Dou, Shi

    2004-09-01

    The International Cryogenic Materials Conference entitled `Materials Processing, Microstructures and Critical Current of Superconductors' was hosted by the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, on 10-13 February 2004. The objective of this ICMC topical conference was to bring together world experts in materials processing, characterization and microstructure control of modern superconductors, to discuss the critical issues in superconductor technology and application. Topics of the conference included: processing of wires, tapes, coated conductors, melt textured bulk forms and thin films; synthesis of new materials; microstructure control; critical current density and current-limiting mechanisms; flux pinning, flux dynamics and AC loss; and applications of superconductors. The scientific challenges in the development of high field and high temperature superconductors (HTS) are interdisciplinary in nature, a characteristic very well reflected by the wide spectrum of participants at the conference. The workshop attracted 90 participants from 20 countries. These researchers were from the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, electrical engineering and electronics. Applied superconductivity has developed to the stage where a range of valuable materials have been identified and characterized, and many of the problems of fabrication into long lengths or thin films have been overcome. The conference programme covered BSCCO, YBCO, MgB2 and other related materials, and characterization of their electromagnetic properties. As is well known, applications of Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn wires are well advanced for MRI, NMR and many accelerator magnets. Bi-2223 wires from a number of companies have reached the level required for initial introduction into commercial applications. Bringing HTS and MgB2 wires to large-scale commercial application depends critically on understanding and further exploiting the full potential of these complex nanomaterials. The workshop was lively, informative and successful with many high quality oral and poster presentations. The papers selected for this issue after review represent a good cross-section of the work presented at the conference. The members of the workshop organizing committee contributed much of their spare time to the organization of the conference. In particular, we would like to acknowledge Dr Alex Pan and Dr Meng Jun Qin for their excellent work on the workshop programme and Mrs Babs Allen for her assistance in all aspects of the workshop. We would also like to thank the ICMC board and ISEM at the University of Wollongong for their financial support.

  10. Recent climatic changes and their impacts on energy and water budgets over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Qin, J.; Tang, W.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early of 1980s, the TP surfaces have been experiencing an overall rapid warming and wetting while wind speed and sunshine duration have been declining. This paper reviews recent progress in Tibetan Plateau (TP) climate changes studies. First, the surface warming rate shows clear increases from 3000 m to 4800 m ASL, and then becomes quite stable with a slight decline near the highest elevations. This altitudinal dependence of the warming rate has a significant implication for TP water resources and environmental changes, since most glaciers and snow surfaces are located above 5000 m ASL over the TP (refer to: Qin et al., 2009, Climatic Change, 97, 321-327). Second, an obvious transition from brightening to dimming around 1978 is found over the TP, and the dimming has been continued up to now. This transition is different from the average status of whole China, where solar radiation reached a stable level since the 1990s. As aerosol loads are very low over TP, this difference indicates that the importance of cloud changes in altering solar radiation may be comparable to or even exceed that of the aerosol changes (refer to: Tang et al., 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 393-406). Third, a state-of-the-art estimate of atmospheric heating source over the TP, which enhances the Asian monsoon, indicates that sensible heat, radiative convergence, and the total heat source have decreased since the 1980s, but their weakening trends were overestimated in a recent study (refer to: Yang et al., 2011, Journal of Climate, 24, 1525-1541). Last, surface water balance has been changed in recent decades. Observed precipitation shows insignificant increasing trends in central TP and decreasing trends along the TP periphery while evaporation shows overall increasing trends, leading to decreased discharge at major TP water resource areas (semi-humid and humid zones in the eastern and southern TP). The increase of evaporation is approximately consistent with the decrease of potential evaporation and pan evaporation, but deviated slightly from Bouchet's complementary relationship when vapor pressure deficit (or air temperature) is too low, which suppresses the power of vapor transfer (refer to: Yang et al. 2011, Climatic Change, DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4).

  11. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Oudraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities CLUVA project deliverable D2.7. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Date last accessed, Dec. 18th 2012

  12. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buc

  13. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

  14. Experiments in spin-polarized Fermi gases-- pairing without superfluidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Fermionic superfluidity requires pairing of fermions. The nature of fermionic pairing in the strongly interacting regime both in the superfluid and possibly in the normal phase is of interest to condensed matter, nuclear and high energy physics. The experimental realization of high temperature superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases opens a new approach to explore strongly interacting fermions both in the superfluid and normal phases. One question of relevance for example to superfluidity of quarks in cold baryonic matter as well as superconductivity has been the stability of the superfluid against an imbalance between the two strongly interacting fermionic components. An imbalance can be caused by different masses of the fermions or an externally applied magnetic field to a superconductor. In our experiments a density imbalance between two fermionic spin components is introduced. We will present the phase diagram of a spin-polarized Fermi gas of 6Li atoms at unitarity, mapping out the superfluid phase versus temperature and density imbalance. The nature of the phase transition changes from first-order to second-order at a tricritical point. At zero temperature, there is a quantum phase transition from a fully-paired superfluid to a partially-polarized normal gas at a critical spin polarization, known the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit of superfluidity. These observations together with the implementation of an in situ ideal gas thermometer provide quantitative tests of theoretical calculations on the stability of resonant superfluidity. Pairing correlations in the superfluid and normal phases were explored in radio-frequency spectroscopy experiments. We studied how pairing correlations evolve across the superfluid to normal phase transition both as a function of temperature and spin imbalance. Even at spin imbalances above the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit a gap in the single-particle excitation spectrum is observed. This indicates that the system is in a correlated state and the minority component is paired. The influence of final state interactions on the rf spectra will be discussed. Using a new superfluid 6Li spin mixture we demonstrate that pair dissociation spectra in the BEC-BCS crossover resemble asymmetric molecular dissociation spectra. Work done in collaboration with Y. Shin, A. Schirotzek and W. Ketterle, Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, and Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139.

  15. The biomechanics of soccer: a review.

    PubMed

    Lees, A; Nolan, L

    1998-04-01

    This review considers the biomechanical factors that are relevant to success in the game of soccer. Three broad areas are covered: (1) the technical performance of soccer skills; (2) the equipment used in playing the game; and (3) the causative mechanisms of specific soccer injuries. Kicking is the most widely studied soccer skill. Although there are many types of kick, the variant most widely reported in the literature is the maximum velocity instep kick of a stationary ball. In contrast, several other skills, such as throwing-in and goalkeeping, have received little attention; some, for example passing and trapping the ball, tackling, falling behaviour, jumping, running, sprinting, starting, stopping and changing direction, have not been the subject of any detailed biomechanical investigation. The items of equipment reviewed are boots, the ball, artificial and natural turf surfaces and shin guards. Little of the research conducted by equipment manufacturers is in the public domain; this part of the review therefore concentrates on the mechanical responses of equipment, player-equipment interaction, and the effects of equipment on player performance and protection. Although the equipment has mechanical characteristics that can be reasonably well quantified, the player-equipment interaction is more difficult to establish; this makes its efficacy for performance or protection difficult to predict. Some soccer injuries may be attributable to the equipment used. The soccer boot has a poor protective capability, but careful design can have a minor influence on reducing the severity of ankle inversion injuries. Performance requirements limit the scope for reducing these injuries; alternative methods for providing ankle stability are necessary. Artificial surfaces result in injury profiles different from those on natural turf pitches. There is a tendency for fewer serious injuries, but more minor injuries, on artificial turf than on natural turf pitches. Players adapt to surface types over a period of several games. Therefore, changing from one surface to another is a major aetiological factor in surface-related injuries. Heading the ball could lead to long-term brain damage. Simulation studies suggest the importance of ball mass, ball speed and player mass in affecting the severity of impact. Careful instruction and skill development, together with the correct equipment, is necessary for young players. Most applications of biomechanical techniques to soccer have been descriptive experimental studies. Biomechanical modelling techniques have helped in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of performance, although their use has been limited. It is concluded that there are still many features of the game of soccer that are amenable to biomechanical treatment, and many opportunities for biomechanists to make a contribution to the science of soccer. PMID:9596356

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 1011) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 109) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many yearsat least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T, Pausova Z. 2015. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and DNA methylation: epigenome-wide association in a discovery sample of adolescents and replication in an independent cohort at birth through 17 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 123:193199;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408614 PMID:25325234

  17. Pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave investigation of the large-amplitude motions in HBr-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. K.; Lovas, F. J.; Fraser, G. T.; Suenram, R. D.

    1995-09-01

    Microwave spectra of H79Br-CO2 and H81Br-CO2 and their D and 18O isotopomers have been measured using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The spectra are consistent with a T-shaped Br-CO2 geometry, as concluded previously by Zeng et al. [Y. P. Zeng, S. W. Sharpe, S. K. Shin, C. Wittig, and R. A. Beaudet, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5392 (1992)] from an investigation of the rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of the asymmetric C=O stretching vibration of the complex. Only b-type Ka=1?0 transitions are observed, with the symmetry-allowed a-type ?Ka=0 transitions being too weak to be detected. The absence of a strong a-type spectrum implies that the HBr axis is nearly parallel to the b-inertial axis of the complex, which itself is parallel to the C? axis of the CO2. The Ka=1?0 energy level spacing is approximately 1.2 GHz larger than that predicted from the infrared rotational constants due to an additional contribution to the splitting arising from the hindered-rotation tunneling of the HBr through a Cs or C2v transition state. Because the Bose-Einstein statistics of the spin-zero oxygen nuclei allow only symmetric tunneling states for Ka even and antisymmetric tunneling states for Ka odd, no doubling of the lines is observed. No evidence was obtained for this tunneling motion in the infrared spectrum of Zeng et al., since the tunneling state selection rules are symmetric?symmetric and antisymmetric?antisymmetric for the band studied. A dynamical modeling of the 79Br and 81Br nuclear quadrupole coupling constants gives an equilibrium ?CBrH angle of 103 and an HBr zero-point bending amplitude of 24. The implication of this study on the interpretation of experiments on the photoinitiated reaction of H atoms with CO2 using an HBr-CO2 precursor are discussed.

  18. Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate results than the logarithmic and conventional II methods. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No. 20134010200510) of the KETEP grant funded by the Korean government MOTIE and by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the MOF of Korea.

  19. Measurement of Scleral Thickness in Humans Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography.

    PubMed

    Buckhurst, Hetal D; Gilmartin, Bernard; Cubbidge, Robert P; Logan, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT, Visante; Zeiss) is used to examine meridional variation in anterior scleral thickness (AST) and its association with refractive error, ethnicity and gender. Scleral cross-sections of 74 individuals (28 males; 46 females; aged between 18-40 years (27.75.3)) were sampled twice in random order in 8 meridians: [superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N), temporal (T), superior-temporal (ST), superior-nasal (SN), inferior-temporal (IT) and inferior-nasal (IN)]. AST was measured in 1mm anterior-to-posterior increments (designated the A-P distance) from the scleral spur (SS) over a 6mm distance. Axial length and refractive error were measured with a Zeiss IOLMaster biometer and an open-view binocular Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Intra- and inter-observer variability of AST was assessed for each of the 8 meridians. Mixed repeated measures ANOVAs tested meridional and A-P distance differences in AST with refractive error, gender and ethnicity. Only right eye data were analysed. AST (meanSD) across all meridians and A-P distances was 72546 ?m. Meridian SN was the thinnest (66257 ?m) and I the thickest (80660 ?m). Significant differences were found between all meridians (p<0.001), except S:ST, IT:IN, IT:N and IN:N. Significant differences between A-P distances were found except between SS and 6 mm and between 2 and 4 mm. AST measurements at 1mm (68248 ?m) were the thinnest and at 6mm (81849 ?m) the thickest (p<0.001); a significant interaction occurred between meridians and A-P distances (p<0.001). AST was significantly greater (p<0.001) in male subjects but no significant differences were found between refractive error or ethnicity. Significant variations in AST occur with regard to meridian and distance from the SS and may have utility in selecting optimum sites for pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. PMID:26218188

  20. Associations of Sleep Apnea, NRG1 Polymorphisms, Alcohol Consumption, and Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities: Analysis with Genome-Wide Association Data

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Inkyung; Seo, Hyung Suk; Yoon, Daewui; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: There are few studies on gene-environment interactions with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms associated with OSA using genome-wide association (GWA) data and evaluate the effects of relevant polymorphisms on the association between risk factors, including obesity and alcohol consumption, and OSA. We also investigated on these associations in relation to cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance images. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: A polysomnography study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 20112013. Participants: 1,763 participants aged 4878 years. Results: 251 individuals were identified to have OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index ? 15. A common polymorphism of neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1), rs10097555, was selected as the most suggestive locus associated with OSA (P value < 10?5) based on the results of GWA analysis in a matched case-control subsample (n = 470). Among 1,763 participants, we found that the presence of the NRG1 polymorphism is inversely associated with OSA (P value < 0.01) even after taking into account potential risk factors; the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the mutant alleles was 0.57 (0.390.82) compared with the wild-type. We observed that this association is modified by alcohol consumption (P < 0.05), not by obesity. We also observed that WMH are positively associated with OSA independent of the NRG1 polymorphism and alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1) may be involved in the etiological mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and that carriers of a particular NRG1 mutation may be less likely to have OSA if they do not drink alcoholic beverages. Citation: Baik I, Seo HS, Yoon D, Kim SH, Shin C. Associations of sleep apnea, NRG1 polymorphisms, alcohol consumption, and cerebral white matter hyperintensities: analysis with genome-wide association data. SLEEP 2015;38(7):11371143. PMID:25325441

  1. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009), Stereo workstation for Mars rover image analysis, in EPSC (Europlanets), Potsdam, Germany, EPSC2009-390

  2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[-20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[-344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96-2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[-20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05-0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A+A/C for AGT(A[-20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[-344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. PMID:24907556

  3. Volcanic-related alteration and geochemistry of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyushu, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasaki, S.

    2002-03-01

    Satsuma-Iwojima is located near the northwestern margin of Kikai caldera, and active Mt. Iwodake is one of the post-caldera cones. Inside the summit crater of about 300 m diameter and 50 m depth, volcanic gas with maximum temperature >800C is discharged. At Iwodake, the rhyolite is strongly altered by volcanic vapor and acid hydrothermal solution inside and around the summit crater. The main alteration mineral assemblages at surface include quartz-tridymite-cristobalite, tridymite-cristobalite-alunite and cristobalite-(alunite) inside the summit crater and on the flank. Molybdenum blue sublimates are forming at the surface around high-temperature fumaroles inside the summit crater. The ground surface is commonly cemented by amorphous silica or cristobalite. The original rhyolite with SiO2 = 71-72 wt% has been leached, resulting in a rock with maximum SiO2 = 97 wt%. All major elements are leached except for TiO2. Although LIL (large-ion lithophile) elements have leached, HFS (high field-strength) elements appear to be immobile. Rare earth elements are considered to have been soluble as a complex with sulfate mainly in the low pH hydrothermal fluid during the silicification of the rhyolite. There is abundant Mo, Pb, Zn, Bi, Sn and much lower As in the volcanic sublimates and altered rocks inside the summit crater. By contrast, the rocks near the acid springs at the foot of the cone are As-rich, but with lower Pb, Zn, Bi and little Mo in comparison with the summit. The fractures and fumarole locations around Iwodake summit and erosional ridges on the flanks reflects a NE-SW trend that is parallel to the trace of the outer ring of Kikai caldera. In addition, this is the same direction as the alignment of Shin-Iwojima, Iwodake and Inamuradake, all of which are post-caldera cones. Zones of structural weakness parallel to the caldera rim may exist, acting as pathways for the ascending volcanic gases and hydrothermal solutions. Fumarolic activity appears to be shifting gradually to the eastern part of the summit crater.

  4. Comparing the relative peripheral refraction effect of single vision and multifocal contact lenses measured using an autorefractor and an aberrometer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the contributions of single vision (SVCL) and multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) to the relative peripheral refraction (RPR) profiles obtained via an autorefractor and an aberrometer in a pilot study. Methods Two instruments, Shin-Nippon NVision K5001 (SN) and COAS-HD, were modified to permit open field PR measurements. Two myopic adults (CF, RB) were refracted (cycloplegia) under eight conditions: baseline (no CL); three SVCLs: Focus Dailies (Alcon, USA), PureVision (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and AirOptix (Alcon, USA); and four MFCLs: AirOptix (Alcon, USA), Proclear Distant and Near (Cooper Vision, USA), and PureVision (Bausch & Lomb, USA). CLs had a distance prescription of ?2.00D and for MFCLs, a +2.50D Add was selected. Five independent measurements were performed at field angles from ?40 to +40 in 10 increments with both instruments. The COAS-HD measures were analyzed at 3mm pupil diameter. Results are reported as a change in the relative PR profile, as refractive power vector components: M, J180, and J45. Results Overall, at baseline, M, J180 and J45 measures obtained with SN and COAS-HD were considerably different only for field angles ?30, which agreed well with previous studies. With respect to M, this observation held true for most SVCLs with a few exceptions. The J180 measures obtained with COAS-HD were considerably greater in magnitude than those acquired with SN. For SVCLs, the greatest difference was found at ?40 for AirOptix SV (?CF=3.20D, ?RB=1.56D) and for MFCLs it was for Proclear Distance at ?40 (?CF=2.58D, ?RB=1.39D). The J45 measures obtained with SN were noticeably different to the respective measures with COAS-HD, both in magnitude and sign. The greatest difference was found with AirOptix Multifocal in subject RB at ?40, where the COAS-HD measurement was 1.50D more positive. In some cases, the difference in the RPR profiles observed between subjects appeared to be associated with CL decentration. Conclusion For most test conditions, distinct differences were observed between the RPR measures obtained with the two modified instruments. The differences varied with CL design and centration. Although the pilot study supports the interchangeable use of the two instruments for on- and off-axis refraction in unaided eyes or eyes corrected with low/no spherical aberration; we advocate the use of the COAS-HD over the SN for special purposes like refracting through multifocal CLs. PMID:25662364

  5. Overview of injuries in the young athlete.

    PubMed

    Adirim, Terry A; Cheng, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 million children in the US participate in organised sports programmes. As more and more children participate in sports and recreational activities, there has been an increase in acute and overuse injuries. Emergency department visits are highest among the school-age to young adult population. Over one-third of school-age children will sustain an injury severe enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse. The yearly costs have been estimated to be as high as 1.8 billion US dollars. There are physical and physiological differences between children and adults that may cause children to be more vulnerable to injury. Factors that contribute to this difference in vulnerability include: children have a larger surface area to mass ratio, children have larger heads proportionately, children may be too small for protective equipment, growing cartilage may be more vulnerable to stresses and children may not have the complex motor skills needed for certain sports until after puberty. The most commonly injured areas of the body include the ankle and knee followed by the hand, wrist, elbow, shin and calf, head, neck and clavicle. Contusions and strains are the most common injuries sustained by young athletes. In early adolescence, apophysitis or strains at the apophyses are common. The most common sites are at the knee (Osgood-Schlatter disease), at the heel (Sever's disease) and at the elbow (Little League Elbow). Non-traumatic knee pain is one of the most common complaints in the young athlete. Patellar Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) has a constellation of causes that include overuse, poor tracking of the patellar, malalignment problems of the legs and foot problems, such as pes planus. In the child, hip pathology can present as knee pain so a careful hip exam is important in the child presenting with an insidious onset of knee pain. Other common injuries in young athletes discussed include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, ankle sprains and ankle fractures. Prevention of sports and recreation-related injuries is the ideal. There are six potential ways to prevent injuries in general: (i) the pre-season physical examination; (ii) medical coverage at sporting events; (iii) proper coaching; (iv) adequate hydration; (v) proper officiating; and (vi) proper equipment and field/surface playing conditions. PMID:12477379

  6. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined effect on the CKD was modified by the hypertension and diabetes status.

  7. Inhibition of cellular enzymes by equine catechol estrogens in human breast cancer cells: specificity for glutathione S-transferase P1-1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiaqin; Chang, Minsun; Li, Yan; Pisha, Emily; Liu, Xuemei; Yao, Dan; Elguindi, Ebrahim C; Blond, Sylvie Y; Bolton, Judy L

    2002-07-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of detoxification isozymes that protect cells by conjugating GSH to a variety of toxic compounds, and they may also play a role in the regulation of both cellular proliferation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that human GST P1-1, which is the most widely distributed extrahepatic isozyme, could be inactivated by the catechol estrogen metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) in vitro [Chang, M., Shin, Y. G., van Breemen, R. B., Blond, S. Y., and Bolton, J. L. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 4811-4820]. In the present study, we found that 4-OHEN and another catechol estrogen, 4,17beta-hydroxyequilenin (4,17beta-OHEN), significantly decreased GSH levels and the activity of GST within minutes in both estrogen receptor (ER) negative (MDA-MB-231) and ER positive (S30) human breast cancer cells. In addition, 4-OHEN caused significant decreases in GST activity in nontransformed human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) but not in the human hepatoma HepG2 cells, which lack GST P1-1. We also showed that GSH partially protected the inactivation of GST P1-1 by 4-OHEN in vitro, and depletion of cellular GSH enhanced the 4-OHEN-induced inhibition of GST activity. In addition, 4-OHEN GSH conjugates contributed about 27% of the inactivation of GST P1-1 by 4-OEHN in vitro. Our in vitro kinetic inhibition experiments with 4-OHEN showed that GST P1-1 had a lower K(i) value (20.8 microM) compared to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, 52.4 microM), P450 reductase (PR, 77.4 microM), pyruvate kinase (PK, 159 microM), glutathione reductase (GR, 230 microM), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 448 microM), catalase (562 microM), GST M1-1 (620 microM), thioredoxin reductase (TR, 694 microM), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, 1410 microM). In contrast to the significant inhibition of total GST activity in these human breast cancer cells, 4-OHEN only slightly inhibited the cellular GAPDH activity, and other cellular enzymes including PR, PK, GR, SOD, catalase, TR, and GPX were resistant to 4-OHEN-induced inhibition. These data suggest that GST P1-1 may be a preferred protein target for equine catechol estrogens in vivo. PMID:12119004

  8. Comparison of cost-benefit analysis of nitrogen dioxide control in Tokyo, Japan with those in other countries and cities

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, A.S.; Araki, S.; Sakai, R.; Sato, H.

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the economic effectiveness of past NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo, the authors compared the results of their cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of these controls with other investigations. The authors carried out a CBA of NO{sub 2} controls in Tokyo using Freeman's benefit methodology and EPA and Dixon et al. cost methodologies and they compared their assumptions and results to work done by other researchers for other countries and cities, which were collected from the literature. The authors assumed 2 to 3 days duration per incidence of respiratory illness. Kenkel suggested 4.1 days and Dixon et al. assumed 2 weeks. They estimated avoided incidence per person in adults as 2.6 (upper limit UL 2.7; lower limit LL 2.4) and in children as 0.33 (UL 0.35; LL 0.30). Ostro estimated 0.20 for respiratory symptoms in adults from NO{sub 2} exposure, 5.2 for respiratory symptoms and 0.078 for asthma attacks in adults from particulates. The authors estimated work loss days (WLDs) per person for workers as 4.7 (UL 5.0; LL 4.4) and for working mothers as 0.61 (UL 0.66; LL 0.56). Shin et al.'s per-person estimates included 4.5 WLDs in Bangkok, 3.7 in Beijing, 2.3 in Shanghai, and 1.1 in Kuala Lumpur. They estimated the cost effectiveness of NO{sub 2} control in Tokyo to be $1,400/ton (UL $1,500; LL $1,300) for motor vehicles, $21,000/ton (UL $23,000; LL $19,000) for all NO{sub x} sources, and $91,000/ton (UL $98,000; LL $84,000) for stationary point sources. This compares to $240 to $1,500/ton in West Virginia for all NO{sub x} sources, $2,700/ton in northern Virginia from motor vehicles, $5,600/ton from motor vehicles in Virginia, and $17,000 to $26,000/ton from all NO{sub x} sources in the Chesapeake River Watershed. Herein, the benefits in Tokyo exceeded the costs by a ratio of approximately 6 to 1 (UL 7:1; LL 5:1).

  9. Guinea pig liver Mu-class glutathione S-transferase M1-2 cross-reacts with antibodies to both rat Mu- and theta-class glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, A; Ogura, K; Fujioka, H; Sakamoto, Y; Okuda, H; Wada, K; Tanaka, T; Nishiyama, T; Watabe, T

    1998-06-01

    Two novel major heterodimeric Mu-class glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs), designated M1-2 and M1-3*, were isolated from guinea pig (gp) liver cytosol and purified to homogeneity together with a known major homodimeric Mu-class gpGSTM1-1 (reported as GST b by R. Oshino, K. Kamei, M. Nishioka, and M. Shin, 1990, J. Biochem. 107, 105-110). These three gpGSTs were quantitatively retained on an S-hexyl-GSH affinity column and separated as homogeneous proteins by chromatofocusing. Subunits of the heterodimers were inseparable on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but could be completely separated by reverse-phase partition high-performance liquid chromatography. A molecular cloning study demonstrated that the gpGST subunit M2 consisted of 217 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 25,562 and shared 84% identity in overall amino acid sequence with gpGSTM1-1. N-terminal amino acid sequences of peptides from the gpGST subunit M3* with a blocked N-terminus strongly suggested that it should belong to the Mu class. Western blot analysis using antisera raised against purified rat (r) GSTsA1-2 (Alpha), M1-1, P1-1 (Pi), and T2-2 (Theta) indicated that gpGSTsM1-1 and M1-3* cross-reacted only with anti-rGSTM1 antibody. However, gpGSTM1-2 cross-reacted intensely to almost the same extent with antibodies to both rGSTsM1-1 and T2-2. A homodimeric gpGSTM2-2, artificially constructed from native gpGSTM1-2 by treatment with guanidine hydrochloride followed by dialysis, intensely cross-reacted with antibodies to both the rat Mu- and Theta-class GSTs. Thus, the gpGST subunit M2 provided the first evidence for the double immuno-cross-reaction of a GST with polyclonal antibodies to two different classes of GSTs. PMID:9633615

  10. Environmental Lead Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Domains in a Community Sample of South Korean School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Im, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Bhang, Soo-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-level environmental exposure to lead has been associated with both reduced intelligence and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have estimated the association of lead and intelligence independent of ADHD, and it is not clear from previous studies whether lead is associated with both inattention and impulsivity ADHD symptoms. Objectives We estimated mutually adjusted associations of environmental lead exposure with both intelligence and ADHD symptoms, and associations between lead and specific ADHD-related domains. Methods Blood lead concentrations were measured in a general population of 1,001 children 811 years of age. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of blood lead concentrations with IQ scores, teacher and parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and measures of inattention and impulsivity. Models were adjusted for demographic variables and other environmental exposures (blood levels of mercury and manganese, urinary concentrations of cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and bisphenol A). Results Associations of blood lead with lower IQ and higher impulsivity were robust to adjustment for a variety of covariates. When adjusted for demographic characteristics, other environmental exposures, and ADHD symptoms or IQ, a 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with lower Full-Scale IQ (7.23; 95% CI: 13.39, 1.07) and higher parent- and teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity scores (ADHD Rating Scale, 1.99; 95% CI: 0.17, 3.81 and 3.66; 95% CI: 1.18, 6.13, respectively) and commission errors (Continuous Performance Test, 12.27; 95% CI: 0.08, 24.62). Blood lead was not significantly associated with inattention in adjusted models. Conclusions Low-level lead exposure was adversely associated with intelligence in school-age children independent of ADHD, and environmental lead exposure was selectively associated with impulsivity among the clinical features of ADHD. Citation Hong SB, Im MH, Kim JW, Park EJ, Shin MS, Kim BN, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Bhang SY, Hong YC, Cho SC. 2015. Environmental lead exposure and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom domains in a community sample of South Korean school-age children. Environ Health Perspect 123:271276;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307420 PMID:25280233

  11. Adjoint sensitivity structures of typhoon DIANMU (2010) based on a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Joo, S.; Shin, H.; Won, D.

    2010-12-01

    Sung-Min Kim1, Hyun Mee Kim1, Sang-Won Joo2, Hyun-Cheol Shin2, DukJin Won2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea1 Korea Meteorological Administration2 Submitted to AGU 2010 Fall Meeting 13-17 December 2010, San Francisco, CA The path and intensity forecast of typhoons (TYs) depend on the initial condition of the TY itself and surrounding background fields. Because TYs are evolved on the ocean, there are not many observational data available. In this sense, additional observations on the western North Pacific are necessary to get the proper initial condition of TYs. Due to the limited resource of observing facilities, identifying the sensitive regions for the specific forecast aspect in the forecast region of interest will be very beneficial to decide where to deploy additional observations. The additional observations deployed in those sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observations, and the strategies to decide the sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observation strategies. Among the adaptive observation strategies, the adjoint sensitivity represents the gradient of some forecast aspects with respect to the control variables of the model (i.e., initial conditions, boundary conditions, and parameters) (Errico 1997). According to a recent research on the adjoint sensitivity of a TY based on a regional model, the sensitive regions are located horizontally in the right half circle of the TY, and vertically in the lower and upper troposphere near the TY (Kim and Jung 2006). Because the adjoint sensitivity based on a regional model is calculated in a relatively small domain, the adjoint sensitivity structures may be affected by the size and location of the domain. In this study, the adjoint sensitivity distributions for TY DIANMU (2010) based on a global model are investigated. The adjoint sensitivity based on a global model is calculated by using the perturbation forecast (PF) and adjoint PF model of the Unified Model at KMA originated from UK Met Office. Results of the adjoint sensitivity structure will be presented in the conference.

  12. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation, and Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis," Edited by K.-K. Liu, L. Atkinson, R. Quinones, L. Talaue-McManus, Springer-Verlag, 291-303. Semiletov, I., O. Dudarev, V. Luchin, K.-H. Shin, and N. Tanaka, 2005, The East-Siberian Sea as a transition zone between Pacific-derived waters and Artic shelf waters, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L10614/2005GL022490

  13. - and Mesoscopic Patterns on Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2002-03-01

    A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs d -doped heterostructures [4]. These structures can be considered as regular arrays of mesoscopic cells or 2-D photonic band gap crystals. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets, Magnetotransport in mesoscopic carbon networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.319-323, 2001. 2. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, L.V. Govor, V.K. Ksenevich, I.A. Bashmakov, I.M. Grigorieva, L.V. Solovjova, Fabrication of regular mesoscopic networks of GaAs wires, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.127-130, 1999. 3. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, V.K. Ksenevich, G. Kiss, G. Remenyi, Observation of transport in mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped networks, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.197-202, 1999 4. J. Galibert, V.A. Samuilov, V.K. Ksenevich, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, Magnetoresistance of low dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shape GaAs networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.314-318, 2001. 5. S. Zhu, R.J. Gambino, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, S.A. Schwarz, and R.D. Gomez, "Microscopic Magnetic Characterization of Submicron Cobalt Islands Prepared Using Self-Assembled Polymer Masking Technique," IEEE Trans. Magn., 33, 3022, 1997. 6. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85, p.p.5651-5654, 2000.

  14. Topological Kondo Insulator (TKI) and related candidate materials: High-resolution ARPES studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I plan to present ARPES (synchrotron and laser-based) studies of several mix valence and Kondo insulator phenomena in some of the rare earth heavy fermion compounds in connection to their non-trivial topology of band structures. Focus will be on SmB6 which has been predicted to be a TKI recently. By combining low-temperature and high energy-momentum resolution of the laser-based ARPES technique, for the first time, we accessed the surface electronic structure of the anomalous conductivity regime. At low T, we observe in-gap states within a 4 meV energy window of the Fermi level, which lie clearly within the bulk insulating gap. The in-gap states are found to be suppressed and eventually disappear, as the temperature is raised in approaching the coherent Kondo lattice hybridization (30 K), which proves that the in-gap states strongly depend on the existence of Kondo lattice hybridization and the effective Kondo gap, in agreement with their theoretical predicted origin of topological surface states within the Kondo insulating gap . Our Fermi mapping at the energy corresponding to these in-gap states shows distinct Fermi pockets that enclose the three Kramers' points the surface Brillouin zone, which are remarkably consistent with the theoretically predicted topological surface Fermi surface in the topological Kondo insulating phase within the level of energy resolution. The observed Fermi surface topology of the in-gap states, their temperature dependence across the transport anomaly and Kondo lattice hybridization temperatures, as well as their robustness against repeated thermal recycling, collectively not only provide a unique insight illuminating the nature of the residual conductivity anomaly but also serve as a strong experimental evidence to the predicted topological Kondo insulator phase. I also plan to present results on YbB6 and YbB12 both of which are mix valence compounds. This work is in collaboration with Madhab Neupane, N. Alidoust, S.-Y. Xu, T. Kondo, Y. Ishida, D.-J. Kim, Chang Liu, I. Belopolski, T.-R. Chang, H.-T. Jeng, T. Durakiewicz, L. Balicas, H. Lin, A. Bansil, S. Shin and Z. Fisk and primarily supported by U.S. DOE and Princeton University.

  15. An Alternative Realization of Gauss-Newton for Frequency-Domain Acoustic Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chi, B.; Dong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since FWI was studied under the least-square misfit optimization proposed by Tarantola (1984) in time domain, it has been greatly improved by many researchers. Pratt (1998) developed FWI in frequency domain using a Gauss-Newton optimization. In recent years, FWI has been widely studied under the framework of adjoint-state methods, as summarized by Plessix (2006). Preconditioning and high order gradients are important for FWI. Many researches have focused on the Newton optimization, in which the calculation of inverse Hessian is the key problem. Pseudo Hessian such as the diagonal Hessian was firstly used to approximate inverse Hessian (Choi & Shin, 2007). Then Gauss-Newton or l-BFGS method was widely studied to iteratively calculate the inverse approximate Hessian Haor full Hessian (Sheen et al., 2006). Full Hessian is the base of the exact Newton optimization. Fichtner and Trampert (2011) presented an extension of the adjoint-state method to directly compute the full Hessian; Métivier et al. (2012) proposed a general second-order adjoint-state formula for Hessian-vector product to tackle Gauss-Newton and exact Newton. Liu et al. (2014) proposed a matrix-decomposition FWI (MDFWI) based on Born kernel. They used the Born Fréchet kernel to explicitly calculate the gradient of the objective function through matrix decomposition, no full Fréchet kernel being stored in memory beforehand. However, they didn't give a method to calculate the Gauss-Newton. In this paper, We propose a method based on Born Fréchet kernel to calculate the Gauss-Newton for acoustic full waveform inversion (FWI). The Gauss-Newton is iteratively constructed without needing to store the huge approximate Hessian (Ha) or Fréchet kernel beforehand, and the inverse of Ha is not need to be calculated either. This procedure can be efficiently accomplished through matrix decomposition. More resolved result and faster convergence are obtained when this Gauss-Newton is applied in FWI based on the Born Fréchet kernel in 2D numerical experiments. This Gauss-Newton FWI need much less computation than adjoint-state FWI when source-station number is more than only a few percent of the receiver-station number. Such condition is common in controlled source exploration, OBS exploration, natural seismology, and even some certain seismic exploration.

  16. Measurement of Scleral Thickness in Humans Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Buckhurst, Hetal D.; Gilmartin, Bernard; Cubbidge, Robert P.; Logan, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT, Visante; Zeiss) is used to examine meridional variation in anterior scleral thickness (AST) and its association with refractive error, ethnicity and gender. Scleral cross-sections of 74 individuals (28 males; 46 females; aged between 18-40 years (27.75.3)) were sampled twice in random order in 8 meridians: [superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N), temporal (T), superior-temporal (ST), superior-nasal (SN), inferior-temporal (IT) and inferior-nasal (IN)]. AST was measured in 1mm anterior-to-posterior increments (designated the A-P distance) from the scleral spur (SS) over a 6mm distance. Axial length and refractive error were measured with a Zeiss IOLMaster biometer and an open-view binocular Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Intra- and inter-observer variability of AST was assessed for each of the 8 meridians. Mixed repeated measures ANOVAs tested meridional and A-P distance differences in AST with refractive error, gender and ethnicity. Only right eye data were analysed. AST (meanSD) across all meridians and A-P distances was 72546?m. Meridian SN was the thinnest (66257?m) and I the thickest (80660?m). Significant differences were found between all meridians (p<0.001), except S:ST, IT:IN, IT:N and IN:N. Significant differences between A-P distances were found except between SS and 6 mm and between 2 and 4 mm. AST measurements at 1mm (68248 ?m) were the thinnest and at 6mm (81849 ?m) the thickest (p<0.001); a significant interaction occurred between meridians and A-P distances (p<0.001). AST was significantly greater (p<0.001) in male subjects but no significant differences were found between refractive error or ethnicity. Significant variations in AST occur with regard to meridian and distance from the SS and may have utility in selecting optimum sites for pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. PMID:26218188

  17. Study of effect of excipient source variation on rheological behavior of diltiazem HCl-HPMC wet masses using a mixer torque rheometer.

    PubMed

    Chatlapalli, Ramarao; Rohera, Bhagwan D

    2002-05-15

    In the wet massing of powders and powder blends, the rheological behavior of the wet powder masses not only plays a critical role in the unit process but also influences the attributes of the product. The physical properties of the powder excipients, such as particle size and size distribution, shape, surface area, bulk and tapped density and surface morphology, are a major source of variability in the rheological behavior of wet powder masses and the quality attributes of the final product. The objective of the present investigations was to study the rheological behavior of wet masses containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) obtained from two sources (Methocel from Dow and Pharmacoat from Shin-Etsu) using a mixer torque rheometer. In order to simulate a real formulation, diltiazem HCl (DTZ) (40% loading) was used as part of the substrate powder mass. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was used as the binder. Since HPMC is water-soluble, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as the wet massing liquid. The rheological behavior of the wet powder masses was studied as a function of mixing time and amount of wet massing liquid (IPA). The rheological profiles obtained for DTZ-Methocel and DTZ-Pharmacoat exhibited same magnitude for mean torque, however, for DTZ-Pharmacoat the peak was more extended than that for DTZ-Methocel. The extended peak for DTZ-Pharmacoat indicated that the wet mass will stay suitable during the process for larger quantities of the wet massing liquid before turning into paste and becoming unsuitable for the process as compared with the DTZ-Methocel system. The mixing kinetics of the two powder systems appeared to be quite different. These differences in the rheological behavior of the wet masses may be attributed to the difference in the particulate and surface properties of the two HPMCs. Some of the properties of the two HPMCs, such as particle size and size distribution, surface area, surface morphology and DSC thermograms, explain the difference observed in their rheological behavior. The difference in the rheological profiles of the two DTZ-HPMC systems indicated superiority of Pharmacoat over Methocel considering their wet massing behavior. PMID:11996818

  18. Precipitation response to the current ENSO variability in a warming world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Marvel, K.; Leung, L.

    2013-12-01

    The major triggers of past and recent droughts include large modes of variability, such as ENSO, as well as specific and persistent patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs; Hoerling and Kumar, 2003, Shin et al. 2010, Schubert et al. 2009). However, alternative drought initiators are also anticipated in response to increasing greenhouse gases, potentially changing the relative contribution of ocean variability as drought initiator. They include the intensification of the current zonal wet-dry patterns (the thermodynamic mechanism, Held and Soden, 2006), a latitudinal redistribution of global precipitation (the dynamical mechanism, Seager et al. 2007, Seidel et al. 2008, Scheff and Frierson 2008) and a reduction of local soil moisture and precipitation recycling (the land-atmosphere argument). Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether the relative contribution of those mechanisms change over time in response to global warming. In this study, we first perform an EOF analysis of the 1900-1999 time series of observed global SST field and identify a simple ENSO-like (ENSOL) mode of SST variability. We show that this mode is well spatially and temporally correlated with observed worldwide regional precipitation and drought variability. We then develop concise metrics to examine the fidelity with which the CMIP5 coupled global climate models (CGCMs) capture this particular ENSO-like mode in the current climate, and their ability to replicate the observed teleconnections with precipitation. Based on the CMIP5 model projections of future climate change, we finally analyze the potential temporal variations in ENSOL to be anticipated under further global warming, as well as their associated teleconnections with precipitation (pattern, amplitude, and total response). Overall, our approach allows us to determine what will be the effect of the current ENSO-like variability (i.e., as measured with instrumental observations) on precipitation in a warming world. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and is supported, among others, by C.B. Early Career Research Program award.

  19. Rapid identification of serotypes of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex by using infected swine sera and reference antigenic glycolipids.

    PubMed Central

    Ikawa, H; Oka, S; Murakami, H; Hayashi, A; Yano, I

    1989-01-01

    The species of 136 strains of acid-fast bacteria isolated from swine with mycobacteriosis were identified by numerical taxonomy and chemotaxonomy on the basis of mycolic acid subclass composition as members of the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare (MAI) complex. The isolates were further classified by using both thin-layer chromatography of the antigenic glycopeptidolipids (GPL) obtained from the bacteria by the method of Tsang et al. (A. Y. Tsang, I. Drupa, M. Goldberg, J. K. McClatchy, and P. J. Brennan, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33:285-292, 1983) and the seroagglutination test devised by W. B. Schaefer (Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 92[Suppl.]:85-93, 1965). For the reference standard, purified antigenic GPL of serotypes 4, 8, and 9 were isolated and their structures were analyzed by negative fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometric spectra of the intact GPL antigens of serotypes 4, 8, and 9 agreed with the structures reported earlier by Brennan et al. (P. J. Brennan and M. B. Goren, J. Biol. Chem. 254:4205-4211, 1979; P. J. Brennan, G. O. Aspinall, and J. E. Nam Shin, J. Biol. Chem. 256:6817-6822, 1981). With these antigenic GPL, the thin-layer chromatographic behaviors of the alkali-stable lipids of the above-described isolates were examined. These MAI complex isolates fell into the serotype 8 (85 strains), 4 (33 strains), and 9 (7 strains) and untypeable (11 strains) categories. Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on type-specific glycolipid antigens and infected swine sera was used to diagnose the serological types of the MAI complex isolates. Of 14 cases typed by both the seroagglutination reaction and thin-layer chromatography, 13 showed clear agreement with the ELISA results. The results demonstrated that ELISA using infected sera was especially useful, and it can be recommended on the basis of simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity as an adjunct to the seroaggulutination test and thin-layer chromatography for identification of mycobacteria belonging to the MAI complex. PMID:2808677

  20. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 241/7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul

    2004-06-01

    The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting.The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for enhanced relationship between all participants. We deeply appreciate the help of the editorial staff of physica status solidi for their efficient and kind help during the paper preparations and publications.Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all members of the Advisory Committee, Organizing Committee, referees, and KMS staff for their effort before, during, and after the meeting.

  1. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 201/8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul

    2004-06-01

    The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for enhanced relationship between all participants. We deeply appreciate the help of the editorial staff of physica status solidi for their efficient and kind help during the paper preparations and publications.Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all members of the Advisory Committee, Organizing Committee, referees, and KMS staff for their effort before, during, and after the meeting.

  2. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden F, Prüss-Ustün A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen A. 2014. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:397–403; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049 PMID:24518036

  3. Methane-related microbial processes and metabolic stratification in a terrestrial mud volcano, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.; Chu, P.; Wu, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are distinct geological features with fluid, sediment and hydrocarbon-enriched gas mixtures emitted from deep sedimentary environments. Without microbial attenuation in the water column, methane emission to atmosphere from terrestrial mud volcanoes constitutes a significant proportion to the global methane inventory. Microorganisms mediating methane transformation would be particularly enriched in such environments. Their activity, distribution, and diversity involved remain not well-constrained. At Shin-Yan-Ny-Hu Mud Volcanoes (SYNHMV) of southwestern Taiwan, we performed series of measurements and analyses on the pore water and eruptive water samples using geochemical and molecular approaches, in order to determine microbial processes and community assemblages responsible for methane transformation. Geochemical measurements indicated that sulfate depletion was companied with methane increase as the depth increased. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) more depleted in 13C was observed at the depth of sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT, at ~12cm depth) than at other depth intervals. These characteristics of methane, sulfate, and DIC isotope profiles and the presence of ANME-1 sequences showed a high similarity with those of marine sediments, indicating the existence of active anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). From bottom to top, the increasing ?13C values of methane with the greatest value occurring in the eruptive surface water suggests methanogenesis and/or methane oxidation over the entire depth range. The contribution of microbial methane could be supported by molecular data of which methanogen-related archaea distributed throughout the entire depths, and the community structures were characterized by Methanosarcinales dominating at shallow depths and Methanomicrobiales dominating in deep sediments. The affinities and activities to substrate addition for methanogenesis appeared to be depth-dependent. Bacterial sequences affiliated with methane-oxidizing gamma-proteobacteria members were mainly observed in the uppermost sediment samples. Delta-proteobacteria 16S sequences including Desulfuromonadales, Syntrophus, and Desulfomonales constituted significant proportions along the entire depth range. These findings concluded that methanogens were ubiquitously dispersed and actively expressed in the near-surface sediment of the terrestrial mud volcano while aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted for the methane consumption above SMT. Methane ascending from deep-reservoir would be altered substantially by microbial processes in both isotope compositions and abundances.

  4. Unexpected Return for Follow-up During the First Year of Multidisciplinary Care May Be Predictive of Rapid Deterioration of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Fang, Yu-Weil; Wang, Li Hui; You, Xiang Gin; Leu, Jyh-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Multidisciplinary predialysis education and team care (MDC) may slow the decline in renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, associations between unexpected return during MDC and progression of renal dysfunction have not been characterized in patients with CKD. Our study aimed to determine the association between exacerbation of renal dysfunction and the frequency of unexpected return during follow-up. A total of 437 patients with CKD receiving multidisciplinary care between January 2009 and June 2013 at the Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital were included in this retrospective observational cohort study, and multiple imputations were performed for missing data. The predictor was the frequency of unexpected return for follow-up during the first year after entering MDC. Main outcome was monthly declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Moreover, the demographic data, comorbidities, history of medication, and routine laboratory data for patients with CKD were collected. Among all patients, 59.7% were male, the mean age at initiation of MDC was 69.4??13.2 years, and the duration of follow-up was 21.4??3.3 months. The subjects were divided into 2 groups according to frequencies of follow-up (?4 and >?4 visits) during the 1st year of MDC. The patients with CKD were regularly followed up every 3 months as a part of MDC in our hospital, and patients who returned for more than 4 follow-up visits were included in the unexpected return group. In crude regression analyses, unexpected return was significantly associated with higher monthly declines of eGFR (??=?0.092, 95% confidence interval, 0.0140.170). This association remained after adjustments for multiple variables, and subgroup analyses of unexpected return showed that male gender, older age, CKD stage 1 to 3, hypertension, history of coronary artery disease, and use of reninangiotensin system blockade were significantly associated with declines in renal function. In conclusion, unexpected return for follow-up during the 1st year of MDC was significantly associated with the deterioration of renal function. PMID:26469913

  5. Past, Present, and Future Sea Level Change Assessments of Storm Surge: A Case Study Using Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major Gulf hurricanes have a high probability of impacting the northern Gulf of Mexico, especially coastal Mississippi (Resio, 2007). Due to the wide and flat continental shelf, this area provides near-perfect geometry for high water levels under tropical cyclonic conditions. Further, it is generally agreed that global sea levels due to climate change will rise anywhere from 18 to 100 cm by the year 2100 (Donoghue, 2011, IPCC, 2007) with some projecting even higher. Further, it is recognized that coastal Mississippi is highly susceptible to a retreating shoreline from sea level rise coupled with predictions for less frequent, more intense tropical storms from an increase in sea surface temperature (SST) (Trenberth, 2005, Webster, et al., 2005). A fully-validated, state-of-the-art ADCIRC+UnSWAN hydrodynamic model of coastal Mississippi was utilized to simulate Hurricane Katrina with present day sea level conditions. Using present day as a base scenario, past and future sea level changes were simulated. A regression was performed at local tide gauges to estimate past and project future sea levels. Also, surface roughness (i.e. Manning's n and wind reduction factors) was adjusted to reflect past landcover conditions as well as estimate future landcover change. Here, past, present and future sea level scenarios are modeled using a dynamic approach, along with Hurricane Katrina, and compared to present dynamic responses to sea level rise. The dynamic results will be compared and contrasted with a simpler bathtub model (static) approach. It will be demonstrated that water levels do not change linearly with modeled sea level cases (i.e. a 50 cm rise in sea level will not result in an additional 50 cm of water level at a given location) and are highly variable to changes in local conditions (e.g. topography, bathymetry, and surface roughness). Further, nearshore wind-wave conditions are affected by changes in local sea level due to the changes in momentum transfer from the waves to the water column. The results will be used to gain insight into possible morphological changes given several sea level scenarios coupled with an intense tropical cyclone. References Donoghue, J. (2011). "Sea Level History of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast and Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the near Future." Climatic Change, 107(1-2), 17-33. IPCC (2007). "The Physical Sceince Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." Climate Change 2007, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Avery, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds., Cambridge Univesity Press, Cambridge. Resio, D. T. (2007). "White Paper on Estimating Hurricane Inundation Probabilities." U.S. Army Engineering Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 125. Trenberth, K. (2005). "Uncertainty in Hurricanes and Global Warming." Science, 308(5729), 1753-1754. Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A., and Chang, H.-R. (2005). "Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment." Science, 309(5742), 1844-1846.

  6. Sensitivity of sediment contamination in the Elbe Estuary to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Haase, Holger; Hentschke, Uwe; Schubert, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    As a result of the projected climate-induced changes of temperature and precipitation (IPCC, 2007), an increase of the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as floods, storm surges or of extended periods of low river discharge is to be expected. An increase of flood events would result in an additional input of contaminated sediments from the inland. Contaminated particles will be transported along the rivers to the estuaries and consequently, a deterioration of the quality of estuarine particulate matter may occur. In addition, a sea level rise is predicted to occur along with global warming. In case of sea level rise or more frequent low river discharge situations, the upstream transport of slightly contaminated sediments of marine origin may be intensified, and cause decreasing concentrations of contaminants in particulate matter. The contamination of particulate matter plays an important role for the ecological quality of water bodies and has accordingly to be taken into account in the sediment management of navigable waters. This study focuses on the assessment of potential climate-induced and other man-made changes of particle-bound contaminant concentrations in the estuary of the river Elbe and the resulting challenges for sediment management in this navigable waterway. The estimation of climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations in estuarine particulate matter was based on results of projections on the fluvial particulate matter input into the Elbe estuary in the near (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) and on assumed extreme changes of such inputs. A mixing model using the concentrations of selected contaminants as indicators for marine and fluvial particulate matter was applied. Distinct changes of contaminant concentrations were found only for the far future and with the assumed extreme particulate matter inputs in the inner Elbe estuary. The worst-case scenario indicated that concentrations of some organochlorine contaminants in the far future exceed the national assessment criteria for the handling of dredged material within coastal waterways more distinct than today. Therefore, adaptations of practices for the management of dredged material to higher particulate matter contaminations should be considered there in the medium or long-term perspective. On the one hand, e.g. the practices of depositing dredged- material within the water system might be adapted (BfG 2014). On the other hand, the implementation of remediation measures like those planned under the Water Framework Directive could mitigate the climate-induced increase of contaminants. However, before the planning of adaption measures begins, the respectively prevailing contamination status should be verified, as climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations might be superimposed by direct anthropogenic activities, e.g. remediation measures to reduce contamination or construction works in waterways. Literature: BfG - Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (2014) Sedimentmanagement Tideelbe - Strategien und Potenziale - Systemstudie II. Ökologische Auswirkungen der Unterbringung von Feinmaterial. Band 1, Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamtes Hamburg. Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, BfG-Bericht 1763 IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  7. Quantification of Fugitive Methane Emissions with Spatially Correlated Measurements Collected with Novel Plume Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tracy; Rella, Chris; Crosson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of fugitive methane emissions from unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas, tight sand gas, etc.) production, processing, and transport is essential for scientists, policy-makers, and the energy industry, because methane has a global warming potential of at least 21 times that of carbon dioxide over a span of 100 years [1]. Therefore, fugitive emissions reduce any environmental benefits to using natural gas instead of traditional fossil fuels [2]. Current measurement techniques involve first locating all the possible leaks and then measuring the emission of each leak. This technique is a painstaking and slow process that cannot be scaled up to the large size of the natural gas industry in which there are at least half a million natural gas wells in the United States alone [3]. An alternative method is to calculate the emission of a plume through dispersion modeling. This method is a scalable approach since all the individual leaks within a natural gas facility can be aggregated into a single plume measurement. However, plume dispersion modeling requires additional knowledge of the distance to the source, atmospheric turbulence, and local topography, and it is a mathematically intensive process. Therefore, there is a need for an instrument capable of simple, rapid, and accurate measurements of fugitive methane emissions on a per well head scale. We will present the "plume camera" instrument, which simultaneously measures methane at different spatial points or pixels. The spatial correlation between methane measurements provides spatial information of the plume, and in addition to the wind measurement collected with a sonic anemometer, the flux can be determined. Unlike the plume dispersion model, this approach does not require knowledge of the distance to the source and atmospheric conditions. Moreover, the instrument can fit inside a standard car such that emission measurements can be performed on a per well head basis. In a controlled experiment with known releases from a methane tank, a 2-pixel plume camera measured 496 ± 160 sccm from a release of 650 sccm located 21 m away, and 4,180 ± 962 sccm from a release of 3,400 sccm located 49 m away. These results in addition to results with a higher-pixel camera will be discussed. Field campaign data collected with the plume camera pixels mounted onto a vehicle and driven through the natural gas fields in the Uintah Basin (Utah, United States) will also be presented along with the limitations and advantages of the instrument. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011). 3. U.S. Energy Information Administration. "Number of Producing Wells." . Accessed 6 January 2013.

  8. Estimation of the spatial validity of local aerosol measurements in Europe using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Carlos; Gmez-Amo, J. Luis; Pedrs, Roberto; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martnez-Lozano, J. Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The actual impact of atmospheric aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget is still associated to large uncertainties [IPCC, 2007]. Global monitoring of the aerosol properties and distribution in the atmosphere is needed to improve our knowledge of climate change. The instrumentation used for this purpose can be divided into two main groups: ground-based and satellite-based. Ground-based instruments, like lidars or Sun-photometers, are usually designed to measure accurate local properties of atmospheric aerosols throughout the day. However, the spatial validity of these measurements is conditioned by the aerosol variability within the atmosphere. Satellite-based sensors offer spatially resolved information about aerosols at a global scale, but generally with a worse temporal resolution and in a less detailed way. In this work, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm from MODIS Aqua, product MYD04 [Remer, 2005], is used to estimate the area of validity of local measurements at different reference points, corresponding to the AERONET [Holben, 1998] stations during the 2011-2012 period in Europe. For each case, the local AOD (AODloc) at each reference point is calculated as the averaged MODIS data within a radius of 15 km. Then, the AODloc is compared to the AOD obtained when a larger averaging radius is used (AOD(r)), up to 500 km. Only those cases where more than 50% of the pixels in each averaging area contain valid data are used. Four factors that could affect the spatial variability of aerosols are studied: proximity to the sea, human activity, aerosol load and geographical location (latitude and longitude). For the 76 reference points studied, which are sited in different regions of Europe, we have determined that the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between AODloc and AOD(r) , averaged for all cases, increases in a logarithmic way with the averaging radius (RMSD ? log(r)), while the linear correlation coefficient (R) decreases following a logarithmic trend (R ? -log(r)). Among all the factors studied, the aerosol load is the most influential one in the aerosol spatial variability: for averaging radii smaller than 40 km, the RMSD increases with AODloc. Another important factor is the latitude and longitude: the variation of the RMSD in the AOD with regard to the averaging radius can differ up to a 60%, depending on the location. On the contray, the proximity to the sea and the amount of population surrounding each reference point do not have a noticeable influence compared to the above mentioned factors. Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1-16, 1998. IPCC (2007). S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, USA. Remer, L. A., y co-authors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1

  9. Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Experimental work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. Soil CO2 emission is a key issue because of the potential impacts of this process on the greenhouse effect. The amount of organic carbon stored in soils worldwide is about 1600 gigatons (Gt) compared to 750 Gt in the atmosphere mostly in the form of CO2. Thus, if soil respiration increased slightly so that just 10% of the soil carbon pool was converted to CO2, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere could increase by one-fifth. General circulation model predictions indicate atmosphere warming between 2 and 5C (IPCC 2007) and precipitation changes ranging from about -15 to +30%. Traditionally, release of CO2 was thought to occur only in an intracellular environment; however, recently CO2 emissions have been in irradiated soil, in the absence of microorganisms (Maire et al., 2013). Moreover, soil plays a role in the stabilization of respiration enzymes promoting CO2 release after microorganism death. Here, we propose to improve CO2 emission experiments commonly used in soil biology to investigate: 1) effects of climatic factors on soil CO2 emissions, and 2) rates of extracellular respiration in soils and how these rates are affected by environmental factors. Experiment designed to assess the effect of climate change can be conducted either in field conditions under different ecosystems (forest, grassland, cropland) or in a greenhouse using simple soil chambers. The interactions of climate change in CO2 emissions are investigated using climate-manipulation experiment that can be adapted to field or greenhouse conditions (e.g. Mc Daniel et al., 2013). The experimental design includes a control plot (without soil temperature and rain manipulation) a warming treatment as well as wetting and/or drying treatments. Plots are warmed to the target temperature by procedures such as infrared heaters (field) or radiant cable (greenhouse). To analyze extracellular respiration, rates of CO2 emissions from sterilized soils and their unsterilized counterparts are compared. Moreover, different pH treatments are compared to analyze how soil pH affects extracellular CO2 release. Students benefit from experimental learning. Practical courses, being either in the field or indoors are of vital importance to bring soil processes to life and to evaluate implications for environment and climate change. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 996 pp. Maire, V., G. Alvarez, J. Colombet, A. Comby, R. Despinasse, E. Dubreucq, M. Joly, A.-C. Lehours, V. Perrier, T. Shahzad, and S. Fontaine. 2013. An unknown oxidative metabolism substantially contributes to soil CO2 emissions. Biogeochemistry, 10, 1155-1167, 2013

  10. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis and geodynamic setting of the Qianlishan granitic pluton, Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chun-Li; Wang, Ru-Cheng; Yuan, Shun-Da; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Yin, Bing

    2015-04-01

    The Qianlishan is a well-known granitic pluton directly related to the super large W-Sn-Mo-Bi polymetallic Shizhuyuan deposit in southeast China. The pluton is composed of three intrusive phases: the first phase of microfine-grained porphyritic biotite granite, the second phase of fine-grained porphyritic biotite granite, and the third phase of medium-grained equigranular zinnwaldite granite. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating yields precise ages for three phases; they are 154.5 and 152.3 Ma, 153.4 and 152.5 Ma, 152.4 and 151.6 Ma, respectively. Overall, all three granite phases contain high SiO2 (73.2-77.7 wt.%) and total alkalis (K2O+Na2O = 7.27-9.36 wt.%). Their aluminum saturation index values increase from 0.91-0.99 for Phase 1, through 0.92-1.01 for Phase 2, to 1.01-1.27 for Phase 3. Average (La/Yb)N ratios are 3.88, 4.12, and 1.06, respectively, in three phases. Compared with Phase 3 granite, the Phase 1 and 2 granites have less conspicuous negative Eu anomalies (Phases 1, 2 Eu/Eu* = 0.13-0.28; Phase 3 Eu/Eu* = 0.01-0.02); Phase 3 granite also shows stronger depletion in Sr, P, Zr, and Ti. Mica compositions change from Mg- and Fe- to Al, F, Li-rich, whereas plagioclase compositions evolve from andesine/oligoclase to albite from Phases 1 to 3 granites. Mineralogical features and whole-rock geochemistry indicate that Phase 3 granite experienced more intensive fractional crystallization than others. The Qianlishan granites have low ? Nd(t) values (-12.9 to -7.9). Zircon ? Hf(t) and ?18O values are -11.1 to -5.14 and 7.97 to 10.35, respectively. Two-stage model ages of whole-rock Nd isotopes (1.2-1.9 Ga) and zircon Hf isotopes (1.5-1.9 Ga) indicate that these granites were derived from partial melting of late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic crustal material. Phase 1 and 2 are fractionated I-type granites, and Phase 3 is high-degree fractionated S-type granite. High zirconium saturation temperature (~780 C) and presence of diopside indicate that these granites originated from partial melting under the relatively high temperature environment. Combined with alkaline basalts, tholeiitic basalts, and intraplate shoshonitic intrusions in time and space, the Qianlishan pluton occurs right within an intercontinental rift along the Qin-Hang deep fault zone in the middle to late Jurassic.

  11. Major types and time-space distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their geodynamic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingwen, Mao; Yanbo, Cheng; Maohong, Chen; Pirajno, Franco

    2013-03-01

    The ore deposits of the Mesozoic age in South China can be divided into three groups, each with different metal associations and spatial distributions and each related to major magmatic events. The first event occurred in the Late Triassic (230-210 Ma), the second in the Mid-Late Jurassic (170-150 Ma), and the third in the Early-Mid Cretaceous (120-80 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic event and associated mineralization is characterized by peraluminous granite-related W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineral deposits. The Triassic ore deposits are considerably disturbed or overprinted by the later Jurassic and Cretaceous tectono-thermal episodes. The Mid-Late Jurassic magmatic and mineralization events consist of 170-160 Ma porphyry-skarn Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits associated with I-type granites and 160-150 Ma metaluminous granite-related polymetallic W-Sn deposits. The Late Jurassic metaluminous granite-related W-Sn deposits occur in a NE-trending cluster in the interior of South China, such as in the Nanling area. In the Early-Mid Cretaceous, from about 120 to 80 Ma, but peaking at 100-90 Ma, subvolcanic-related Fe deposits developed and I-type calc-alkaline granitic intrusions formed porphyry Cu-Mo and porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au-Ag mineral systems, whereas S-type peraluminous and/or metaluminous granitic intrusions formed polymetallic Sn deposits. These Cretaceous mineral deposits cluster in distinct areas and are controlled by pull-apart basins along the South China continental margin. Based on mineral assemblage, age, and space-time distribution of these mineral systems, integrated with regional geological data and field observations, we suggest that the three magmatic-mineralization episodes are the result of distinct geodynamic regimes. The Triassic peraluminous granites and associated W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineralization formed during post-collisional processes involving the South China Block, the North China Craton, and the Indo-China Block, mostly along the Dabie-Sulu and Songma sutures. Jurassic events were initially related to the shallow oblique subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath the Eurasian continent at about 175 Ma, but I-type granitoids with porphyry Cu and vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits only began to form as a result of the breakup of the subducted plate at 170-160 Ma, along the NNE-trending Qinzhou-Hangzhou belt (also referred to as Qin-Hang or Shi-Hang belt), which is the Neoproterozoic suture that amalgamates the Yangtze Craton and Cathaysia Block. A large subduction slab window is assumed to have formed in the Nanling and adjacent areas in the interior of South China, triggering the uprise of asthenospheric mantle into the upper crust and leading to the emplacement of metaluminous granitic magma and associated polymetallic W-Sn mineralization. A relatively tectonically quiet period followed between 150 and 135 Ma in South China. From 135 Ma onward, the angle of convergence of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel to the coastline, resulting in continental extensional tectonics and reactivation of regional-scale NE-trending faults, such as the Tan-Lu fault. This widespread extension also promoted the development of NE-trending pull-apart basins and metamorphic core complexes, accompanied by volcanism and the formation of epithermal Cu-Au deposits, granite-related polymetallic Sn-(W) deposits and hydrothermal U deposits between 120 and 80 Ma (with a peak activity at 100-90 Ma).

  12. Towards depth profiling of organic aerosols in real time using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brggemann, Martin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    Organic aerosol accounts for a substantial fraction of tropospheric aerosol and has implications on the earth's climate and human health. However, the characterization of its chemical composition and transformations remain a major challenge and is still connected to large uncertainties (IPCC, 2013). Recent measurements revealed that organic aerosol particles may reside in an amorphous or semi-solid phase state which impedes the diffusion within the particles (Virtanen et al., 2010; Shiraiwa et al., 2011). This means that reaction products which are formed on the surface of a particle, e.g. by OH, NO3 or ozone chemistry, cannot diffuse into the particle's core and remain at the surface. Eventually, this leads to particles with a core/shell structure. In the particles' cores the initial compounds are preserved whereas the shells contain mainly the oxidation products. By analyzing the particles' cores and shells separately, thus, it is possible to obtain valuable information on the formation and evolution of the aerosols' particle and gas phase. Here we present the development of the aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (AeroFAPA) technique which allows the mass spectrometric analysis of organic aerosols in real time. The AeroFAPA is an ion source based on a helium glow discharge at atmospheric pressure. The plasma produces excited helium species and primary reagent ions which are transferred into the afterglow region where the ionization of the analytes takes place. Due to temperatures of only 80 C to 150 C and ambient pressure in the afterglow region, the ionization is very soft and almost no fragmentation of organic molecules is observed. Thus, the obtained mass spectra are easy to interpret and no extensive data analysis procedure is necessary. Additionally, first results of a combination of the AeroFAPA-MS with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) suggest that it is not only possible to analyze the entire particle phase but rather that a separate analysis of the particles' shells and cores is feasible by adjusting flow rates and temperatures in the ionization region. References: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. A. Virtanen; J. Joutsensaari; T. Koop; J. Kannosto; P. Yli-Pirila; J. Leskinen; J. M. Makela; J. K. Holopainen; U. Pschl; M. Kulmala; D. R. Worsnop; A. Laaksonen, "An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles", Nature 7317, 824-827 [2010]. M. Shiraiwa; M. Ammann; T. Koop; U. Pschl, "Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles", P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 27, 11003-11008 [2011].

  13. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  14. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marn, A., Marn-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

  15. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the doubly reflected rays define the leading term in the angular region around the boresight direction. The validity of the approach is well assessed by comparisons with experimental results, and its formulation is computer time inexpensive since in closed form. Moreover it is preferable to the model using near-field PO integrations for describing the interactions between the internal TCR's faces since this last requires the evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals, i.e., the expression of the final incident field contains a two-dimensional integral for each previous interaction. [1] Y. Qin, D. Perissin, and L. Lei, "The Design and Experiments on Corner Reflectors for Urban Ground Deformation Monitoring in Hong Kong," Int. J. Antennas Propagat., vol. 2013, pp. 1-8. [2] T. A. Stabile, A. Perrone, M. R. Gallipoli, R. Ditommaso, and F. C. Ponzo, "Dynamic Survey of the Musmeci Bridge by Joint Application of Ground-Based Microwave Radar Interferometry and Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio Techniques," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 870-874, 2013.

  16. Real-time analysis of ambient organic aerosols using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Stelzer, Torsten; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol accounts for a major fraction of atmospheric aerosols and has implications on the earth's climate and human health. However, due to the chemical complexity its measurement remains a major challenge for analytical instrumentation.1 Here, we present the development, characterization and application of a new soft ionization technique that allows mass spectrometric real-time detection of organic compounds in ambient aerosols. The aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (AeroFAPA) ion source utilizes a helium glow discharge plasma to produce excited helium species and primary reagent ions. Ionization of the analytes occurs in the afterglow region after thermal desorption and results mainly in intact molecular ions, facilitating the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra. In the past, similar approaches were used to detect pesticides, explosives or illicit drugs on a variety of surfaces.2,3 In contrast, the AeroFAPA source operates 'online' and allows the detection of organic compounds in aerosols without a prior precipitation or sampling step. To our knowledge, this is the first application of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge ionization technique to ambient aerosol samples. We illustrate that changes in aerosol composition and concentration are detected on the time scale of seconds and in the ng-m-3 range. Additionally, the successful application of AeroFAPA-MS during a field study in a mixed forest region in Central Europe is presented. Several oxidation products of monoterpenes were clearly identified using the possibility to perform tandem MS experiments. The acquired data are in agreement with previous studies and demonstrate that AeroFAPA-MS is a suitable tool for organic aerosol analysis. Furthermore, these results reveal the potential of this technique to enable new insights into aerosol formation, growth and transformation in the atmosphere. References: 1) IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. 2) Shelley, J. T.; Wiley, J. S.; Hieftje, G. M. Ultrasensitive Ambient Mass Spectrometric Analysis with a Pin-to-Capillary Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Source. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83(14), 5741-5748; DOI 10.1021/Ac201053q. 3) Albert, A.; Shelley, J.; Engelhard, C. Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: state-of-the-art in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 2014, 406(25), 6111-6127; DOI 10.1007/s00216-014-7989-z.

  17. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties associated with the radiative forcing of atmospheric dust particles is highest, owing to lack of region-specific dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy (chemical composition) database, needed for modeling their optical properties (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008). To fill this gap for the Indian region, we collected atmospheric particles (with aerodynamic size <5um, PM5 and a few bulk particles; TSP) from seven sites of Jaipur and nearby locales (semi-arid region, in the vicinity of Thar Desert of Rajasthan) at varying altitude, during late winters of ca. 2012. PM5 particles were collected on Teflon filters (for bulk chemical analyses), while pure Tin substrates (~1×1 mm2) were used for investigating individual particle morphology. Using Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X ray (SEM-EDX) facility at NPL, images of individual particles were recorded and the morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001), whereas chemical compositions of individual particles were determined by EDX and bulk samples by X ray fluorescence (XRF). The geometrical size distributions of atmospheric particles were generated for each site. Based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA) morphology database, the site-specific individual particle shapes reveal predominance of "Layered" (calcite and quartz rich), "Angular" structures (quartz rich) and "Flattened" particles over all the sites. Particles were found to be highly non-spherical with irregular shapes (CIR varying from 1 to 0.22 with median value ~0.76; AR varying from 1 to 5.4 with median value ~1.64). Noteworthy to mention, that unit values of AR and CIR represent spherical particles. Chemical analyses of PM5 particles revealed dominance of crustal elements e.g. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, in general. Particles over Kukas Hill (27.027° N, 75.919° E; ~800 MAGL) showed highest Fe mass fractions (~43%), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

  18. Improving understanding of controls on spatial variability in methane fluxes in Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Scott J.; Sloan, Victoria; Phoenix, Gareth; Wagner, Robert; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change relative to the rest of the globe, and this increase in temperature has feedback effects across hydrological and thermal regimes, plant community distribution and carbon stocks within tundra soils. Arctic wetlands account for a significant amount of methane emissions from natural ecosystems to the atmosphere and with further permafrost degradation under a warming climate, these emissions are expected to increase. Methane (CH4) is an extremely important component of the global carbon cycle with a global warming potential 28.5 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100 year time scale (IPCC, 2013). In order to validate carbon cycle models, modelling methane at broader landscape scales is needed. To date direct measurements of methane have been sporadic in time and space which, while capturing some key controls on the spatial heterogeneity, make it difficult to accurately upscale methane emissions to the landscape and regional scales. This study investigates what is controlling the spatial heterogeneity of methane fluxes across Arctic tundra. We combined over 300 portable chamber observations from 13 micro-topographic positions (with multiple vegetation types) across three locations spanning a 300km latitudinal gradient in Northern Alaska from Barrow to Ivotuk with synchronous measurements of environmental (soil temperature, soil moisture, water table, active layer thaw depth, pH) and vegetation (plant community composition, height, sedge tiller counts) variables to evaluate key controls on methane fluxes. To assess the diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes, we also performed automated chamber measurements in one study site (Barrow) location. Multiple statistical approaches (regression tree and multiple linear regression) were used to identify key controlling variables and their interactions. Methane emissions across all sites ranged from -0.08 to 15.3 mg C-CH4 m-2 hr-1. As expected, soil moisture was the main control determining the direction and magnitude of methane flux, with methane emissions occurring in saturated micro-topographic locations and drier sites showing low rates of uptake. An interesting exception was in tussock sedge vegetation, which had a deep water table (approximately 20cm - 40cm below the soil surface) but which emitted methane in comparable quantities to saturated communities late in the growing season. This highlights the importance of plant transport and of understanding temporal variation in fluxes. Automated chamber measurements from peak and late growing season showed minimal diurnal trends in methane fluxes, indicating that short-term chamber measurements are representative of average diurnal CH4 fluxes. The breadth of environmental and vegetation variables measured across a wide spatial extent of arctic tundra vegetation communities within this study highlights the overriding controls on methane emissions and will significantly help with upscaling methane emissions from the plot scale to the landscape scale. Reference: IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp, doi:10.1017/CBO97811074153

  19. Heterogeneous Accretion of the Earth and the Timing of Volatile Element Depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbächler, M.; Nimmo, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth is depleted in moderately volatile elements relative to CI chondrites and thus average solar system material. The timing of this depletion has been a matter of debate. Isotopic constraints from the short-lived Pd-Ag, Mn-Cr and Hf-W decay systems can be used to model the accretion history of the Earth and the timing of moderately volatile element depletion [1]. While the Pd-Ag decay system provides evidence for the accretion of volatile-rich material, other systems like Mn-Cr and Rb-Sr require that the Earth accreted volatile-depleted material [2, 3]. As recently shown [1], the contrasting evidence from these decay systems can be reconciled by heterogeneous accretion, which implies that the composition of the material from which the Earth accreted changed over time. A continuous core formation model was used and the best match was obtained for the Earth mainly accreting volatile-depleted material in the beginning and more volatile-rich material towards the end, while core formation was still ongoing [1]. However, a different study proposed that the bulk of the moderately volatile elements was delivered in a volatile-rich late veneer after core formation ceased [4]. This is not supported by the Pd-Ag data (Ag is a moderately volatile element, while Pd is more refractory). A late veneer of volatile-rich CI material (Pd = 556 ppb and Ag = 197 ppb) after core formation is limited to a maximum of ~0.4 % of the Earth's mass by the Pd concentration of the Earth's mantle today (~3.3 ppb). This amount of CI material does not supply enough Ag to substantially modify the Ag isotope composition of the Earth's mantle. In a scenario where the Earth accretes exceedingly volatile depleted material, its high Pd/Ag ratio would lead to an extreme radiogenic Ag isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), which cannot be counterbalanced by the late veneer to match the observed BSE composition. We also tested the heterogeneous accretion scenario using N-body accretion simulations [5] for the Pd-Ag decay system. Again the best results were obtained when materials with different degrees of volatile depletion (= different Pd/Ag ratios) were accreted. The simulations include early accretion of close-in material and later accretion of material from greater heliocentric distances, which is consistent with a transition from volatile-depleted to volatile-enriched material. Therefore, N-body accretion simulations and the continuous core formation model yield similar results, which demonstrates the robustness of the heterogeneous accretion scenario. [1] Schönbächler et al. (2010), Science 328, 884. [2] Carlson & Lugmair (1988), Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 90, 119. [3] Qin et al. (2009), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 1122. [4] Albarède (2009), Nature, 461, 1227.[5] O'Brien et al. (2006), Icarus 184, 36.

  20. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jrg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19N in July and 6N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanr, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

  1. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of observations from isolated sites and using a common regression model based on climatological/geographical covariates. The behaviour of the fitted spatial GEV-distribution is heavy-tailed with γ ≡ 0.3 over Belgium. A comparison between the RL-maps using GEV model and the ones obtained from Universal Kriging (UK) confirms the reliability of the spatial GEV model in explaining atmospheric drought in Belgium. References [1] Beniston, M., Stephenson, D. B., Christensen, O. B., Ferro, C. A. T., Frei, C., Goyette, S., Halsnaes, K., Holt, T., Jylhü, K., Koffi, B., Palutikoff, J., Schöll, R., Semmler, T., and Woth, K. (2007), Future extreme events in European climate; an exploration of Regional Climate Model projections. Climatic Change, 81, 71-95. [2] Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (Eds.)] (2007), king Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp. [3] Coles, S. (2001), An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Germany. [4] Embrechts, P., C. Klüppelberg, and T. Mikosch (1997), Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [5] Smith, R., (2004), Statistics of extremes, with application in environment, insurance and finance, in : Extreme Values in Finance, Telecommunications and the Environment, edited by: Finkenstadt, B. and Rootzen, H., 373-388, Chapman and Hall CRC Press, London.

  2. Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulia, Tsvetkova

    2010-05-01

    Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit, and thus viscosity variations across the conduit are large. A more comprehensive model was developed to account for cross-conduit parameter distributions. It shows that velocity profile significantly differ from parabolic especially near the top of the conduit where slip condition s occurs. References 1. A.Barmin, O.Melnik, R.S.J.Sparks, Periodoc behavior in lava dome eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199(2002) 173-184 2. P.M.Bruce, H.E.Huppert, Thermal control of basaltic fissure eruptions, 1989, Letters To Nature, VOL 342 3. I.Maeda, Nonlinaer visco-elastic volcanic model and its application to the recent eruption of Mt.Unzen, 2000, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 95, 35-47 4. J.A.Whitehead, K.R.Helfrich, Instability of flow with temperature dependent viscosity: a model of magma dynamics, 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL 96, No B3, pages 4145-4155 5. A.Costa, G.Macedonio, Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits, 2002, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL 29, No 10, 1402 6. Richard Iverson Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion Re¬sisted by a Solid Surface Plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, A Volcano Rekindled: The First Year of Renewed Eruption at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006. 7. Couch, S., C. L. Harford, R. S. J. Sparks, and M. R. Carroll (2003),Experimental constraints on the conditions of formation of highly calcic plagioclase microlites at the Soufrie`re Hills Volcano, Montserrat, J. Petrol.,44, 1455- 1475.

  3. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  4. What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Qin, Hong; Waldron, Will; Leitner, Mattaheus; Kwan, Joe; Henestroza, Enrique; Caporaso, George; Meier, Wayne; Tabak, Max; Callahan, Debbie; Moir, Ralph; Peterson, Per

    2006-04-19

    In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % {Delta}v/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly < 1 mm radius focal spot targets. We seek multi-pulsing with neutralized compression and focusing to enable higher peak power capability and the ability to create nearly arbitrary composite ''picket fence'' pulse shapes can be used to innovate HIF target designs for lower driver energy, and at the same time, reduce unit driver cost per joule for given driver energy, and reduce development time. For example, Debbie Callahan has explored close-coupled HIF targets with adequate gains > 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints, models to optimize bunch lengths, solenoid fields, core radial builds and switching. Figure 2 below illustrates one linac module for a driver example (not yet optimized) consisting of 40 linacs (20 at each end). Necessarily, this first look invokes many new ideas, but could they potentially meet the above challenges?

  5. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krmer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2006 Roberts Prize is awarded to: M Krmer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 2007 Prize for the Highest Cited Paper The annual prize for the most highly cited paper is awarded by the journal publishers (IOP Publishing) to the article published in PMB that has received the most citations1 in the previous 5 years (in this case for the period 2002 to 2006 inclusive). We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2007 prize is awarded to: S S Vedam, P J Keall, V R Kini, H Mostafavi, H P Shukla and R Mohan 2003 Acquiring a four-dimensional computed tomography dataset using an external respiratory signal Phys. Med. Biol. 48 45-62 Simon Harris, Publisher Steve Webb, Editor-in-Chief 1 Figures taken from Thomson/ISI

  6. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, i