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Sample records for xiaolong qin shin

  1. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... tibial stress syndrome - self-care; MTSS - self-care; Exercise-induced leg pain - self-care; Tibial periostitis - self- ... Shin splints are an exercise problem. You get shin splints from ... tendons or shin bone. Shin splints happen from overuse with ...

  2. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have…

  3. TianQin mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Mei, Jianwei; Shao, Chenggang; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Michail

    We introduce the mission concept of TianQin, a spaceborne gravitational waves detector. TianQin will be consisted of three drag-free satellites, forming an equilateral-triangle constellation and orbiting Earth with an altitude of about 105 km. The major scientific goal of TianQin is to detect possible gravitational radiation from Hm Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527), a candidate ultracompact white dwarf binary with a putative orbital period of about 321.5 s. Based on current best models of the binary system, we expect SNR ≥10 after 3 month of observation, given that the noise is dominated by 1 pm Hz-1/2 in position noise and 3×10-15 m s-2 Hz-1/2 in residual acceleration. The progress of preliminary study will be presented in the conference.

  4. Shin splints--a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, P

    1985-01-01

    "Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately. Images p132-a PMID:3907743

  5. An acoustical study of the qin.

    PubMed

    Waltham, Chris; Lan, Yang; Koster, Evert

    2016-04-01

    The qin (guqin, chi'in) is a seven-string zither of ancient lineage that is prominent in Chinese musical culture. The qin's history is intertwined with philosophy and folklore and its construction is replete with symbolism. The qin was associated with the Imperial aristocracy, and it remains an instrument of high culture. The qin is played with strings horizontal, and the soundbox is made in two halves; the front is usually carved out of paulownia and the back is a flat plate of catalpa. There are two sound holes in the back. It appears that no acoustical study of the qin has been published hitherto. This paper describes vibroacoustic measurements on five examples, the analysis of which reveals the qin's basic sound radiation mechanisms. At low frequencies the qin shows beam bending and torsional modes with some coupling to air in the cavity. At higher frequencies the radiation is dominated by a dense spectrum of mixed cavity and wood modes; the cavity modes are described by a one-dimensional transmission matrix model. PMID:27106307

  6. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  7. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  8. TianQin: a space-borne gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Li-Sheng; Duan, Hui-Zong; Gong, Yun-Gui; Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Qi; Mei, Jianwei; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Toth, Viktor T.; Tu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Yamin; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhan, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yonghe; Zharov, Vladimir; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2016-02-01

    TianQin is a proposal for a space-borne detector of gravitational waves in the millihertz frequencies. The experiment relies on a constellation of three drag-free spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Inter-spacecraft laser interferometry is used to monitor the distances between the test masses. The experiment is designed to be capable of detecting a signal with high confidence from a single source of gravitational waves within a few months of observing time. We describe the preliminary mission concept for TianQin, including the candidate source and experimental designs. We present estimates for the major constituents of the experiment’s error budget and discuss the project’s overall feasibility. Given the current level of technological readiness, we expect TianQin to be flown in the second half of the next decade.

  9. Shin-Guard Dermatitis-Detection and Protection.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    With the popularity of soccer among American youth and the associated use of protective shin guards, dermatitis from the guard components has emerged. Awareness and protective measures may help prevent irritation and the development of contact sensitization from the guards. PMID:27040461

  10. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  11. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late…

  12. [Soil respiration characteristics in the clear-cutting site of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest in Xiaolong Mountain in Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Yong-Xiang; Xia, Guo-Wei; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Guang-Ping

    2014-02-01

    By using Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system with soil chamber, the soil respiration rates (Rs) of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest land (control site) and their clear-cutting site were measured in Xiaolong Mountain of Qinling Mountains from May 2011 to April 2012 to understand the diurnal and monthly dynamics of soil respiration rate and the influences from soil temperature, soil moisture, soil physical and chemical properties. The results showed that both diurnal and monthly dynamics of soil respiration rate presented a single-peak curve, similar to the variation of soil temperature at the clear-cutting and control sites. During the study period, the maximum monthly mean values of soil respiration rate at the clear-cutting and control sites occurred in July (4.63 and 4.01 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively) and the minimum values presented in February (0.10 and 0.30 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively). Soil respiration rate in 4-6 months after clear-cutting was higher than at the control site, and became lower afterwards. 89. 6% -90. 8% of soil respiration rate variation was interpreted by the multiple regression models of soil temperature, soil moisture and their interaction at the clear-cutting site, and 94.7%-95.5% at the control site. The Q10 values computed by exponential equations were 3.47-4.22 and 3.54-3.96 at the clear-cutting and control sites, respectively. The C fluxes at the clear-cutting and control sites were 344.8 and 512.9 g x m(-2) annually, and 24.2 and 40.9 g x m(-2) in winter, respectively. PMID:24830231

  13. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Lin, Jun-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods : Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results : The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation. Conclusions : Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats. PMID:25182288

  14. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  15. Flaviata longa, a new species in Flaviata Lu & Qin and new synonymies in Empoasca (Matsumurasca) Anufriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Empoascini).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Lu, Si-Han; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A new species of genus Flaviata Lu & Qin, Flaviata longa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan (southwest China). An identification key for males of all known species in this genus is provided. Photographs and illustrations of adults and male genitalia of the new species are also given. New synonymies for two species in the leafhopper subgenus Empoasca (Matsumurasca) Anufriev of Empoascini are proposed: E. (M.) southerni Zhang, 2014 = E. (M.) clypealata Qin & Zhang, 2011; E. (M.) qini Zhang, 2014 = E. (M.) quadrialata Qin & Zhang, 2011. PMID:26624182

  16. Diabetic dermopathy ("shin spots") and diabetic bullae ("bullosis diabeticorum") at the same patient.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Pinteala, Tudor; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient with associated two diabetic dermatoses: diabetic dermopathy ("shin spots") and diabetic bullae. A 34-year-old man, with long history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and moderate obesity presented to Dermatology Unit for diagnosis of his skin lesions. On clinical examination multiple, light brown, irregular patches, with atrophic scars and crusts over large bullae were observed on the anterior aspect of both legs. PMID:26649029

  17. Analysis on Imai-Shin's LR-AKE Protocol for Wireless Network Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjie; Luo, Wei; Shen, Changxiang

    In 2005 Imai and Shin proposed a leakage-resilient authenticated key exchange protocol(LR-AKE) for wireless network security. For simplicity, the protocol is based on password authentication plus additional secrets to fit wireless environment (e.g., computation constraint). In this paper we show that Imai-Shin’s scheme is vulnerable to both client and server impersonation attacks and needs to be improved to provide strong security for wireless network.

  18. Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

    2012-01-01

    Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap. PMID:23071906

  19. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  20. [A study on the Shin Man's life and idea of medicine in Juchonsinbang].

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hoon

    2007-12-01

    For the purpose of understanding the feature of medicine in the late Chosun Dynasty, I investigated Shin Man (1620-1669)'s life and his idea of medicine in Juchonsinbang. Shin Man was a scholar who lived in the middle of the Chosun dynasty. He was famous for his resistance against Ching dynasty in Byeongjahoran, and for his chivalrous spirit. He was daring, inflexible and unrestricted by nature. And his character was reflected in his medical ideas. He studied along Song Si-yeol and started his official career together. Both worked for King Hyojong who strongly wanted to send an expedition to conquer the North. But after the sudden death of King Hyojong, the project to conquer the North had went for nothing. And Shin Man went back to the rural life in Juchon, Jinjam. On the one hand, he lived the life of pursuit of learning Seong Confucianism in Juchon, and on the other hand, he wrote the original form of Juchonsinbang. Shin Man wanted to establish and spread the universal and popularized medicine. So he set a goal to publish a simple and plain prescription book, which corresponds to his idea of medicine which deals with curing people. The currently remaining editions of Juchonsinbang are 3 types. One is the lead printed edition. The others are the dissimilar 2 transcribed editions. There are considerable differences between the lead printed edition and the transcribed editions. The lead printed edition focused on the human being, and divided the category of human being as 3 parts, which are infant, womenkind and adult. Whereas the transcribed editions focused on disorders and aimed at universalization and simplification of medicine. Thus the main viewpoint of medicine changed from disorders to human being. By the way, there are many occult prescriptions in Juchonsinbang. And they aren't distorted with the standpoint of those days. While the time of writing Juchonsinbang has many questionable problems. And there is no historical material which shows the exact time

  1. [Customs, habits and medical culture in the Qin-Han Periods].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourishes the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. it is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615220

  2. Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

  3. Two new species of Membranacea Qin & Zhang from China (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae, Empoascini)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Yang, Maofa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the empoascine leafhopper genus Membranacea Qin & Zhang are reported from China: Membranacea hubeiensis Yu & Yang, sp. n. and Membranacea stenoprocessa Yu & Yang, sp. n.. A key to distinguish all species of the genus is provided. PMID:23653506

  4. [The overview of traditional Chinese medical cosmetology in pre-Qin dynasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Yao

    2009-03-01

    The cosmetic measures of humans emerged very early. As far back as the late Palaeolithic age related cosmetic decorations came into being. In the Shang and Zhou dynasty, there were already cosmetic people who applied rouges and powders. In the Spring and Autumn dynasty and Warring States periods, because of the increase awareness of aesthetic enjoyment and the prevalence of attention paid to cosmetology, people began to discuss aesthetics. The development of TCM also caused the fusion of the cosmetology and TCM. The records of the early ancient literature such as Shan Hai Jing and silk scrolls of Ma Wang Dui reflected the overview of TCM cosmetology in pre-Qin dynasty. PMID:19824375

  5. Diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae (“bullosis diabeticorum”) at the same patient

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Pinteala, Tudor; Foia, Liliana; Chiriac, Anca

    2015-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient with associated two diabetic dermatoses: diabetic dermopathy (“shin spots”) and diabetic bullae. A 34-year-old man, with long history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and moderate obesity presented to Dermatology Unit for diagnosis of his skin lesions. On clinical examination multiple, light brown, irregular patches, with atrophic scars and crusts over large bullae were observed on the anterior aspect of both legs. PMID:26649029

  6. A rapid UPLC method for simultaneous determination of eleven components in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ decoction

    PubMed Central

    An, Rui; You, Lisha; Zhang, Yizhu; Wang, Xinhong; Ma, Yuemin

    2014-01-01

    Background: ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ Decoction derived from ‘Shang-Han-Lun’ compiled by Zhang Zhongjing. It is widely used in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery, virus diarrhea. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of the 11-marker compounds using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Objective: To develop an UPLC method for simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ preparations. Materials and Methods: The chromatography analysis was performed on an Agilent Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.7 μm) at 30°C with a gradient elution of methanol, 0.5% formic acid and 0.5% ammonium acetate at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min and UV detected at 270 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r ≥ 0.9993) within tested ranges. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) fell in the range between 0.0691-1.04 μg/ml and 0.23–3.43 μg/ml, respectively. The mean recovery of each herbal medicine ranged from 96.60 to 102.11%. Conclusion: The method was validated for repeatability, precision, stability, accuracy, and selectivity. The validated method was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of these active components in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ decoction. PMID:25422547

  7. QIN. Promise and pitfalls of quantitative imaging in oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Graham, Michael M.; Buatti, John M.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eikman, Edward A.; Kumar, Virendra; Forster, Kenneth M.; Wahl, Richard L.; Lieberman, Frank S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative imaging using CT, MRI, and PET modalities will play an increasingly important role in the design of oncology trials addressing molecularly targeted, personalized therapies. The advent of molecularly targeted therapies, exemplified by antiangiogenic drugs, creates new complexities in the assessment of response. The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) addresses the need for imaging modalities which can accurately and reproducibly measure not just change in tumor size, but changes in relevant metabolic parameters, modulation of relevant signaling pathways, drug delivery to tumor, and differentiation of apoptotic cell death from other changes in tumor volume. This article provides an overview of the applications of quantitative imaging to phase 0 through phase 3 oncology trials. We describe the use of a range of quantitative imaging modalities in specific tumor types including malignant gliomas, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and sarcoma. In the concluding section, we discuss potential constraints on clinical trials using quantitative imaging, including complexity of trial conduct, impact on subject recruitment, incremental costs, and institutional barriers. Strategies for overcoming these constraints are presented. PMID:22898682

  8. [Studies on developmental features of theories of syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera in Qin and Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-mei; Wang, Gui-lan; Li, De-xing

    2006-07-01

    The formation of the theories of visceral manifestations as well as channels and collaterals in the books Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) and Nan Jing (Classic of Questioning) laid down the theoretical foundation for the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera. From the early occurrence of syndrome classification to that of the disease manifestations of zang and fu viscera, the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera were basically not put into practice until Shanghan Zabing Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases) appeared. The theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera in the Qin and Han Dynasties were not systematic and were scattered, indicating that it was a period of gestation for the theories. PMID:17278438

  9. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016. PMID:25447754

  10. A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. Results In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ΔperR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ΔperR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ΔperR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (Δdpr and ΔdprΔperR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ΔperR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoter–EGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. Conclusions These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis. PMID:22646062

  11. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  12. Shifts of the head of Zhengguo canal dug in Qin dynasty and recent activity of the fault on north margin of the Weihe downfaulted basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xuefa; Shi, Yaqin

    1992-11-01

    Vertical differential movement rates of the fault on north margin of the Weihe downfaulted basin in recent 2000 years are analyzed by using the data of shifts of the head of Zhengguo canal, dug in Qin dynasty and the data of burial depths of historical relics and the data of levelling. The results show that in Ming dynasty this fault experienced the highest differential up-and-down movement, about 6.6 mm/a, while the rate became lower since Qing dynasty, about 2.6 mm/a. The high rate activity coincided with the period of high seismic activity in the Weihe downfaulted basin in the 15 16th centuries.

  13. [On illnesses and treatments of scholar officials in the Qing Dynasty from the perspective of Dou Ke-qin, a neo-confucianist philosopher].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Illnesses and treatments are an inevitable part of life in the daily life of the neo-confucianist Dou Ke-qin whose life outlook on the treatment and recognition of diseases was influenced by his neo-confucianist conception. He claimed that diseases can be conquered by spiritual force formed on the basis of Neo-Confucianism and can be recovered by peace of the heart and moral merits and can be seen as an approach of self-accomplishment. He opposed Taoist and Buddhist ideas of life preservation and keeping fit by taking the advantages of external mystic force, and stressed that his own diseases and that of his relatives can be cured by the filial affection advocated by the Neo-Confucianism. PMID:24524634

  14. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ(13)C (-8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ(15)N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ(13)C (-15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ(15)N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  15. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  16. Cryptococcal cellulitis on the shin of an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian Hao; Rodriguez, Paola G; Behan, James W; Declerck, Brittney; Kim, Gene H

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common fungus found throughout the environment that causes opportunistic disease in immunocompromised individuals. Infection of humans with C neoformans usually manifests as lung disease through inhalation of spores or meningoencephalitis by involvement of the central nervous system. Rarely, dissemination in the form of cutaneous lesions can occur in individuals with long term immunosuppression. We present a patient with C. neoformans manifesting as cellulitis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis treated with corticosteroids. Because of the mortality associated with disseminated cryptococcosis, early identification, especially of atypical cutaneous presentations is critical from a dermatological perspective. PMID:27617599

  17. Laser recovery of the Qin dynasty treasure trove polychrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    When created in 210 BC, the 6,000 terra cotta warriors of the Mount Li tomb near the ancient imperial Chinese capital city of Xi'an were emblazoned with beautiful colors. Previously, it had been thought that this polychrome glaze had been entirely consumed in an inferno that swept the tomb shortly after its completion. Precise laser divestment of the statues during the archaeological excavation and conservation of the site has revealed faint charred vestiges of the original polychromatic glaze. Research has begun on a new technique for restroing the initial color through in-situ chemical reduction using pulsed laser irradiation under cover fluids such as forming gas or methane.

  18. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  19. [Textual research on Huang shinüke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology)].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianfang; Wu, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Huang shi nü ke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology), a handwritten copy of the Ming Dynasty passed on by Huang Xiaoyou, Yuanyi and Huang Dongjiu, and sorted out by Huang Yanrong, was a family medical book of Huang's obstetrics and gynecology in Xin'an, being a summary of their clinical experience.There were altogether 44 chapters divided into 4 parts, including general introduction, general principle of treatment, discussions on prenatal conditions and qi acquired from the mother, and gynecological diseases in sequence, with the appendixes of pulse diagnostics for differentiating male and female, and the 10-month methods of protecting the fetus. PMID:26815029

  20. A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following are…

  1. Shin-splints: common exercise-related syndromes affecting the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B L; Arthur, C H C

    2014-01-01

    Lower leg pain is a common complaint of athletically active individuals, often limiting physical activities. As such, the group of lower leg conditions related to athletic pursuits and physical exercise confer considerable operational implications for the military. Whilst acute injuries to the lower limb are commonly encountered and are clearly of significance, this article focuses instead on chronic conditions related to physical activity. These include insults to bone such as stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome, and those related to the soft tissues such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In this article we will examine the presentation and management of these conditions. PMID:25895406

  2. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  3. QIN. A Feasible High Spatiotemporal Resolution Breast DCE-MRI Protocol for Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tudorica, Luminita A.; Oh, Karen Y.; Roy, Nicole; Kettler, Mark D.; Chen, Yiyi; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Afzal, Aneela; Grinstead, John W.; Laub, Gerhard; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional bilateral imaging is the standard for most clinical breast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI protocols. Because of high spatial resolution (sRes) requirement, the typical 1–2 min temporal resolution (tRes) afforded by a conventional full-k-space-sampling gradient echo (GRE) sequence precludes meaningful and accurate pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE time-course data. The commercially available, GRE-based, k-space undersampling and data sharing TWIST (time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories) sequence was used in this study to perform DCE-MRI exams on thirty one patients (with 36 suspicious breast lesions) before their biopsies. The TWIST DCE-MRI was immediately followed by a single-frame conventional GRE acquisition. Blinded from each other, three radiologist readers assessed agreements in multiple lesion morphology categories between the last set of TWIST DCE images and the conventional GRE images. Fleiss’ κ test was used to evaluate inter-reader agreement. The TWIST DCE time-course data were subjected to quantitative pharmacokinetic analyses. With a four-channel phased-array breast coil, the TWIST sequence produced DCE images with 20 s or less tRes and ~ 1.0×1.0×1.4 mm3 sRes. There were no significant differences in signal-to-noise (P = 0.45) and contrast-to-noise (P = 0.51) ratios between the TWIST and conventional GRE images. The agreements in morphology evaluations between the two image sets were excellent with the intra-reader agreement ranging from 79% for mass margin to 100% for mammographic density and the inter-reader κ value ranging from 0.54 (P < 0.0001) for lesion size to 1.00 (P < 0.0001) for background parenchymal enhancement. Quantitative analyses of the DCE time-course data provided higher breast cancer diagnostic accuracy (91% specificity at 100% sensitivity) than the current clinical practice of morphology and qualitative kinetics assessments. The TWIST sequence may be used in clinical settings to acquire high spatiotemporal resolution breast DCE-MRI images for both precise lesion morphology characterization and accurate pharmacokinetic analysis. PMID:22770687

  4. A Chinese herbal Formula, Chang-Wei-Qin, Synergistically Enhances Antitumor Effect of Oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Qiang; Fan, Zhongze; Sun, Jue; Liu, Xulin; Cheng, Lingling; Li, Ao; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Chang-Wei-Qing (CWQ), a Chinese herbal formula, has long been employed clinically to treat cancers. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of CWQ with oxaliplatin (OXA) on the tumor growth inhibition of orthotopic transplanted colon cancer and explored the underlying mechanism. By generating the orthotopic transplanted nude mouse model of human colon carcinoma, we found that (1) CWQ enhanced OXA-mediated tumor suppression by 4.25-fold. (2) The body weights of nude mice in CWQ group and combination group were increased. (3) The survival time of tumor-bearing nude mice was dramatically improved in CWQ and CWQ/OXA group. (4) CWQ could restore OXA-mediated deregulation of copper transporter genes, hCTR1, ATP7A and ATP7B. (5) OXA-induced drug resistance index for OXA, 5-FU, HCPT and THP were 7.59, 4.28, 5.78 and 4.50 respectively, while the reversal index by combined CWQ treatment were 6.57, 2.61, 4.97 and 3.10, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the repeated intraperitoneal injection of OXA can induce multi-drug resistance of orthotopic transplanted nude mouse model of human colon carcinoma. The CWQ treatment can alleviate OXA-triggered side effects and reverse platinum drug resistance via up-regulation of hCTR1 expression and down-regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B levels. PMID:25103530

  5. [The germination and preliminary formation of science of TCM formula in the pre Qin dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhu, J

    2001-04-01

    Shennong tasted hundreds of grasses and found herbs during the legend period. The appearance of prescription should be so early if single drug was regarded as single -- item recipe. However, the explicit records in literature appeared at the end of the Spring and Autumn period and the beginning of the Warring States at the latest, evidenced by the custom of "presenting a recipe" of the Qi states. The medical books of Mawangdui, mainly Wu shi er bing fang (Prescriptions for 52 Kinds of Diseases), recorded the classification of prescriptions based on the sort of diseases, composing, preparation, method of decocting medicinal herbs, contraindication of prescriptions, and the therapeutic methods, compatibility of complex prescriptions and determination of treatment based on the differentiation of syndromes (Zheng), etc. reflected in the recipes, which could represent the primary level of science of TCM formula of the Warring States in China. The classic medical book Nei jing (Internal Canon of Medicine), including denominations, composition, principles of compatibility and rules of clinical application of concrete prescriptions, especially therapies and theories of composed prescription, have great actions on the development of science of TCM formula. PMID:11877113

  6. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  7. An Evidence-Based Case Study of Unilateral Shin Splints: Do Red Flags Function in Paediatric Osteosarcoma?

    PubMed

    Rankin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapists use red flags to screen for serious pathology. Paediatric osteosarcoma is a rare disease, occurring predominantly in the area of the knee and shoulder, and it is not always included by physiotherapists on a differential diagnosis list. Traditional red flags do not always correspond to the initial signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma. Physiotherapists should routinely palpate along the length of the bone to detect a potential mass. The detection of a mass or symptoms that do not follow the expected course indicates the need for reassessment and possibly referral for further investigation. PMID:27504036

  8. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  9. The Potential of GIS as a Management Tool for Avenue Trees Population in Small Communities; a Case Study of Idi-Shin Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olokeogun, O. S.; Akintola, O. O.; Abodunrin, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a management tool for avenue trees (Street trees) populations in small communities (using Idi-Ishin community, Ibadan, Nigeria as a case study). GIS is a decision support system which integrate data or set of data from different sources, bringing them under the same referencing system in a computer system. An Ikonos Imagery (1m Spatial Resolution) of the study area was digitized to produce a digital map using ArcGIS 10.1 version. The avenue trees species ≥ 5cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected for enumeration. These trees were then measured and tagged. The Height, Girth and Geographic location (X &Y coordinate) of the trees were measured with Haga altimeter, Girthing tape and Hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) respectively. The species and families of the trees enumerated were also identified. Data were analysed for basal area (BA) and volume (V). A total number of 43 avenue trees were assessed in Idi-Ishin Community. Roystonea regia accounted for the majority of the avenue trees (25.58%), followed by Polyanthia longiflora (23.26%), Gliricida seprium (20.93%), Eucalyptus toreliana (13.95%), Delunix regea (6.98%). However Terminalia catapa, Terminalia radii, Azadrachita indica and Newbodia levis had the same abundance of 2.33%. It was also observed that the benefits derived from these avenue trees includes; Carbon sequestration, Beautification, Wind break and shade. A spatial relational database was created for the assessed avenue trees using ArcCatalog of ArcGIS 10.1 version. Based on the findings from the study (which serves as baseline information for the management of the avenue trees in the study area), it was therefore recommended that subsequent assessment should be carried out at 3-5 year interval in other to ensure proper and continuous monitoring and updating of the data.

  10. FuQin Huo NanXing CanYu ErTong ZaoQi Jiao Yu (Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.

    Given the support for increased involvement of parents in their children's schooling and the positive contribution men can make to children's development, it is important to reach out specifically to fathers or other significant males in parent involvement efforts for pre-kindergarten and early childhood programs. This digest discusses barriers to…

  11. Reply to Shin and Bayry on “An age-related decline of CD62L and vaccine response: a role of microRNA 92a?”

    PubMed Central

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Rosenberg, Carina; Petersen, Eskild

    2014-01-01

    Aging of the human body affects the immune system by a decline in the ability to raise a response to challenges such as microbial infections or vaccinations. In the very elderly, the decline in such functions appears to relate to a reduced expression of certain co-stimulatory molecules expressed by T lymphocytes. More recently, attention has been drawn to the adhesion molecule CD62L, where differences in expression and function of this molecule between younger and older individuals are suspected to be a part of immunosenescence in the elderly. PMID:24518554

  12. A Method of DTM Construction Based on Quadrangular Irregular Networks and Related Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    A new method of DTM construction based on quadrangular irregular networks (QINs) that considers all the original data points and has a topological matrix is presented. A numerical test and a real-world example are used to comparatively analyse the accuracy of QINs against classical interpolation methods and other DTM representation methods, including SPLINE, KRIGING and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). The numerical test finds that the QIN method is the second-most accurate of the four methods. In the real-world example, DTMs are constructed using QINs and the three classical interpolation methods. The results indicate that the QIN method is the most accurate method tested. The difference in accuracy rank seems to be caused by the locations of the data points sampled. Although the QIN method has drawbacks, it is an alternative method for DTM construction. PMID:25996691

  13. [Sprouting of forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, J

    1994-01-01

    Since there are materials relevant to medical jurisprudence in Qin Lu (law of Qin Dynasty), Feng Zhen Shi (sealed pattern of investigation) and Huangdi Neijing (inner canon of Yellow Emperor), and the examining system of Warring States Period include procedures, personnel and reports on examination of medical jurisprudence, it can be concluded that the pre-Qin Period saw the sprouting period of Chinese medical jurisprudence. PMID:11615229

  14. Synthesis, characterization and applications of carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolated bifunctionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots in cellular internalization mediated by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lo, Shih-Yen; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are widely used in biomedical imaging studies and pharmaceutical research. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of small peptides that are able to traverse cell membrane and deliver a variety of cargoes into living cells. CPPs deliver QDs into cells with minimal nonspecific absorption and toxic effect. In this study, water-soluble, monodisperse, carboxyl-functionalized indium phosphide (InP)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs coated with polyethylene glycol lipids (designated QInP) were synthesized for the first time. The physicochemical properties (optical absorption, fluorescence and charging state) and cellular internalization of QInP and CPP/QInP complexes were characterized. CPPs noncovalently interact with QInP in vitro to form stable CPP/QInP complexes, which can then efficiently deliver QInP into human A549 cells. The introduction of 500nM of CPP/QInP complexes and QInP at concentrations of less than 1μM did not reduce cell viability. These results indicate that carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolylated (PEGylated) bifunctionalized QInP are biocompatible nanoparticles with potential for use in biomedical imaging studies and drug delivery applications. PMID:23792556

  15. Motivating Bilingual and Semibilingual University Students of Japanese: An Analysis of Language Learning Persistence and Intensity Among Students from Immigrant Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Kimi

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with "Shin Nisei," new second-generation Japanese, university students reveal how strongly motivation influences persistence in taking Japanese courses and the intensity with which these students use Japanese outside the classroom. The discussion stresses problems facing Shin Nisei students in traditional college foreign-language…

  16. Fractured diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis in an adolescent soccer player.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Daniel L; Shaw, Thomas; Allen, Marque; Marin, James

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis is a rare cause of symptomatic shin pain with exertion. In this case, a 14-year-old male soccer player presented with atraumatic right shin pain made worse with running. Computed tomography revealed heterotopic ossification, or synostosis, of the tibial-fibular syndesmosis. The patient's symptoms improved with rest, without the need for operative intervention. PMID:25171880

  17. Sendai virus-mediated expression of reprogramming factors promotes plasticity of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Rafiqul; Suenaga, Yusuke; Takatori, Atsushi; Ueda, Yasuji; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kawana, Hidetada; Itami, Makiko; Ohira, Miki; Yokoi, Sana; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor that originates from multipotent neural crest cells. NB cell populations that express embryonic stem cell-associated genes have been identified and shown to retain a multipotent phenotype. However, whether somatic reprogramming of NB cells can produce similar stem-cell like populations is unknown. Here, we sought to reprogram NB cell lines using an integration-free Sendai virus vector system. Of four NB cell lines examined, only SH-IN cells formed induced pluripotent stem cell-like colonies (SH-IN 4F colonies) at approximately 6 weeks following transduction. These SH-IN 4F colonies were alkaline phosphatase-positive. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicated identical genomic aberrations in the SH-IN 4F cells as in the parental cells. SH-IN 4F cells had the ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers in vitro, but rather formed NBs in vivo. Furthermore, SH-IN 4F cells exhibited resistance to cisplatin treatment and differentiated into endothelial-like cells expressing CD31 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that SH-IN 4F cells are partially reprogrammed NB cells, and could be a suitable model for investigating the plasticity of aggressive tumors. PMID:26190440

  18. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... any of the following: Abnormally heavy periods in women Bleeding into the skin , often around the shins, causing a skin rash that looks like pinpoint red spots (petechial rash) Easy bruising Nosebleed or bleeding in the mouth

  19. Bruise

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bruise with a needle. Do not continue running, playing, or otherwise using the painful, bruised part ... bruises are usually the direct result of an injury, the following ... and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in soccer and basketball.

  20. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, ... on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

  1. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  2. [Kinesitherapy in the early postoperative period following intramedullary osteosynthesis of tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, D V; Vorob'ev, A V; Shimbaretskiĭ, A N; Komkova, O V

    2010-01-01

    A program of postoperative kinesitherapy oriented to normalize the muscular force of the shin, reduce the time needed to restore the weight-bearing function of the affected leg, and treat pain syndrome has been developed for the patients presenting with fractures, nonunions, and pseudoarthrosis of the tibia that were treated using intramedullary osteosynthesis. The efficacy of the program was evaluated in terms of restoration of the muscular force in the shin and improvement of microcirculation in the affected region. PMID:21089206

  3. Quantitative Imaging Network: Data Sharing and Competitive AlgorithmValidation Leveraging The Cancer Imaging Archive1

    PubMed Central

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Freymann, John Blake; Kirby, Justin Stephen; Kinahan, Paul Eugene; Prior, Fred William

    2014-01-01

    The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), supported by the National Cancer Institute, is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods and candidate biomarkers for the measurement of tumor response in clinical trial settings. An integral aspect of the QIN mission is to facilitate collaborative activities that seek to develop best practices for the analysis of cancer imaging data. The QIN working groups and teams are developing new algorithms for image analysis and novel biomarkers for the assessment of response to therapy. To validate these algorithms and biomarkers and translate them into clinical practice, algorithms need to be compared and evaluated on large and diverse data sets. Analysis competitions, or “challenges,” are being conducted within the QIN as a means to accomplish this goal. The QIN has demonstrated, through its leveraging of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), that data sharing of clinical images across multiple sites is feasible and that it can enable and support these challenges. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) imaging data, many TCIA collections provide linked clinical, pathology, and “ground truth” data generated by readers that could be used for further challenges. The TCIA-QIN partnership is a successful model that provides resources for multisite sharing of clinical imaging data and the implementation of challenges to support algorithm and biomarker validation. PMID:24772218

  4. Rhizobium ipomoeae sp. nov., isolated from a water convolvulus field.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chen, Zih-Han; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2016-04-01

    A bacterial strain, designated shin9-1T, was isolated from a water sample taken from a water convolvulus field in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomical approach. Cells of strain shin9-1T were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and surrounded by a thick capsule and formed cream-coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), with 0-3.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %) and at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Strain shin9-1T did not form nodules on a legume plant, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and the nodulation genes nodA, nodC and the nitrogenase reductase gene nifH were not detected by PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping gene sequences (recA, atpD and rpoB) showed that strain shin9-1T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Strain shin9-1T had the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to Rhizobium daejeonense L61T (97.6 %). The major fatty acid of strain shin9-1T was C18 : 1ω7c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and several uncharacterized lipids. The DNA G+C content was 58.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain shin9-1T with respect to recognized species of the genus Rhizobium was less than 70 %. Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strain also differed from those of the most closely related species of the genus Rhizobium. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain shin9-1T should be classified as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium ipomoeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is shin9-1T ( = LMG 27163T = KCTC 32148T). PMID:26739022

  5. Extremal norms of the potentials recovered from inverse Dirichlet problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiangang; Chen, Shaozhu

    2016-03-01

    Consider the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem -y\\prime\\prime (x)+q(x)y(x)=λ y(x),x\\in [0,1],y(0)=y(1)=0, where q\\in {L}1[0,1], and its spectrum is denoted by σ (q). For a real number λ, define {{Ω }}(λ )=\\{q\\in {L}1[0,1] :λ \\in σ (q)\\} and E(λ )={inf}\\{\\parallel q\\parallel :q\\in {{Ω }}(λ )\\}. We will set up a formula for E(λ ) explicitly in terms of λ and specify where the infimum can be attained. As an application, we will give the extremal values of the nth eigenvalue of the Dirichlet problem for potentials on a sphere {L}1[0,1], n≥slant 1. The proofs are based on a new Lyapunov-type inequality for Sturm-Liouville equations with potentials.

  6. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  7. Effects of different sitting positions on skin temperature of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair. PMID:26355265

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth – directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health®, Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001). CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130), periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066), periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001), and digital periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls. PMID:25191066

  9. Integration of bacteriophage. lambda. into the cryptic lambdoid prophages of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lichens-Park, A. ); Smith, C.L. ); Syvanen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Bacteriophage lambda missing its chromosomal attachment site will integrate into recA{sup +} Escherichia coli K-12 and C at the site of cryptic prophages. The specific regions in which these recombination events occur were identified in both lambda and the bacterial chromosomes. A NotI restriction site on the prophage allowed its physical mapping. This allowed them to identify the locations of Rac, Qin, and Qsr{prime} cryptic prophages on the NotI map of E. coli K-12 and, by analogy, to identify the cryptic prophage in E. coli C as Qin. No new cryptic prophages were detected in E. coli K-12.

  10. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  11. A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication with five-photon entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Li; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei

    2010-01-01

    A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol using five-photon entangled state is proposed. It amends the security loopholes pointed by Qin et al. in [S.J. Qin, Q.Y. Wen, L.M. Meng, F.C. Zhu, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2656] in the original protocol proposed by Xiu et al. in [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Gao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333]. The security loopholes are solved by using order rearrangement of transmission photons and two-step security test.

  12. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    regard. Thereafter, Tài píng shèng huì fāng (Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) compiled by a national agency at the beginning of the Song Dynasty period introduced Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn without clear indication of the reference. Contemporary with this book, many ophthalmological books such as Mì chuán yăn kē lóng mù lùn(Longmu's Ophthalmology Secretly Handed Down) were published. As Chinese culture was spreading out into surrounding countries, medical knowledge was also introduced to Korean peninsula and Japan. The ophthalmological knowledge contained in Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was also reflected and some parts of it were introduced in I shin bō in Japan. Based on the policy decision of King Sejong, the fourth king of Joseon Dynasty, large scaled promoting projects of medical knowledge was established. It is notable that the Ui bang ryu chwi compiled as a result of the synthesis of the medical treatises available at that time initiated by King Sejong contained a considerable part of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn in reedited form that had already passed into oblivion in China. The intellectuals in Joseon Dynasty who participated in the compilation of Ui bang ryu chwi not only indicated that Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was a medical text published in the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties in China but also clearly indicated the textual reference and left the original text for later generation without modifying the contents. According to the Ui bang ryu chwi, the Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn indicated that the core causes of eye diseases were heat, winds, and three body fluids(trido a) and contained the analyses of symptoms, related treatments, and several analyses of wrong treatments. In addition, Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn explained diverse eye diseases through more than 30 medical treatments. In particular, this book accurately described golden needle acupuncture for treatment of a Nèi-zhàng understood to be cataract

  13. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E

  14. Kakuna taibaiensis sp. n. and a newly recorded species of Dicranotropis (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-Juan; Xie, Qi; Qiao, Li; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the delphacid genus Kakuna Matsumura, Kakuna taibaiensis Ren & Qin, sp. n. is described from Mt. Taibai in Shaanxi Province, China. Dicranotropis montana (Horvath, 1897) is reported for the first time from China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the two species are given. PMID:25349503

  15. ACL and differentiability of a generalization of quasi-conformal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. R.

    2008-10-01

    It is established that Q-homeomorphisms (in the sense of O. Martio) defined in \\mathbb{R}^n, n\\geq2, are absolutely continuous on lines. Furthermore, they belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1} and are differentiable almost everywhere for Q\\in L^{1}_{\\mathrm{loc}}.

  16. China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

    These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

  17. 77 FR 39500 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Wei-Qin Zhao, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific... of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: David...

  18. Ambarzumyan's theorem for the quasi-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıraç, Alp Arslan

    2015-10-01

    We obtain the classical Ambarzumyan's theorem for the Sturm-Liouville operators Lt(q) with qin L1[0,1] and quasi-periodic boundary conditions, tin [0,2π ) , when there is not any additional condition on the potential q.

  19. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  20. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-1994. The expression of fuel consumption for oil-fired pool heaters shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for pool heater, EF, is defined as... of pool operating hours=4464 h QIN=rated fuel energy input as defined according to 2.9.1 or 2.9.2...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-1994. The expression of fuel consumption for oil-fired pool heaters shall be in Btu. 4.2Average annual fossil fuel energy for pool heaters. The average annual fuel energy for pool heater, EF, is defined as... of pool operating hours=4464 h QIN=rated fuel energy input as defined according to 2.9.1 or 2.9.2...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P to...: EF=BOH QIN+(POH−BOH)QP where: BOH=average number of burner operating hours=104 h POH=average...

  3. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  4. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... immunofluorescence blank images in Figure 4 of the manuscript (top row, 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th panels, and bottom row... image from an unknown experiment to falsely represent the preimmunization control conditions (intact... anti-FlaB in Figure 5 on intact cells. Dr. Shin falsified at least one of two images in Figure 4 of...

  5. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  6. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Jeffries, S.J.; Hobbs, R.C.; Bowlby, C.E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  7. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  8. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they…

  9. a Review of the Method of Moho Fold Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Lim, M.; Park, Y.; Rim, H.

    2010-12-01

    We review the method of Moho fold estimation and its validation introduced in the recently published papers by Shin et al.(2009, 2007) and by Jin et al.(1994). The Tibetan Plateau, the study area of the papers, is greatly affected by heavy compression between Eurasian and Indian Plates and consequently has particular deformation structures related with the tectonic collisional environment, including possible buckling of very deep Moho. The recent method suggested by Shin et al.(2009) enables one to reveal the three-dimensional structure of the Moho fold and to validate it in direction, amplitude, and wavelength of the fold by comparing with other geophysical (e.g. an elastic plate model under horizontal loading) or geodetic (e.g. current crustal movement by GPS) evidences. We also review the several particular features of the Moho fold beneath Tibet. Finally, in the viewpoint of Moho fold estimation, we present a comparison of the recent global gravity models; both of satellite-based models (GGM03S, EIGEN-5S, ITG-GRACE2010S, GOCO01S, and GO_CONS_GCF_2DIR) and combination models including terrestrial gravimetry (GGM03C, EIGEN-5C, EGM2008, EIGEN-GL04C, and EIGEN51C). Reference: [1] Jin, Y. et al., 1994, Nature, 371, 669-674. [2] Shin, Y. H. et al., 2009, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L01302, doi:10.1029/2008GL036068. [3] Shin, Y. H. et al., 2007, Geophysical Journal International, 170, 971-985.

  10. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  11. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…

  12. Other Causes of Leg Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  13. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE TO SULFATE PRODUCTION OF OXIDATION PATHWAYS AND CLOUDS AS PREDICTED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations into the oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the aqueous phase have suggested that clouds play a major role in to production of sulfate in the troposphere (McHenry and Dennis, 1991; Hegg and Hobbs, 1981; Hegg, 1985; Shin and Carmichael, 1992). loud production of ...

  14. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  15. Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

  16. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  17. Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shin bone, causing pain. Activities that require running, jumping or going up or down stairs can make the pain worse. Osgood-Schlatter is most common in young athletes who play football, soccer or basketball or are involved in gymnastics and ...

  18. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  19. All that is red is not cellulitis. Pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant; Dhungel, Sourab

    2014-02-01

    A 60-year-old patient presented with progressive worsening, non-healing ulcer on her shin with surrounding erythema following a minor trauma and was treated with several antibiotics for presumed cellulitis with no improvement. A skin biopsy eventually suggested pyoderma gangrenosum and a colonic biopsy showed an underlying ulcerative colitis. PMID:24393443

  20. Instructional Design Issues Facing E-Learning: East Meets West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ping-Yeh; Rendon, Betty; Cornell, Richard

    The rapid emergence of e-learning in business and industry has been accompanied by a number of problems when instructional design concerns are incorporated into the overall curriculum development. This paper examines two companies in two distinct geographical extremes of Shin-Ju, Taiwan and Central Florida to see if, when comparisons are made,…

  1. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  2. 77 FR 27001 - Proposed Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... by T.D. ATF-190, which published in the Federal Register (49 FR 44895) on November 13, 1984. T.D. ATF... sandy Quincy fine sand...... Pits Shin very cobbly ashy loam. loam. 2 Esquatzel silt loam.... Malaga.......... Prosser very fine Adkins very fine sandy Malaga stony sandy sandy loam. loam. loam. To the north of...

  3. [Effects of exotic Larix kaempferi on forest soil quality and bacterial diversity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Jing; Dong, Mao-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2008-10-01

    The study on the soil quality and bacterial diversity under 8-30 years old exotic Larix kaempferi, native Pinus tabulaeformis, and secondary deciduous broadleaf forest stands in Xiaolong-shan Mountains of Gansu, Northwest China showed that the soil pH under different forest stands had no distinct variation, but soil moisture content was increased with increasing age of forest stands. Soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were the highest under secondary deciduous forest, followed by under L. kaermpferi, and P. tabulaeformis. However, the soils under different ages of forest stands had no obvious variations in their organic matter and nitrogen contents, suggesting that tree species was the main factor affecting soil quality. Compared with P. tabulaeformis, exotic L. kaempferi could significantly increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. PCR-DGGE banding patterns suggested that the soil under secondary deciduous broadleaf forest had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by under L. kaempferi, and P. tabulaeformis. The sequenced DGGE bands were classified into three bacterial groups, i. e., Proteobacteria, Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides, and high G + C content gram-positive type, among which, Proteobacteria occurred most frequently. Further detailed analyses suggested that the soil bacterial compositions under exotic Larix stands were more similar to each other than those under pine and secondary deciduous broadleaf forests. It was concluded that exotic L. kaempferi induced the changes of microbial diversity in the forest soils of this region. PMID:19123342

  4. [Huanglian places of origin distribution and change from herbal-works].

    PubMed

    Hu, Anhui

    2011-09-01

    The herbal-works recorded that the origin production places of Huanglian had gone through dynamic condition of distribution and change. During Pre-Qin and Qin-Han Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were small and limited. During Weijin-Nanbei Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian grew in number gradually. During Sui-Tang and Song-Yuan Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were enlarged quickly. During Ming and Qing Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were expended small-size. The origin production places of Huanglian were enlarged because its functions and demands added and planting-technology skills developed. The records of the herbal-works were not complete, we should pay attention to the other works, so as to ascertain the realorigin production places of Huanglian exactly and scientifically. PMID:22121823

  5. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement with simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices

  6. Separation of two major chalcones from Angelica keiskei by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Jun; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    Angelica keiskei (Shin-sun cho) is an edible higher plant with the beneficial preventive effects on cancer, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Two bioactive chalcones of Shin-sun cho, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2), were separated simultaneously by using high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-EtOAc-MeOH-H2O (9:5:9:4). Only nonconsuming processes, solvent fractionations and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, were conducted as presteps. Xanthoangelol (1, 35.9 mg, 99.9 % purity at 254 and 365 nm) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2, 4.4 mg, 98.7 % purity at 254 nm and 98.8 % purity at 365 nm) were successfully purified from 70 mg of the processed extract from A. keiskei. The structures of two compounds were confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis. PMID:25502980

  7. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  8. Specialized Initiatives - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    CIP has sponsored a number of programs for specific purposes, using set-aside funds. Among these are Phase 2 N01 ProgramIn-Vivo Cellular & Molecular Imaging Centers (ICMICs) Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies (QIN) Network for Translational Research (NTR): Optical Imaging in Multimodal Platforms Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

  9. Response to Comment on "Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2012-08-22

    The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

  10. β4-integrin-mediated cytotoxic activity of AexU in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Masafumi; Miyake, Hideaki; Abolghait, Said K; Behnsawy, Hosny M; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the cytotoxic activity of AexU, an effector-mediating type three secretion system (TTSS) of gram-negative bacteria, in human prostate cancer cells, focusing on the association with β4-integrin expression. The cytotoxic effects of AexU either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated using several human prostate cancer cell lines. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which an expression vector containing siRNA targeting β4-integrin had been introduced, were established (PC3/sh-In), and the cytotoxic effects of AexU on the PC3/sh-In cells were compared with the PC3 cells that were transfected with a control vector (PC3/C). The expression levels of β4-integrin in the PC3 cells were markedly higher compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells, and the cytotoxic effects of AexU in the PC3 cells were more pronounced compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells. The sensitivity of the PC3 cells to docetaxel and cisplatin was significantly enhanced following treatment with AexU, resulting in a decrease in the IC50 of the two agents by ~90%. The cytotoxic effect of AexU in the PC3/C cells was more marked compared with that in the PC3/sh-In cells, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the PC3/C cells appeared to be significantly more inhibited by the treatment with AexU compared with the PC3/sh-In cells. In conclusion, treatment with AexU may be a useful therapeutic option for prostate cancer when β4-integrin is overexpressed. The treatment appears to exert its effects through growth inhibition and by enhancing the sensitivity of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24179545

  11. Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, J.Z.; Nakashima, C.; Nishikawa, J.; Shin, H.-D.; Park, J.-H.; Jama, A.N.; Groenewald, M.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Cercospora coniogrammes Crous & R.G. Shivas, Cercospora delaireae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora euphorbiae-sieboldianae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora pileicola C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora vignigena C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin. Typifications: epitypifications - Cercospora alchemillicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Cercospora althaeina Sacc., Cercospora armoraciae Sacc., Cercospora corchori Sawada, Cercospora mercurialis Pass., Cercospora olivascens Sacc

  12. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

  13. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jesus

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  14. Reply to “Comment on ‘Mechanics of tidally driven fractures in Europa's ice shell’ ”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunwoong; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Makris, Nicholas C.

    2007-08-01

    Both Lee et al. and Qin et al. consider propagation of a surface initiated tensile crack oriented vertically in an ice sheet of finite thickness with gravitational overburden. Lee et al. assume the crack walls are always in contact and bear normal stress from overburden. In this closed crack scenario, overburden stress increases linearly with depth just as in an ice half-space. Crack walls cannot sustain tension, so the effect of far field tension is concentrated in the material below the crack walls. This leads to the deep crack penetrations of Lee et al. Qin et al., however, assume an open crack scenario. They inappropriately apply normal stress to open crack walls which are exposed to vacuum and so physically cannot sustain a normal stress [Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N., 1970. Theory of Elasticity, third ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 191]. Since this inappropriate normal stress is horizontally oriented it has the effect of artificially concentrating compressive stress in the material below the open crack. The severely limited crack propagation depths of Qin et al. result from this inappropriate boundary condition on an open crack wall.

  15. Water Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed dynamic pore-network model is presented [1]. The model explicitly solves for both water pressure and capillary pressure. A semi-implicit scheme is used in updating water saturation in each pore body, which considerably increases the numerical stability at low capillary number values. Furthermore, a multiple-time-step algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational effort. A number of case studies of water transport in the micro porous layer (MPL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are conducted. We illustrate the role of MPL in reducing water flooding in the GDL. Also, the dynamic water transport through the MPL-GDL interface is explored in detail. This information is essential to the reduced continua model (RCM), which was developed for multiphase flow through thin porous layers [2, 3]. C.Z. Qin, Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: dynamic pore-network modeling, J Electrochimical. Soci., 162, F1036-F1046, 2015. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: general balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, 693-708, 2014. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, A new approach to modeling water flooding in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40, 3348-3358, 2015.

  16. Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2004-11-01

    A wide range of collective effects in high intensity charged particle beams have been numerically studied using the nonlinear delta-f particle simulation method implemented in the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport (BEST) code. For the electron-ion two-stream instability in high intensity accelerators and storage rings, the secondary electron yield effects are self-consistently studied by coupling the secondary electron yield library CMEE with the instability simulations. Progress has also been made in applying the delta-f particle simulation method to bunched beams, and a three-dimensional equilibrium solver has been implemented. With the help of recently developed parallel diagnostic techniques, we are able to characterize the chaotic particle dynamics under the influences of collective instabilities as well as three-dimensional equilibrium fields. To further extend the application areas of the delta-f particle simulation method, 2D domain decomposition is being developed using the Message Passing Interface, and three-dimensional equilibria with anisotropic temperature in the transverse and longitudinal directions are being investigated. References: [1] R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams in High Energy Accelerators, World Scientific (2001). [2] H. Qin, Physics of Plasmas 10, 2078 (2003). [3] H. Qin, E. A. Startsev, and R. C. Davidson, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 6, 014401 (2003).

  17. Quantitative SHINERS analysis of temporal changes in the passive layer at a gold electrode surface in a thiosulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Leitch, J Jay; Zhou, Chunqing; Mirza, Jeff; Li, Song-Bo; Tian, Xiang-Dong; Huang, Yi-Fan; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Baron, Janet Y; Choi, Yeonuk; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Shell-isolated gold nanoparticles (SHINs) were employed to record shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectra (SHINERS) of a passive layer formed at a gold surface during gold leaching from thiosulfate solutions. The (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and a sodium silicate solution were used to coat gold nanoparticles with a protective silica layer. This protective silica layer prevented interactions between the thiosulfate electrolyte and the gold core of the SHINs when the SHINs-modified gold electrode was immersed into the thiosulfate lixiviant. The SHINERS spectra of the passive layer, formed from thiosulfate decomposition, contained bands indicative of hydrolyzed APTES. We have demonstrated how to exploit the presence of these APTES bands as an internal standard to compensate for fluctuations of the surface enhancement of the electric field of the photon. We have also developed a procedure that allows for removal of the interfering APTES bands from the SHINERS spectra. These methodological advancements have enabled us to identify the species forming the passive layer and to determine that the formation of elemental sulfur, cyclo-S8, and polymeric sulfur chains is responsible for inhibition of gold dissolution in oxygen rich thiosulfate solutions. PMID:25751526

  18. Characteristics of reactive electropermeable points on the auricles of coronary heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Saku, K; Mukaino, Y; Ying, H; Arakawa, K

    1993-05-01

    In oriental medicine there is a hypothesis related to acupuncture that the auricle is a projection of the functional anatomy of the whole human body. In this study reactive electropermeable points (REPP), that is, points on the skin with low electrical resistance, on the auricle were measured on patients with coronary heart disease using a neurometer LC-M. Our findings correlated positively with the particular points--heart I (shin) and heart II (shinzo)*--named by the Chinese group as being related to the functional anatomy of the heart. The incidence of positive REPP test results at the shin and shinzo points for subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were extremely high, and positive test results for patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and angina pectoris (AP) were also significant. There was no significant difference in the incidence rates of REPP at the shin and shinzo points between the OMI and AP groups. High incidence of positive REPP test results at the lung and heart III (shinyu) points occurred only in the AMI group, and this was significantly high when compared with the control group. PMID:8504576

  19. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  20. Possible cause of unnatural mass death of wild birds in a pond in Nishinomiya, Japan: sudden appearance of toxic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, H; Harada, K I; Senma, M; Ito, Y; Yasuda, N; Ushida, S; Kimura, Y

    1999-01-01

    During the summer of 1995, about 20 spot-billed ducks died unnaturally in a pond (Shin-ike) in Nishinomiya, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The suspected cause was the sudden appearance of toxic freshwater bloom of cyanobacteria. However, no birds died in a nearby pond (Oo-ike) in which the cyanobacteria was also present. Morphological observation of these cyanobacteria by microscope revealed that they were almost unialgal and were both Microcystis aeruginosa. The lyophilized algal cell powder from Shin-ike contained large amounts of microcystins which showed acute toxicity for mouse, while that from Oo-ike had only a very small amount of microcystin-RR which did not show acute toxicity. Autopsy of one of the birds revealed that the liver was necrotic and severely jaundiced with a dark green color, suggesting the toxicity of the microcystins. These results point to the cause of the unnatural death of spot-billed ducks in Shin-ike as being the sudden appearance of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa. This was due to eutrophication of the pond, following the influx of untreated sewage related to damage from the Great Hanshinn Earthquake of January 1995. This is the first experimental report of toxic cyanobacteria being implicated in the mass death of wild birds in Japan. PMID:10495470

  1. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    , Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola

  2. Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youting

    Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment Youting Song*, Wanchun Chen, Xiaolong Chen Institute of Physics and Beijing National Lab-oratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing, 100080 P. R. China ytsong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn The progress in ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under micro-gravity environment was reported. (a) A new apparatus used for growth of large size of LiIO3 crystals by the evaporation method has been developed, in which the hydrophobic poly-terafluorothytene micro-filtration (PEFT) film was used to resist the leakage of LiIO3 solution and control the growth rate of LiIO3 crystals along with CaCl2 adsorbent. The pore diameters of PEFT film should be between 0.1-1.0m, and the optimal weight of the adsorbent should be as three times as that of the solvent H2O evaporated. During crystal growth, the solution is re-plenished by a creeping pump to avoid separating the growing crystal from the solution. Using this technique we have obtained good quality LiIO3 crystals in the ground-based experiments. (b) The nucleating experiment of NaClO3 seed-induction was carried out in a ground-based en-vironment, and experimental results showed that seed-induction of NaClO3 played certainly a role of increasing crystal chiral enantiomer excess (cee), which will become the basis of contrast experiment under microgravity environment.

  3. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  4. 3D Slicer as an image computing platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open-source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  5. In Vivo Stable Tumor-Specific Painting in Various Colors Using Dehalogenase-Based Protein-Tag Fluorescent Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.; Karassina, Natasha; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Lynch, David; Hoyt, Clifford; Levenson, Richard; Los, Georgyi V.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2010-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence cancer imaging is an important tool in understanding tumor growth and therapeutic monitoring and can be performed either with endogenously produced fluorescent proteins or exogenously introduced fluorescent probes bound to targeting molecules. However, endogenous fluorescence proteins cannot be altered after transfection, thus requiring rederivation of cell lines for each desired color, while exogenously targeted fluorescence probes are limited by the heterogeneous expression of naturally occurring cellular targets. In this study, we adapted the dehalogenase-based protein-Tag (HaloTag) system to in vivo cancer imaging. By introducing highly expressed HaloTag receptors (HaloTagR) in cancer cells coupled with an externally injected a range of fluorophore-conjugated dehalogenase-reactive sequences. Tumor nodules arising from a single transfected cell line were stably labeled with fluorescence varying in emission spectra from green to near infrared. After establishing and validating a SHIN3 cell line stably transfected with HaloTagR (HaloTagR-SHIN3), in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging studies were performed in live animals using a peritoneal dissemination model. The tumor nodules arising from HaloTagR-SHIN3 could be successfully labeled by 4 different fluorophore-conjugated HaloTag-ligands each emitting light at different wavelengths. These fluorophores could be alternated on serial imaging sessions permitting assessment of interval growth. Fluorescence was retained in histological specimens after fixation. Thus, this tagging system proves versatile both for in vivo and in vitro imaging without requiring modification of the underlying cell line. Thus, this strategy can overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of endogenous fluorescent proteins and exogenous targeted optical agents in current use. PMID:19514716

  6. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous microcirculation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  7. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous micro- circulation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, 0 deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, 0 deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P < 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar-X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  8. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  9. Reply to 'Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2006-07-15

    In the preceding Comment [Jian-Zhong Du, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fu-Chen Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 016301 (2006)], it has been shown that in a quantum secret sharing protocol proposed in [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], one of the receivers can cheat by splitting the entanglement of the carrier and intercepting the secret, without being detected. In this reply we show that a simple modification of the protocol prevents the receivers from this kind of cheating.

  10. Nonlinear d--ta-f Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

    2002-05-07

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b} >> T{sub {parallel}b}). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigen frequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} = 0.

  11. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  12. The imprint of China’s first emperor on the distant realm of eastern Shandong

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.; Hui, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Imperial expansion is recurrent in human history. For early empires, such as in ancient China, this process generally is known from texts that glorify and present the perspective of victors. The legacy of the Qin king, Shihuangdi, who first unified China in 221 BC, remains vital, but we have few details about the consequences of his distant conquests or how they changed the path of local histories. We integrate documentary accounts with the findings of a systematic regional survey of archaeological sites to provide a holistic context for this imperialistic episode and the changes that followed in coastal Shandong. PMID:20194758

  13. Astronomy and City Planning in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, David W.

    By the beginning of the formative period of Chinese civilization in the early second millennium BCE, astronomical knowledge was already being applied to the cardinal orientation of cities and monumental architecture. This focus is most strongly manifested in the symbolic orientation of imperial capitals. Beginning with the First Emperor of Qin's creation of the unified empire in 221 BCE, a traditional linkage between the ruler and the supra-visible power located at the Celestial Pole led to even greater focus on architectural conformity with the circumpolar skyscape.

  14. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865

  15. Twiss parameters and beam matrix formulation of generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled transverse beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; /Princeton U., Plasma Physics Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Courant-Snyder (CS) theory for one degree of freedom has recently been generalized by Qin and Davidson to the case of coupled transverse dynamics with two degrees of freedom. The generalized theory has four basic components of the original CS theory, i.e., the envelope equation, phase advance, transfer matrix, and the CS invariant, all of which have their counterparts in the original CS theory with remarkably similar expressions and physical meanings. In this brief communication, we further extend this remarkable similarity between the original and generalized CS theories and construct the Twiss parameters and beam matrix in generalized forms for the case of a strong coupling system.

  16. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  17. [Regional and systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Baĭchev, G; Gorchev, G; Deliĭski, T

    1996-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin and Cisplastin was administered on ten patients with cervical cancer (IIB, IIIA, IIIB). On three successive days, five minutes after deep bilateral subcutaneous application of 100E Hylase in the medical surface of the lower third of the shin, 20 mg/msq of bleomycin was introduced slowly. The chemotherapeutic drug was absorbed by the lymph capillaries predominantly, and then transferred to the pelvic lymph nodes. Cisplastin was administered intravenously, at a dose of 50 mg/msq. Treatment was applied three times, third week. Remission was observed in 5 out of the 10 cases. PMID:9254558

  18. Construction of 8000A class 275kV gas insulated transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroyanagi, Y.; Toya, A. ); Hayashi, T. ); Araki, T. )

    1990-01-01

    The 8000A class 275kV gas insulated transmission lines (GIL), 138m and 158m long, completed as getaway lines in the Shin Noda substation in 1988 is described. The GIL was designed to match large current capacity. New techniques were applied to construct these lines. Thermal expansion and contraction of a straight section of GIL is absorbed by an angle variation of a deflection unit. Supports were designed to absorb a ground depression. Units of GIL were installed with gantry cranes. Joints of enclosure were welded by an automatic welding machine.

  19. Simplified variant of an optical chip to evaluate aggregation of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toderi, Martín. A.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.; Castellini, Horacio V.

    2015-06-01

    Traditional techniques to evaluate the aggregation of red blood cells by optical methods require large sample volume and provide parameters that vary significantly from one method to another. A simplified variant of a chip system previously developed by Shin et al. (2009)1 based on light transmission for measuring erythrocyte aggregation is presented. Through a detailed analysis of intensity versus time curves, relevant information about erythrocyte aggregation and its variables is obtained. Parameters that provide more accuracy for the diagnosis of patients in order to have an immediate application in Clinical Medicine are proposed.

  20. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica with sequential occurrence in a patient: report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rupley, Katherine A.; Riahi, Ryan R.; Hooper, Deirdre O’Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) and necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) are granulomatous diseases of undetermined etiology. Rarely, both dermatoses have been reported to occur concomitantly in patients. GA and NL are characterized histologically by areas of necrobiosis of collagen. The two diseases share some common characteristics, which may suggest that these dermatoses could occur as a spectrum in some patients or possibly share a similar pathogenesis. We report on a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of NL on the anterior shins that later developed lesions of GA on the breasts, trunk, and wrist. We also review the literature and discuss the characteristics of patients with concomitant GA and NL. PMID:25692078

  1. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Qin, Hong; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan

    2011-05-01

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  2. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China's initial political unification and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M; Nicholas, Linda M

    2015-07-28

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000-1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900-221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin-Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  3. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  4. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  5. Rock magnetic and grain size evidence for intensified Asian atmospheric circulation since 800,000 years B.P. related to Tibetan uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiao-Min; Li, Ji-Jun; Van der Voo, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and grain size studies of a thick loess sequence in the West Qin Ling (mountain range) show that loess deposition there began about 800 ka. The data reveal a progressively increasing coarse grain size fraction upwards into the Holocene. The averages of these coarse size fractions are higher than in the central Loess Plateau, which was apparently farther from the source area, and slightly lower than those of the western Loess Plateau and the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which were therefore closer to the source area. The coarsening and source area location suggest (1) that Asian air circulation may have changed and intensified at about 800 ka resulting in dust deposition in West Qin Ling; (2) that dust-carrying winds were driven not only by the Asian winter monsoon, but included also the westerlies and a winter monsoon caused by the Tibetan Plateau High, and (3) that intensification of all these air circulation systems continues to the present. Increased elevation of the Tibetan Plateau so that it reached into the cryosphere by about 800 ka and a subsequent persistent uplift of the plateau may have been the mechanisms to trigger a change and intensify the air circulation system. Moreover, this circulation shift and intensification, simultaneous with a shift in Milankovitch periodicity, may have contributed to large global climate changes such as the 15% increase in global ice volume at ca. 800 ka.

  6. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan; Qin Hong

    2011-05-15

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  7. Quark number fluctuations at finite temperature and finite chemical potential via the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xian-yin; Qin, Si-xue; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quark number fluctuations up to the fourth order in the matter composed of two light flavor quarks with isospin symmetry and at finite temperature and finite chemical potential using the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. In order to solve the quark gap equation, we approximate the dressed quark-gluon vertex with the bare one and adopt both the Maris-Tandy model and the infrared constant (Qin-Chang) model for the dressed gluon propagator. Our results indicate that the second, third, and fourth order fluctuations of net quark number all diverge at the critical endpoint (CEP). Around the CEP, the second order fluctuation possesses obvious pump while the third and fourth order ones exhibit distinct wiggles between positive and negative. For the Maris-Tandy model and the Qin-Chang model, we give the pseudocritical temperature at zero quark chemical potential as Tc=146 MeV and 150 MeV, and locate the CEP at (μEq,TE)=(120,124) MeV and (124,129) MeV, respectively. In addition, our results manifest that the fluctuations are insensitive to the details of the model, but the location of the CEP shifts to low chemical potential and high temperature as the confinement length scale increases.

  8. Varietal Response and Estimates of Heritability of Resistance to Meloidogyne javanica in Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. P.; Vecchia, P. T. Della; Ferreira, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    With methods developed in this study, varietal responses to M. javanica were evaluated and heritability of resistance of two promising carrot cultivars was estimated. More egg masses were found on root systems inoculated with eggs added to the soil in three holes in 250 cm³ cups than by mixing the inoculum with soil in the cups. A resistant breeding line, CNPH 1437, was discriminated from susceptible cultivar Nova Kuroda with inoculum levels higher than 2,000 eggs per cup. Greenhouse and field results suggested that cultivars Nantes Superior and Shin Kuroda were susceptible, Kuronan was somewhat tolerant, and Brasilia and Tropical were resistant to M. javanica. Nantes Superior or Shin Kuroda yielded less in carbofuran-treated soil (3 kg a.i./ha) than Kuronan, Brasilia, and Tropical did in nontreated soil. However, incorporation of the nematicide greatly increased yields of Kuronan (32%), Brasilia (62%), and Tropical (91%). Primary root galling at the seedling stage was an adequate parameter for resistance evaluation. Estimated heritability were 0.48 ± 0.07 for primary root galling and 0.35 ± 0.08 for egg mass production in Brasilia, and 0.16 ± 0.11 for primary root galling and 0.31 ± 0.09 for egg mass production in Kuronan. PMID:19294218

  9. Necrobiosis lipoidica: A clinicopathological study in the Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2013-01-01

    Context: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis that is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus. Most of the current knowledge about this entity is from western literature. Aims: This study evaluates the clinicohistological features of NL in an Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical features, associated comorbidities, and biopsies of all patients with NL over a period of one year. Results: Five cases of NL were seen during the duration of the study. The preliminary clinical diagnosis ranged from sarcoidosis to tinea incognito. The commonest clinical presentation in the Indian scenario was of asymptomatic erythematous to skin-colored plaques and nodules on the shins with or without central atrophy. The most common site of involvement was the shin (3 of 5 patients). NL was associated with Diabetes mellitus in only two cases, both of whom were male patients. On histology, various patterns of inflammation were seen including the palisading, interstitial, and mixed granulomatous infiltrates. One patient had sarcoidal granulomas in association with an interstitial pattern. Features seen consistently in all cases include perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates, and fibroplasia. Interstitial mucin deposition was not observed in any of the biopsies. Conclusion: The diagnosis of NL was missed in most cases due to the rarity of the disease, absence of concomitant diabetes, and atypical presentations. Histology was a useful tool in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:24350007

  10. Measuring nonlinear behavior in time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-12-01

    Stationary Test is an important test in detect the time series behavior since financial and economic data series always have missing data, structural change as well as jumps or breaks in the data set. Moreover, stationary test is able to transform the nonlinear time series variable to become stationary by taking difference-stationary process or trend-stationary process. Two different types of hypothesis testing of stationary tests that are Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test are examine in this paper to describe the properties of the time series variables in financial model. Besides, Least Square method is used in Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to detect the changes of the series and Lagrange multiplier is used in Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin test to examine the properties of oil price, gold price and Malaysia stock market. Moreover, Quandt-Andrews, Bai-Perron and Chow tests are also use to detect the existence of break in the data series. The monthly index data are ranging from December 1989 until May 2012. Result is shown that these three series exhibit nonlinear properties but are able to transform to stationary series after taking first difference process.

  11. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative imaging of the subsurface objects is essential part of modern geophysical technology important in oil and gas exploration and wide-range engineering applications. A significant advancement in developing a robust, high resolution imaging technology is concerned with using the different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic) sense the subsurface structure. A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data (electromagnetic and seismic) due to their differing physical nature - diffusive and attenuated propagation of electromagnetic energy and nonlinear, multiple scattering wave propagation of seismic energy. Recent progress has been reported in the solution of this problem by reducing the complexity of seismic wave field. Works formed by Shin and Cha (2009 and 2008) suggests that low-pass filtering the seismic trace via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach for obtaining seismic data that has similar spatial resolution to EM data. The effect of Laplace- Fourier transformation on the low-pass filtered trace changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from multi-wave propagation to diffusion. The key benefit of transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets seismic (Shin and Cha, 2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman 2008, Newman et al., 2010). Moreover the different data sets can also be matched for similar and consistent resolution. Finally, the low pass seismic image is also an excellent choice for a starting model when analyzing the entire seismic waveform to recover the high spatial frequency components of the seismic image; its reflectivity (Shin and Cha, 2009). Without a good starting model full waveform seismic imaging and migration can encounter serious difficulties. To produce seismic wave fields consistent for joint imaging in the Laplace

  12. [Using delta34S-SO4(2-) and Delta15N-NO3-, delta18O-NO3- to Trace the Sources of Sulfur and Nitrate in Lihu Lake Undergound Water, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Qiong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Fang; Pan, Mou-cheng; Yu, Shi

    2015-08-01

    To reveal the temporal and spatial variation pattern of groundwater chemistry in Lihu Lake and explore the causes for the change of water quality through analysis of sulfur isotope and nitrogen-oxygen isotope, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and protection of karst water resources. Several groundwater samples, collected from January to December in 2010 and May, October in 2014 were monitored to analyze the chemical composition of conventional water and the characteristics of delta34S-SO4(2-), and delta15N-NO3-. The results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical type of the underground water was HCO3-Ca type and effected by the seasonal precipitation and human activity, the temporal and spatial variation of the main cations was obvious. (2) The sulfur concentration in the underground river was slightly decreased since the operation of the sewage plant, however, the sulfur concentration was still high. The nitrate pollution aggravated in the year 2014 compared to 2010. Impacted by human activity, the concentration of sulfur and nitrate was higher in the upstream Nandan river, Layi cave and the midstream Liangfeng cave, and Gantianba than in the downstream Xiaolong cave. (3) The delta34S-SO4(2-) value ranged from -4.12%o to -0.93%o. It was inferred that the emission of sulfur oxides through burning coal resulted in the rainwater acidification, which input a large amount of SO4(2-) into the underground water in the form of acid rain. (4) The delta15N-N03- value ranged from 0.26%o to 11.58%o, with an average value of 7.61%o, the delta18O-NO3- value ranged from -2.33%o to 21.76%o, with an average value of 9.38%o. In combination of the composition analysis of nitrogen-oxygen isotope of nitrate, it was believed that soil organic nitrogen, manure and sewage were the main sources of nitrate in the groundwater and the main causes for aggravation of nitrate pollution of the underground water. PMID:26592016

  13. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the

  14. A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Tibetan Plateau and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.

    2013-12-01

    In situ measurements are required to support the calibration and validation of satellite remote sensing of soil moisture. For this purpose, we established a dense monitoring network on central Tibetan Plateau to measure two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) at three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree) and four soil depths (0~5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 40cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, large soil moisture dynamic range and typical freeze-thaw cycle. The network consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 ~ 4950 m. Soil texture and soil organic matters are measured at each station, as auxiliary parameters of this network. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. As the highest soil moisture network in the world, our network meets the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products and for soil moisture scaling. The data is being publicized via the International Soil Moisture Network. Based on the soil moisture data, we have conducted studies to evaluate GLDAS output and remotes sensing products, and to develop soil moisture upscaling and data assimilation algorithms. References: Yang, K., J. Qin, L. Zhao, Y. Y. Chen, W. J. Tang, M. L. Han, Lazhu, Z. Q. Chen, N. Lv, B. H. Ding, H. Wu, C. G. Lin, 2013: A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Third Pole, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00203.1, in press Chen, Y. Y., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Zhao, W. J. Tang and M. L. Han, 2013: Evaluation of AMSR-E retrievals and GLDAS simulations against observations of a soil moisture network on the central Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50301. Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Y. Chen, W. J. Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C. G. Lin, M. L. Han, and H

  15. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  16. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; <0.1 m/s air speed). Mean skin temperature was calculated from four local sites (neck, scapula, hand and shin) in accordance with International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (P<0.01), scapula (P<0.001) and shin (P<0.05); but not at the hand (P = 0.482). The largest difference (± SEM) at each site was as follows: neck 0.2 (0.1)°C; scapula 0.2 (0.0)°C; shin 0.1 (0.0)°C and hand 0.1 (0.1)°C. The largest potential error (mean ± SD) in weighted mean skin temperature was 0.4 (0.1)°C (P<0.001) and the associated 95% limits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. PMID:25774024

  17. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  18. An analogue of a theorem of Kurzweil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, David

    2015-05-01

    A theorem of Kurzweil ('55) on inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation states that if θ is an irrational number, then the following are equivalent: (A) for every decreasing positive function ψ such that \\sumq = 1^∞ \\psi(q) = ∞ , and for almost every s\\in R , there exist infinitely many q\\in N such that ‖qθ - s‖ < ψ(q), and (B) θ is badly approximable. This theorem is not true if one adds to condition (A) the hypothesis that the function q ↦ qψ(q) is decreasing. In this paper we find a condition on the continued fraction expansion of θ which is equivalent to the modified version of condition (A). This expands on a recent paper of Kim (2014 Nonlinearity 27 1985-97).

  19. [Oral diseases recorded in several ancient pulse-taking books unearthed in Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Zhu, L

    2016-03-01

    The earliest known records of oral ulcer, periodontitis and its accompanying lesions were seen in the manuscripts, Bing hou(Syndrome of Disease) and Yin yang mai si hou(Fatal Syndrome of Yin Yang Channels), the ancient pulse-taking books from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan. In the manuscripts Zu bi shi yi mai jiu jing(11-Channel Moxibustion Classic of Foot and Arm) and Yin yang shi yi mai jiu jing(11-Channel Moxibustion Classic of Yin and Yang), there were the earliest content about mandibular and neck diseases, tongue diseases, tooth diseases and mouth diseases described based on the locations along the channel pathways, and preliminary clinical records of diagnosis and treatment of some oral diseases, reflecting the achievements of stomatology in the pre-Qin period and Oin as well as Han Dynasty. PMID:27255193

  20. Revivals in quantum walks with a quasiperiodically-time-dependent coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedzich, C.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    We provide an explanation of recent experimental results of Xue et al. [P. Xue, R. Zhang, H. Qin, X. Zhan, Z. H. Bian, J. Li, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 140502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.140502], where full revivals in a time-dependent quantum walk model with a periodically changing coin are found. Using methods originally developed for "electric" walks with a space-dependent, rather than a time-dependent, coin, we provide a full explanation of the observations of Xue et al. We extend the analysis from periodic time dependence to quasiperiodic behavior with periods incommensurate to the step size. Spectral analysis, one of the principal tools for the study of electric walks, fails for time-dependent systems, but we find qualitative propagation behavior of the time-dependent system in close analogy to the electric case.

  1. [Analysis on length of meridians and ebb-flow of ying-qi based on ancient Shushu].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2008-08-01

    The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and expositions of foreigner scholars about ancient way of thought are consulted, and compared with the recordation about the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians in ancient medical books to probe into the relationship between Shushu and these recordation. It is found that the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians are completely conform with the principle of Shushu, i. e. the ebb-flow degrees of ying-qi and the length of meridians all are deduced from Shushu for building the close inseparable response relation between nature and humans. Because Shushu can not be verified, modern scientific methods are not suitable to the study on the ebb-flow of ying-qi. PMID:18767585

  2. Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    The effort to obtain a set of MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) equations for a magnetized collisionless plasma was started nearly 60 years ago by Chew et al. [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 236(1204), 112-118 (1956)]. Many attempts have been made ever since. Here, we will show the derivation of a set of these equations from the gyrokinetic perspective, which we call it gyrokinetic MHD, and it is different from the conventional ideal MHD. However, this new set of equations still has conservation properties and, in the absence of fluctuations, recovers the usual MHD equilibrium. Furthermore, the resulting equations allow for the plasma pressure balance to be further modified by finite-Larmor-radius effects in regions with steep pressure gradients. The present work is an outgrowth of the paper on "Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas" by Lee and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3196 (2003)].

  3. Optimal decay rates of classical solutions for the full compressible MHD equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jincheng; Tao, Qiang; Yao, Zheng-an

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with optimal decay rates for higher-order spatial derivatives of classical solutions to the full compressible MHD equations in three-dimensional whole space. If the initial perturbation is small in {H^3}-norm and bounded in {L^q(qin [1, 6/5 ))}-norm, we apply the Fourier splitting method by Schonbek (Arch Ration Mech Anal 88:209-222, 1985) to establish optimal decay rates for the second-order spatial derivatives of solutions and the third-order spatial derivatives of magnetic field in {L^2}-norm. These results improve the work of Pu and Guo (Z Angew Math Phys 64:519-538, 2013).

  4. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  5. Effect of top electrodes on photovoltaic properties of polycrystalline BiFeO3 based thin film capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Mi; Liu, Yiwei; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhuge, Fei; Zhan, Qing-Feng; Li, Run-Wei

    2011-05-01

    We investigated capacitors based on polycrystalline narrow-band-gap BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with different top electrodes. The photovoltaic response for the capacitor with a Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) top electrode is about 25 times higher than that with a Au top electrode, which indicates that the electrode plays a key role in determining the photovoltaic response of ferroelectric thin film capacitors, as simulated by Qin et al (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 22912). The light-to-electricity photovoltaic efficiency for the ITO/polycrystalline BFO/Pt capacitor can reach 0.125%. Furthermore, under incident light of 450 µW cm - 2 and zero bias, the corresponding photocurrent varies from 0.2 to 200 pA, that is, almost a 1000-fold photoconductivity enhancement. Our experiments suggest that polycrystalline BFO films are promising materials for application in photo-sensitive and energy-related devices.

  6. [Research on the origins and development of the verse "eighteen antagonism" in Chinese material medica].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Bian, Ya-Li; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen-Xue

    2013-03-01

    The verse "eighteen antagonism" of Chinese materia medica is a kind of describing of drug nature concerning the incompatibility of drugs in compound prescription. Through organizing the medical books in different historical periods, it is found that the drugs in this verse basically coming from TAO Hong-jing's ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica), while the style of verse mostly appeared during the Song-Jin-Yuan period was made. The formed verse was explained and supplemented further in the Ming Dynasty, the basis of which appeared in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty, resulting in the increase of the number of antagonistic drugs and lengthy verse. The origin of the verse seen in Ru men shi qin (Confucians' Duties to Their Parents) and those in other books was not identical and was the most popular one after the Qing Dynasty, becoming the most popularly known even today. PMID:24135473

  7. [Brain governing mind theory in traditional chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhen-Ting

    2012-07-01

    The "Heart Governing Mind" theory has been in the mainstream of visceral manifestation State Doctrine for a long time, but the "Brain Governing Mind" theory is also the traditional thought in Chinese culture. A large number of recordings about the brain in medical or non-medical books from Pre-Qin to the Qing dynasty reflected people's deeper and deeper understanding of the relation between the brain and mind. In order to provide a theoretical guidance for cerebral pathology, we should have a correct understanding of the important role of the brain in life activities, keep developing the "Brain Governing Mind" theory and understand the relationship between the brain and taiji, yinyang, wuxing, viscera, meridians and Guanqiao five apertures and nine orifices. PMID:23336273

  8. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  9. Physical limits to magnetogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. PMID:27529126

  10. Boundary-layer phenomena for the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations of compressible heat-conducting fluids with large data at vanishing shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xia; Zhang, Jianwen

    2016-08-01

    This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations with large data for compressible heat-conducting ideal fluids, as the shear viscosity μ goes to zero. A suitable corrector function (the so-called boundary-layer type function) is constructed to eliminate the disparity of boundary values. As by-products, the convergence rates of the derivatives in L 2 are obtained and the boundary-layer thickness (BL-thickness) of the value O≤ft({μα}\\right) with α \\in ≤ft(0,1/2\\right) is shown by an alternative method, compared with the results proved in Jiang and Zhang (2009 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 41 237–68) and Qin et al (2015 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 216 1049–86).

  11. Tails of Polynomials of Random Variables and Stable Limits for Nonconventional Sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kifer, Yuri; Varadhan, S. R. S.

    2016-06-01

    First, we obtain decay rates of probabilities of tails of polynomials in several independent random variables with heavy tails. Then we derive stable limit theorems for sums of the form sum _{Nt≥ n≥ 1}Fbig (X_{q_1(n)},ldots ,X_{q_ℓ (n)}big ) where F is a polynomial, q_i(n) is either n-1+i or ni and X_n,n≥ 0 is a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables with heavy tails. Our results can be viewed as an extension to the heavy tails case of the nonconventional functional central limit theorem from Kifer and Varadhan (Ann Probab 42:649-688, 2014).

  12. The prevalence of mind-body dualism in early China.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2011-07-01

    We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. PMID:21658101

  13. Global solutions to a chemotaxis model with consumption of chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangchen; Mu, Chunlai; Hu, Xuegang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the following chemotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S(u)nabla v),quad &xin Ω,quad t>0, v_t=Δ v-uv,quad &xinΩ,quad t>0, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain {Ωsubset {R}^n} ({n≥2}), not necessarily being convex. There are some constants {c_D > 0}, {c_S > 0}, {min{R}} and {qin{R}} such that D(u) ≥ c_D(u+1)^{m-1} quad{and} quad S(u)≤ c_S(u+1)^{q-1}quad for all u≥0. If {q < m+n+2/2n}, it is shown that the model possesses a unique global classical solution which is uniformly bounded; if {q < m/2+n+2/2n}, the global existence of solution is established.

  14. LANDSAT monitoring of Lake Erie for phycocyanin content in cyanobacteria blooms from 06/2006-10/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Robert

    An algorithm for mapping phycocyanin content (PC) in lake water from LANDSAT TM satellite data was derived in the past from Western Lake Erie data for July 1, 2000, and found to be robust when applied to a withheld LANDSAT TM and in situ water data set for September 27, 2000 (Vincent et al, 2004). This same algorithm was applied to LANDSAT 5 data of Path 20 Row 31 (Toledo Frame) and Path 19 Row 31 (Cleveland Frame) in Western Lake Erie on overpass dates with less than 30 This work was funded by NOAA Contract Award NA06OAR4600197. Reference Vincent, R.K., X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J.Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, Phycocyanin Detection from LANDSAT TM Data for Mapping Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp 381-392, 2004.

  15. Dynamically stable multiply quantized vortices in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtamäki, J. A. M.; Möttönen, M.; Virtanen, S. M. M.

    2006-12-01

    Multiquantum vortices in dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in long cigar-shaped traps are known to be both energetically and dynamically unstable. They tend to split into single-quantum vortices even in the ultralow temperature limit with vanishingly weak dissipation, which has also been confirmed in the recent experiments [Y. Shin , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004)] utilizing the so-called topological phase engineering method to create multiquantum vortices. We study the stability properties of multiquantum vortices in different trap geometries by solving the Bogoliubov excitation spectra for such states. We find that there are regions in the trap asymmetry and condensate interaction strength plane in which the splitting instability of multiquantum vortices is suppressed, and hence they are dynamically stable. For example, the doubly quantized vortex can be made dynamically stable even in spherical traps within a wide range of interaction strength values. We expect that this suppression of vortex-splitting instability can be experimentally verified.

  16. Hawk migration over White Marsh, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackman, C.D.; Henny, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The average number of hawks observed per hour in autumn migration between 1951-1954 and 1958-1961 at White Marsh, Maryland, was compared. The counts indicated that the status of the ten species observed may be divided into three categories: (1) relatively stable species (red-tailed hawk), (2) declining species (sparrow hawk, red-shouldered hawk, osprey, marsh hawk, and broad-winged hawk), and (3) rapidly declining species (peregrine falcon, Cooper?s hawk, bald eagle, and sharp-shinned hawk). The findings from this study are in agreement with the available literature and the status of the populations appears to be related to the food habits of the species.

  17. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  18. Hepatic Fibrinogen Storage Disease in a Patient with Hypofibrinogenemia: Report of a Case with a Missense Mutation of the FGA Gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Venick, Robert; Bhuta, Sunita; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Hanlin L

    2015-11-01

    We report a 9-year-old patient with abnormal liver tests found incidentally during routine bloodwork as part of a preoperative evaluation for excision of a benign cyst. A liver biopsy demonstrated hepatocytes to have pale and expanded cytoplasm that contained multiple vague globular eosinophilic inclusions. Electron microscopy showed fingerprint-like structures in the dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, characteristic of fibrinogen. Whole exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense mutation at codon 35 of the fibrinogen α (FGA) gene. No mutation was identified in the β or γ chains. His plasma fibrinogen levels were found to be decreased to 85 mg/dL (normal range 215-464). His family history was pertinent for his mother and maternal grandfather with hypofibrinogenemia. He had not had any significant bleeding episodes except for minor bruising over the shins. This case illustrates a rare etiology of storage disease that causes abnormal liver function tests. PMID:26676819

  19. Evolution of gout: “malignant” change over time?

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  20. Old-growth definition for western juniper woodlands: Texas ashe juniper dominated or codominated communities. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.D.

    1997-09-01

    Ashe juniper dominated or codominated woodlands are extensive within the Edwards Plateu in Texas. Almost all contemporary woodlands are the result of various disturbances, especially grazing and fire suppression. Old-growth examples are rare. Several different geomorphic situations once supported natural Ashe juniper communities with different dynamics and composition. These included mesic slopes and canyon systems, shallow-soiled uplands (hardscrabble), and deeper-soiled uplants. The most extensive and most diverse woodlands were in canyon systems, where Ashe juniper shared dominance with a diversity of oaks and other broad-leaved trees, Drier upland woodlands were less diverse, with live oak, shin oak, and Vasey oak variously important. Ashe junipr woodlands harbor a diverse biota, including rare and endemic species, and, thus, preservation of representative old-growth examples is an important conservation concern.

  1. Enabling microscale and nanoscale approaches for bioengineered cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincent; Raman, Ritu; Cvetkovic, Caroline; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-26

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Shin et al. present their finding that the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) results in improved functionality of bioengineered cardiac tissue. These CNT-GelMA hybrid materials demonstrate cardiac tissue with enhanced electrophysiological performance; improved mechanical integrity; better cell adhesion, viability, uniformity, and organization; increased beating rate and lowered excitation threshold; and protective effects against cardio-inhibitory and cardio-toxic drugs. In this Perspective, we outline recent progress in cardiac tissue engineering and prospects for future development. Bioengineered cardiac tissues can be used to build "heart-on-a-chip" devices for drug safety and efficacy testing, fabricate bioactuators for biointegrated robotics and reverse-engineered life forms, treat abnormal cardiac rhythms, and perhaps one day cure heart disease with tissue and organ transplants. PMID:23527748

  2. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  3. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin et al. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis of keloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-β, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling. PMID:26802232

  4. Experimental study of biological effects on canine bronchia by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meixiang; Bao, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bronchia by Nd:YAP laser with different power and irradiation time. Method: The canine bronchia were irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. We observed the effects of ablation and thermal coagulation of different laser settings. We evaluated the damage scale with naked eyes、microscope and electroscope. Result: The thermal coagulation is primary and ablation is secondary. The dose of perforation is 10w, 3s. The diameter of facula is 3mm.Conclusion: (1) The thermal coagulation is primary and ablation is secondary for Nd:YAP laser shinning on canine bronchia. The ablation and thermal coagulation effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bronchia is relevant to mean power and irradiation time.(2) Safety dose is less than 10w, 3s. The diameter of facula is 3mm.

  5. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    : p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical. PMID:22653125

  6. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157-61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  7. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology – which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

  8. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  9. Repair of defects and osteosynthesis of long bones in children with osteoclastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, D. V.; Gubina, E. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Senchenko, E. V.; Sadovoy, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is aimed at reporting a retrospective analysis covering the period from 2007 to 2015. The study involved 22 patients with benign osteoclastoma (OC), 14 male and 8 female children aged 9 to 19. All patients had monostotic lesions with the following location of pathological foci: humerus—11 patients, femoral bone—7, shin bone— 1, fibular bone—1, and ulnar bone—1. All 22 patients underwent surgery. Surgical treatment included resection of tumor focus within intact tissues (in cases of eccentric foci, bony bridge was preserved in the area of minimum damage, which was treated by electrocoagulation together with the cavity) together with bone grafting and intramedullary reinforcement of the affected bone (which provides stable osteosynthesis, early mobilization, and prevention of functional deficits in most patients). Consolidation was achieved in 100% of the operated patients.

  10. Preliminary design of a new device to measure muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jeffrey; Durfee, William

    2015-08-01

    A description and early results are presented for a novel device to estimate the torque-angle and torque-angular velocity properties of the quadriceps muscle group using electrical stimulation. The device straps to the shin and is moved by the operator while pulses of stimulation are applied to the motor point of the quadriceps. During stimulation, the operator raises and lowers the leg to the desired angle, and also can oscillate the leg to generate a rich velocity profile. The resulting muscle force is measured by a load cell contained in the device. In a preliminary study using 11 healthy subjects, normalized torque-angle and torque-velocity data for the quadriceps were consistent with literature results that used maximum voluntary contraction methods. PMID:26737540

  11. [A study on the Menghe medical sect].

    PubMed

    Scheid, Volker; Miao, Wei-Qun

    2004-04-01

    From the late Ming to modern age, famous physicians in Menghe came forth in large numbers, contributing to the formation of the Menghe scholarly sect with the four families of the Fei, Ma, Chao, and Ding as its representatives, featuring erudite academic knowledge, rich clinical experiences with distinguished contributions to the development of TCM. The materials presented in this article include investigation from over 100 kinds of genealogies, works of the Menghe sect collected from over 100 works written by the Menghe physicians, local chronicles, family tree collected in all major libraries in China and those in Europe, the US, Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as through interviews with over 200 persons, including descendants of the Menghe sect, physicians related to the sect. Like a shinning star, the Menghe sect illuminated the medical province during the late Qing dynasty and early republican periods and even today as well. PMID:15555233

  12. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  13. Differential expression of alpha-subunits of G-proteins in human neuroblastoma-derived cell clones.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J; Yu, V C; Sadée, W; Costa, T

    1987-11-16

    The distribution of alpha- and beta-subunits of G-proteins was analyzed in membranes of three cell clones which are derived from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y shows a pattern of G-proteins very similar to that of human brain cortex with high levels of Gi alpha and Go alpha but low levels of G40 alpha. The intermediate clone SH-IN contains high levels of Go alpha and Gi alpha and moderate levels of G40 alpha. The non-neuronal clone SH-EP shows high levels of G40 alpha but lacks Go alpha. Differentiation of the neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y by retinoic acid or nerve growth factor does not change the amount of Gi alpha or Go alpha in the membrane. PMID:3119368

  14. Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.

  15. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  16. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  17. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  18. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  19. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  20. Myopericytoma proliferating in an unusual anastomosing multinodular fashion.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Asami, Akihiko; Tokunaga, Osamu; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    We herein describe a case of myopericytoma that proliferated in an unusual fashion. Myopericytoma is described as a group of rare, benign, dermal or subcutaneous tumors that are characterized histologically by a striking, concentric, perivascular proliferation of spindle cells and showing apparent differentiation towards perivascular myoid cells. Myopericytoma forms a morphological continuum with myofibroma/myofibromatosis, glomus tumor and angioleiomyoma. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who demonstrated a recurrent ulcer on an atrophic plaque on her left shin. A histopathological examination of the plaque demonstrated that tumor cells proliferated in an anastomosing multinodular fashion along the vessels in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In those nodules, there were numerous, small, concentric proliferations of myoid-appearing spindle cells around small vascular lumina. The present case is an unusual example of myopericytoma, manifesting in a characteristic anastomosing, multinodular, infiltrating fashion. PMID:26499100

  1. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  2. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Devereaux, M. D.; Lachmann, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. Images p137-a p137-b PMID:6661608

  3. Hard-sphere kinetic models for inert and reactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Polewczak, Jacek

    2016-10-19

    I consider stochastic variants of a simple reacting sphere (SRS) kinetic model (Xystris and Dahler 1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 387-401, Qin and Dahler 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 103 725-50, Dahler and Qin 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 8396-404) for dense reacting mixtures. In contrast to the line-of-center models of chemical reactive models, in the SRS kinetic model, the microscopic reversibility (detailed balance) can be easily shown to be satisfied, and thus all mathematical aspects of the model can be fully justified. In the SRS model, the molecules behave as if they were single mass points with two internal states. Collisions may alter the internal states of the molecules, and this occurs when the kinetic energy associated with the reactive motion exceeds the activation energy. Reactive and non-reactive collision events are considered to be hard sphere-like. I consider a four component mixture A, B, A (*), B (*), in which the chemical reactions are of the type [Formula: see text], with A (*) and B (*) being distinct species from A and B. This work extends the joined works with George Stell to the kinetic models of dense inert and reactive mixtures. The idea of introducing smearing-type effect in the collisional process results in a new class of stochastic kinetic models for both inert and reactive mixtures. In this paper the important new mathematical properties of such systems of kinetic equations are proven. The new results for stochastic revised Enskog system for inert mixtures are also provided. PMID:27545341

  4. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  5. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  6. Generalized Rayleigh scattering. II. Matrix source functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Kasaurov, A. M.; Loskutov, V. M.; Viik, T.

    1995-11-01

    Numerical and analytical data are presented on the matrix source functions S(τ) of the standard problem of multiple generalized Rayleigh scattering (GRS) in homogeneous semi-infinite atmospheres with uniformly distributed embedded primary sources of partially polarized radiation. The source matrices S(τ) are found by the discrete-ordinate solution of the relevant 2x2 matrix transfer equation and by albedo shifting technique, which is a version of the accelerated {LAMBDA}-iteration approach. The dependence of the solution of the matrix transfer equation on the parameters of the problem of multiple molecular scattering, albedo of single scattering λ_I_ and depolarization factor W, is carefully considered. (The value W=1 corresponds to Rayleigh scattering, while for scalar isotropic scattering W=0). From the pair of the parameters (λ_I_, W) we switch to (λ_I_, λ_Q_), with λ_Q_=0.7Wλ_I_, and instead of the physically natural domain of the parameter values, λ_Iin[0,1], λ_ Qin[0,0.7λ_I_], in GRS we consider a wider one, λ_ I_, λ_Qin[0,1]. On the plane with the axes (λ_I_, λ_Q_), or the λ-plane, there is a one-parameter family of curves, the isopols, along which S(0) remains constant. The λ-plane and the isopols are the basic instruments in our analysis. Along with presenting the numerical data we discuss the asymptotic behavior of S(τ) for τ->{infinity}. It is shown that the matrix counterpart of the usual scalar conservative isotropic scattering is not the ordinary conservative Rayleigh scattering (λ_I_=1, λ_ Q_=0.7), but the biconservative scattering, i.e., scattering with λ_I_=λ_Q_=1. The analysis of the remarkable properties of biconservative scattering naturally leads to matrix generalizations of the Hopf-Bronstein relation, the Hopf constant etc.

  7. Identification of landslide spatial distribution and susceptibility assessment in relation to topography in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianqi; Peng, Jianbing; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Tieming; Liu, Na; Li, Yazhe; Ma, Penghui

    2015-09-01

    Landslides are among the most serious of geohazards in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi, China, and are responsible for extensive human and property loss. In order to understand the distribution of landslides and assess their associated hazards in this region, we used a combination of frequency analysis, logistic analysis, and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, with consideration of the spatial distribution of landslides. Using the GIS approach, the five key factors of surface topography, including slope gradient, topographic wetness index (TWI), height difference, profile curvature and slope aspect, were considered. First, the distribution and frequency of landslides were considered in relation to all of the five factors in each of three sub-regions susceptible to landslides (Qin Mountain, Li Mountain, and Loess Tableland). Secondly, each factor's influence was determined by a logistic regression method, and the relative importance of each of these independent variables was evaluated. Finally, a landslide susceptibility map was generated using GIS tools. Locations that had recorded landslides were used to validate the results of the landslide susceptibility map and the accuracy obtained was above 84%. The validation proved that there is sufficient agreement between the susceptibility map and existing records of landslide occurrences. The logistic regression model produced acceptable results (the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve were 0.865, 0.841, and 0.924 in the Qin Mountain, Li Mountain and Loess Tableland). We are confident that the results of this study can be useful in preliminary planning for land use, particularly for construction work in high-risk areas.

  8. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  9. A fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray image and 3D CT images for TKA surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumihito; O. D. A, Prima; Uwano, Ikuko; Ito, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray films (two-dimensional Computed Radiography (CR) images) and three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) images for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery planning. The position of the each bone, such as femur and tibia (shin bone), in X-ray film and 3D CT images is slightly different, and we must pay attention how to use the two different images, since X-ray film image is captured in the standing position, and 3D CT is captured in decubitus (face up) position, respectively. Though the conventional registration mainly uses cross-correlation function between two images,and utilizes optimization techniques, it takes enormous calculation time and it is difficult to use it in interactive operations. In order to solve these problems, we calculate the center line (bone axis) of femur and tibia (shin bone) automatically, and we use them as initial positions for the registration. We evaluate our registration method by using three patient's image data, and we compare our proposed method and a conventional registration, which uses down-hill simplex algorithm. The down-hill simplex method is an optimization algorithm that requires only function evaluations, and doesn't need the calculation of derivatives. Our registration method is more effective than the downhill simplex method in computational time and the stable convergence. We have developed the implant simulation system on a personal computer, in order to support the surgeon in a preoperative planning of TKA. Our registration method is implemented in the simulation system, and user can manipulate 2D/3D translucent templates of implant components on X-ray film and 3D CT images.

  10. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

  11. Effects of support unloading on inhibitory processes in motoneurons pools of postural muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueva, Tatiana; Zakirova, Albina; Tomilovskaya, Elena

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of support unloading on characteristics of shin extensor muscles (m.soleus and m.gastrocnemius lat.) motor units` (MU) activity evoked by electrical stimulation and intensity of spinal inhibitory processes. Conditions of support unloading were reproduced by "dry" immersion (DI), that it seen to be is the most adequate ground simulation model of weightlessness [Shulzhenko E.B. et al, 1976]. The experiments were performed with participation of 10 healthy men of 20-27 years old. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. In the first one (control group) the subjects stayed in DI for 3 days without any other influences; in the second one (experimental group) in the course of DI the mechanical stimulation of soles’ support zones in the regimen of locomotion was applied daily for 20 min at the beginning of each hour for 6 hours per day [Kozlovskaya I.B., 2007]. MUs’ activity of shin muscles (mm. gastrocnemius lat. and soleus) was recorded with needle concentric electrodes during execution of the task of maintaining a small plantar flexion effort (not stronger than 7% of maximal voluntary contraction force). Single electrical pulses 0,1 ms duration were applied to n.tibialis during spontaneous MU activity. The duration of silent period (SP) following H-reflex response and presence of rebound phenomenon - an increase of MU activity at the end of SP, that is usually observed under normal conditions and reflects trace of inhibitory and excitatory processes in motoneurons pools, were analyzed [Person R.S., 1985]. Experiments were performed before, on the 2nd and 3d day of DI and on the 2nd day after its accomplishment. The Wilcoxon nonparametric criteria were used for statistical data analysis. Exposure to the conditions of support unloading was followed by significant decline of SP duration. The mean of SP duration in shin muscles before DI was 227±31,4 ms. On the 2nd and 3rd days of DI in the control group it

  12. Anisotropic Hardy-Lorentz spaces and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, DaChun; Yuan, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Let $p\\in(0,1]$, $q\\in(0,\\infty]$ and $A$ be a general expansive matrix on $\\mathbb{R}^n$. The authors introduce the anisotropic Hardy-Lorentz space $H^{p,q}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ associated with $A$ via the non-tangential grand maximal function and then establish its various real-variable characterizations in terms of the atomic or the molecular decompositions, the radial or the non-tangential maximal functions, or the finite atomic decompositions. All these characterizations except the $\\infty$-atomic characterization are new even for the classical isotropic Hardy-Lorentz spaces on $\\mathbb{R}^n$. As applications, the authors first prove that $H^{p,q}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an intermediate space between $H^{p_1,q_1}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $H^{p_2,q_2}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $0q\\in(0,\\infty]$, as well as the boundedness of some Calder\\'{o}n-Zygmund operators from $H_A^{p,q}(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ to $L^{p,\\infty}(\\mathbb{R}^n)$, where $b:=|\\det A|$, $\\lambda_-:=\\min\\{|\\lambda|:\\ \\lambda\\in\\sigma(A)\\}$ and $\\sigma(A)$ denotes the set of all eigenvalues of $A$.

  13. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, Ph. Guenter, S.; Koenies, A.; Pinches, S.D.

    2007-09-10

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven

  14. Sprite Luminosity and Radio Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Evans, A.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O.; Soula, S.

    2013-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010) with diameters 50-100 m at 60-80 km height (Kanmae et al., 2012). The sprite luminosity coincides in time and space with extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation <3 kHz in excellent agreement with theory (Cummer and Fullekrug, 2001). This theory is based on current flowing in the body of sprites at 70-80 km height associated with large streamer densities (Pasko et al., 1998). A more detailed study shows specifically that the exponential growth and splitting of streamers at 70-80 km height results in an electron multiplication associated with the acceleration of electrons to a few eV. The accelerated electrons radiate a small amount of electromagnetic energy and the incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the observed electromagnetic radiation (Qin et al., 2012). It has been predicted that this newly recognized physical mechanism might also result in low frequency ( 30-300 kHz) electromagnetic radiation emanating from sprite streamers near 40 km height in the stratosphere, albeit with very small magnetic fields 10^{-17}-10^{-12} T from a single streamer (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this predicted radiation was promptly confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). Specifically, it was found that the sprite luminosity coincides with sudden enhancements of the radio noise. These initial observations are extended here with a more detailed analysis to study the spatial coherence of the radio noise recorded with a novel network of sensitive radio receivers deployed during field work in the summer 2013. This network of radio receivers is used to study the relationship between the radio noise and the sprite luminosity observed with video cameras. The sprite luminosity is inferred from video recordings by use of sophisticated image

  15. [Medical doctor Lee Hyeon Yang's writings in Gokcheongsago].

    PubMed

    Hur, Kyoungjin

    2008-12-01

    Medical doctors in the Chosun Dynasty read Chinese literature of high level in order to take the medical civil service examination, but there are not many extant writings of theirs except some medical books. Middle class people's selections of poems such as Haedongyuju, Sodaepungyo, Pungyosokseon and Pungyosamseon were published, and among the list of the writers, those who were identified as medical doctors were Park Gun, Baek Heung jeon, Shin Myeong hee, Shin Hee myeong, Oh Chang ryeol, Yoo Dong yeok, etc. Even their works are not many, and this suggests that doctors' writing was not active except for medical books. Lee Hyeon yang (1783-1852), the author of Gokcheongsago, was born the only son of Lee Jaewoo (1750-1808), an acupuncturist at the Lee family from Ansan, which was an influential middleclass family. His pen name was changed from Gokcheong to Anrakwa, Yongheon and Gyeongsudang, and for each pen name, he wrote a foreword explaining the origin of the name and his resolution. The Lee family from Ansan produced 20 medical officials through eight generations from Lee Yoon yeong in the 7th generation to Lee Myeong ryun in the 15th generation. He learned medicine, his family occupation, diligently and passed the medical civil service examination in 1803 when he was 21. In addition, he studied Confucian scriptures enthusiastically and left many writing along with medical books. Based on the forewords in his anthology Gokcheongsago, there are eight writings of his as follows in chronological order: Suseongpyeongam (1798), Cheongimiyo (1799), Euihakjeongwon (1801), Gwangjebiyo(five volumes, 1810), Wonbyeonggiyo (1819), Bonchojeongeui(1826), Euiyakcheongji (1838), and Yeonghwaji (1843). He wrote not only medical books but also traditional Chinese texts in different styles. In the 180pages transcription, he as a medical doctor showed various writing styles based on Confucianism including 22 prologues and epilogues, 9 diaries, discussions and opinions, 2 biographies

  16. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related

  17. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey-Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r2 = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from the

  18. The effective latent heat of aqueous nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soochan; Taylor, Robert A.; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Phelan, Patrick E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions, popularly termed ‘nanofluids’, have been extensively investigated for their thermal and radiative properties (Eastman et al 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 457; Keblinski et al 2005 Mater. Today 8 36-44 Barber et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-13 Thomas and Sobhan 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-21 Taylor et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-11 Fang et al 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1736-42 Otanicar et al 2010 J. Renew. Sustainable Energy 2 03310201-13 Prasher et al 2006 ASME J. Heat Transfer 128 588-95 Shin and Banerjee 2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4 Taylor and Phelan 2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48 Ameen et al 2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44 Lee et al 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 1-4). Such work has generated great controversy, although it is (arguably) generally accepted today that the presence of nanoparticles rarely leads to useful enhancements in either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer. On the other hand, there are still examples of unanticipated enhancements to some properties, such as the specific heat of molten salt-based nanofluids reported by Shin and Banerjee (2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4) and the critical heat flux mentioned by Taylor and Phelan (2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48). Another largely overlooked example is the reported effect of nanoparticles on the effective latent heat of vaporization (hfg) of aqueous nanofluids, as reported by Ameen et al (2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44). Through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling supplemented with limited experimental data they found that hfg increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, for Pt nanoparticles (MD) and Al2O3 nanoparticles (experiments). Here, we extend those exploratory experiments in an effort to determine if hfg of aqueous nanofluids can be manipulated, i.e., increased or decreased by the addition of graphite or silver nanoparticles. Our results to date indicate that, yes, hfg can be substantially impacted, by

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 differentially regulates proliferation, morphology, and extracellular matrix expression by three neural crest-derived neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S L; Cutts, J L; Gegick, P J; McGuire, P G; Rosenberger, C; Krisinski, S

    1994-04-01

    We reported previously (S. L. Rogers, P. J. Gegick, S. M. Alexander, and P. G. McGuire, Dev. Biol. 151, 191-203, 1992) that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) inhibited proliferation, up-regulated fibronectin synthesis, and suppressed melanogenesis in a population of quail neural crest cells in vitro. Here, we report that cell lines derived from the parent SK-N-SH neuroblastoma line (R. A. Ross, B. A. Spengler, and J. L. Biedler, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71, 741-747, 1983) respond differentially to TGF beta 1, and their responses provide further insights into the actions of this growth factor on neural crest subpopulations. The SH-EP cell line exhibits primarily nonneuronal traits and responded to TGF beta 1 with increased thymidine uptake after 6 days of culture, increased expression of fibronectin mRNA and protein, and decreased laminin synthesis. Many SH-EP cells also acquired a dramatically elongated morphology, reminiscent of Schwann cells in culture. Thymidine uptake by the neuronal SY5Y cell line was not substantially altered. Neither fibronectin mRNA nor protein was detectable in either TGF beta 1-treated or untreated cultures, although laminin synthesis was upregulated by the growth factor. In TGF beta 1-treated cultures of the intermediate SH-IN cell line, which has been reported to display both neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics, there was marked flattening of many cells, a steady decrease in thymidine uptake, and increased expression of both fibronectin and laminin. The observed responses of SH-IN cells mimic those observed in primary neural crest cultures and appear to represent similar differentiation toward a mesenchymal phenotype. These results substantiate the idea that closely related but diverging neural crest-derived cell types respond selectively to TGF beta 1 and demonstrate that these SK-N-SH-derived cell lines will be useful in experimental approaches that will allow us to infer mechanisms underlying regulation of neural crest

  20. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    software " Solid Works" and computer aided engineering (CAE) software " ANSYS" with corrosion elongation transformed into thermal elongation. We established a current collector corrosion elongation forecast and found that the microstructure controlled the Pb-Ca-Sn alloy; thus newly designed VRLA batteries (MU-series [A. Takemasa, I. Mukaitani, Y. Yoshiyama, K. Fukui, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuwano, M. Fukuda, H. Misaki, K. Uwatari, Shin-Kobe Technical Report 9 (1999) 11] for telecommunication and LL-series [H. Takabayashi, T. Shibahara, Y. Mastuda, K. Fukui, S. Hazui, Y. Matsumura, S. Kondo, Shin-Kobe Tech. Rep. 11 (2001) 35] for electric energy storage) which are lightweight and have long life are introduced here.

  1. Physical limits to magnetogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17210.001 PMID:27529126

  2. Two-Dimensional Boron-Nitride Layers as Flexoelectric Nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, I.; Bratkovsky, A.; Ranjan, V.

    2009-03-01

    The direct conversion of ambient motion into electrical energy, especially at nanoscale, is fundamental and technological challenge. Boron-Nitride non-centrosymmetric monolayers are piezoelectrics that can sustain much larger structural and produce very large (a few Volts) voltage drop across flexed nanostrips. We show, with the use of ab-initio calculations, the existence of giant nonlinear flexoelectric effect in BN 2D strips. The induced polarization is quadratic in amplitude of atomic displacements A, yet the dipole moment per unit cell is about four times larger compared to PbZrTiO3 [1]. The resulting voltage drop across the BN nanostrip is set by bandgap in material Eg/q˜5 Volts and nearly independent of the strip width. The large voltage produced by this inert bio-compatible material may find a variety of applications and, in particular, as nanogenerators and sensors powered by an ambient motion or agitation. Prior alternatives, like ZnO, GaN and CdS, are leaky, generate much smaller voltage, and impractical [2]. [1] I.Naumov, A.Bratkovsky, V.Ranjan, arXiv:0810.1775 (2008). [2] Y. Qin, X. Wang, Z.L. Wang, Nature 451, 809 (2008); M.A. Schubert et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 316, 122904 (2008)

  3. Herb-drug interaction of 50 Chinese herbal medicines on CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pao, Li-Heng; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Fan, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chang-Ching; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Pei-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on the enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 and the possible metabolism-based herb-drug interactions in human liver microsomes and in rats. Fifty single-herbal preparations were screened for the activity of CYP3A4 using human liver microsomes for an in vitro probe reaction study. The enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 was estimated by determing the 6β-hydroxytestosterone metabolized from testosterone performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Huang Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Geprgi), Mu Dan Pi (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), Ji Shiee Terng (Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.) and Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus [Fisch] Bge) have been demonstrated to have remarkable inhibiting effects on the metabolism of CYP3A4, whereas Xi Yi Hua (Magnolia biondii Pamp.) exhibited a moderate inhibition. These five single herbs were further investigated in an animal study using midazolam. Mu Dan Pi, Ji Shiee Terng and Huang Qi were observed to have greatly increased in the C(max) and AUC of midazolam. This study provides evidence of possible herb-drug interactions involved with certain single herbs. PMID:22298448

  4. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  5. Striping noise mitigation in ATMS brightness temperatures and its impact on cloud LWP retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuan; Zou, Xiaolei

    2015-07-01

    Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on board Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite provides global distributions of microwave brightness temperature measurements at 22 temperature and humidity sounding channels twice daily. However, the differences between observations and brightness temperature simulations exhibit a systematic along-track striping noise for all channels. In this study, a set of 22 "optimal" filters is designed to remove the striping noise in different channels. It is shown that the original method for ATMS striping noise mitigation developed by Qin et al. can be simplified and made suitable for use in an operational context. Impacts of striping noise mitigation on small-scale weather features are investigated by comparing ATMS cloud liquid water path (LWP) retrieved before and after striping noise mitigation. It is shown that the optimal filters do not affect small-scale cloud features while smoothing out striping noise in brightness temperatures. It is also shown that the striping noise is present in the LWP retrievals if the striping noise in brightness temperatures of ATMS channels 1 and 2 is not removed. The amplitude of the striping noise in LWP is linearly related to the magnitude of striping noise in ATMS brightness temperature observations.

  6. Mixing of exciton and charge-transfer states in light-harvesting complex Lhca4.

    PubMed

    Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Croce, Roberta; Wahadoszamen, Md; Polukhina, Iryna; Romero, Elisabet; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-07-28

    Lhca4 is one of the peripheral antennae of higher plant photosystem I and it is characterized by the presence of chlorophyll a with absorption and emission bands around 30 nm red-shifted compared to those of the other chlorophylls associated with plant complexes. In this work we have investigated the origin of this red shift by using the recent structure of Lhca4 (Qin et al., Science, 2015, 348, 989) to build an exciton model that includes a charge-transfer (CT) state mixed with the excited-state manifold. A simultaneous quantitative fit of absorption, linear dichroism, fluorescence, and Stark absorption spectra of the wild-type Lhca4 and NH mutant (where the sites involved in CT are affected) enables us to determine the origin of the CT state and explore its spectral signatures. A huge borrowing of dipole strength by the CT, accompanied by anomalous broadening and red-shifting of the fluorescence as well as dramatic changes in the Stark spectrum, can be accounted for by a model implying an exciton-type mixing between excited states and CT states. PMID:27375175

  7. Asymptotic Completeness in the Problem of Scattering by a Brownian Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremshantsev, S. E.

    1990-02-01

    The author studies the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation with potential randomly depending on time: \\displaystyle i\\frac{\\partial\\psi}{\\partial t}=-\\Lambda_x\\psi+q(x-y(t))\\psi;\\qquad \\psi\\vert _{t=0}=\\psi_0(x);\\quad t\\geq0.Here \\psi_0\\in L_2({R}^3), q is a fixed complex function, y(t) is a sample function of the Wiener process. The main result is the following. Let {\\operatorname{Im}}\\,q(x)\\leq0, q\\in L_2({R}^3), and suppose there exist R, \\delta>0 such that \\vert q(x)\\vert\\leq C\\vert x\\vert^{-(7/2)-\\delta} for \\vert x\\vert\\geq R. Then for almost all (relative to Wiener measure) y(\\,\\cdot\\,) the solution \\psi(t,\\,y(\\,\\cdot\\,)) of the above equation has free asymptotics as t\\to+\\infty for any initial data \\psi_0 in L_2({R}^3), i.e. for some \\psi_+ \\displaystyle \\lim_{t\\to+\\infty}\\Vert\\psi(t,\\,y(\\,\\cdot\\,))-\\exp(-itH_0)\\psi_+\\Vert _{L_2({\\mathbf R}^3)}=0,\\qquad H_0=-\\Delta_x.Bibliography: 13 titles.

  8. Slicing and Binding by Ago3 or Aub Trigger Piwi-bound piRNA Production by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Han, Bo W.; Tipping, Cindy; Ge, Daniel Tianfang; Zhang, Zhao; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. Here, we report that RNA cleavage by Argonaute3 initiates production of most Piwi-bound piRNAs. We find that the cardinal function of Argonaute3, whose piRNA guides predominantly correspond to sense transposon sequences, is to produce antisense piRNAs that direct transcriptional silencing by Piwi, rather than to make piRNAs that guide post-transcriptional silencing by Aubergine. We also find that the Tudor domain protein Qin prevents Aubergine’s cleavage products from becoming Piwi-bound piRNAs, ensuring that antisense piRNAs guide Piwi. Although Argonaute3 slicing is required to efficiently trigger phased piRNA production, an alternative, slicing-independent pathway suffices to generate Piwi-bound piRNAs that repress transcription of a subset of transposon families. This alternative pathway may help flies silence newly acquired transposons for which they lack extensively complementary piRNAs. PMID:26340424

  9. Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang

    As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.

  10. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation. PMID:27440809

  11. Q-colourings of the triangular lattice: exact exponents and conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Eric; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Salas, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the problem of Q-colourings of the triangular lattice using a mapping onto an integrable spin-one model, which can be solved exactly using Bethe ansatz techniques. In particular we focus on the low-energy excitations above the eigenlevel g 2, which was shown by Baxter to dominate the transfer matrix spectrum in the Fortuin-Kasteleyn (chromatic polynomial) representation for {Q}0≤slant Q≤slant 4, where {Q}0=3.819 671\\cdots . We argue that g 2 and its scaling levels define a conformally invariant theory, the so-called regime IV, which provides the actual description of the (analytically continued) colouring problem within a much wider range, namely Q\\in (2,4]. The corresponding conformal field theory is identified and the exact critical exponents are derived. We discuss their implications for the phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic triangular-lattice Potts model at non-zero temperature. Finally, we relate our results to recent observations in the field of spin-one anyonic chains.

  12. Quantifying the inversion accuracy of simplified physical models for the nighttime OI 135.6 nm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianqi; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Makela, Jonathan J.

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive statistical analysis is performed to investigate the effects of plasma and neutral density variability on the OI 135.6 nm emission in the nighttime ionosphere. Typical and extreme cases obtained from climatological models are incorporated into a radiative transfer model recently developed by Qin et al. (2015) to systematically quantify the production and loss of the nighttime 135.6 nm emission, as well as to understand their dependence on the ionospheric and thermospheric conditions. It is shown that mutual neutralization can contribute ˜8%-40% of the 135.6 nm emission. Radiative transfer effects due to scattering and absorption reduce the peak brightness measured from a satellite platform in the limb direction by ˜0.3% to 22%. The reduction is more significant for a larger observing zenith angle, typically by ˜45% for lines of sight that go through altitudes below ˜150 km. Furthermore, inversion results show that ignoring radiative transfer effects lead to a maximum ˜12% underestimation of the NmF2, while ignoring mutual neutralization leads to a maximum ˜30% overestimation of the NmF2. In the presence of measurement noise, the estimation accuracy decreases with a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio, and the errors introduced by simplified physical models lead to a significant bias in the inversion results.

  13. GHz - THz plasmonic circuits using low dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Donhee

    2012-02-01

    Nature offers a broad variety of plasma systems consisting of electrons unbound from atoms, e.g.; astrophysical plasmas in intergalactic, interstellar, and stellar media; the Earth's ionosphere; and solid-state plasma, the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, only to name a few. A key feature of many plasma systems is collective motions of electrons; as the electron density profile is perturbed from equilibrium, Coulomb restoring forces (and sometimes quantum pressure in dense plasma) arise to power these collective motions, usually in the form of bulk electron density oscillations or electron density waves. Solid-state plasmas are particularly interesting, as the fabrication technologies available for solid-state materials allow us to alter the boundaries and interfaces of the plasma media in various ways to engineer the collective motion. A notable example is the surface plasmons, which have been a source of many breakthroughs in photonics. I will talk about a set of our recent developments where the plasmons are brought down to the electronics-regime (GHz˜THz) and manipulated to produce a range of functionalities, while offering unique advantages to electronics over their purely electromagnetic counterparts. (Co-workers) William Andress (Harvard), Hosang Yoon (Harvard), Kitty Yeung (Harvard), Ling Qin (Harvard), Ken West (Princeton), and Loren Pfeiffer (Princeton).

  14. Heterologous protein expression in Trichoderma reesei using the cbhII promoter.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanju; Wei, Dongzhi; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    To express homologous or heterologous proteins in fungi, a protein expression system using the promoter of cellobiohydrolase II gene (cbhII) was constructed by generating an expression vector called pWEIIF00. The obtained vector possesses the left and right borders, a hygromycin phosphotransferase B selective marker and a strong promoter and terminator of cbhII from Trichoderma reesei. It can easily undergo random recombination. The applicability of the vector was tested by red fluorescent protein gene (DsRed2) expression detection in T. reesei Rut C30. Using this system, a recombinant Cel5A variant, N342R (Qin et al., 2008), was then selected to express in Rut-C30. Compared to that of the parent strain, integration of the N342R gene resulted in 31.09% increased carboxymethyl-cellulose-degrading (CMCase) activity at pH 5.0 and 56.06% increased activity at pH 6.0. The increased CMCase activity of the recombinant strains would be beneficial for its application uses in multiple industries. The vector constructed in this study can used in fungi to produce industrial proteins. PMID:23701911

  15. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-07-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP-DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP-DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP-DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  16. Large solar energetic particle event that occurred on 2012 March 7 and its VDA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Cao, Xin-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Le, Gui-Ming

    2016-08-01

    On 2012 March 7, the STEREO Ahead and Behind spacecraft, along with near-Earth spacecraft (e.g. SOHO, Wind) situated between the two STEREO spacecraft, observed an extremely large global solar energetic particle (SEP) event in Solar Cycle 24. Two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been detected close in time. From the multi-point in-situ observations, it can be found that this SEP event was caused by the first CME, but the second one was not involved. Using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA), we find that for a well magnetically connected point, the energetic protons and electrons are released nearly at the same time. The path lengths to STEREO-B (STB) for protons and electrons have a distinct difference and deviate remarkably from the nominal Parker spiral path length, which is likely due to the presence of interplanetary magnetic structures situated between the source and STB. Also, the VDA method seems to only obtain reasonable results at well-connected locations and the inferred release times of energetic particles in different energy channels are similar. We suggest that good-connection is crucial for obtaining both an accurate release time and path length simultaneously, agreeing with the modeling result of Wang & Qin (2015).

  17. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia). PMID:24774895

  18. [Characteristics of acupoint selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for vertigo in history: a data mining research].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shou, Yi-Xia; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The data mining technique is adopted to analyze characteristics and rules of acupoint and meridian selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo at different time periods in the ancient. The data is collected from literature regarding acupuncture-moxibustion from the pre-Qin period to the end of Qing Dynasty, so as to establish a clinical literature database of ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo. Data mining method is applied to analyze the commonly used meridians, acupoints and special acupoints in different dynasties, also possible rules are explored. Totally 82 pieces of prescription of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo are included. In the history the leading selection of acupoitns are Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (GV 23) and Jiexi (ST 41) while that of meridians are mainly three yang meridians of foot and the Governor Vessel, especially the acupoints on the Bladder Meridian of foot yangming had the highest utilization rate, accounting for 23.04%. The acupoint selection is characterized by special acupoint, accounting for 80.6%, among which the crossing points are the most common choice. Distal-proximal acupoints combination is the most frequent method. The results indicate that the ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo focused on acupoints in the yang meridians, and the specific acupoints play an essential role in prescription; also the principle of syndrome differentiation and selecting acupoints along the meridians could be seen. PMID:25022134

  19. Research on history of Chinese seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Rui; Wu, Yuxia

    2010-06-01

    The history of Chinese seismology can be traced back to four thousand years before and divided into four stages, i.e., primitive knowledge, worship of nature, perceptual knowledge and scientific research. The second stage ran in the whole Qin-Han dynasties, and the fourth stage began from Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty and continued to the present. So far China has made four great contributions to seismological development of the world, i.e., the invention of Heng Zhang’s seismoscope, great amount of historical records of earthquakes of four thousand years, most abundant anomaly data before earthquakes, and successful practice of earthquake prediction in Haicheng. However, the seismological research in China at present is still on the junior and developing stage. Now we have been carrying on some recessively historical load in our mind such as the subconsciousness of absolute obedience, habit of phenomenological study as well as the methods of philosophical analysis without sincerity. For constructing a high-level Chinese culture in seismological research, we need to pay attention to combining the phenomenological research with experiment, observation and theory study. It is also suggested to take the appropriated measures matched with the present research level in seismology, as well as to promote coexisting and merging of multi-cultures.

  20. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  1. [Study on rules of acupoints selection for vertigo in ancient acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiana; Chen, Hua-De

    2014-04-01

    The characteristics of selection and matching acupoint and application rules of meridians in ancient acupuncture literature for vertigo were explored. The data were collected from literature regarding acupuncture for vertigo from the pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty and then database was established. Frequency statistics method and comparison of support degree were applied to analyze and explore application rules of acupoints and meridians, while association rules in data mining was used to extract combinations of acupoints. As a result, for treatment of vertigo, according to frequency of use and support degree, generally the most selected acupoints, in turn, were Fengchi (GB 20), Shangxing (GV 23), Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Shenting (GV 24), etc.; the most methods for matching acupoint were combination of adjacent acupoints, combination of same-meridian acupoints, combination of the superior-inferior acupoints, combination of yang-meridian and yang-meridian acupoints and combination of child-mother meridians acupoints; the most selected meridians were bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang and governor vessel. Compared between the ancient and modern literature, it was found out that the ancient and modern clinic has same points in selection of acupoint-meridian and matching acupoints methods. However, the use of Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41) and Feiyang (BL 58) as well as combination of child-mother meridians acupoints were less seen in modern clinic, which could provide new reference. PMID:24946637

  2. RNA clamping by Vasa assembles a piRNA amplifier complex on transposon transcripts.

    PubMed

    Xiol, Jordi; Spinelli, Pietro; Laussmann, Maike A; Homolka, David; Yang, Zhaolin; Cora, Elisa; Couté, Yohann; Conn, Simon; Kadlec, Jan; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kaksonen, Marko; Cusack, Stephen; Ephrussi, Anne; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-06-19

    Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex that mediates biogenesis of secondary piRNAs in insect cells. Amplifier is nucleated by the DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa and contains the two Piwi proteins participating in the ping-pong loop, the Tudor protein Qin/Kumo and antisense piRNA guides. These components assemble on the surface of Vasa's helicase domain, which functions as an RNA clamp to anchor Amplifier onto transposon transcripts. We show that ATP-dependent RNP remodeling by Vasa facilitates transfer of 5' sliced piRNA precursors between ping-pong partners, and loss of this activity causes sterility in Drosophila. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the small RNA amplification that confers adaptive immunity against transposons. PMID:24910301

  3. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

    2013-11-15

    Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant β-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area. PMID:24103096

  4. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-04-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4'-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4'-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4'-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid-specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4'-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  5. Comparison of the effects of two models for perpendicular diffusion on cosmic-ray latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnie, J.; Burger, R. A.; Parhi, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Bieber, J. W.

    We compare the effects of two different models for perpendicular diffusion on the latitudinal gradients of galactic cosmic ray protons during solar minimum conditions. These two models correspond to the newly developed non-linear guiding center theory [Matthaeus, W.H., Qin, G., Bieber, J.W., Zank, G.P. Nonlinear collisionless perpendicular diffusion of charged particles. Astrophys. J. Lett., 590 (1), L53 L56, 2003] and the theory based on a velocity correlation function approach [Bieber, J.W., Matthaeus, W.H. Perpendicular diffusion and drift at intermediate cosmic-ray energies. Astrophys. J., 485 (2) 655 659, 1997]. In this ab initio study a steady-state two-dimensional numerical modulation model is used which incorporates a state-of-the-art turbulence model. We show that the non-linear guiding center theory predicts a mean free path that has a rigidity dependence that better accounts for the latitudinal gradients measured by Ulysses during its first fast latitude scan in 1994/1995.

  6. Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.

    PubMed

    Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

    2006-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

  7. Spatial profiles of methane at the Swiss Plateau: A confrontation between measurements and emission inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Buchmann, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide are the two most prominent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a detailed knowledge about their sources is essential for climate predictions (Solomon et al., 2007). The knowledge about greenhouse gas fluxes is usually merged, albeit including considerable uncertainties, to emission inventories. To increase the quality of the inventories a comparison with measurements is necessary. We evaluate the values given by a Swiss emission inventory with regard to atmospheric measurements of methane in Switzerland. Spatial profiles of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated at the Swiss Plateau during two consecutive warm and sunny summer days in July 2012. For the mobile methane and carbon dioxide measurements a LGR methane analyser and a LI-COR closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA) were mounted on a car together with an AIRMAR WeatherStation to track geodetic-coordinates and meteorological parameters. First results of the measurements including aerial profiles of the greenhouse gases and bin-averaged elevation profiles of methane and temperature will be presented and a highly-resolved methane emission inventory will be evaluated in comparison with the spatial profiles of atmospheric methane at the Swiss Plateau. References: Solomon, S., Qin D., et al. (Eds.) (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 S. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  8. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests. PMID:15285134

  9. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China’s initial political unification and its aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000–1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900–221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin–Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  10. Rapid LC-MS Drug Metabolite Profiling Using Microsomal Enzyme Bioreactors in a Parallel Processing Format

    PubMed Central

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhao, Linlin; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle bioreactors featuring thin films of enzymes and polyions were utilized in a novel high-throughput 96-well plate format for drug metabolism profiling. The utility of the approach was illustrated by investigating the metabolism of the drugs diclofenac (DCF), troglitazone (TGZ) and raloxifene, for which we observed known metabolic oxidation and bioconjugation pathways and turnover rates. A broad range of enzymes was included by utilizing human liver (HLM), rat liver (RLM) and bicistronic human-cyt P450 3A4 (bicis.-3A4) microsomes as enzyme sources. This parallel approach significantly shortens sample preparation steps compared to an earlier manual processing with nanoparticle bioreactors, allowing a range of significant enzyme reactions to be processed simultaneously. Enzyme turnover rates using the microsomal bioreactors were 2-3 fold larger compared to using conventional microsomal dispersions, most likely because of better accessibility of the enzymes. Ketoconazole (KET) and quinidine (QIN), substrates specific to cyt P450 3A enzymes, were used to demonstrate applicability to establish potentially toxic drug-drug interactions involving enzyme inhibition and acceleration. PMID:19904994

  11. Recent neutrino data and a realistic tribimaximal-like neutrino mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Oh, Sechul

    2012-08-01

    In light of the recent neutrino experimental results from the Daya Bay and RENO Collaborations, we construct a realistic tribimaximal-like Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) leptonic mixing matrix. Motivated by the Qin-Ma (QM) parametrization for the quark mixing matrix in which the CP-odd phase is approximately maximal, we propose a simple ansatz for the charged lepton mixing matrix, namely, it has the QM-like parametrization, and assume the tribimaximal mixing (TBM) pattern for the neutrino mixing matrix. The deviation of the leptonic mixing matrix from the TBM one is then systematically studied. While the deviation of the solar and atmospheric neutrino mixing angles from the corresponding TBM values, i.e. sin2θ12 = 1 / 3 and sin2θ23 = 1 / 2, is fairly small, we find a non-vanishing reactor mixing angle given by sinθ13 ≈ λ /√{ 2} (λ ≈ 0.22 being the Cabibbo angle). Specifically, we obtain θ13 ≃ 9.2 ° and δCP ≃δQM ≃ O (90 °). Furthermore, we show that the leptonic CP violation characterized by the Jarlskog invariant is | JCPℓ | ≃ λ / 6, which could be tested in the future experiments such as the upcoming long baseline neutrino oscillation ones.

  12. Analysis of acid rain effects on vegetation in eco-regions in China based on AVHRR/NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaobin

    2010-09-01

    The vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystems, is the main receptor of acid rain pollution. Because of the discrepancy of the vegetation characteristics and environment, the responses of the different types of vegetation to acid rain in different regions are different. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. The result shows that the most tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were positively correlated with the acidity of precipitation and the growth was inhibited obviously. On the contrary, the growth of temperate coniferous forests was promoted by acid rain to some extent. In generally, the vegetation in the condition of the weak acid rain grew better, especially the Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests and the Changjiang Plain evergreen forests. For South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forest, Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests and Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests, the significant difference of NDVI between the different gradients of acid rain lasted almost the whole year, while that of the other eco-regions only appeared most obviously in Winter.

  13. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  14. A New Approach to Modelling Water Flooding in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution and migration of liquids in various layers of a PEFC is commonly modelled by the 3D flow equations. Given the fact these layers are very thin, there are major problems with such models, including heavy computational efforts and doubts in their applicability to the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL). Recently, a new approach for modelling multiphase flow through a stack of thin porous layers has been developed [Qin and Hassanizadeh, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 70 (2014) 693-708]. In this approach, which is called "reduced continua model", each layer is modelled as a 2D domain with governing equations in terms of thickness-averaged properties. This work is aimed to illustrating the advantages of the reduced continua model in modelling liquid water dynamics in a PEFC. In comparison to the Richards model, the reduced continua model predicts quite similar water dynamics in the micro porous layer (MPL), but lower steady-state water saturation in the GDL, particularly under the channel area. This is qualitatively in agreement with experimental observations in the literature. Finally, sensitivity studies of a few material parameters by the reduced continua model have been provided.

  15. [Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement)].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2010-10-01

    Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) is compared with literatures concerning the Shushu (ancient Chinese numerology) of the Qin Dynasty (221 B. C. - 206 B. C. ) and the Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-220 A. D.) in this article. And it is discovered that "the number of heaven and earth" in Yijing (The Book of Change) was implied in the bone-length measurement. The theory of Shushu is hidden in the sized of head, neck, chest, abdomen, back and 4 extremities according to the measurement. The meaning of establishment of bone-length measurement, which is found to have universality, laid in setting down the measurement of meridians. And it is the origin of the proportional measurement of locating acupoints. Checked with the theory of Shushu, errors in the description of bone-length measurement could also be found in Lingshu: Gudu (Miraculous Pivot: Bone-Length Measurement) of the present edition, which is helpful for the modern study on the measurement. PMID:21058490

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  17. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP–DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP–DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP–DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  18. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  19. Energy extraction and particle acceleration around a rotating black hole in quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteev, Tursinbay; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-08-01

    We study motion and collision of particles in the gravitational field of rotating black hole immersed in quintessential dark energy characterized with the quintessential parameter ωqin(-1;-1/3) governing the equation of state of the dark energy, and the dimensionless quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We focus on the acceleration of particles due to collisional processes and show how the center of mass energy depends on the quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We also make comparison of the obtained results to the collisional energetics of quintessential static black holes demonstrating the crucial role of the rotation parameter a in the particle acceleration. Finally we study the dependence of the maximal value of the efficiency of energy extraction through Penrose process for rotating black hole with quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. It is found that quintessence field decreases the energy extraction efficiency through Penrose process and when the parameter tilde{c} vanishes one can get the standard value of the efficiency coefficient for the Kerr black hole as η˜ 21 %.

  20. Constraining supernova equations of state with equilibrium constants from heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempel, Matthias; Hagel, Kris; Natowitz, Joseph; Röpke, Gerd; Typel, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Cluster formation is a fundamental aspect of the equation of state (EOS) of warm and dense nuclear matter such as can be found in supernovae (SNe). Similar matter can be studied in heavy-ion collisions (HICs). We use the experimental data of Qin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 172701 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.172701] to test calculations of cluster formation and the role of in-medium modifications of cluster properties in SN EOSs. For the comparison between theory and experiment we use chemical equilibrium constants as the main observables. This reduces some of the systematic uncertainties and allows deviations from ideal gas behavior to be identified clearly. In the analysis, we carefully account for the differences between matter in SNe and HICs. We find that, at the lowest densities, the experiment and all theoretical models are consistent with the ideal gas behavior. At higher densities ideal behavior is clearly ruled out and interaction effects have to be considered. The contributions of continuum correlations are of relevance in the virial expansion and remain a difficult problem to solve at higher densities. We conclude that at the densities and temperatures discussed mean-field interactions of nucleons, inclusion of all relevant light clusters, and a suppression mechanism of clusters at high densities have to be incorporated in the SN EOS.

  1. Progress in heavy ion fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, C. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, G.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W. M.; Westenskow, G.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, L. R.; Kaganovich, Igor; Qin, Hong; Startsev, Edward A.; Bernal, S.; Cui, Y.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T. F.; Haber, I.; Harris, J.; Kishek, R. A.; Li, H.; O'Shea, P. G.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Valfells, A.; Walter, M.; Zou, Y.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently commissioned several new experiments. In the High Current Experiment [P. A. Seidl et al., Laser Part. Beams 20, 435 (2003)], a single low-energy beam with driver-scale charge-per-unit-length and space-charge potential is being used to study the limits to transportable current posed by nonlinear fields and secondary atoms, ions, and electrons. The Neutralized Transport Experiment similarly employs a low-energy beam with driver-scale perveance to study final focus of high perveance beams and neutralization for transport in the target chamber. Other scaled experiments—the University of Maryland Electron Ring [P. G. O'Shea et al., accepted for publication in Laser Part. Beams] and the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment [R. C. Davidson, H. Qin, and G. Shvets, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1020 (2000)]—will provide fundamental physics results on processes with longer scale lengths. An experiment to test a new injector concept is also in the design stage. This paper will describe the goals and status of these experiments, as well as progress in theory and simulation. A proposed future proof-of-principle experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment, will also be described.

  2. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4′-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4′-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4′-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid–specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4′-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  3. Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.04). Mann-Whitney’s U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage ( p < 0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

  4. Oculoleptomeningeal Amyloidosis associated with transthyretin Leu12Pro in an African patient.

    PubMed

    McColgan, P; Viegas, S; Gandhi, S; Bull, K; Tudor, R; Sheikh, F; Pinney, J; Fontana, M; Rowczenio, D; Gillmore, J D; Gilbertson, J A; Whelan, C J; Shah, S; Jaunmuktane, Z; Holton, J L; Schott, J M; Werring, D J; Hawkins, P N; Reilly, M M

    2015-01-01

    Oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis is a rare manifestation of hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis. Here, we present the first case of leptomeningeal amyloidosis associated with the TTR variant Leu12Pro mutation in an African patient. A 43-year-old right-handed Nigerian man was referred to our centre with rapidly progressive neurological decline. He presented initially with weight loss, confusion, fatigue, and urinary and erectile dysfunction. He then suffered recurrent episodes of slurred speech with right-sided weakness. He went on to develop hearing difficulties and painless paraesthesia. Neurological examination revealed horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, brisk jaw jerk, increased tone, brisk reflexes throughout and bilateral heel-shin ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive leptomeningeal enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a raised protein of 6.4 g/dl. Nerve conduction studies showed an axonal neuropathy. Echocardiography was characteristic of cardiac amyloid. TTR gene sequencing showed that he was heterozygous for the leucine 12 proline mutation. Meningeal and brain biopsy confirmed widespread amyloid angiopathy. TTR amyloidosis is a rare cause of leptomeningeal enhancement, but should be considered if there is evidence of peripheral or autonomic neuropathy with cardiac or ocular involvement. The relationship between different TTR mutations and clinical phenotype, disease course, and response to treatment remains unclear. PMID:25488473

  5. Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome according to the Fascial Distortion Model: A Prospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Finze, Susanne; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS. PMID:25379543

  6. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum. PMID:19780821

  7. Monitoring of the volcanic plume based on the post-fit phase residual of PPP analysis and SNR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Iguchi, Masato

    2016-04-01

    A volcanic explosion is one of the largest energy-release phenomena on earth. For example, vulcanian eruptions usually eject large amounts of rock mass, tephra, and volcanic ash. Ash fall from such events can seriously affect the structural integrity of buildings, in addition to disrupting land and air traffic. Therefore, the monitoring and prediction of ash fall is very important. In this study, using data from a dense GNSS network, we investigated the spatiotemporal development of the volcanic plume ejected by the vulcanian eruption in Sakurajima, southwestern Japan on July 24, 2012. We extracted the post-fit phase residuals (PPR) of ionosphere-free linear combinations for each satellite based on the precise point positioning approach. Temporal and spatial PPR anomalies clearly detected the movement of the volcanic plume. The maximum height of the crossing points of anomalous PPR paths was determined to be approximately 4000 m. We then compared the PPR with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) anomalies. Only the path passing just above the crater showed significant change in the SNR value, suggesting that the volcanic ash and the water vapor within the volcanic plume became separated after reaching a high altitude because of ash fall during the plume's lateral movement. In the presentation, we will introduce the eruption in Shin-dake (Kuchinoerabu island, southwestern Japan) on May 29, 2015 based on the SNR data.

  8. Instability of settling non-spherical particle in a vertical shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; Koch, Donald; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2010-11-01

    Two mechanisms are attributed to the cross-stream migration when fiber settles in a vertical shear flow. First, a particle may migrate toward streamlines of the imposed shear flow with smaller downward fluid velocities, due to relative translation of the particle and fluid, called the Saffman effect. Second, a non-spherical particle at finite Reynolds number will attempt to rotate with its long body along the horizontal direction due to inertial torque. On the other hand, the torque due to the imposed weak vertical shear flow rotates the non-spherical in the opposite direction. The dynamic balance between the two torques may lead to a small angle between the particle long body and horizontal plane and may drive the particle migrate toward the streamlines of the shear flow with the large downward fluid velocity. The second mechanism was recently proposed by Shin, Koch and Subramanian.A fiber with aspect ratio κ=2, 1.6, 1.2 1.1 and 0 is used to study the lateral migration. It is shown that at a given shear and aspect ratio, fiber lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on the Reynolds number. The simulation results identified the lateral migration phase diagram and confirm the second mechanism.

  9. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  10. Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

  11. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-08-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Centre (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  12. Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on β-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-βGal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-βGal sensitively detects intracellular β-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1 mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  13. Identification and molecular mapping of a wheat gene for resistance to an unadapted isolate of Colletotrichum cereale.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Mori, Ryota; Takahashi, Yujiro; Kiguchi, So; Enomoto, Takashi; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2013-06-01

    To elucidate genetic mechanisms of host species specificity between graminicolous anthracnose fungi and gramineous plants, infection assays were performed with a Sorghum isolate (Colletotrichum sublineolum), a Digitaria isolate (C. hanaui), a Polypogon isolate (C. cereale), and an Avena isolate (C. cereale). They were specifically virulent on the plants from which they were isolated. When 72 wheat lines were inoculated with an unadapted isolate from Asia Minor bluegrass (Cgp29), however, some exceptional cultivars were recognized. Although most cultivars were resistant to Cgp29, 'Hope' was susceptible. In F2 populations derived from crosses between three resistant cultivars-'Norin 4' (N4), 'Chinese Spring' (CS), and 'Shin-chunaga' (Sch)-and the susceptible Hope, resistant and susceptible seedlings segregated in a 3:1 ratio, suggesting that a major gene is involved in the resistance of each cultivar to Cgp29. In F2 populations derived from crosses between the three resistant cultivars, all seedlings were resistant, suggesting that these three cultivars carry the same gene. This resistance gene was designated as "resistance to Colletotrichum cereale 1" (Rcc1). Analysis with the CS-Hope chromosome substitution lines and molecular mapping revealed that Rcc1 was located on the long arm of chromosome 5A. Cytologically, Rcc1 was mainly associated with hypersensitive reaction. These results suggest that major genes similar to those controlling cultivar specificity are involved in the resistance of wheat against the unadapted isolate of C. cereale. PMID:23676088

  14. Exact Green's functions for a Brownian particle reversibly binding to a fixed target in a finite, two-dimensional, circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Green’s functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Green’s functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Green’s function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Green’s function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.

  15. An injury profile of elite ironman competitors.

    PubMed

    Pen, L J; Barrett, R S; Neal, R J; Steele, J R

    1996-03-01

    An injury questionnaire was administered to the 30 elite ironman competitors (mean age = 25.7 +/- 4.6 yrs) participating in a commercially sponsored seven race national series. Responses provided retrospective data from the preceding three years indicating the type, location, frequency, cause and severity of injuries sustained by ironmen, and associated these injuries with particular race components (run, swim, board, ski). Twenty self-reported questionnaires were returned for analysis that described a total of 67 injuries incurred by 19 subjects. Results indicated the following: (i) the most frequently injured body parts were the knee (n = 18) and shoulder (n = 14) with the lower extremity accounting for 55% of all injuries reported; (ii) knee, shin and calf injuries had a significant association with the run component and upper extremity injuries had a significant association with the swim component; (iii) running was perceived to be the most injurious race component in terms of the frequency and severity of injury; (iv) overtraining was perceived to be the main cause of injury; (v) tendinitis was perceived to be the main type of injury; (vi) athletes adjusted their training mode to accommodate injury so that total training volume could be maintained; and (vii) injury did not result in withdrawal from competition. Further research investigating the techniques used in the ironman event and their relationship to injury is recommended. PMID:8742860

  16. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  17. Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, I.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Kim, M.-H.; Lee, H. S.; Moon, D.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Nam, S. H.; Shin, S.; Cho, Moohyun

    2014-05-01

    After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan.

  18. Two-step Synthesis of Galactosylated Human Serum Albumin as a Targeted Optical Imaging Agent for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Regino, Celeste Aida S.; Ogawa, Mikako; Alford, Raphael; Wong, Karen J.; Kosaka, Noboyuki; Williams, Mark; Field, Brain J.; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    An optical probe, RG-(gal)28GSA, was synthesized to improve the detection of peritoneal implants by targeting the β-d-galactose receptors highly expressed on the cell surface of a wide variety of cancers arising from the ovary, pancreas, colon, and stomach. Evaluation of RG-(gal)28GSA, RG-(gal)20GSA, glucose-analog RG-(glu)28GSA, and control RG-HSA, demonstrates specificity for the galactose, binding to several human adenocarcinoma cell lines, and cellular internalization. Studies using peritoneally disseminated SHIN3 xenografts in mice also confirmed a preference for galactose with the ability to detect submillimeter size lesions. Preliminary toxicity study for RG-(gal)28GSA using Balb/c mice reveal no toxic effects up to 100x of the standard imaging dose of 1mg/kg administered either intraperitoneally or intravenously. These data indicate that RG-(gal)28GSA can selectively target a variety of human adenocarcinoma, can improve intraoperative or endoscopic tumor detection and resection, and may have little or no toxic in vivo effects; hence, it may be clinically translatable. PMID:20102220

  19. Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on β-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-βGal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-βGal sensitively detects intracellular β-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1 mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  1. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

    2010-07-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  2. Platelet and growth factor concentrations in activated platelet-rich plasma: a comparison of seven commercial separation systems.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Satoshi; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Hara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. It holds promise for clinical use in areas such as wound healing and regenerative medicine, including bone regeneration. This study characterized the composition of PRP produced by seven commercially available separation systems (JP200, GLO PRP, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, SELPHYL, MyCells, and Dr. Shin's System THROMBO KIT) to evaluate the platelet, white blood cell, red blood cell, and growth factor concentrations, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations. PRP prepared using the Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System and the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit contained the highest platelet concentrations. The mean PDGF-AB concentration of activated PRP was the highest from JP200, followed by the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, MyCells, and GLO PRP. TGF-β1 and VEGF concentrations varied greatly among individual samples, and there was almost no significant difference among the different systems, unlike for PDGF. The SELPHYL system produced PRP with low concentrations of both platelets and growth factors. Commercial PRP separation systems vary widely, and familiarity with their individual advantages is important to extend their clinical application to a wide variety of conditions. PMID:24748436

  3. Nest site characteristics of three coexisting Accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, K.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat data were evaluated at 34 Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 31 Cooper's Hawk (A. cooperii), and 15 Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus) nest sites in coniferous forests of northeastern Oregon. Crown volume profiles indicate a strong similarity in vegetative structure at nest sites of cooperii and striatus; both commonly nest in younger successional stands than gentilis. Habitat separation of nest sites among the three species was illustrated using a stepwise discriminant analysis; 88% of all gentilis sites were correctly classified. Interspecific overlap in nest site habitat was further demonstrated using a canonical analysis of habitat variables. Nest site habitat space of gentilis is distinct and is less variable in structure than that of the other species. Cooperii preferred nesting sites with norhern aspects, whereas striatus and gentilis showed no preference. The use of mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) growth by cooperii for nest platforms (64% of all nests) may explain its preference for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as a nesting tree. Douglas fir is most commonly parasitized by mistletoe.

  4. Food security and population are interrelated.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the views of conference organizers and main speakers at an Asian conference on food security. The focus of this paper is on the views of Mr. Shin Sakurai, Chairman of the AFPPD. Mr. Sakurai highlighted three events that had occurred since the last conference in 1993. These events included the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, the 1995 World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen, and the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. The speaker believed that these events were important for the world community in terms of reaching a consensus on important issues of population and development and of social development and women. People had an opportunity at these events to move beyond their own special interests and conceptualize future human existence. The speaker reminded participants about the new directive of the AFPPD to organize an international meeting of parliamentarians on food security, population, and development. The conference would be held in Geneva in conjunction with the World Food Summit. The aim is to provide food security and prevent hunger. The Founders of the AFPPD were committed to the belief that "no child should be born just to die from hunger." A primary condition for food security is stabilization of population. Mr. Sakurai urged world leaders to approach the issue of food security from the perspective of population dynamics and environmental degradation. PMID:12292314

  5. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  6. Direct and indirect effects of petroleum production activities on the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) as a surrogate for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus).

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Knox, Ami; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard's habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Lizards were exposed to 2 concentrations of H2 S (30 ppm or 90 ppm) and herbicide formulations (1× or 2× label application rate) representing high-end exposure scenarios. Sublethal behavioral endpoints were evaluated, including sprint speed and time to prey detection and capture. Neither H2S nor herbicide formulations caused significant behavioral effects compared to controls. To understand potential indirect effects of oil and gas drilling on the prey base, terrestrial invertebrate biomass and order diversity were quantified at impacted sites to compare with nonimpacted sites. A significant decrease in biomass was found at impacted sites, but no significant effects on diversity. The results suggest little risk from direct toxic effects, but the potential for indirect effects should be further explored. PMID:26456391

  7. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-05-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Center (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  8. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

  9. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors. PMID:9950339

  10. Evaluation of Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Surface Structures for Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) Analysis: Surface Area Versus LDI Signal Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jang Mi; Choi, Suhee; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-09-01

    The structural effect of a nanoporous gold (NPG) surface on the signal intensities of laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) were investigated using NPG surfaces with controlled structures. The relationship between surface area and LDI efficiency was compared and evaluated. Comparisons between bare flat gold and NPG surfaces show that nanostructures increased LDI efficiency. We also found that the LDI signal decreased with increasing depth of nanoporous layers, thus increasing the surface area. This result agrees with a previous report (Shin J. A. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2010, 21, 989) in which the LDI efficiency of small molecules decreased for ZnO wires with longer lengths. This observation was explained by the penetration and deposition of samples into locations inaccessible to photons because of structural screening. The LDI-MS analysis of oils with NPG surfaces (but without matrix) showed the same trend whereby the NPG with about a 200 nm depth of porous area showed the highest sensitivity. This study clearly shows that the active surface area for solution chemistry can differ from LDI-MS and that NPGs can function as a substrate for LDI oil analysis.

  11. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  12. Lichen planus mimicking recalcitrant ulcerative psoriasis: when is it time to biopsy?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Valerie; Fernandez, Martin P; Krejci-Manwaring, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophic lichen planus (LP), also known as LP verrucosus, is a rare disorder that presents as verrucous plaques, typically on the lower extremities and ankles. This variant differs from the common presentation of LP, which appears as flat, polygonal, pink-purple papules spread diffusely on the flexor wrists, trunk, shins, and dorsal aspects of the feet, frequently involving the oral mucosa. Clinically, hypertrophic LP can be confused with psoriasis and usually does not respond to therapy with biologics. We present a case of hypertrophic LP in a 42-year-old woman who had been treated extensively for psoriasis. Although the morphology and location of the hyperkeratotic plaques mimicked psoriasis, biopsy results exhibited characteristic features of hypertrophic LP, and the lesions responded to treatment with acitretin, clobetasol propionate ointment, hydroxychloroquine, and simple wound care. The hypertrophic variant of LP can be extremely challenging to differentiate from psoriasis. Physicians who treat patients with scaly plaques should think beyond psoriasis and consider the hypertrophic variant of LP as a potential diagnosis. PMID:24153142

  13. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  14. Elaborated 1H NMR study for the ligitional behavior of two thiosemicarbazide derivatives towards some heavy metals (Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III)), thermal, antibacterial and antifungal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-10-01

    A new series of heavy metal complexes are prepared. Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III) are the metal ions used in complexation with two thiosemicarbazide ligands. The IR and 1H NMR spectra of the free ligands display their presence in thiole-thione forms coincide with each other. The IR spectra of the complexes support the presence of 2:2 molar ratio (M:HL) with HL 1 ligand and 1:1 beside 1:2 with HL 2. The ligand coordinates as bi molecules in some complexes and displays two tautomer forms at the same complex molecule 1H NMR spectra of Sn(II) and Sb(III) complexes were done and comes coincide with IR data. The electronic spectral analysis displays a lower shift appearance in n → π* charge transfer band in most isolated complexes. As well as, a new band is shinned in visible region with Sb(III), Bi(III) complexes and Sn(II)-HL 2. This band is pointed to its use in spectrophotometric analysis for these metal ions. The TG analysis for all isolated compounds was briefly discussed. The molecular modeling parameters support the stability of thiole form of the free ligands in comparing with their thiones by a small difference. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were studied against some organisms and reveal the priority of most investigated complexes.

  15. Palmoplantar Keratoderma as a Variant of Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Aggarwal, Ashok; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Rasool, Farhan; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old air conditioner mechanic presented with progressively itchy grayish white eruptions affecting the skin and mucous membranes, including his palms and soles for the past 2 months. The inner aspects of the palms and weight-bearing areas of the soles were the initial sites of presentation, resulting in a diffuse thickness of the palms and soles, which inhibited his everyday activity. The eruptions were asymptomatic but conspicuous. There was marked presence of multiple erythematous to grayish white (violaceous) flat-topped polygonal papules of varying sizes, with a few coalescing to form plaques. The papules varied in size from 5 mm to 4 cm and had prominent adherent scales on top when examined after smearing with mineral oil. Koebnerization was seen over the shin. The lesions were found on the wrists, forearms, ankles, legs, and thighs. There was a yellow to brown thick symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, including the medial and lateral aspect of the fingers and toes, sparing the dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet (Figure 1). In addition, the medial arch and weight-bearing region of both soles were involved. The nails showed subungual hyperkeratosis, nail plate discoloration, and paronychia of the toes and fingers. Hyperkeratosis and scaly plaques were also identified in the web spaces (Figure 2). The buccal mucosa showed symmetrical white plaques with a lacy white pattern. PMID:27072734

  16. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  17. Phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis and its application to time-resolved infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-08-01

    A method of spectral analysis, phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis, is proposed. This method is based on global phase angle description of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shin-ichi Morita et al., and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D (PCMW2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shigeaki Morita et al. For a spectral data set collected under an external perturbation, such as time-resolved infrared spectra, this method provides only one phase angle spectrum. A phase angle of the Fourier frequency domain correlation between a spectral intensity (e.g., absorbance) variation and a perturbation variation (e.g., scores of the first principle component) as a function of spectral variable (e.g., wavenumber) is plotted. Therefore, a degree of time lag of each band variation with respect to the perturbation variation is directly visualized in the phase angle spectrum. This method is applied to time-resolved infrared spectra in the O-H stretching region of the water sorption process into a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) film. The time-resolved infrared (IR) spectra show three broad and overlapping bands in the region. Each band increases toward saturated water sorption with different relaxation times. In comparison to conventional methods of generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and global phase angle mapping, the method proposed in the present study enables the easier visualization of the sequence as a degree of phase angle in the spectrum. PMID:17716406

  18. [EFFICIENCY OF COCARNIT IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEM DISEASES OF CONNECTING FABRIC WITH DEFEAT OF MYOCARDIUM AND DISPLAYS OF CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Kuryata, A; Lysunec, T; Noda, O

    2015-01-01

    In clinical trial included 41 patient with clinic-instrumental dates, which said about myocardium dysfunction and system diseases of connecting fabric and displays of CCI I-III of functional class (FC). Including of complex metabolic drug Cocarnit in standard therapy of systemdiseases of connecting fabric was instrumental in more expressed clinical improvement of patientsclinical dates in 15 days of supervision: a weakness diminished on 66.67%, shortbreathing at the insignificant physical loading--on 23.81%, at the ordinary physical loading--on 47.62%, at the megascopic physical loading--on 19.05%, pain in area of heart--on 42.85%, there are interruptions in-process heart--on 28.57%, oedematousness of shins--on 57.14%, sense of numbness, burning, sensitiveness to cold of extremities--on 57.14%. Quantity of patients with III FC diminished on 5 (23.81%), in a control group--on 2 (10%). It implementation of test with the 6-minute walking more expressed increase of the overcame distance is set for the patients of basicgroup--on 15.46% as compared to a control group--on 7.01%. Cocarnit patients estimatedpositively; side effects with subsequent abolition of drug, were not. Laboratory indexes (AlAT, AsAT, bilirubin, kreatinine, haemoglobin) at the end of trial did not change considerably, that confirmed good bearableness of drug. PMID:27491167

  19. Association between Medication Adherence and Duration of Outpatient Treatment in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kikuyama, Hiroki; Ohta, Munehiro; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Okamura, Takehiko; Yoneda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Medication adherence is important in the treatment of schizophrenia, and critical periods during treatment may be associated with relapse. However, the relationship between adherence and duration of outpatient treatment (DOT) remains unclear. The authors aimed to clarify the relationship between adherence and DOT at a psychiatric hospital in Japan. Methods For outpatients with schizophrenia who regularly visit Shin-Abuyama hospital, the authors conducted a single questionnaire survey (five questions covering gender, age, DOT, medication shortages, and residual medication) over one month period. Participants were divided into two groups whether DOT were from more than one year to within five years or not. Mantel-Haenszel analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed on the data regarding the medication adherence. Results Effective answers were received for 328 patients. The residual medication rate was significantly higher among those receiving outpatient treatment from more than one year to within five years than five years than those receiving outpatient treatment for more than five years or less than one year (p=0.016). Conclusion This survey suggests that there are critical periods during which patients are most prone to poor adherence. Because poor adherence increases the risk of relapse, specific measures must be taken to improve adherence during these periods. PMID:27482242

  20. Block copolymers confined in a nanopore: Pathfinding in a curving and frustrating flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, G. J. A.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied structure formation in a confined block copolymer melt by means of dynamic density functional theory. The confinement is two dimensional, and the confined geometry is that of a cylindrical nanopore. Although the results of this study are general, our coarse-grained molecular model is inspired by an experimental lamella-forming polysterene-polybutadiene diblock copolymer system [K. Shin et al., Science 306, 76 (2004)], in which an exotic toroidal structure was observed upon confinement in alumina nanopores. Our computational study shows that a zoo of exotic structures can be formed, although the majority, including the catenoid, helix, and double helix that were also found in Monte Carlo nanopore studies, are metastable states. We introduce a general classification scheme and consider the role of kinetics and elongational pressure on stability and formation pathway of both equilibrium and metastable structures in detail. We find that helicity and threefold connections mediate structural transitions on a larger scale. Moreover, by matching the remaining parameter in our mesoscopic method, the Flory-Huggins parameter χ, to the experimental system, we obtain a structure that resembles the experimental toroidal structure in great detail. Here, the most important factor seems to be the roughness of the pore, i.e., small variations of the pore radius on a scale that is larger than the characteristic size in the system.

  1. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites. PMID:17587678

  2. Plasmon-Enhanced Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Hernandez, Ariel Rodrigo

    This thesis contains five major contributions to the field of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy. We start with the report of a unique SERS study of the amino acid hydroxyproline and a deuterated analogue. Later, we move on to the exploration of a major new research path known as shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence (SHINEF), consisting in the application of silica-shelled noble metal nanoparticles to achieve surface-enhanced fluorescence. The proof of concept of this technique is explained in one chapter. The two following chapters are devoted to the exploration of the plasmonic properties of SHINEF: spectral profile modification showing the close relationship between the observed enhanced fluorescence and the nanoparticle scattering. The SHIN particles are employed to experimentally prove the relationship between the SEF and SERS enhancement factors, theoretically predicted before, but never verified experimentally until now. The thesis ends with an investigation, in aqueous solutions, of several different factors that play a role in the origin of SEF, showing greater enhancement for SHINEF after inducing nanoparticle aggregation.

  3. Risk assessment of human exposure to cypermethrin during treatment of mandarin fields.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Moon, J K; Liu, K H; Park, H W; Ihm, Y B; Park, B S; Kim, J H

    2006-04-01

    The potential dermal and respiratory exposure assessment and risk assessment for applicator were performed with cypermethrin EC. The pesticide was applied on a mandarin field using a power sprayer. Gloves were used for the hand exposure assessment, mask for face, and dermal patches for the other parts of the body. Personal air monitor equipped with a XAD-2 resin was used for the respiratory exposure assessment. During the application of cypermethrin in the field, the rate of potential dermal exposure ranged from 28.1 to 58.8 mg/h. The major exposure parts were upper-arms (22.1-24.6%) and legs (thigh and shin, 28.3-29.2%) for females and thigh (21.0-46.9%) and hand (14.9-19.3%) for males. Females were exposed more than males. No exposure was detected from the respiratory monitoring. For risk assessment, the potential dermal exposure (PDE), the absorbable quantity of exposure (AQE), and the margin of safety (MOS) were calculated. Among those four risk assessments, MOS was < 1 in only trial I, which indicated any possibility of risk. However, in the others, the possibility of risk was little. Moreover, the safe work time ranged from 3.61 h to 9.69 h. PMID:16502205

  4. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of sedimentation of a single fiber in a weak vertical shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; He, Guowei; Liu, Yingming

    2013-09-01

    Instability of a suspension is directly related to the problem of the cross-stream migration of a particle relative to its neighboring particle suspension. Such cross-stream or lateral migration of a single non-spherical particle (fiber) settling in a bounded weak shear flow with vertical streamlines produced by a perturbation to the fiber number density is studied using lattice Boltzmann simulations. The present simulation results demonstrate that at a given shear rate, the lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on settling Reynolds number Rsd and particle aspect ratio κ. At a low settling Reynolds number Rsd, the suspension becomes more stable in phase 1. As Rsd increases and excesses a critical settling Reynolds number Rsd1, the fiber suspension becomes unstable in phase 2. In phase 3, at an enough large Rsd, the inertia dominates the weak shear flow and it may have little effect on stability. A mechanism of the instability induced by an inertial fiber orientation drift and a shear induced cross-streamline drift, recently proposed by Shin, Koch, and Subramanian ["Structure and dynamics of dilute suspensions of finite reynolds number settling fibers," Phys. Fluids 21, 123304 (2009)], is examined and confirmed.

  6. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S

    2015-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  7. Reliability and validity of instrumented soccer equipment.

    PubMed

    Akins, Jonathan S; Heebner, Nicholas R; Lovalekar, Mita; Sell, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90-98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention. PMID:25734398

  8. [A neurophysiologic study of sleep in children during the first year of life].

    PubMed

    Fantalova, V L; Sheĭnkman, O G; Molodtsova, E M

    1976-01-01

    Polygraphic investigation of day sleep has been carried out in thirty suckling infants (aged from 25 days to 12 months). EEG, OCG, SGR, respiration ECG, muscular activity, and in some infants, also rheographic parameters (REG and RG of the shin) have shown that already at an early nursing age, states of drowsiness, falling asleep, light and medium depth and deep slow sleep set in, as well as the so-called rapid sleep which occurs only after slow sleep. The denotation of the slow sleep stages is based on the classification by Loomis et al., though their electroenecepholographic expression in the infant is in many ways peculiar and undergoes certain dynamics during the first year of life. Peculiarities of the central area EEG have been exhibited in all the age groups, and it has been assumed that the central parts of the cortex of a suckling infant are a kind of "window" into the subcortical parts. While EEG, displaying new forms of activity at certain stages of sleep undergo distinct age changes, vegetative sleep manifestations display only some age depending quantitative differences. Thus, at the nursing age the mechanisms of electroencephalographic and vegetative sleep manifestations are of different degree of maturity: they possess a considerable autonomy, although they function in concord. PMID:1274430

  9. The study of electron beam flue gas treatment for coal-fired thermal plant in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Aoki, Shinji; Suzuki, Ryoji

    1993-10-01

    The fundamental research work with simulated coal-fired flue gas was performed in JAERI to get basic data for electron beam treatment of flue gas from thermal power plants in Japan. The standard condition of the experiments was set to be the same as that of next large scale pilot test in Nagoya. The concentrations of NO x and SO x were 225 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively. The temperature of the system was 65°C. The effect of multiple irradiation was observed for NO x removal. The target SO x and NO x removals (94% and 80%, respectively) with low NH 3 leakage (less than 10 ppm) were achieved at 9 kGy irradiation with 0.9 NH 3 stoichiometry during 7 hours continuous operation. The facility for the pilot plant (12,000 Nm 3/hr) has just built at the site of Shin-Nagoya power plant of Chubu Electric Power Company and will be started in full operation in November 1992.

  10. Conference Committees: Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Günther Schmahl University Göttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

  11. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure.

    PubMed

    Sarter, M; Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of "how brain function gives rise to mental activity" (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies are inherently localizationistic in nature; in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form "brain structure or event phi is associated with cognitive function psi" may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided. PMID:8585670

  12. Long DNA Molecules at Liquid-Solid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Li, B.; Sokolov, J.; Rafailovich, M.; Chu, B.

    2006-03-01

    The electrophoresis of long DNA molecules was studied using a newly developed method of electrophoresis on flat surfaces [1] in the regime of strong electrostatic interaction. The mobility of lambda- DNA molecules on this surface was found to scale as the square root of the persistent length with the ionic strength at high buffer. This experimental result indicates that at high buffer concentration the separation mechanism of solid-liquid interface electrophoresis is expected to be due to surface friction rather than biased reptation [2-4]. At low buffer concentrations the DNA chains are stretched .The electric double layer is responsible for a velocity profile of the electroosmotic flow. The net electrophoretic mobility of longer DNA, being trapped closer to the surface as found to be higher then for the shorter ones in the electric field. [1]. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, et al. Physical Review Letters, 85 (2000) 5651-5654. [2] Y.-S. Seo, V.A. Samuilov, J. Sokolov, et al. Electrophoresis, 23 (2002) 2618-2625. [3] Y.-S. Seo, H.. Luo, V. A. Samuilov, et al. DNA Electrophoresis on nanopatterned surfaces, Nano Letters, 4, 2004, 659-664.

  13. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago. PMID:27375211

  14. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  15. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  16. Validation of a quasi real-time global aberrometer: the EyeMapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedtke, C.; Ehrmann, K.; Falk, D.; Holden, B.

    2012-03-01

    Interest in measuring peripheral refraction rapidly and accurately has been stimulated by increasing evidence that the eye's peripheral refractive state can influence axial growth. In response to this, a new clinical instrument, the EyeMapper, was developed which performs quasi real-time global (central and peripheral) refraction measurements of the human eye. The EyeMapper is an aberrometer comprising a unique deflection system to permit an extremely rapid visual field scan. Refraction measurements are taken from -50° to +50° in 10° steps within 0.45 seconds. Multiple pupil imaging paths through the deflection system provide improved lateral and axial pupil alignment, and by rotating the instrument around its main optical axis, global power maps of the eye can be generated. Using a model eye with a pivoting and translating reflective surface to simulate the peripheral and central retina, the EyeMapper was cross-validated against a conventional aberrometer (COAS-HD, Wavefront Sciences, USA) and an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon NVision K5001, Japan). In addition, the right eyes of ten participants were measured across the horizontal visual field and in one eye, refraction measurements were performed globally. Overall, the EyeMapper showed good agreement and improved repeatability when compared to the other two instruments.

  17. CD metrology for avoiding shrinkage of ArF resist patterns in 100 nm ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Tae-Jun; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2002-07-01

    ML 4689-80 CD Metrology for Avoiding Shrinkage of ArF Resist Patterns in 100nm ArF Lithography Tae-Jun You, Cheolkyu Bok, Ki-Soo Shin Hynix Semiconductor, San 136-1 Amiri, Bubal-eub, Ichon-si, Kyongki-do 467-701, Korea We have observed CD(Critical Dimension) shrinkage of acrylate type ArF resist patterns during SEM measurement. CD change was 30% shrinkage for line pattern and 10% expansion for contact hole patterns after 30 times measurement. CD shrinkage was proportion to line pattern size but no relation with LER(Line Edge Roughness). We confirm that CD shrinkage different from resist to resist and SEM measurement condition. CD shrinkage was bigger for acrylate type resist than COMA(Cyclo Olefin Maleic Anhydride) type resist and smaller at lower electron voltage and current conditions. In order to get the improvement of CD shrinkage, we performed electron-beam curing before SEM measurement. Above (see paper for formula) electron-beam dose condition, CD shrinkage improved from 10% to 3%. However, this method caused OPC(Optical Proximity Correction) issue as CD also changed after electron-beam curing. Therefore, we tried to develop a new measurement method instead of applying additional process technique. In this paper, we will describe our CD measurement method, Off-Site measurement technique, for 100nm DRAM lithography. The Off-Site CD measurement repeatability (formula available in paper) was controlled below (see paper).

  18. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  19. Dielectric shell isolated and graphene shell isolated nanoparticle enhanced Raman spectroscopies and their applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Anema, Jason R; Wandlowski, Thomas; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique that provides fingerprint vibrational information with ultrahigh sensitivity. However, only a few metals (gold, silver and copper) yield a large SERS effect, and they must be rough at the nanoscale. Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) was developed to overcome the long-standing materials and morphological limitations of SERS. It has already been applied in a variety of fields such as materials science, electrochemistry, surface science, catalysis, food safety and the life sciences. Here, the principles and applications of SHINERS are highlighted. To provide an understanding of the plasmonics involved, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations and single nanoparticle SHINERS experiments are reviewed. Next, various shell-isolated nanoparticle (SHIN) types are described. Then a number of applications are discussed. In the first application, SHINERS is used to characterize the adsorption processes of pyridine on Au(hkl) single-crystal electrode surfaces. Then, SHINERS' applicability to food inspection and cultural heritage science is demonstrated by the detection of parathion and fenthion pesticides, and Lauth's violet (thionine dye). Finally, graphene-isolated Au nanoparticles (GIANs) are shown to be effective for multimodal cell imaging, photothermal cancer therapy and photothermally-enhanced chemotherapy. SHINERS is a fast, simple and reliable method, suitable for application to many areas of science and technology. The concept of shell-isolation can also be applied to other surface-enhanced spectroscopies such as fluorescence, infrared absorption and sum frequency generation. PMID:26426491

  20. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  1. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking. PMID:25570638

  2. Comparison of sheath thickness obtained from the theories of ion correction in the floating potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyeong Sik; Hwang, Kwang Tae; Choe, Ik Jin; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-10-01

    In the cold plasmas, when the cylindrical probe is used to measure the ion density, an expansion of the sheath thickness related to the sheath voltage increases the ion current. The expansion of the sheath thickness results in an incorrect measurement of ion current. To measure ion density correctly, the sheath thickness should be considered. In the collisionless sheath, the sheath thickness can be calculated by the Child- Langmuir (CL) theory or the Allen-Boyd-Reynolds(ABR) theory. We measured the sheath thicknesses using the floating harmonics method [1] and the cut-off method by the microwave [2], and the results compared with the CL theory [3] and ABR theory [4] in the floating potential. The sheath thicknesses obtained from the ABR theory were in good agreement with the experimental results. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang and C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys., 101, 033305 (2007)[0pt] [2] J.H. Kim, S.C. Choi, Y.H. Shin, and K. H. Chung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2706 (2004)[0pt] [3] FF Chen, JD Evans, D Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1449 (2002)[0pt] [4] F. F. Chen and D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 8, 5051 (2001)

  3. The utility of anatomic diagnosis for identifying femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Baba, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We describe a case in which an anatomic diagnosis was useful for diagnosing and estimating the cause of femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery. A 49-year-old female received general and epidural anesthesia for radical ovarian cancer surgery. Although injection pain was noted in the left medial shin with 1 % mepivacaine administered as a test dose, the catheter was left indwelling because it improved her symptoms. The surgery, which lasted 195 min, was performed in the lithotomy position, and a self-retained retractor was used to gain a good surgical field. Postoperatively, the patient complained of difficulty in stretching her knee joint and left lower limb paresthesia that did not improve after stopping continuous epidural administration. A spinal cord injury related to epidural anesthesia was suspected because the sites of sensory impairment and epidural injection pain were the same; however, the patient had greater weakness of the quadriceps muscle than the iliopsoas, and no other muscle weakness was observed. These findings and previous reports suggest that her femoral nerve palsy was caused by compression of the inguinal ligament from the self-retaining retractor and lithotomy position. Twenty months after surgery, her muscle strength had fully recovered. PMID:26661449

  4. Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, Clara; Frontino, Giulio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Battaglino, Roseila; Favalli, Valeria; Ferro, Giusy; Rubino, Chiara; Del Barba, Paolo; Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Meschi, Franco; Chiumello, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous dermatitis that usually appears in the lower extremities. It affects about 0.3–1.2% of diabetic patients, the majority of whom have type 1 diabetes. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are still unclear. NL is characterized by skin rash that usually affects the shins. The average onset is 30 years, with females being affected more commonly. There are very few reported cases of necrobiosis lipoidica in children. Case report: We report a case of a 16 year old girl affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (15 years disease duration) who developed an erythematous nodular rash on the lower extremities and interscapular area. In the suspect of necrobiosis lipoidica, a skin biopsy was performed (lower extremities and interscapular area). The microscopic evaluation of the pretibial lesions was suggestive of necrobiosis lipoidica. The smaller lesions in the interscapular area showed signs of perivascular dermatitis which could be consistent with early stages of necrobiosis lipoidica. Local treatment with tacrolimus determined a progressive improvement of the lesions. Conclusion: In patients with T1DM, diagnosis of NL of the lower legs is usually unequivocal. However, diagnosis may be more challenging in the presence of lesions with recent onset and/or atypical clinical presentation and unusual site. In these cases, NL must always be taken in consideration in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong/late treatment decisions and progression to ulceration. PMID:24575162

  5. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations. PMID:21888126

  6. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  7. Vibrational energy transfer in CO2-C2H2n + 2 (n=0, 1, 2) mixtures from 220 to 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares I., Carlos; Pinzon, Hernando; Fumero, Juan; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sanchez, Eugenio

    1983-05-01

    Time resolved laser induced infrared fluorescence studies have been performed to obtain the rate constants of energy transfer of CO2 (ν3) in mixtures with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 at temperatures between 220 and 300 K. A pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser light has been used to directly excite the CO2 molecules at low temperatures. The CO2 self-relaxation was measured and the results are in agreement with previous measurements. The rate constants for the transfer of energy in the CO2-C2H2 system show normal temperature behavior, (rate constant increases as the temperature increases) associated with large energy defect and caused by short-range repulsive forces. The rate constants for the systems CO2-C2H4 and CO2-C2H6 show an inverse temperature effect, (rate constant increases as the temperature decreases) associated with near resonant energy exchange and long-range attractive forces between the molecules. The observed behavior with temperature for the three systems is explained using a Morse potential which includes repulsive and attractive terms to describe the interaction between the molecules and a probability expression formulated by H. K. Shin, to calculate the energy transfer probabilities of some important reactions considered for each system.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors of Rachitic Genu Varus in Preschool Children in a Paediatric Health Institute in Egypt as One of the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bishay, Sherif N.G.; El-Sherbini, Mostafa H. A.; Azzam, Amre A.; Lotfy, Ashraf A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rachitic genu varus is one of the common conditions among the Egyptian children, despite the shinning sun of Egypt all the year. Purpose: The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of rachitic genu varus among the Egyptian children, and to assess the risk factors contributing to it. Patients and Methods: This prospective study recruited a total of 250 consecutive children, being 130 males and 120 females, with rachitic bow legs or genu varus, between 2 - 4 years of age, together with 250 controls of the same age group, out of a total number of 1900 children with other types of rickets, and other children's orthopaedic diseases, who presented to the National Institute of Neuromotor System in Egypt between September 2014 to September 2015. The cases and the controls were subjected to clinical, laboratory biochemical, and plain radiographic examinations. Their parents were subjected to epidemiological, maternal, and nutritional questionnaires. Results: The calculations revealed high incidence (13.1%) of rachitic genu varus. The risk factors were low socioeconomic status, insufficient family income, poor housing conditions, lack of exposure to sunlight due to cultural practices, sole breast feeding, and inadequate supplementation of vitamin D to the children and the pregnant women. The p value was <0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency rachitic genu varus is a multifactorial condition in Egypt. Raising the standard of living, level of education, housings, and dietary supplementation of vitamin D to the pregnant women and infants are the solution. PMID:27583060

  9. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)–type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  11. Frictional hair loss in Iraqi patients.

    PubMed

    Sharquie, Khalifa E; Al-Rawi, Jamal R; Al-Janabi, Hassan A

    2002-07-01

    A total of 50 Iraqi male patients with frictional hair loss were studied. Their ages ranged from 27-55 years with a mean +/- SD of 40.60 +/- 7.82 years. The age of onset ranged from 26-50 years with a mean +/- SD of 38 +/- 7.3 years. The duration of disease was 1-5 years, mean +/- SD 2.2 +/- 1.3. Middle age was the most common age group affected. Patterns of hair loss were as follows; bilateral thighs & legs 13 (26%), bilateral thighs alone in 9 patients (18%), bilateral shins & calves (legs) in 4 patients (8%), abdomen alone in 8 patients (16%), thigh and abdomen 4 (8%) patients, legs & abdomen 4 (8%) patients, and all sites in 12 patients (24%). The pattern of patchy hair loss showed some etiological preference. It was found to be due to continuous pressure from socks, trousers and bed. Skin biopsies from five patients showed apparently normal histology. Twenty-six (52%) of the cases were healthy. There were no important medical or dermatological associations, such as alopecia areata or peripheral neuropathy in any patient although unrelated medical conditions were seen in 24 (48%). To the best of our knowledge, this type of patchy hair loss has attracted very little attention in the past, and the literature appeared to be deficient in references to this problem. PMID:12184639

  12. [The origin of pediatric acupuncture technique: beginnings and historical background of pediatric acupuncture practitioners].

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hitoshi; Takaoka, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Pediatric acupuncture for infants in Japan has its own special method. There is no specialized literature about it that was published before the 20th century and it has not been investigated systematically. To elucidate the history of pediatric acupuncture, we investigated fragmented information on pediatric acupuncture written in the medical literature published before the Meiji Restoration and articles on traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) and acupuncture published after the Meiji Restoration. We analyzed the history of Japanese pediatric acupuncture from the viewpoints of the acupuncture needles and the methods. As a result, we found that pediatricians used fragments of broken pottery for the treatment in the 1650's. This finding suggests that the present pediatric acupuncture needles originated from "ho-shin" which was used for the treatment of "oketsu" for infants (in ancient China) and that the present pediatric acupressure technique was derived from the pediatric acupressure by using friction with small stones. In addition, our analysis suggests that the integration of the edged pediatric acupuncture needles and the acupressure-like technique correlates with the "Regulations for Acupuncture and Moxibustion clinics" published by the Ministry of Home Affairs in Japan and enforced in 1912. PMID:21560321

  13. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options. PMID:22341017

  14. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  15. The venomous hair structure, venom and life cycle of Lagoa crispata, a puss caterpillar of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Lamdin, J M; Howell, D E; Kocan, K M; Murphey, D R; Arnold, D C; Fenton, A W; Odell, G V; Ownby, C L

    2000-09-01

    The presence of a unique population of Lagoa crispata, puss caterpillar, in western Oklahoma is reported. A detailed microscopic examination shows the structure of the L. crispata spines resemble the type 4 spines described by [Kawamoto, F., Kumada, N., 1984. Biology and venoms of lepidoptera. In: Tu, A.T. (Ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, Insect Poisons, Allergens and other invertebrate venoms, vol. 2, pp. 291-332 (ch. 9)]. The major food source of L. crispata are the leaves of oak (shin oak). The high tannin content of this food source results in spine extracts high in oak tannins. These extracts have activity but enzyme and toxin activity is lost with time. The gel filtration protein fractions are colored from brown to yellow and are inactive as enzymes or toxins. No hyaluronidase, protease or phosphohydrolase activity is detected in these protein fractions. The life cycle shows these caterpillars have 6 instars. Characterizations and annual emerging times of each instar are included. PMID:10736472

  16. Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

    2010-03-01

    precipitation. For simulating climate input the weather generator LARSWG (Semenov and Barrow 1997) was trained for generation daily meteorological records for both steady state and transient climatic conditions and two 100 year of meteorological series of minimum and maximum of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation were generated. The numerical experiment for studying of transient climate on groundwater was performed for typical vadoze zone parameters of western part of Moscow Artesian basin. As the result, the 100 years series of recharge were simulated. Examination of stochastic properties of simulated time-series and comparative analysis series for the transient and for the steady state conditions shows the trend of increasing of recharge in this region in transient climate. Analysis of daily and monthly simulated water balance shows that this increasing is result of winter snow melting and winter infiltration into thaw topsoil. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant 08-05-00720a REFERENCES Semenov M.A and Barrow E.M., 1997. Use of a stochastic weather generator in the development of climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 35:397-414 Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue "Vadose Zone Modeling", 7(2), 587-600. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  17. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-01

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation.Although tissue staining

  18. Metastatic melanoma from an unknown primary site presenting as skin-colored nodules and multiple visceral involvement.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Barma, Kuntal Deb; Basu, Swapnendu; Roy, Amit

    2012-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with multiple gradually progressing asymptomatic swellings on his body for the preceding 6 months. He had no personal or family history of any skin disease. There was no systemic symptom apart from occasional constipation. Examination revealed multiple discrete, firm, nontender, skin-colored nodules of varying sizes, fixed to the skin but free from the underlying structures on his chest, abdomen, and back. The overlying skin of the nodules was erythematous at places (Figure 1). A solitary depigmented, nonanesthetic patch (measuring 3 cm x 3 cm) was noted around a central gray macule (4 mm x 4 mm) on his left shin (Figure 2). The surface of this lesion was otherwise normal. Wood's lamp examination of this area showed attenuation of pigmentation in the central area and total depigmentation surrounding it. No dyspigmented area was noted on Wood's lamp examination of the other areas. There was no abnormality of the orogenital mucosae. General examination revealed mild pallor and multiple discrete, nontender, firm lymph nodes, measuring 3 cm x 3 cm, attached to the skin in the left inguinal region. The overlying skin was normal. Ocular examination (including direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy) and otolaryngologic evaluation were normal. Proctoscopic examination revealed a reddish-black indurated mass at the right lateral wall of the lower third of the rectum. Examination of the other system was noncontributory. Complete hemogram showed mild anemia (hemoglobin % = 10 gm%) and raised ESR, (80 mm in the first hour; Westergren's method). Biochemistry panel was normal apart from raised levels of aspertate transaminase (78 U/L), alanine transaminase (68 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (386 U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (692 U/L). Chest x-ray showed a rounded opacity in the left apical area suggestive of cannon-ball metastasis (Figure 3). Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple liver nodules suggestive of hepatic

  19. [Summary of 2004 Chinese National Conference on oral and maxillofacial vascular anomalies].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Cang-Shang; Zhou, Qi

    2004-08-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies have been the subject of much controversy and confusion over the years, many remain to be investigated and resolved. Authorized by the Managing Director Board of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), 2004 Chinese National Conference on Oral and Maxillofacial Vascular Anomalies was successfully held on July 15 to 18, 2004 in Shenzhen Grand Hotel. The conference was sponsored by Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS), and undertaken by the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen city. Professor ZHANG Zhen-kang, president of CSA, Professor QIU Wei-liu, president of CSOMS and academician of Chinese Academy of Engineers, and Professor LIU Bao-lin, vice president of CSOMS were present and made important speech at the meeting. More than 120 delegates nationwide attended this conference. Through a 3-day of oral presentation and discussion, the terminology, classification, treatment selection and outcome measurement of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations were concerted among the delegates. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations have been recognized as distinct diseases that exhibit unique properties and behavior that demand an appropriately tailored treatment plan. The classification of Waner and Suen was adopted and different treatment modalities were reviewed and advocated for different lesions. Delegates were most interested in intralesional injection of Pingyangmycin for venous malformations, Krypton laser photodynamic therapy of venular malformations, Nd:YAG laser therapy for deep head and neck venous malformations after surgical exposure of the lesions, as well as "double" embolization of large venous malformations reported by Professor QIN Zhong-ping. The conference witnessed the foundation of the Division of Vascular Anomalies, Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:15349690

  20. Study on the Main Components Interaction from Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae and Their Dissolution In Vitro and Intestinal Absorption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Xiaobin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    The Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple is the basic components of Chinese herbal preparations (Shuang-Huang-Lian tablet, Yin-Qiao-Jie-Du tablet and Fufang Qin-Lan oral liquid), and its pharmacological effects were significantly higher than that in Flos Lonicerae or Fructus Forsythiae, but the reasons remained unknown. In the present study, pattern recognition analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap MS system were performed to study the chemical constitution difference between co-decoction and mixed decoction in the term of chemistry. Besides, the pharmacokinetics in vivo and intestinal absorption in vitro combined with pattern recognition analysis were used to reveal the discrepancy between herb couple and single herbs in the view of biology. The observation from the chemical view in vitro showed that there was significant difference in quantity between co-decoction and mixed decoction by HCA, and the exposure level of isoforsythoside and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in co-decoction, higher than that in mixed decoction, directly resulted in the discrepancy between co-decoction and mixed decoction using both PCA and HCA. The observation from the pharmacokinetics displayed that the exposure level in vivo of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A, higher than that in single herbs, was the main factor contributing to the difference by both PCA and HCA, interestingly consistent with the results obtained from Caco-2 cells in vitro, which indicated that it was because of intestinal absorption improvement of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A that resulted in a better efficacy of herb couple than that of single herbs from the perspective of biology. The results above illustrated that caffeic acid derivatives in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple could be considered as chemical

  1. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  2. An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

    1997-07-01

    Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

  3. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  4. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Background Radiation From Electron Acceleration Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Farges, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    It was recently proposed that the acceleration of electrons during the growth and branching of streamers above thunderclouds initiated by intense lightning discharges could result in detectable low frequency electromagnetic radiation from several tens of kHz up to several hundreds of kHz (Qin et al., GRL, 2012). The intensity of the predicted radiation scales with the streamer density which is particularly large during spectacular sprite occurrences such as jellyfish sprites and/or dancing sprites. Dancing sprites are up to one second long sequences of consecutive sprites or sprite groups which are typically separated by some hundreds of milliseconds and which tend to follow the spatial development of large scale intracloud lightning discharges. A particularly spectacular series of 10 dancing sprite events over a Mediterranean mesoscale convective system was recorded with a low light video camera in south-eastern France during the early morning hours of August 31, 2012. Each dancing sprite event was composed of ~3-4 consecutive sprites or groups of sprites. All of these sprite occurrences were associated with a sudden enhancement ~2 uV/m/Hz-1/2 of the low frequency electromagnetic background radiation as measured with a radio receiver in south-west England. It is estimated that ~1000 streamers at a height of ~40 km are necessary to epxlain the observed electric field strengths. These sudden enhancements are superimposed on a more continuous low frequency electromagnetic background radiation which accompanies each dancing sprite event. It is speculated that this low frequency 'radio glow' results from filamentary streamers near the cloud top as a result of the large scale electrostatic charging of the thundercloud and that it may be used as an indicator for sprite occurrences in future studies.

  5. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  6. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK) and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2) in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method). rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%), while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%). The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%). Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24%) and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating ‘Qin-Jiao’ Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica), which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs. PMID:27050315

  7. Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin

    2003-01-21

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

  8. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  9. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchun; Lu, Yongling; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dong; Li, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2008-12-10

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known trigger in the pathogenesis of sepsis, lipid A being the toxic component. One of several adjuvant therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is currently focusing on the neutralization of LPS. In order to obtain the components from traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize the endotoxin, aqueous extractions of twelve herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. From twelve herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) found to possess high lipid A-binding abilities, and was selected in subsequent experiments. After subjected to macroporous adsorptive resins and HPLC, we obtained 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF) from S. baicalensis Georgi under the direction of neutralization of LPS and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, THF directly bound to LPS and neutralized its activity. THF not only down-regulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression but also decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. THF-mediated inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine release is probably associated with downregulation of LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA augmentation. In vivo, THF could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with heat-killed E. coli 35218 (E. coli 35218) in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the plasma LPS level in endotoxemia mice. These findings provide compelling evidence that THF may be an important potential drug for sepsis treatment. Considering the inhibitory effects of THF on LPS-induced cytokine release are unlikely due to its nonspecific cellular toxicity, THF should be considered as a safe putative candidate for development as a drug for sepsis treatment. PMID:18755299

  10. Exploration of the relationship between geographical environment and human diseases in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, created in the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) described a phenomenon whereby the eastern, western, northern, southern, and central regions were liable to different diseases. It brought forward the principle of treatment in accordance with local conditions. Lv's Spring and Autumn Annals, Huai Nan Tzu (Huainanzi), and the Regiment of Health (Yangshenglun) in the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties all describe regional diseases such as goiter (endemic goiter) and yellowish teeth (dental fluorosis) as being caused by geologic and climatic factors. Zhang (miasma), first mentioned in the Han Dynasty, was considered related to the summer heat and dampness particular to the geographical environment of the south. Zhang was further associated with malaria in the Jin Dynasty. General Treatise on the Etiology and Symptomology of Diseases (Zhubingyuanhou Lun), in the Sui Dynasty, held that as a type of poisonous gas, Zhang was the predisposing cause of malaria, seasonal disease, and barbiers, among other conditions. General Guide (Zhinan Zonglun), in the Southern Song Dynasty, regarded Zhang malaria as a separate disease. Healthy Prescription in the Southern Wuling District (Lingnan Weisheng Fang), in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties, explicitly put forward the concepts of cold Zhang, hot Zhang, and lockjaw Zhang. Guidelines for Treatment of Zhang Malaria (Zhangnue Zhinan), in the Ming Dynasty, maintained that cold Zhang was equivalent to malaria, while hot Zhang and lockjaw Zhang were equivalent to cold damage, the latter of which can be treated by prescriptions for cold damage. Records on Zhang gas and Zhang disease decreased during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. PMID:22462249

  11. [Analysis on characteristics of meridians and acupoints of acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Yu-Lan; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Qin, Hai-Zhi; Chen, Da-Shuai; Liu, Ting; Li, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory. PMID:24377223

  12. Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  13. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually. PMID:25993834

  14. Tetraquark states in the bottom sector and the status of the Y_b(10890) state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Smruti; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2016-07-01

    We have performed an exploratory study of bottom tetraquarks ([bqbar{b} bar{q}];{qin u,d}) in the diquark-antidiquark framework with the inclusion of spin hyperfine, spin-orbit and tensor components of the one gluon exchange interaction. Our focus here is on the Y_b(10890) and other exotic states in the bottom sector. We have predicted some of the bottom counterparts to the charm tetraquark candidates. Our present study shows that if Z_b(10610) and Z_b(10650) are diquark-diantiquark states then they have to be first radial excitations only and we have predicted the Z_b(10650) state as first radial excitation of tetraquark state X_b (10.143-10.230). We have identified X_b state with J^PC= 1^{+-}/0^{++} as being the analog of Z_c(3900). The observation of the X_b will provide a deeper insight into the exotic hadron spectroscopy and is helpful to unravel the nature of the states connected by the heavy quark symmetry. We particularly focus on the lowest P-wave [bq][bar{b}bar{q}] states with J^PC=1^{-} by computing their leptonic, hadronic, and radiative decay widths to predict the status of the still controversial Y_b(10890) state. Apart from this, we have also shown here the possibility of mixing of P-wave states. In the case of mixing of the 1^{-} state with different spin multiplicities, we found that the predicted masses of the mixed P states differ from the Y_b(10890) state only by ± 20 MeV energy difference, which can be helpful to resolve further the structure of Y_b(10890).

  15. Removal of SOST or blocking its product sclerostin rescues defects in the periodontitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yinshi; Han, Xianglong; Ho, Sunita P.; Harris, Stephen E.; Cao, Zhengguo; Economides, Aris N.; Qin, Chunlin; Ke, Huazhu; Liu, Min; Feng, Jian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding periodontal ligament (PDL) biology and developing an effective treatment for bone and PDL damage due to periodontitis have been long-standing aims in dental medicine. Here, we first demonstrated by cell lineage tracing and mineral double-labeling approaches that murine PDL progenitor cells display a 2- and 3-fold higher mineral deposition rate than the periosteum and endosteum at the age of 4 weeks, respectively. We next proved that the pathologic changes in osteocytes (Ocys; changes from a spindle shape to round shape with a >50% reduction in the dendrite number/length, and an increase in SOST) are the key pathologic factors responsible for bone and PDL damage in periostin-null mice (a periodontitis animal model) using a newly developed 3-dimensional FITC-Imaris technique. Importantly, we proved that deleting the Sost gene (a potent inhibitor of WNT signaling) or blocking sclerostin function by using the mAb in this periodontitis model significantly restores bone and PDL defects (n = 4–5; P < 0.05). Together, identification of the key contribution of the PDL in normal alveolar bone formation, the pathologic changes of the Ocys in periodontitis bone loss, and the novel link between sclerostin and Wnt signaling in the PDL will aid future drug development in the treatment of patients with periodontitis.—Ren, Y., Han, X., Ho, S. P., Harris, S. E., Cao, Z., Economides, A. N., Qin, C., Ke, H., Liu, M., Feng, J. Q. Removal of SOST or blocking its product sclerostin rescues defects in the periodontitis mouse model. PMID:25757567

  16. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID

  17. Properties of relatively long streamers initiated from an isolated hydrometeor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Liu, Ningyu; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a modeling study on the dynamics of relatively long streamers initiated from an isolated hydrometeor in subbreakdown (0.5Ek) and overbreakdown (1.5Ek) electric fields, respectively, where Ek is the conventional breakdown threshold field. The modeling results indicate that at 0.5Ek field, the streamer shows a generally exponential growth feature, but its channel characteristics such as radius, electron density, and current density exhibit colocated fluctuations. On the other hand, at 1.5Ek field, the streamer shows faster exponential growth, and no fluctuations of those parameters are observed. The exponential growth property allows one to use the modeling results to predict the characteristics of longer streamers, as well as to quantify the thunderstorm electrical conditions including the high-field region size and potential difference in order to accelerate the streamer to the high speed of fast positive breakdown that was observed recently in lightning initiation. At 0.5Ek, a potential difference of ˜0.3-1.8 MV is required to accelerate the streamer to the high speed of 1-5 × 107 m/s, while at 1.5Ek, ˜0.07-0.4 MV is required. The exponentially growing streamer current produces an exponentially increasing magnetic field, leading to electromagnetic (EM) field radiation. It is found that the growth rate of the magnetic field (1/τBϕ) radiated by a streamer can be obtained by a simple relation 1/τBϕ˜3/τ, where 1/τ is the growth rate of the streamer. Combining our modeling results with the Fourier analysis reported by Qin et al. (2012), we find that streamers at thundercloud altitudes radiate in the high frequency and very high frequency range of the EM spectrum.

  18. Dependence of Positive and Negative Sprite Morphology on Lightning Characteristics and Upper Atmospheric Ambient Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    Carrot sprites, exhibiting both upward and downward propagating streamers, and columniform sprites, characterized by predominantly vertical downward streamers, represent two distinct morphological classes of lightning driven transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere. In the present work, a two-dimensional cylindrically symmetric plasma fluid model is applied in framework of a two-step technique, in which we couple the large-scale halo dynamics and development of small-scale streamers [Qin et al., GRL, 39, L05810, 2012]. The modeling is used to simulate sprite-halo events over a timescale of 5 ms in order to study the dependence of sprite morphology on lightning characteristics and upper atmospheric ambient conditions. The most significant associative detachment process O-+N2→e+N2O [e.g., Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012] in sprite chemistry has been taken into account. It is found that lightning characteristics, namely the total charge moment change, the impulsiveness of the initial lightning pulse, the continuing current, and the lightning polarity, have a significant impact on sprite morphology. For example, it is found that columniform sprites are produced in sub-breakdown conditions, and that continuing current is of essential importance to the development of the upper diffuse region of carrot sprites. Most interestingly, we suggest that negative sprites should be necessarily carrot sprites produced by large charge moment changes. We also find different charge moment change thresholds for the initiation of positive and negative sprites, which are 320 C km and 500 C km, respectively, under typical nighttime conditions assumed in this study. This difference represents one of the major factors in the polarity asymmetry between +CGs and -CGs in producing sprite streamers. We further demonstrate that lower magnitude of ambient mesospheric conductivity leads to smaller threshold charge moment changes required for the production of carrot sprites.

  19. A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Zhao, Long; Chen, Yingying; Han, Menglei

    2013-04-01

    Multi-sphere interactions over the Tibetan Plateau directly impact its surrounding climate and environment at a variety of spatial/temporal scales. Remote sensing and modeling are expected to provide hydro-meteorological data needed for these process studies, but in situ observations are required to support their calibration and validation. For this purpose, we established a dense monitoring network on central Tibetan Plateau to measure two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) at three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree) and four soil depths (0~5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 40cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, large soil moisture dynamic range and typical freeze-thaw cycle. The network consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 ~ 4950 m. Soil texture and soil organic matters are measured at each station, as auxiliary parameters of this network. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. As the highest soil moisture network in the world, our network meets the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products and for soil moisture scaling. It also directly contributes to the "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interaction theme of the "Third Pole Environment" Program. The data will be publicized via the International Soil Moisture Network. Publication: Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y-Y Chen, W-J Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C-G Lin, M-L Han, and H. Vereecken., 2012: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, Journal of Hydrology DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.

  20. Locating Radio Noise from Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Mezentsev, A.; Watson, R.; Gaffet, S.; Astin, I.; Evans, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into exponentially growing streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010). The acceleration of the electrons to a few eV results in the radiation of a small amount of electromagnetic energy. The incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the low frequency radio noise from sprites near ~40 km height (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this theoretically predicted radiation was recently confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). To locate the radio noise from sprites in the sky, an interferometric network of low frequency radio receivers was developed (Mezentsev and Fullekrug, JGR, 2013). The key parameter for the interferometric signal processing is the frequency dependent wave propagation velocity of the radio waves within the Earth's atmosphere. This wave propagation velocity is determined by the wave number vector which needs to be inferred from the measurements. Here we adapt and subsequently apply array analyses which have been developed for seismic and infrasound arrays to determine the horizontal wave number vectors of ~20-24 kHz radio waves measured with an array of ten radio receivers distributed over an area of ~1 km × 1 km. It is found that the horizontal slowness of ~20-24 kHz radio waves ranges from ~2.7 ns/m to ~4.1 ns/m depending on the arrival azimuth of the radio wave. For comparison, an electromagnetic wave in vacuum has a slowness of ~3.34 ns/m. A larger slowness indicates an apparent velocity which is smaller than the speed of light and a smaller slowness indicates that the radio wave arrives at the array from an elevation angle. The observed variability of the observed slowness almost certainly results from the distance dependent superposition of the transverse electric and magnetic TEn and TMn radio wave propagation modes.

  1. Electromagnetic Weibel instability in intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-12-01

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and H. Qin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-type instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T⊥b/T∥b≫1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius rw. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy [(T⊥b/T∥b)Weibel≫(T⊥b/T∥b)Harris] below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  2. Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Debapriya; Weldon, Rosana Hernandez; Armstrong, Ben G.; Gibson, Lorna J.; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in breast milk has been documented, but their lactational transfer has been rarely studied. Determination of the elimination rates of these chemicals during breastfeeding is important and critical for assessing exposure in mothers and infants. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding and maternal serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For a subset of the population, for whom we also have their infants’ measurements, we investigated associations of breastfeeding with infant serum PFAA concentrations. Methods: The present analysis included 633 women from the C8 Science Panel Study who had a child < 3.5 years of age and who provided blood samples and reported detailed information on breastfeeding at the time of survey. PFAA serum concentrations were available for all mothers and 8% (n = 49) of the infants. Maternal and infant serum concentrations were regressed on duration of breastfeeding. Results: Each month of breastfeeding was associated with lower maternal serum concentrations of PFOA (–3%; 95% CI: –5, –2%), PFOS (–3%; 95% CI: –3, –2%), PFNA (–2%; 95% CI: –2, –1%), and PFHxS (–1%; 95% CI: –2, 0%). The infant PFOA and PFOS serum concentrations were 6% (95% CI: 1, 10%) and 4% (95% CI: 1, 7%) higher per month of breastfeeding. Conclusions: Breast milk is the optimal food for infants, but is also a PFAA excretion route for lactating mothers and exposure route for nursing infants. Citation: Mondal D, Weldon RH, Armstrong BG, Gibson LJ, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Shin HM, Fletcher T. 2014. Breastfeeding: a potential excretion route for mothers and implications for infant exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids. Environ Health Perspect 122:187–192; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306613 PMID:24280536

  3. [Influence of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid on anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure in patients with an overweight].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A

    2013-01-01

    The clinical efficiency of dietotherapy enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (3 g per day) in patients, suffering from the excess mass of a body and obesity of I and II degrees has been investigated. Dynamics of anthropometrical indicators and body composite structure before and after the treatment of patients from the main (n = 20) and control groups were estimated. Studied parameters were fixed in day 0, 14 and 28. Statistically significant reduction of the weight, body mass index (BMI), anthropometrical parameters (volumes of a waist, hips, a shoulder), indicators of body composite structure (fatty weight, area of splanchnic fat, muscular weight) has been revealed as a result of the carried-out course of treatment, and they were more expressed in patients of the main group. In particular, the waist size authentically decreased by 6.5% in patients from the main group, while in patients from the group of comparison the decrease reached only 4.2%. Average change of waist volume was--7.0 cm in the main group and--4.5 cm in the control group. The grasp of hips in the main group decreased by 4.2%, in the group of comparison for 2.8%. Absolute change of hips volume in the main group 1.67 fold exceeded that in the group of comparison (p < 0.005). The shin grasp in the main group decreased by 9.7%, while in the control group remained invariable. BMI decreased by 7.2% and 5%, respectively. Thus, the reduction of body fatty weight was 10% in patients from the main group and 4% in patients from the group of comparison. The body total liquid decreased by 1.4 l in the main group, and only by 0.3 l in the group of comparison. The received intergroup distinctions are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). PMID:24340933

  4. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Håkan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s−1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1–10 cm s−1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  6. Ionospheric disturbances by volcanic eruptions by GNSS-TEC: Comparison between Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.; Takeo, A.; Cahyadi, M. N.; Aditiya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic waves from volcanic eruptions are often observed as infrasound in near fields. Part of them propagate upward and disturb the ionosphere, and can be observed in Total Electron Content (TEC) data derived by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the past, Heki (2006 GRL) detected ionospheric disturbances by the 2004 explosion of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, and Dautermann et al. (2009 JGR) studied the 2003 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies. Here we present new examples, and try to characterize such disturbances. We first show TEC disturbances by the 2014 February Plinian eruption (VEI 4) of the Kelud volcano, East Java, Indonesia (Figure), observed with a regional GNSS network.The 2014 Kelud eruption broke a lava dome made by 2007 eruption and created a new creator. Significant disturbances were detected with four GPS and two GLONASS satellites, and the wavelet analyses showed that harmonic oscillations started at ~16:25 UT and continued nearly one hour. The frequency of the oscillation was ~3.8 mHz, which coincides with the atmospheric fundamental mode. We also confirmed concentric wavefronts, moving outward by ~0.8m/sec (stronger signals on the northern side). These features are similar to the 2003 Soufriere Hills case, although the signals in the present Kelud case is much clearer. Next, we compare them with ionospheric disturbances by Vulcanian explosions that occurred recently in Japan, i.e. the 2004 Asama case and the 2009 Sakurajima, and the 2011 Shin-moedake eruptions. They are characterized with one-time N-shaped disturbances possibly excited by the compression of the air above the vents. On the other hand, data from nearby seismometers suggested that atmospheric oscillations of various frequencies were excited by this continuous Plinian eruption. Part of such oscillations would have grown large due to atmospheric resonance.

  7. Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis due to Parengyodontium album gen. et comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Pong, Wai-Mei; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Cheung, Mei; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-10-01

    "Engyodontium album" is an environmental saprobic mould and an emerging opportunistic pathogen able to cause both superficial and systemic infections. In this study, we isolated a mould from the skin lesion biopsy specimen of the right shin in a patient who received renal transplantation for end-stage renal failure with prednisolone, tacrolimus, and azathioprine immunosuppressant therapy. Histology of the skin biopsy showed mild squamous hyperplasia and neutrophilic infiltrate in the epidermis, active chronic inflammation in the dermis, and fat necrosis in the subcutis, with numerous fungal elements within the serum crusts. On Sabouraud glucose agar, the fungus grew as white, cobweb-like, floccose colonies. Microscopically, conidiogenous cells were arranged in whorls of one to seven at wide angles, with zigzag-shaped terminal fertile regions and smooth, hyaline, oval, apiculate conidia. DNA sequencing showed the mould isolate belonged to "E. album" but matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) failed to identify the isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA, and β-tubulin gene and MALDI-TOF MS coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis showed that "E. album" is distantly related to other Engyodontium species and should be transferred to a novel genus within the family Cordycipitaceae, for which the name Parengyodontium album gen. et comb. nov. is proposed. Three potential cryptic species within this species complex were also revealed. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed posaconazole and voriconazole had high activities against all clinical P. album isolates and may be better drug options for treating P. album infections. PMID:27161787

  8. Catalytic activity of methanol in all-vapor subsecond clathrate-hydrate formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. Paul

    2014-04-01

    Methanol's property as a catalyst in the formation of gas clathrate hydrates has been recognized for several years and was recently employed in a broad ranging study [K. Shin, K. A. Udachin, I. L. Moudrakovski, D. M. Leek, S. Alavi, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 8437 (2013)]. A new measure of that activity is offered here from comparative rates of formation of methanol (MeOH) clathrate hydrates within our all-vapor aerosol methodology for which tetrahydrofuran (THF) and other small ethers have set a standard for catalytic action. We have previously described numerous examples of the complete conversion of warm all-vapor mixtures to aerosols of gas clathrate hydrates on a sub-second time scale, generally with the catalyst confined primarily to the large cage of either structure-I (s-I) or structure-II (s-II) hydrates. THF has proven to be the most versatile catalyst for the complete subsecond conversion of water to s-II hydrate nanocrystals that follows pulsing of appropriate warm vapor mixtures into a cold chamber held in the 140-220 K range. Here, the comparative ability of MeOH to catalyze the formation of s-I hydrates in the presence of a small-cage help-gas, CO2 or acetylene, is examined. The surprising result is that, in the presence of either help gas, CH-formation rates appear largely unchanged by a complete replacement of THF by MeOH in the vapor mixtures for a chamber temperature of 170 K. However, as that temperature is increased, the dependence of effective catalysis by MeOH on the partial pressure of help gases also increases. Nevertheless, added MeOH is shown to markedly accelerate the s-II THF-CO2 CH formation rate at 220 K.

  9. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely. PMID:26492351

  10. Correlates and Escitalopram Treatment Effects on Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the correlates of sleep disturbance and to assess escitalopram treatment effects of depression on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design: A cross-sectional study in patients with ACS within 2 w post-ACS, and a 24-w double-blind controlled trial of escitalopram against placebo for patients with ACS who have comorbid depressive disorders. Setting: A university hospital in South Korea. Participants: There were 1,152 patients with ACS who were consecutively recruited. Of 446 patients with comorbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to the trial. Measurements and Results: Sleep disturbance was evaluated by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed, including cardiovascular risk factors, current cardiac status, and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were most strongly and consistently associated with sleep disturbance. In addition, older age, female sex, hypertension, and more severe ACS status were associated with certain aspects of sleep disturbance. Escitalopram was significantly superior to placebo for improving sleep disturbance over the 24-w treatment period. These effects were substantially explained by improvement in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Depression screening is indicated in patients with acute coronary syndrome with sleep disturbance. Successful treatment of depression has beneficial effects on sleep outcomes in these patients. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier for the 24-w drug trial, NCT00419471. Citation: Kim JM, Stewart R, Bae KY, Kang HJ, Kim SW, Shin IS, Hong YJ, Ahn Y, Jeong MH, Yoon JS. Correlates and escitalopram treatment effects on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1105–1111. PMID:25581916

  11. SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Shinohara, Iku; Yamamoto, Yukio; Okada, Tatsuaki; Okumura, Hayato

    SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will observe the distribution of the elements and minerals on the surface, the surface and sub-surface structure, the gravity field, the remnant of the magnetic field and the environment of energetic particles and plasma of the Moon. The Relay satellite 'OKINA' will relay the Doppler ranging signal between the Main Orbiter and the ground station for the world's first direct measurement of he gravity field in the farside of the Moon. The differential VLBI Radio-Sources on board the Relay satellite "OKINA" and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA' are used to determine the gravity field of the Moon most precisely. SELENE data will be used for studying 'lunar origin and evolution' and "exploration" of the Moon and will be archived and distributed in PDS-like format with the descriptions of data format and technical information. This PDS-like format is slightly different from catalog for search and order in catalog DB (some keyword (attribute) and value definition are different). Thus, to establish the catalog interoperability function with PDS/NASA and PSA/ESA by using PDAP, it is necessary to develop PDS label (keyword and value) mapping software to translate SELENE PDS like label extracted from SELENE product to PDS compatible PDS-label and archive such the label information to our prototype catalog database We also implemented the retrieving prototype system to access that prototype catalog database. Those systems were finished to implement by the end of this March. This paper describes the result of this prototype development and evaluation report. In addition, this paper shows some

  12. PREFACE: Eucas '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    During the 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 6 plenary, 22 invited, 206 oral and 429 poster contributions were presented on recent developments in the field of applied superconductivity. This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains all contributed papers that were accepted for the Conference Proceedings. The Dresden EUCAS conference with 712 participants from 43 countries continued the tradition of preceding EUCAS conferences of combining basic superconductivity research contributions with the discussion of recent material advances and new developments in large scale and electronic applications. In Dresden, contributions on the recently discovered Fe based superconductors were presented for the first time during a EUCAS conference and their potential for applications was intensively discussed. Finally we want to acknowledge the help of the International Advisory and National Committees in setting up the scientific program and especially we would like to express our gratitude to all members of the Local Organization Committee. Their enthusiastic and well organized work made this Dresden EUCAS conference a memorable event for all participants. Last but not least we are very grateful to W. Goldacker , S. Haindl, J. Hänisch, R. Hühne, M. Noe, P. Seidel and M. Siegel for their extraordinary help during the proceedings review process. Bernhard Holzapfel Ludwig Schultz Conference Chairmen The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

  13. Lawmakers: population and social development inseparable. Social development summit.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    Parliamentarians from around the world endorsed action to promote social development by approving the Copenhagen Statement on Population and Social Development during the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development held at the National Parliament in Copenhagen, Denmark, March 4-5, 1995. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is a similar meeting held ahead of the International Conference on Population and Development during September 1994 in Cairo, Egypt. Among the key points of the Copenhagen Statement is the recognition of the importance of slowing rapid population growth, eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, creating jobs, and promoting social integration so that people can participate equally and fully in all spheres of social, cultural, economic, and political life. The document also acknowledges the need to promote universal access to education and health care, affirms the 20/20 principle as an useful concept against poverty and in development cooperation, and notes South-South cooperation as a means to promote national and international cooperation. Shin Sakurai, chairman of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, presided over the event and led the Japanese delegation of four legislators. The first such national suprapartisan body of lawmakers concerned with population and development, the Japan Parliamentarians Federation for Population was established in 1974. The federation has since been a pioneer in Asia and worldwide in fostering political commitment on population and development, playing an important role in gaining and maintaining support in Japan for multilateral and bilateral assistance in the field. Sakurai stressed in his March 4 address that population problems cannot be resolved without social development. PMID:12289009

  14. Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusell Tiede, Vance

    2010-01-01

    Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

  15. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  16. Strong electron correlation and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Haranath

    2012-07-01

    Based on experimental and theoretical research during the last decade, giant optical nonlinearities found in Mott-Hubbard insulators like Sr2CuO3,Ca2CuO3, Nickel halides ([Ni(chxn)2X]X2 where X = Br, Cl and `chxn' refers to cyclohexanediamine) are presented. These materials are reported to be potential materials for all optical switching devices. The occurrence of nearly degenerate lowest one- and two-photon states, strong Coulomb correlation and strong dipole coupling between the one- and two-photon states are believed to be the reason for such colossal optical nonlinearities in these systems. In some of these materials (at least), the two photon state is below the one-photon state. This leads to the possibility that such material can be excited to the lowest optical state by shinning laser of suitable wavelength, the populations thus generated decays to the two-photon state at ultrafast short time. Thus nonlinear measurements can be made from an excited state (we call as excited state nonlinear optical properties). One dimensional strongly correlated materials are predicted to have several orders-of-magnitude larger excited state optical non-linearities in comparison to that from the ground state, in the wavelength region suitable for terahertz communications. A large number of measurable nonlinear optical properties like Two Photon absorption, Photo induced absorption, Third Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman Scattering are obtained theoretically and compared with available experimental observations. Then a large number excited state nonlinear optical properties are predicted which are experimentally measurable. We emphasize that the mechanism of nonlinear optics in one dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators is different from that of the π-conjugated polymers — in the former spin excitation play an important role. We argue from detailed understanding of nonlinear optics of π-conjugated systems that some features in the Third Harmonic Generation

  17. Physical resist models and their calibration: their readiness for accurate EUV lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klostermann, U. K.; Mülders, T.; Schmöller, T.; Lorusso, G. F.; Hendrickx, E.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the performance of EUV resist models in terms of predictive accuracy, and we assess the readiness of the corresponding model calibration methodology. The study is done on an extensive OPC data set collected at IMEC for the ShinEtsu resist SEVR-59 on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT), with the data set including more than thousand CD values. We address practical aspects such as the speed of calibration and selection of calibration patterns. The model is calibrated on 12 process window data series varying in pattern width (32, 36, 40 nm), orientation (H, V) and pitch (dense, isolated). The minimum measured feature size at nominal process condition is a 32 nm CD at a dense pitch of 64 nm. Mask metrology is applied to verify and eventually correct nominal width of the drawn CD. Cross-sectional SEM information is included in the calibration to tune the simulated resist loss and sidewall angle. The achieved calibration RMS is ~ 1.0 nm. We show what elements are important to obtain a well calibrated model. We discuss the impact of 3D mask effects on the Bossung tilt. We demonstrate that a correct representation of the flare level during the calibration is important to achieve a high predictability at various flare conditions. Although the model calibration is performed on a limited subset of the measurement data (one dimensional structures only), its accuracy is validated based on a large number of OPC patterns (at nominal dose and focus conditions) not included in the calibration; validation RMS results as small as 1 nm can be reached. Furthermore, we study the model's extendibility to two-dimensional end of line (EOL) structures. Finally, we correlate the experimentally observed fingerprint of the CD uniformity to a model, where EUV tool specific signatures are taken into account.

  18. A biomechanical comparison of the traditional squat, powerlifting squat, and box squat.

    PubMed

    Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Keogh, Justin W L; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur D

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. PMID:22505136

  19. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  20. Waveform Inversion of Synthetic Ocean Models in the Laplace Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, H.; Blacic, T. M.; Jun, H.; Shin, C.

    2014-12-01

    In seismic oceanography, the processed images show where small temperature changes (as little as 0.03°C) occur, although they do not give absolute temperatures. To get a 2-D temperature map, the data must be inverted for sound speed, which is then converted to temperature using equations of state. Full waveform inversion requires a starting model that is iteratively updated until the residuals converge. Global search algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm do not require a starting model close to the true model, but are computationally exhausting. Local search inversion is less expensive, but requires a reasonably accurate starting model. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data has little associated hydrographic data and so it is difficult to create starting models close enough to the true model for convergence throughout the target area. In addition, the band-limited nature of seismic data makes it inherently challenging to extract the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data. Laplace domain inversion (LDI) developed by Changsoo Shin and colleagues requires only a rudimentary starting model to produce smooth background sound speed models without requiring prior information about the medium. It works by transforming input data to the Laplace domain, and then examining the zero frequency component of the damped wavefield to extract a smooth sound speed model - basically, removing higher frequency fluctuations to expose background trends. This ability to use frequencies below those effectively propagated by the seismic source is what enables LDI to produce the smooth background trend from the data. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on simplified models of oceanographic features. Using LDI, we were able to recover smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of the method for creating sound speed profiles suitable for use as starting models for other methods of inversion that output more detailed models.

  1. Observations and numerical simulations of downslope flow separation at a valley inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda

    2016-04-01

    Severe turbulence downwind of a mountain ridge is often associated with large-amplitude gravity waves that are excited as the air flows over the ridge. Mountain waves can exert an adverse pressure-gradient force on the boundary layer and make it detach from the ground, leading to the formation of atmospheric rotors. However, in a more complex topographic setting, with a second mountain ridge downstream of the first and a valley in between, thermally and dynamically forced processes in the valley (e.g., cold pools or along-valley flow channelling) may be equally important for flow separation. Observations supporting this idea were made during the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment in Owens Valley (California, USA) in the nighttime hours of 16 April 2006. In that case, an inversion was present in the valley and resultant buoyancy forces appear to have contributed significantly to flow separation well above the valley floor. In an attempt to understand better the thermal and dynamic forces determining this case, numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are run in a nested-domain configuration. The innermost model domain exhibits a horizontal grid spacing of 400 m and a vertical spacing of ~25 m at the ground and spans the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada. The sensitivity of model results (e.g. the valley inversion strength) to the chosen boundary-layer parameterization (e.g., Bougeault-Lacarrère, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic, or Shin-Hong 'scale-aware' PBL schemes) is studied. In a next step, the evaluation of the terms in the momentum equations along the trajectories of separated air parcels will help elucidate the relative importance of pressure-gradient forces and buoyancy forces for flow separation.

  2. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  3. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

  4. The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Smith, S A

    1992-03-01

    A small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. Gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. The tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. Two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the humeroscapular bone to the proximal humerus: one passes to the proximal edge of the pectoral crest of the humerus, and the other passes to the ventral tubercle of the humerus. The bone was described as the humeroscapular bone in reference to a similar fibrocartilaginous structure possessed by some birds. The humeroscapular bone is present in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), the screech owl (Otus asio), the barred owl (Strix varia), the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicencis), the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and the sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). The bone is absent in the barn owl (Tyto alba), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the golden eagle (Aquila chysaetos), and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), though some of these species possessed a similar fibrocartilaginous structure. Whether the humeroscapular structure develops as bone or cartilage in a given species may be related to other morphological features of the wing, and/or to characteristics of the predatory behavior of the species. Clinicians and anatomists dealing with birds of prey must be aware of the presence of the humeroscapular bone to avoid misinterpreting it as a fracture fragment. PMID:1585989

  5. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    dianellae (Sawada & Katsuki) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium lythri (Westend.) U. Braun & H.D. Shin, comb. nov., Zasmidium wikstroemiae (Petch) U. Braun, comb. nov. PMID:22815589

  6. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  7. Teleseismic waveform analysis of deep-focus earthquake for the preliminary estimation of crustal structure of the northern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.; Shin, J.

    2010-12-01

    Crustal structures in the several areas of the northern part of Korea are estimated using the long-period teleseismic depth phase pP and the Moho underside-reflected phase pMP generated by deep-focus earthquakes. The analysis of waveform is performed through comparison of recordings and synthetics of these phases computed using a hybrid reflectivity method, WKBJ approximation for propagation in the vertically inhomogeneous mantle and the computation of Haskell propagator matrix in the layered crust and upper mantle. The pMP phase is a precursor to the surface reflection pP phase and its amplitude is relatively small. The analysis of vertical component of P, pP, and pMP provides the estimation of structure of the source side. The deep-focus earthquakes occurred at the border area of North Korea, China, and Russia are adequate for this study. The seismograms recorded at the GSN stations in Southeast Asia provide clear identification of pMP and pP phases. The preliminary analysis employs deep-focus (580 km) earthquake of magnitude 6.3 Mb of which epicenter is located at the border region between east Russia and northeast China. Seismograms after 0.01 - 0.2 Hz bandpass filtering clearly exhibit pMP and pP phases recorded on four GSN stations (BTDF, PSI, COCO, and DGAR). Shin and Baag (2000) suggested approximate crustal thickness of the region between northern Korea and northeastern China. The crustal thickness appears to be varied from 25 to 35 km that is compatible with the preliminary analysis.

  8. 1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  9. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  10. Deterministic versus stochastic trends: Detection and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatichi, S.; Barbosa, S. M.; Caporali, E.; Silva, M. E.

    2009-09-01

    The detection of a trend in a time series and the evaluation of its magnitude and statistical significance is an important task in geophysical research. This importance is amplified in climate change contexts, since trends are often used to characterize long-term climate variability and to quantify the magnitude and the statistical significance of changes in climate time series, both at global and local scales. Recent studies have demonstrated that the stochastic behavior of a time series can change the statistical significance of a trend, especially if the time series exhibits long-range dependence. The present study examines the trends in time series of daily average temperature recorded in 26 stations in the Tuscany region (Italy). In this study a new framework for trend detection is proposed. First two parametric statistical tests, the Phillips-Perron test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, are applied in order to test for trend stationary and difference stationary behavior in the temperature time series. Then long-range dependence is assessed using different approaches, including wavelet analysis, heuristic methods and by fitting fractionally integrated autoregressive moving average models. The trend detection results are further compared with the results obtained using nonparametric trend detection methods: Mann-Kendall, Cox-Stuart and Spearman's ρ tests. This study confirms an increase in uncertainty when pronounced stochastic behaviors are present in the data. Nevertheless, for approximately one third of the analyzed records, the stochastic behavior itself cannot explain the long-term features of the time series, and a deterministic positive trend is the most likely explanation.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors and pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S; Dhingra, Reena; Ryckewaert, Lori; Bonner, Dave

    2009-01-01

    There may be a relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and iron absorption. PPIs may decrease the amount of iron absorbed gastrointestinally specifically due to alteration of the pH in the duodenum. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that includes an urge to move legs, accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs; the urge to move begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, the urge to move is partially or totally relieved by movement, and the urge is worse or only occurs at night. In the majority of the restless leg syndrome population, the sensation is deep seated, often described as being in the shin bones, and most commonly felt between the knee and ankle. It may be described as a creepy, shock-like, tense, electric, buzzing, itchy, or even numb sensation. A subpopulation of this restless leg syndrome patient population experiences restless leg syndrome associated pain (RLSAP) that has been described as a deep "achy pain." This pain has not been found to be relieved by many of the typical over the counter analgesics. Often, constant movement of the legs appears to be the only remedy, as these sensations usually appear during periods of rest. Furthermore, there appears to be an association between iron deficiency and those suffering from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). The authors theorize that there may be a possible correlation between PPIs and the symptoms (e.g. pain) associated with RLS. The authors propose that PPIs, such as omeprazole, may interfere with iron absorption in certain patients and that a subpopulation of patients who develop significant iron deficiency characterized by low serum ferritin levels while on PPIs may also develop RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP). While there is no robust direct evidence to support any associations of PPIs and iron deficiency or PPIs associated with RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP), it is hoped that this manuscript may spark research

  12. Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cécile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R.

    2009-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs. PMID:19307219

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  15. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  16. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  17. Interpreting Observed Arctic Snow Trends with Large Ensembles of Climate Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudryk, L. R.; Kushner, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Snow is a key element of the Northern Hemisphere's energy budget, water balance, and climate sensitivity. While Northern Hemisphere mean snowfall and snow accumulation are expected to decrease as a result of warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, combined changes in the temperature and precipitation patterns are complex enough to cause marked regional variations of either sign. Accurately predicting such regional changes in the coming decades is predicated on being able to properly simulate historical changes and being able to separate forced signals from climate noise. We present an analysis of Northern Hemisphere snow and temperature trends using large ensembles (20+ members) of the Community Earth System Model. We have generated two such large ensembles forced with historical emissions of greenhouse gases, aerosols and ozone during the period 1981-2010. The first ensemble uses a coupled ocean-atmosphere setup with a freely evolving ocean; the second uses the same atmospheric model forced by observed sea surface temperatures. Our results show that while the model is able to reproduce the observed climatology and variability of snow cover extent (as well as snow water equivalent to a lesser degree of fidelity), internal climate noise generates different spatial patterns of snow trends in different climate realizations. These patterns are related in an intuitive way to the temperature and circulation. While both ensembles capture the overall decreasing trend in snow cover extent observed during the spring season, there are differences in their magnitudes and spatial distribution. Following Shin and Sardeshmukh [2010], we discuss the role of the magnitude and spatial pattern of the sea surface temperature trends as they relate to the resulting snow trends. These connections promise to aid in interpretation of observations.

  18. Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H Jasmine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)) (median = 780 CFU/m(3)) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM(10))), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO(2) level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria. PMID:22219040

  19. Fluorescence-lifetime molecular imaging can detect invisible peritoneal ovarian tumors in bloody ascites

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takahito; Sano, Kohei; Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Rira; Harada, Toshiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Blood contamination, such as bloody ascites or hemorrhages during surgery, is a potential hazard for clinical application of fluorescence imaging. In order to overcome this problem, we investigate if fluorescence-lifetime imaging helps to overcome this problem. Samples were prepared at concentrations ranging 0.3–2.4 μm and mixed with 0–10% of blood. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of samples were measured using a time-domain fluorescence imager. Ovarian cancer SHIN3 cells overexpressing the D-galactose receptor were injected into the peritoneal cavity 2.5 weeks before the experiments. Galactosyl serum albumin-rhodamine green (GSA-RhodG), which bound to the D-galactose receptor and was internalized thereafter, was administered intraperitoneally to peritoneal ovarian cancer-bearing mice with various degrees of bloody ascites. In vitro study showed a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and probe concentration (r2 > 0.99), whereas the fluorescence lifetime was consistent (range, 3.33 ± 0.15–3.75 ± 0.04 ns). By adding 10% of blood to samples, fluorescence intensities decreased to <1%, while fluorescence lifetimes were consistent. In vivo fluorescence lifetime of GSA-RhodG stained tumors was longer than the autofluorescence lifetime (threshold, 2.87 ns). Tumor lesions under hemorrhagic peritonitis were not depicted using fluorescence intensity imaging; however, fluorescence-lifetime imaging clearly detected tumor lesions by prolonged lifetimes. In conclusion, fluorescence-lifetime imaging with GSA-RhodG depicted ovarian cancer lesions, which were invisible in intensity images, in hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:24479901

  20. Physiological strain of next generation combat uniforms with chemical and biological protection: importance of clothing vents.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Boscarino, Cathy; Duncan, E J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether vents in the arms, legs and chest of new protective assault uniforms (PTAU) reduced heat strain at 35 °C during a low dressed state (DSlow), and subsequently improved tolerance time (TT) after transitioning to DShigh compared with the battle dress uniform and overgarment (BDU+O). Small but significant reductions in rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate and vapour pressures over the thigh and shin were observed during DSlow with vents open (37.9 ± 0.2 °C, 120 ± 10 b/min, 3.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 1.0 kPa) versus closed (38.0 ± 0.1 °C, 127 ± 5 b/min, 4.3 ± 0.3 and 4.6 ± 0.5 kPa). During DShigh Tre was reduced and TT increased significantly with the PTAUs (1.1 ± 0.2 °C/h and 46 ± 24 min) versus BDU+O (1.6 ± 0.2 °C/h and 33 ± 16 min). The vents marginally reduced heat strain during DSlow and extended TT during DShigh) compared with BDU+O. Practitioner Summary: Clothing vents in chemical and biological protective uniforms can assist with heat transfer in situations where the uniforms must be worn for extended periods prior to exposure to a hazardous condition. Once the vents are closed, exposure time is increased and the increase in body temperature reduced. PMID:23231665

  1. Long DNA Molecules at Liuid-Solid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young-Soo; Samuilov, Vladimir; Sokolov, John; Rafailovich, Miriam; Chu, Ben

    2003-03-01

    The electrical transport of long DNA molecules was studied using a newly developed method of electrophoresis on flat surfaces [1]. We have shown that a flat silicon substrate, without any surface features, can be used to fractionate DNA on a liquid-solid interface. We determine that the ability of a flat surface to separate DNA molecules results from the local friction between the surface and the adsorbed DNA segments. The mobility of lambda- DNA molecules on this surface was found to scale as the persistent length with the ionic strength of the buffer. This experimental result indicates that at high buffer concentration the separation mechanism of solid-liquid interface electrophoresis is expected to be due to surface friction rather than biased reptation [2]. At low buffer concentrations the adsorbed DNA move in the electrical field parallel to the surface, and also due the electroosmotic convection that drags the DNA chains and they are stretched . The electric double layer is responsible for a velocity profile of the electroosmotic flow. The net electrophoretic mobility of longer DNA, being trapped closer to the surface, is higher than of the shorter ones in the electric field, oriented along the surface. [1]. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu. DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85 (2000) 5651-5654. [2] Y.-S. Seo, V.A. Samuilov, J. Sokolov, M. Rafailovich, B. Tinland, J. Kim, B. Chu. DNA separation at a liquid-solid interface, Electrophoresis, 23 (2002) 2618-2625.

  2. Sr isotope diversity of hot spring and volcanic lake waters from Zao volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Hiromasa; Ohba, Tsukasa; Fujimaki, Hirokazu

    2007-09-01

    The ratio of 87Sr/ 86Sr was measured from different water samples of thermal/mineral (hot spring as well as crater lake) and meteoric origins, in order to specify the location and to verify the detailed model of a volcano-hydrothermal system beneath Zao volcano. The ratio showed a trimodal distribution for the case of thermal/mineral water: 0.7052-0.7053 (Type A, Zao hot spring), 0.7039-0.7043 (Type B, Okama crater lake and Shin-funkiko hot spring), and 0.7070-0.7073 (Type C, Gaga, Aone, and Togatta hot springs), respectively. However, in comparison, the ratio was found to be higher for meteoric waters (0.7077-0.7079). The water from the central volcanic edifice (Type B) was found to be similar to that of nearby volcanic rocks in their Sr isotopic ratio. This indicates that the Sr in water was derived from shallow volcanic rocks. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio for water from the Zao hot spring (Type A) was intermediate between those of the pre-Tertiary granitic and the Quaternary volcanic rocks, thus suggesting that the water had reacted with both volcanic and granitic rocks. The location of the vapor-liquid separation was determined as the boundary of the pre-Tertiary granitic and the Quaternary volcanic rocks by comparing the results of this strontium isotopic study with those of Kiyosu and Kurahashi [Kiyosu, Y., Kurahashi, M., 1984. Isotopic geochemistry of acid thermal waters and volcanic gases from Zao volcano in Japan. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 21, 313-331.].

  3. Assessment of the risk of dermal exposure to pesticides during treatment with a back-pack sprayer in the presence and absence of vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Z; Sylla, S; Lebeau, F; Schiffers, B

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the dermal exposure of applicators to pesticides is still an important issue, and the measurement methods used remain open to improvement. This is particularly true when it comes to characterising the exposure of applicators using back-pack sprayers. The scenarios used for the different mathematical models continue to be riddled with approximations and uncertainties. With a view to improving these scenarios, test were performed in an open environment to measure the levels of dermal exposure on various parts of an operator's body during treatment with this type of equipment. The main parameters studied are the presence of vegetation and the height of the crop. The method uses a tracer (fluorescein salt) and collectors placed all over the body in order to determine which parts are subject to most contamination during spraying. The quantitative determinations of the tracer show that exposure, in the presence of vegetation, reaches levels of 0.02%, 0.006% and 0.04% of the total quantity applied in treatment, at heights of 0.5, 1 and 2 m respectively. In the absence of vegetation, it stands at 0.21%, 0.61% and 0.62% of the total quantity applied at heights of 0.5, 1 and 2 m. In each of these situations, the lower limbs of the body (shins and thighs) collected large proportions of fluorescein. The contamination of the upper parts of the body increases in proportion to the height of treatment. These results show that the presence of vegetation and the spraying height are important parameters to be considered and to be integrated into the models, to validly assess the exposure of operators using a backpack sprayer. PMID:23885410

  4. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  5. Chronic Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures with Valgus Treated with Bilateral Intramedullary Nailing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Steven K; Archdeacon, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stress fractures are overuse injuries most commonly seen in athletes, military recruits, and individuals with endocrine abnormalities. It has been demonstrated that chronic cases of anterior tibial stress fractures refractory to conservative management respond well to intramedullary nailing. To our knowledge, only one report has been published concerning patients with bilateral tibial stress fractures treated with bilateral intramedullary nailing. All patients in the series were high-level athletes. We present the case of a non-athletic patient with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures and associated deformity successfully treated with bilateral intramedullary nails. Case Report: A 23-year-old Caucasian female full-time student presented with chronic bilateral shin pain for approximately five years. She had failed an extensive regimen of conservative management. She was diagnosed with chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures based on history, physical examination, and radiologic findings. She subsequently underwent sequential intramedullary nailing of her tibiae. Both tibiae were in valgus alignment; however, this did not preclude nail placement. The nails deformed upon insertion into the sclerotic canals to conform to the deformation. Post operatively the tibiae united and patient was relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion: Bilateral intramedullary nailing of chronic bilateral tibial stress fractures should be considered as a treatment option for all patients, not just high-level athletes, who fail a trial of conservative management. Additionally, mild to moderate tibial malalignment does not necessarily preclude tibial nailing as the smaller nails placed in sclerotic canals will likely deform on insertion and conform to the canal. PMID:27298944

  6. Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to killing by human complement and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cécile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R

    2009-06-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs. PMID:19307219

  7. [Memoirs on Chlorodyne and Shinyaku].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dr. J. Collins Browne, a British army surgeon in India, invented a secret remedy for cholera-infected patients in the fifth decade of the 19th century. After his resignation from the army, the formula was given to a pharmacist in London for the purpose of manufacture and marketing as a patented medicine named Chlorodyne. Chlorodyne was well-accepted as paregoric for several decades. The formula of Chlorodyne was adopted in the 3rd Revision of the British Pharmacopoeia (1885) as "Compound Tincture of Chloroform and Morphine." In 1906, the 3rd Revision of Japanese Pharmacopoeia listed "Compound Tincture and Morphine" according to the formula of the 4th Revision of British Pharmacopoeia (1898). References written in 1870 and 1873 recorded the importation of Chlorodyne to Japan. In 1871, Dr. Jyun Matsumoto, Chief Military Surgeon Major General advised the manufacturers of traditional medicines to produce patented medicines to spread in western countries. Preparations of formula seeming to resemble Chlorodyne was named "Shinyaku" and were marketed from 1872. The name Shinyaku represented a medicine of marvellous efficacy, because the word split, Shin and Yaku, means "divine or almighty" and "medicine," respectively. Although the orginal formula of Shinyaku was not preserved, modifications of the formula were made to meet legal restrictions over the change of time. Needless to say, Morphine hydrochloride, Diluted hydrocyanic acid and tincture of Indian hemp were replaced with other ingredients to assure safety and lately Chloroform deleted from the formula as well. Shinyaku enjoyed good sales for a long time owing to its efficacy of restorative and refrigerant. PMID:11624349

  8. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-01

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to ΔkTARGET. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f =∑i (ΔkF A-Δki ) ] , and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to ΔkTARGET as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  9. Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.

    PubMed

    Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

    1999-01-01

    The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p < .01) while backpacking a 22.5 kg load. A decrease of EISM also appeared at the next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

  10. [Overuse injury syndromes of the calf and foot] ].

    PubMed

    Smerdelj, M; Madjarević, M; Oremus, K

    2001-12-01

    The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle. PMID:11831128

  11. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

    2011-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

  12. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  13. Impact of Exposure Uncertainty on the Association between Perfluorooctanoate and Preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project Population

    PubMed Central

    Avanasi, Raghavendhran; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M.; Savitz, David A.; Bartell, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in exposure estimates from models can result in exposure measurement error and can potentially affect the validity of epidemiological studies. We recently used a suite of environmental models and an integrated exposure and pharmacokinetic model to estimate individual perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) serum concentrations and assess the association with preeclampsia from 1990 through 2006 for the C8 Health Project participants. Objectives The aims of the current study are to evaluate impact of uncertainty in estimated PFOA drinking-water concentrations on estimated serum concentrations and their reported epidemiological association with preeclampsia. Methods For each individual public water district, we used Monte Carlo simulations to vary the year-by-year PFOA drinking-water concentration by randomly sampling from lognormal distributions for random error in the yearly public water district PFOA concentrations, systematic error specific to each water district, and global systematic error in the release assessment (using the estimated concentrations from the original fate and transport model as medians and a range of 2-, 5-, and 10-fold uncertainty). Results Uncertainty in PFOA water concentrations could cause major changes in estimated serum PFOA concentrations among participants. However, there is relatively little impact on the resulting epidemiological association in our simulations. The contribution of exposure uncertainty to the total uncertainty (including regression parameter variance) ranged from 5% to 31%, and bias was negligible. Conclusions We found that correlated exposure uncertainty can substantially change estimated PFOA serum concentrations, but results in only minor impacts on the epidemiological association between PFOA and preeclampsia. Citation Avanasi R, Shin HM, Vieira VM, Savitz DA, Bartell SM. 2016. Impact of exposure uncertainty on the association between perfluorooctanoate and preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project population

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Cerebral White Matter Change in a Middle-Aged and Older General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun; Yun, Chang-Ho; Thomas, Robert Joseph; Lee, Seung Hoon; Seo, Hyung Suk; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Suh, Sooyeon; Shin, Chol

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to the development of systemic hypertension, and hypertension strongly predicts the development of white matter change (WMC). Thus, it is plausible that OSA mediates WMC. The goal of the current study is to determine whether a contextual relationship exists between OSA and cerebral WMC. Design: Cross-sectional analyses conducted in a population-based study. Setting: Korean community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) who attended examinations in 2011 at a medical center. Participants: There were 503 individuals (mean ± SD, age 59.63 ± 7.48 y) who were free of previously diagnosed cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent 1-night polysomnography and were classified as no OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] < 5, n = 289), mild OSA (AHI 5-15, n = 161), and moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15, n = 53). WMC was identified with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was found in 199 individuals (39.56%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for covariates revealed that moderate to severe OSA was significantly associated with the presence of WMC (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.13) compared with no OSA. Additional adjustment of hypertension to the model did not alter the significance of the association (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.02-4.05). Conclusions: Moderate to severe OSA is an independent risk factor for WMC in middle-aged and older individuals. Thus, early recognition and treatment of OSA could reduce the risk of stroke and vascular dementia. Citation: Kim H; Yun CH; Thomas RJ; Lee SH; Seo HS; Cho ER; Lee SK; Yoon DW; Suh S; Shin C. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cerebral white matter change in a middle-aged and older general population. SLEEP 2013;36(5):709-715. PMID:23633753

  15. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    ://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to an experiment that is suitable for older students, Circles of Light--The Mathematics of Rainbows at http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/. Frederick J. Wicklin and Paul Edelman of the University of Minnesota note that this comprehensive lab is based on a module developed by Steven Janke. Go back to About Rainbows to link to a Java applet, allowing you to change the incident angle and color of light striking a water droplet. This great teaching device is from Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taiwan Normal University at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html. And while you are here in this site (choose English or Chinese), look at the more than 30 Java applets created by F.-K. Hwang at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/index.html. The interactive applet on Shadow/Image and Color is great fun, (http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow /shadow.html). From mixing colors, we can go to Thomas Chasteen's fine work at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html for an animation (and movie also) of how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). This colorful graphic, showing incoming parallel white light, is clipped from that monochromator animation. While you are here at this site at Sam Houston State University, look at the other great animations and movies, including a movie showing solution-phase chemiluminescence at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html. So now that we have explored the breaking down of light into its component colors, we need to also look at another process--polarizing light. Let's go to Science Media's comprehensive site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) to examine polarized light ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm). Of course, most

  16. Baicalin Activates Glycine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors on Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subsnucleus Caudalis in Juvenile Mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Oh, Sun Mi; Park, Soo Joung; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives nociceptive afferent inputs from thin-myelinated A[Formula: see text] fibers and unmyelinated C fibers and has been shown to be involved in the processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-Qin, SbG), one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been used historically as anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medicine. Baicalin, one of the major compounds of SbG, has been reported to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, the receptor type activated by baicalin and its precise action mechanism on the SG neurons of Vc have not yet been studied. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the ion channels activated by baicalin on the SG neurons of Vc. In high Cl[Formula: see text] pipette solution, the baicalin (300[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) induced repeatable inward currents ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]pA, [Formula: see text]) without desensitization on all the SG neurons tested. Further, the inward currents showed a concentration (0.1-3[Formula: see text]mM) dependent pattern. The inward current was sustained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a voltage sensitive Na[Formula: see text] channel blocker. In addition, baicalin-induced inward currents were reduced in the presence of picrotoxin (50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil (100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptor antagonist, and strychnine (2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a glycine receptor antagonist, respectively. These results indicate that baicalin has inhibitory effects on the SG neurons of the Vc, which are due to the activation of GABAA and/or the glycine receptor. Our results suggest that baicalin may be a potential target for orofacial pain modulation

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  18. Improving the quality of NMR and crystallographic protein structures by means of a conformational database potential derived from structure databases.

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, J; Gronenborn, A M; Clore, G M

    1996-06-01

    A new conformational database potential involving dihedral angle relationships in databases of high-resolution highly refined protein crystal structures is presented as a method for improving the quality of structures generated from NMR data. The rationale for this procedure is based on the observation that uncertainties in the description of the nonbonded contacts present a key limiting factor in the attainable accuracy of protein NMR structures and that the nonbonded interaction terms presently used have poor discriminatory power between high- and low-probability local conformations. The idea behind the conformational database potential is to restrict sampling during simulated annealing refinement to conformations that are likely to be energetically possible by effectively limiting the choices of dihedral angles to those that are known to be physically realizable. In this manner, the variability in the structures produced by this method is primarily a function of the experimental restraints, rather than an artifact of a poor nonbonded interaction model. We tested this approach with the experimental NMR data (comprising an average of about 30 restraints per residue and consisting of interproton distances, torsion angles, 3JHN alpha coupling constants, and 13C chemical shifts) used previously to calculate the solution structure of reduced human thioredoxin (Qin J, Clore GM, Gronenborn AM, 1994, Structure 2:503-522). Incorporation of the conformational database potential into the target function used for refinement (which also includes terms for the experimental restraints, covalent geometry, and nonbonded interactions in the form of either a repulsive, repulsive-attractive, or 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential) results in a significant improvement in various quantitative measures of quality (Ramachandran plot, side-chain torsion angles, overall packing). This is achieved without compromising the agreement with the experimental restraints and the deviations from

  19. DICOM for quantitative imaging biomarker development: a standards based approach to sharing clinical data and structured PET/CT analysis results in head and neck cancer research.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Andriy; Clunie, David; Ulrich, Ethan; Bauer, Christian; Wahle, Andreas; Brown, Bartley; Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Buatti, John; Beichel, Reinhard R

    2016-01-01

    . Conversion and visualization tools utilizing this toolkit were developed. The encoded objects were validated for consistency and interoperability. The resulting dataset was deposited in the QIN-HEADNECK collection of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Supporting tools for data analysis and DICOM conversion were made available as free open-source software. Discussion. We presented a detailed investigation of the development and application of the DICOM model, as well as the supporting open-source tools and toolkits, to accommodate representation of the research data in QI biomarker development. We demonstrated that the DICOM standard can be used to represent the types of data relevant in HNC QI biomarker development, and encode their complex relationships. The resulting annotated objects are amenable to data mining applications, and are interoperable with a variety of systems that support the DICOM standard. PMID:27257542

  20. Inverse Modeling of Tracer Tests in Streams Undergoing Hyporheic Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zijie; Arie Cirpka, Olaf

    2010-05-01

    Hyporheic exchange has been identified as a key process in solute transport, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem functioning of streams. Physical solute transport through the hyporheic zone may be characterized by the total flux of water exchange and the distribution of hyporheic travel times. The classical method of obtaining travel-time distributions is an artificial-tracer experiment, in which an easy to detect compound is injected into the river, and the breakthrough curve (BTC) is measured at an observation point further downstream in the river. This BTC is affected by in-stream transport and hyporheic exchange as expressed in the transient storage model for linear solute transport in rivers undergoing hyporheic exchange: (∫ ) δc+ v-δc- D δ2c-= q tp(?)c(t- ?)exp(- λ?)d? - c(t) + q (c - c(t)) δt δx δx2 he 0 in in (1) in which v and D are the velocity and dispersion coefficient, respectively, qhe is the hyporheic exchange flux, ? is the travel-time coordinate in the hyporheic zone, p(?) is the probability density function of ?, λ is a first-order rate coefficient quantifying potential decay within the hyporheic zone, qin expresses lateral inflow, and cin is the corresponding concentration within that inflow. The target quantities are the exchange flux qhe and the nonnegative travel time distribution p(?) in the hyporheic zone. Common transient storage models use parametric distribution functions, such as the exponential, power-law, or log-normal distributions. By predefining the functional form of p(?), however, important features such as multimodality may remain unnoticed. We present a nonparametric approach of obtaining p(?) jointly with the other transport parameters by fitting BTCs of conservative and reactive solutes. For regularization p(?) is assumed autocorrelated, and nonnegativity is enforced by the method of Lagrange multipliers. The method extends a nonparametric deconvolution approach for the determination of transfer functions. It

  1. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    authors of all accepted papers for their high quality and fruitful contributions. Special thanks are due to all reviewers for their careful critical reading of the manuscripts and useful comments and suggestions. We do hope that this volume will be beneficial for readers to their future research endeavours and careers. We also gratefully acknowledge tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially CMSE Conference Secretary Ms. Liu Qin, Editor Anete Ashton and all the Editorial Board members in IOP Publishing for their support in producing the proceedings of this event. Guest Editors: Prof. Harry E. Ruda University of Toronto, Canada Dr. Alexander Khotsianovsky Pisarenko Institute of Problems of Strength of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

  2. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the regions. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin that can be attributed to natural gas fugitive emissions has been determined to be 71 +/- 9%. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011).

  3. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  4. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  5. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Hanna, E.; Palmer, S.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    We have used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the 2003 and 2005-2007 melt seasons to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance observations. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage is observed across the ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern areas compared to the south-west. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. A correlation was found between the annual peak in total lake area and modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a future warmer climate (Meehl et al., 2007), Greenland supra-glacial lakes can be expected to form at higher altitudes and over a longer time period than is presently the case, expanding the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al., 2008) with potential consequences for ice sheet discharge (Zwally et al., 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage. Science, 5877, 778-781. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., Weaver, A.J. & Zhao, Z.C. (2007). Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor

  6. The Impact of Gender on Timeliness of Narcolepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Won, Christine; Mahmoudi, Mandana; Qin, Li; Purvis, Taylor; Mathur, Aditi; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the impact of gender in narcoleptic patients on timeliness of diagnosis, symptomology, and health and lifestyle impairment Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 109 consecutive patients (68 women) with newly diagnosed narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, from a University sleep disorders center. Consecutive patients were administered an 8-page questionnaire at the time of their diagnosis regarding sleep habits, medications, and medical conditions, lifestyle impairments, as well as details regarding narcolepsy-related symptoms. Results: Men and women presented with remarkably similar narcolepsy related symptoms, yet women were more likely to be delayed in diagnosis; 85% of men were likely to be diagnosed by 16 years after symptom onset, compared to 28 years in women. More women were likely to remain undiagnosed at any given time point after symptom onset (hazard ratio for diagnosis of men compared to women 1.53; 95% CI 1.01-2.32; p = 0.04). Men and women reported similar degree of subjective sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (mean 16.2 ± 4.5; p = 0.18), though women demonstrated significantly more severe objective sleepiness on multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) (mean sleep latency in women = 5.4 min (± 4.1), in men 7.4 min (± 3.5); p = 0.03). Despite being more objectively sleepy, women were less likely to report lifestyle impairments in the areas of personal relationships (71% men, 44% women, p = 0.01) and physical activity (36% men, 16% women, p = 0.02), but were also more likely to self-medicate with caffeine (63.4% men, 82.4% women; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Narcolepsy impacts men and women's health and lifestyle differently, and may cause delays diagnosis for women. Citation: Won C; Mahmoudi M; Qin L; Purvis T; Mathur A; Mohsenin V. The impact of gender on timeliness of narcolepsy diagnosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):89-95. PMID:24426826

  7. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  8. PREFACE: The International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, David; Xue Dou, Shi

    2004-09-01

    exploiting the full potential of these complex nanomaterials. The workshop was lively, informative and successful with many high quality oral and poster presentations. The papers selected for this issue after review represent a good cross-section of the work presented at the conference. The members of the workshop organizing committee contributed much of their spare time to the organization of the conference. In particular, we would like to acknowledge Dr Alex Pan and Dr Meng Jun Qin for their excellent work on the workshop programme and Mrs Babs Allen for her assistance in all aspects of the workshop. We would also like to thank the ICMC board and ISEM at the University of Wollongong for their financial support.

  9. DICOM for quantitative imaging biomarker development: a standards based approach to sharing clinical data and structured PET/CT analysis results in head and neck cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Clunie, David; Ulrich, Ethan; Bauer, Christian; Wahle, Andreas; Brown, Bartley; Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Buatti, John; Beichel, Reinhard R.

    2016-01-01

    . Conversion and visualization tools utilizing this toolkit were developed. The encoded objects were validated for consistency and interoperability. The resulting dataset was deposited in the QIN-HEADNECK collection of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Supporting tools for data analysis and DICOM conversion were made available as free open-source software. Discussion. We presented a detailed investigation of the development and application of the DICOM model, as well as the supporting open-source tools and toolkits, to accommodate representation of the research data in QI biomarker development. We demonstrated that the DICOM standard can be used to represent the types of data relevant in HNC QI biomarker development, and encode their complex relationships. The resulting annotated objects are amenable to data mining applications, and are interoperable with a variety of systems that support the DICOM standard. PMID:27257542

  10. Characterizing Woody Vegetation Spectral and Structural Parameters with a 3-D Scene Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, W.; Yang, L.

    2004-05-01

    Quantification of structural and biophysical parameters of woody vegetation is of great significance in understanding vegetation condition, dynamics and functionality. Such information over a landscape scale is crucial for global and regional land cover characterization, global carbon-cycle research, forest resource inventories, and fire fuel estimation. While great efforts and progress have been made in mapping general land cover types over large area, at present, the ability to quantify regional woody vegetation structural and biophysical parameters is limited. One approach to address this research issue is through an integration of physically based 3-D scene model with multiangle and multispectral remote sensing data and in-situ measurements. The first step of this work is to model woody vegetation structure and its radiation regime using a physically based 3-D scene model and field data, before a robust operational algorithm can be developed for retrieval of important woody vegetation structural/biophysical parameters. In this study, we use an advanced 3-D scene model recently developed by Qin and Gerstl (2000), based on L-systems and radiosity theories. This 3-D scene model has been successfully applied to semi-arid shrubland to study structure and radiation regime at a regional scale. We apply this 3-D scene model to a more complicated and heterogeneous forest environment dominated by deciduous and coniferous trees. The data used in this study are from a field campaign conducted by NASA in a portion of the Superior National Forest (SNF) near Ely, Minnesota during the summers of 1983 and 1984, and supplement data collected during our revisit to the same area of SNF in summer of 2003. The model is first validated with reflectance measurements at different scales (ground observations, helicopter, aircraft, and satellite). Then its ability to characterize the structural and spectral parameters of the forest scene is evaluated. Based on the results from this study

  11. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    PubMed

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  12. Collective Temperature Anisotropy Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, Edward

    2006-10-01

    developed to study these instabilities. The results of the investigations that identify the instability growth rates, levels of saturations, and conditions for quiescent beam propagation will also be discussed. [1] E.A. Startsev and R.C. Davidson, Phys.Plasmas 10, 4829 (2003). [2] E.A. Startsev, R.C. Davidson and H. Qin, Phys.Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8,124201 (2005).

  13. An Alternative Realization of Gauss-Newton for Frequency-Domain Acoustic Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chi, B.; Dong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since FWI was studied under the least-square misfit optimization proposed by Tarantola (1984) in time domain, it has been greatly improved by many researchers. Pratt (1998) developed FWI in frequency domain using a Gauss-Newton optimization. In recent years, FWI has been widely studied under the framework of adjoint-state methods, as summarized by Plessix (2006). Preconditioning and high order gradients are important for FWI. Many researches have focused on the Newton optimization, in which the calculation of inverse Hessian is the key problem. Pseudo Hessian such as the diagonal Hessian was firstly used to approximate inverse Hessian (Choi & Shin, 2007). Then Gauss-Newton or l-BFGS method was widely studied to iteratively calculate the inverse approximate Hessian Haor full Hessian (Sheen et al., 2006). Full Hessian is the base of the exact Newton optimization. Fichtner and Trampert (2011) presented an extension of the adjoint-state method to directly compute the full Hessian; Métivier et al. (2012) proposed a general second-order adjoint-state formula for Hessian-vector product to tackle Gauss-Newton and exact Newton. Liu et al. (2014) proposed a matrix-decomposition FWI (MDFWI) based on Born kernel. They used the Born Fréchet kernel to explicitly calculate the gradient of the objective function through matrix decomposition, no full Fréchet kernel being stored in memory beforehand. However, they didn't give a method to calculate the Gauss-Newton. In this paper, We propose a method based on Born Fréchet kernel to calculate the Gauss-Newton for acoustic full waveform inversion (FWI). The Gauss-Newton is iteratively constructed without needing to store the huge approximate Hessian (Ha) or Fréchet kernel beforehand, and the inverse of Ha is not need to be calculated either. This procedure can be efficiently accomplished through matrix decomposition. More resolved result and faster convergence are obtained when this Gauss-Newton is applied in FWI based on the Born

  14. Electrical Transport of Long DNA Molecules on Liuid-Solid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Chu, Benjamin

    2002-03-01

    The electrical transport properties of long DNA molecules were studied based upon a newly developed method of electrophoresis on flat surfaces [1]. The electrophoretic mobilities of DNA in the presence of Si surface were found to be approximately one order less than in free solution. The electropherogram peaks of 1 kb- and Hind III DNA ladders have been clearly identified. The experimental dependencies of the mobilities on molecular weight were found to be scaled with power law with the exponents of an opposite sign at 2 different buffer concentrations: negative for surface transport at 10 -2 M concentration of TBE buffer and positive at 10 -3 M. A novel mechanism responsible for DNA molecules separation in the presence of the surface at low buffer concentrations has been developed. The multi-ion system is governed by the Nernst-Planck equations (ion movement due to convection, migration and diffusion), in combination with the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The discrepancy from charge neutrality that occurs in the diffuse double layer very close to the substrate is the driving force for the Navier-Stokes equation, which finally results in a liquid movement very close to the surface that is denoted as electro-osmosis. The adsorbed DNA move due to the electrical field parallel to the surface, and also due the electro-osmotic convection that drags the DNA chains if they are only partly adsorbed. The electric double layer is responsible for a velocity profile of the electroosmotic flow. The net electrophoretic mobility of longer DNA, being trapped closer to the surface, is higher than of the shorter ones in the electric field, oriented along the surface. The main features of the electro-hydrodynamic instability related to λ and T2 DNA molecules aggregation, observed in our system, are consistent with our model. This work was supported by NSF-MRSEC Program. [1]. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a

  15. Leucobacter musarum subsp. musarum sp. nov., subsp. nov., Leucobacter musarum subsp. japonicus subsp. nov., and Leucobacter celer subsp. astrifaciens subsp. nov., three nematopathogenic bacteria isolated from Caenorhabditis, with an emended description of Leucobacter celer

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Three Gram-stain-positive, irregular-rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from nematodes collected from Santa Antao, Cabo Verde (CBX151T, CBX152T) and Kakegawa, Japan (CBX130T). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains CBX130T, CBX151T and CBX152T were shown to belong to the genus Leucobacter. This affiliation was supported by chemotaxonomic data (2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell wall; major respiratory quinones MK-10 and MK-11; major polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; major fatty acids anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0). Strains CBX130T and CBX152T were found to share salient characteristics. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical analysis, strain CBX152T represents a novel species of the genus Leucobacter, for which the name Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. (type strain CBX152T = DSM 27160T = CIP 110721T) is proposed. Two subspecies of Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. are proposed: Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. subsp. musarum subsp. nov. (type strain CBX152T = DSM 27160T = CIP 110721T) and Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. subsp. japonicus subsp. nov. (type strain CBX130T = DSM 27158T = CIP 110719T). The third novel strain, CBX151T, showed genetic similarities with Leucobacter celer NAL101T indicating that these strains belong to the same species. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical differences it is proposed to split the species Leucobacter celer into two novel subspecies, Leucobacter celer subsp. celer subsp. nov. (type strain NAL101T = KACC 14220T = JCM 16465T) and Leucobacter celer subsp. astrifaciens subsp. nov. (type strain CBX151T = DSM 27159T = CIP 110720T), and to emend the description of Leucobacter celer Shin et al. 2011. PMID:26275616

  16. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  17. Full chip correction of EUV design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, G. F.; Hendrickx, E.; Fenger, G. L.; Niroomand, A.

    2010-04-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is currently the most promising technology for advanced manufacturing nodes: it recently demonstrated the feasibility of 32nm and 22nm node devices, and pre-production tools are expected to be delivered by 2010. Generally speaking, EUVL is less in need of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) as compared to 193nm lithography, and the device feasibility studies were indeed carried out with limited or no correction. However, a rigorous optical correction strategy and an appropriate Electronic Design Automation (EDA) infrastructure is critical to face the challenges of the 22nm node and beyond, and EUV-specific effects such as flare and shadowing have to be fully integrated in the correction flow and properly tested. This study aims to assess in detail the quality of a full chip optical correction for a EUV design, as well to discuss the available approaches to compensate for EUV-specific effects. Extensive data sets have been collected on the ASML EUV Alpha-Demo Tool (ADT) using the latest IMEC baseline resist Shin-Etsu SEVR59. In total about 1300 CD measurements at wafer level and 700 at mask level were used as input for model calibration and validation. The smallest feature size in the data set was 32nm. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional structures through CD and pitch were measured. The mask used in this calibration exercise allowed the authors to modulate flare by varying tiling densities within the range expected in the final design. The OPC model was fitted and validated against the CD data collected on the EUV ADT. The shadowing effect was modeled by means of a single bias correction throughout the design. Horizontal and vertical features of different type through pitch and CD were used to calibrate the shadowing correction, and the extent of the validity of the single bias approach is discussed. In addition, the quality of the generated full-chip flare maps has been tested against experimental results, and the model

  18. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined

  19. Imipramine blocks ethanol-induced ASMase activation, ceramide generation, and PP2A activation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahmini, Yasmeen; Ross, Ruth A.; Zhao, Zhenwen; Xu, Yan; Crabb, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Our previous data showed the inhibitory effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which appears to be mediated, in part, through increased levels of hepatic ceramide and activation of protein phosphatase 2A (Liangpunsakul S, Sozio MS, Shin E, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Ross RA, Zeng Y, Crabb DW. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298: G1004–G1012, 2010). The effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was reversed by imipramine, suggesting that the generation of ceramide via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is stimulated by ethanol. In this study, we determined the effects of imipramine on the development of hepatic steatosis, the generation of ceramide, and downstream effects of ceramide on inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, in ethanol-fed mice. The effect of ethanol and imipramine (10 μg/g body wt ip) on ceramide levels, as well as inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, was studied in C57BL/6J mice fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet. Ethanol-fed mice developed the expected steatosis, and cotreatment with imipramine for the last 2 wk of ethanol feeding resulted in improvement in hepatic steatosis. Ethanol feeding for 4 wk induced impaired glucose tolerance compared with controls, and this was modestly improved with imipramine treatment. There was a significant decrease in total ceramide concentrations in response to imipramine in ethanol-fed mice treated with and without imipramine (287 ± 11 vs. 348 ± 12 pmol/mg tissue). The magnitude and specificity of inhibition on each ceramide species differed. A significant decrease was observed for C16 (28 ± 3 vs. 33 ± 2 pmol/mg tissue) and C24 (164 ± 9 vs. 201 ± 4 pmol/mg tissue) ceramide. Ethanol feeding increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of ERK slightly and increased phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK substantially. The levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK were reduced by treatment with imipramine. The activation of ASMase and

  20. The effect of an emollient with benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic on the improvement of epidermal skin function

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Igor A.; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complications of diabetes can damage internal organs and the skin. Diabetic skin, irritated and dry, is susceptible to skin infections. However little is known about influence of emollients on biophysical changes in skin during diabetes. Aim To evaluate clinical skin changes after application of emollients with benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic and to assess changes in biophysical parameters of the skin before and 4 weeks after daily application of an emollient. Material and methods We recruited 50 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) or type 2 (DM2). All participants applied emollients on their left forearms and left shins for 4 weeks. The biophysical properties: pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum content were measured and compared to those before enrollment to the study, after 1 h, 1 week and 4 weeks after application of an emollient. Results After 4 weeks of treatment, there was an increase in skin hydration (40.61 ±19.03 vs. 48.83 ±15.51), pH (5.11 ±0.56 to 5.27 ±0.48) and sebum content (22.16 ±8.67 to 63.99 ±25.41) and a decrease in TEWL (12.54 ±5.6 vs. 9.85 ±5.69 g/m2/h) on forearms (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). On lower legs, significant changes in skin hydration (37.21 ±14.01 vs. 43.95 ±12.67), pH (5.04 ±0.57 to 5.31 ±0.49), sebum content (25.82 ±10.46 to 72.63 ±31.23) and TEWL (8.87 ±4.05 vs. 7.39 ±3.22 g/m2/h) were observed (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions Our study provides an insight into changes in diabetic skin after application of an emollient. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the emollient containing benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic and its influence on biophysical parameters of epidermis. PMID:27512359

  1. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and

  2. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    .online (2014)). This work is in collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, Ilya Belopolski, Nasser Alidoust, Madhab Neupane, Chenglong Zhang, Raman Sankar, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Guoqing Chang, BaoKai Wang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Daniel S. Sanchez, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Titus Neupert. This work is supported by GBMF and U.S. DOE. In collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, I. Belopolski, N. Alidoust, M. Neupane, C. Zhang, R. Sankar, S.-M. Huang, C.-C. Lee, G. Chang, B. Wang, G. Bian, H. Zheng, D. Sanchez, F.-C. Chou, T. Neupert, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia. Work supported by GBMF(Moore) & DOE.

  3. Association of Restless Legs Syndrome Variants in Korean Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Yong Won; Shin, Won Chul; Cho, Jae Wook; Shon, Young Min; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Caucasians identified several allelic variants associated with increased risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of RLS are not entirely understood, it is becoming increasingly evident that many diseases such as RLS can be attributed to an epistasis. The study objectives were to evaluate whether the associations of RLS with all loci determined in previous GWAS for Caucasians can be replicated significantly for the Korean population and to elucidate whether an epistasis plays a role in the pathogenesis of RLS. Design, Setting, and Participants: DNA from 320 patients with RLS and 320 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for variants in the RLS loci. Measurements and Results: A significant association was found for rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively); the odds ratio (OR) for rs3923809 was 1.61 (P < 0.0001) to 1.88 (P < 0.0001) and the OR for rs9296249 was 1.44 (P = 0.001) to 1.73 (P = 0.002), according to the model of inheritance. The OR for the interaction between rs3923809 in BTBD9 and rs4626664 in PTPRD was 2.05 (P < 0.0001) in the additive model, 1.80 (P = 0.002) in the dominant model and 2.47 (P = 0.004) in the recessive model. There was no significant association between genotypes of all tested single nucleotide polymorphisms and the mean value of serum iron parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the role of BTBD9 in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome is more universal across populations than previously reported and more efforts should be focused on the role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of restless legs syndrome. Citation: Kim MK; Cho YW; Shin WC; Cho JW; Shon YM; Kim JH; Yang KI; Earley CJ; Allen RP. Association of restless legs syndrome variants in Korean patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1787-1791. PMID:24293752

  4. Practices and predictors of 2009 H1N1 vaccination in cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong W.; Kim, Yeol; Park, Jong H.; Cho, Juhee; Jho, Hyun J.; Yang, Hyung‐Kook; Kim, Hyun S.; Kim, So Y.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Shin et al. (2012) Practices and predictors of 2009 H1N1 vaccination in cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Korea. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(601), e120–e128. Background  Because patients with cancer are considered to be at high‐risk for influenza infection and related complications, annual vaccination is recommended. The emergence of the novel H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 complicated the medical care of patients with cancer. The present study examined H1N1 vaccination practices among patients with cancer during the pandemic season and investigated factors related to the vaccination. Methods  A national multicenter cross‐sectional survey of patient–doctor dyads was performed; A total of 97 oncologists (response rates of invited participants, 87·4%) and 495 patients (response rates of recruited participants, 86·5%) were included. Patients with cancer provided information concerning vaccination practices and reasons for/against it. Oncologists answered questions about their recommendations and knowledge of H1N1 vaccination. Mixed logistic regression was used to identify patient‐level and physician‐level predictors of H1N1 vaccination. Results  Only 34·1% of the patients had received H1N1 vaccination, and 53·5% had not considered the need for vaccination. The H1N1 vaccine was proactively recommended by physicians in only a small fraction of patients (8·3%). Increasing age, higher educational status, longer time since the cancer diagnosis, comorbidities, and greater knowledge of H1N1 vaccination among oncologists were significant predictors of patients being vaccinated. Conclusions  The present results showed low levels of utilization and poor interaction between patients and physicians with regard to the need for vaccination. In addition, the oncologist’s level of knowledge affected the adoption of preventive services. Intervention strategies are needed to maximize the rapid adoption of

  5. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 201/8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul

    2004-06-01

    The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for

  6. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 241/7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sung-Chul

    2004-06-01

    The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting.The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for

  7. [Reverse Chaddock sign].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kunio

    2011-08-01

    It is widely accepted that the Babinski reflex is the most well-known and important pathological reflex in clinical neurology. Among many other pathological reflexes that elicit an upgoing great toe, such as Chaddock, Oppenheim, Gordon, Schaefer, and Stransky, only the Chaddock reflex is said to be as sensitive as the Babinski reflex. The optimal receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes are the lateral plantar surface and the external inframalleolar area of the dorsum, respectively. It has been said that the Babinski reflex, obtained by stroking the sole, is by far the best and most reliable method of eliciting an upgoing great toe. However, the Chaddock reflex, the external malleolar sign, is also considered sensitive and reliable according to the literature and everyday neurological practice. The major problems in eliciting the Babinski reflex by stroking the lateral part of the sole are false positive or negative responses due to foot withdrawal, tonic foot response, or some equivocal movements. On the other hand, according to my clinical experience, the external inframalleolar area, which is the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex, is definitely suitable for eliciting the upgoing great toe. In fact, the newly proposed method to stimulate the dorsum of the foot from the medial to the lateral side, which I term the "reversed Chaddock method," is equally sensitive to demonstrate pyramidal tract involvement. With the "reversed Chaddock method", the receptive field of the Chaddock reflex may be postulated to be in the territory of the sural nerve, which could be supported by the better response obtained on stimulation of the postero-lateral calf than the anterior shin. With regard to the receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes, the first sacral dermatome (S1) is also considered a reflexogenous zone, but since the dermatome shows marked overlapping, the zones vary among individuals. As upgoing toe responses are consistently observed in

  8. Lysyl Oxidase as a Serum Biomarker of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Severe Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mesarwi, Omar A.; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Drager, Luciano F.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C.; Putcha, Nirupama; Torbenson, Michael S.; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Steele, Kimberley E.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Lidor, Anne O.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that the hypoxia of OSA increases hepatic production of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and that LOX may serve as a biomarker of hepatic fibrosis. Design: Thirty-five patients with severe obesity underwent liver biopsy, polysomnography, and serum LOX testing. A separate group with severe OSA had serum LOX measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP or no therapy, as did age-matched controls. LOX expression and secretion were measured in mouse hepatocytes following exposure to hypoxia. Setting: The Johns Hopkins Bayview Sleep Disorders Center, and the Hypertension Unit of the Heart Institute at the University of São Paulo Medical School. Measurements and Results: In the bariatric cohort, the apnea-hypopnea index was higher in patients with hepatic fibrosis than in those without fibrosis (42.7 ± 30.2 events/h, versus 16.2 ± 15.5 events/h; P = 0.002), as was serum LOX (84.64 ± 29.71 ng/mL, versus 45.46 ± 17.16 ng/mL; P < 0.001). In the sleep clinic sample, patients with severe OSA had higher baseline LOX than healthy controls (70.75 ng/mL versus 52.36 ng/mL, P = 0.046), and serum LOX decreased in patients with OSA on CPAP (mean decrease 20.49 ng/mL) but not in untreated patients (mean decrease 0.19 ng/mL). Hypoxic mouse hepatocytes demonstrated 5.9-fold increased LOX transcription (P = 0.046), and enhanced LOX protein secretion. Conclusions: The hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea may increase circulating lysyl oxidase (LOX) levels. LOX may serve as a biomarker of liver fibrosis in patients with severe obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Citation: Mesarwi OA, Shin MK, Drager LF, Bevans-Fonti S, Jun JC, Putcha N, Torbenson MS, Pedrosa RP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Steele KE, Schweitzer MA, Magnuson TH, Lidor AO, Schwartz AR, Polotsky VY. Lysyl oxidase as a serum biomarker of liver fibrosis in

  9. Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate

  10. [Authors of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions"].

    PubMed

    Shin, S S

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the career and official ranks of the authors of the Sejong text (1443-1445), Sejo text (1451-1464), and Seongjong text (1475-1477) of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" were investigated. In the completion of Sejong text, Kim Rye-mong (1406-1469), Ryu Seong-won (?-1456), and Min Bohua (?) collected and arranged all medical books inside and outside of Choseon; Kim Moon (?-1448), Shin Seok-jo (1407-1459), Lee Ye (1419-1480), Kim Soo-on (1410-1481), Jeon soon-eui (?), Choi Yun (?), and Kim Yu-ji (?-1469) took part in the edition; Lee Yong (1418-1453), Lee Sa-cheol (1405-1456), Lee Sa-soon (?-1455), and Rho Joon-g-rye (?-1452) participated in the editorial supervision. Ryang Seong-ji (1415-1482), Son So (1433-1484), Ryu Yo (?), Han Chi-ryang (?), An Geuk-sang (?), Han Kye-mi (1421-1471), and Choi Young-rin (?) took part in the completion of Sejo text. Han Kye-heiu (1423-1482), Rym Won-joon (1423-1500), Kueon Chan (1430-1487), Ryu Seo (?), and Baek Soo-heui(?) participated in the completion of Seongjong text. All 96 persons participated in the completion of draft text, revision text, and first-publication text of "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions". 14 persons (14.58%) participated in the completion of draft text. 77 persons (80.21%) participated in revision text, and 5 persons (5.21%) participated in first-publication text. Even though "Classified Collection of Medical Prescriptions" is a medical book, civil officials participated in its completion together with medical officials. The scholars of Jiphyeonjeon (The Jade Hall of Scholars) who led the academy at those days and famous medical officials were ordered to complete it by Sejong (1419-1450), Sejo (1455-1468), and Seongjong (1470-1494) who showed special interest in their own health and the health of common people. PMID:12214602

  11. Environmental Lead Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Domains in a Community Sample of South Korean School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Im, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Bhang, Soo-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    features of ADHD. Citation Hong SB, Im MH, Kim JW, Park EJ, Shin MS, Kim BN, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Bhang SY, Hong YC, Cho SC. 2015. Environmental lead exposure and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom domains in a community sample of South Korean school-age children. Environ Health Perspect 123:271–276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307420 PMID:25280233

  12. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chen-Tung; Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan

    2016-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northwest side and the Central Range in the south side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from magmatism associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use geophysical methods to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially around the LangYang river and the SanShin area. We aim to find high geothermal potential spots in the plain area. The research is divided into three parts. First, we use the explosion source refraction with 119 Texan instruments, covering most of the Ilan Plain. Second, we use two mini-vibrators to investigate the area along the LangYang river by reflection seismics. Third, we explore a significant fault by refraction seismics and semi-reflection seismics with the impactor source. Combining large-scale and local scale seismic data, we find that in the Ilan Plain the shallow part is filled with Quaternary alluvial deposits. The basement is gradual thicker from the east to the center and then thin out to the west. In the deep part, there is a significant difference between the northern and southern sides of LangYang river. The northern is deposited with the Szeleng sandstone, dipping obliquely to the south. But, the southern side is separated into the Szeleng sandstone and the Kanko formation, dipping smooth to the north. This suggests that the fault which known as Zailian fault has an offset about 1 km just along the LangYang river and extends to the east along the river. The heat sources from magmatism under the offshore volcanic island (Kueishantao) migrate into the Ilan Plain which may provide heat to the Szeleng sandstone. The hydrothermal solutions migrate in the Szeleng sandstone and move up to the shallow along the Zailian

  13. Estimation of seismic source parameters for earthquakes in the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Sheen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Korean Peninsula is shown to be low but there is the potential for more severe seismic activity. Historical records show that there were many damaging earthquakes around the Peninsula. Absence of instrumental records of damaging earthquakes hinders our efforts to understand seismotectonic characteristics in the Peninsula and predict seismic hazards. Therefore it is important to analyze instrumental records precisely to help improve our knowledge of seismicity in this region. Several studies on seismic source parameters in the Korean Peninsula were performed to find source parameters for a single event (Kim, 2001; Jo and Baag, 2007; Choi, 2009; Choi and Shim, 2009; Choi, 2010; Choi and Noh, 2010; Kim et al., 2010), to find relationships between source parameters (Kim and Kim, 2008; Shin and Kang, 2008) or to determine the input parameters for the stochastic strong ground motion simulation (Jo and Baag, 2001; Junn et al., 2002). In all previous studies, however, the source parameters were estimated only from small numbers of large earthquakes in this region. To understand the seismotectonic environment in low seismicity region, it will be better that a study on the source parameters is performed by using as many data as we can. In this study, therefore, we estimated seismic source parameters, such as the corner frequency, Brune stress drop and moment magnitude, from 503 events with ML≥1.6 that occurred in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2012. The data set consist of 2,834 S-wave trains on three-component seismograms recorded at broadband seismograph stations which have been operating by the Korea Meteorological Administration and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. To calculate the seismic source parameters, we used the iterative method of Jo and Baag (2001) based on the methods of Snoke (1987) and Andrews (1986). In this method, the source parameters are estimated by using the integration of

  14. Analysis of pupil and corneal wave aberration data supplied by the SN CT 1000 topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Pfortner, T.

    2006-11-01

    Ocular aberrations depend on pupil size and centring and the retinal image quality under natural conditions differs from that corresponding to laboratory ones. In the present article, pupil and wave aberration data supplied by the Shin Nippon CT 1000 (SN CT 1000) topography system are analysed. Two groups of eyes under natural viewing conditions are considered ((260+/-20) lux at the eye under study). The first group consists of 10 normal eyes (-1.25 to 3 D sphere; 0 to -1.75 D cylinder) of five young subjects (age between 18 and 33 years). For this group, five determinations per eye are performed and the repeatability of results is analysed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal region, the largest displacement being (0.5+/-0.1) mm. The variation of pupil diameter in each eye is less than 21% while the inter-subject variability is large since diameters are between (3+/-0.3) and (5.3+/-0.6) mm. Aberrations are evaluated for two different pupil sizes, the natural one and a fictitious one of 6 mm. The corneal higher-order root-mean square wavefront error (RMSHO) for a 6 mm pupil centred in the corneal vertex, averaged across all eyes, is (0.37+/-0.06) [mu]m while, considering the natural pupil diameter, the average in each eye is significantly lower, up to eight times smaller. The fourth-order spherical aberration is an important aberration in the considered eyes, its maximum value for a 6 mm pupil being (0.38+/-0.02) [mu]m. The second group consists of 24 eyes of 12 subjects (age between 25 and 68 years) such that four eyes are of normal adults (1.25 to +6 D sphere; 0 to -0.5 D cylinder), eight have astigmatisms (-5.5 to +3.25 D sphere; -1.5 to -4.5 D cylinder), six have post-refractive surgery (+0.5 to +3.5 D sphere; -0.5 to -4 D cylinder) and six have keratoconus (-9.5 to +1 D sphere; -1 to -4.5 D cylinder). For this group only one determination per eye is performed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal

  15. PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Toshiyuki

    2010-04-01

    statistical mechanics and information science. Editors Jun-ichi Inoue Yoshiyuki Kabashima Kazuyuki Tanaka Toshiyuki Tanaka The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

  16. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  17. Seismic velocity structure and spatial distribution of reflection intensity off the Boso Peninsula, Central Japan, revealed by an ocean bottom seismographic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shinohara, Masanao; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Uehira, Kenji; Shinbo, Takashi; Machida, Yuuya; Hino, Ryota; Azuma, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    al. (2009). Acknowledgement The marine seismic experiment was conducted by R/V Hakuhou-maru of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, and the OBSs were retrieved by Shincho-maru of Shin-Nihon-Kaiji co. Ltd. (Present, Fukada salvage co. Ltd.). We would like to thank captains and the crew of Hakuho-maru and Shincho-maru. This study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, under its Observation and Research Program for Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions, and from the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research (25287109).

  18. Measurement of Scleral Thickness in Humans Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Buckhurst, Hetal D.; Gilmartin, Bernard; Cubbidge, Robert P.; Logan, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT, Visante; Zeiss) is used to examine meridional variation in anterior scleral thickness (AST) and its association with refractive error, ethnicity and gender. Scleral cross-sections of 74 individuals (28 males; 46 females; aged between 18-40 years (27.7±5.3)) were sampled twice in random order in 8 meridians: [superior (S), inferior (I), nasal (N), temporal (T), superior-temporal (ST), superior-nasal (SN), inferior-temporal (IT) and inferior-nasal (IN)]. AST was measured in 1mm anterior-to-posterior increments (designated the A-P distance) from the scleral spur (SS) over a 6mm distance. Axial length and refractive error were measured with a Zeiss IOLMaster biometer and an open-view binocular Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Intra- and inter-observer variability of AST was assessed for each of the 8 meridians. Mixed repeated measures ANOVAs tested meridional and A-P distance differences in AST with refractive error, gender and ethnicity. Only right eye data were analysed. AST (mean±SD) across all meridians and A-P distances was 725±46μm. Meridian SN was the thinnest (662±57μm) and I the thickest (806±60μm). Significant differences were found between all meridians (p<0.001), except S:ST, IT:IN, IT:N and IN:N. Significant differences between A-P distances were found except between SS and 6 mm and between 2 and 4 mm. AST measurements at 1mm (682±48 μm) were the thinnest and at 6mm (818±49 μm) the thickest (p<0.001); a significant interaction occurred between meridians and A-P distances (p<0.001). AST was significantly greater (p<0.001) in male subjects but no significant differences were found between refractive error or ethnicity. Significant variations in AST occur with regard to meridian and distance from the SS and may have utility in selecting optimum sites for pharmaceutical or surgical intervention. PMID:26218188

  19. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  20. Associations of Sleep Apnea, NRG1 Polymorphisms, Alcohol Consumption, and Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities: Analysis with Genome-Wide Association Data

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Inkyung; Seo, Hyung Suk; Yoon, Daewui; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: There are few studies on gene-environment interactions with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms associated with OSA using genome-wide association (GWA) data and evaluate the effects of relevant polymorphisms on the association between risk factors, including obesity and alcohol consumption, and OSA. We also investigated on these associations in relation to cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance images. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: A polysomnography study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2011–2013. Participants: 1,763 participants aged 48–78 years. Results: 251 individuals were identified to have OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. A common polymorphism of neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1), rs10097555, was selected as the most suggestive locus associated with OSA (P value < 10−5) based on the results of GWA analysis in a matched case-control subsample (n = 470). Among 1,763 participants, we found that the presence of the NRG1 polymorphism is inversely associated with OSA (P value < 0.01) even after taking into account potential risk factors; the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the mutant alleles was 0.57 (0.39–0.82) compared with the wild-type. We observed that this association is modified by alcohol consumption (P < 0.05), not by obesity. We also observed that WMH are positively associated with OSA independent of the NRG1 polymorphism and alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1) may be involved in the etiological mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and that carriers of a particular NRG1 mutation may be less likely to have OSA if they do not drink alcoholic beverages. Citation: Baik I, Seo HS, Yoon D, Kim SH, Shin C. Associations of sleep apnea, NRG1 polymorphisms, alcohol consumption, and cerebral white

  1. Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by

  2. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The

  3. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    doubly reflected rays define the leading term in the angular region around the boresight direction. The validity of the approach is well assessed by comparisons with experimental results, and its formulation is computer time inexpensive since in closed form. Moreover it is preferable to the model using near-field PO integrations for describing the interactions between the internal TCR's faces since this last requires the evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals, i.e., the expression of the final incident field contains a two-dimensional integral for each previous interaction. [1] Y. Qin, D. Perissin, and L. Lei, "The Design and Experiments on Corner Reflectors for Urban Ground Deformation Monitoring in Hong Kong," Int. J. Antennas Propagat., vol. 2013, pp. 1-8. [2] T. A. Stabile, A. Perrone, M. R. Gallipoli, R. Ditommaso, and F. C. Ponzo, "Dynamic Survey of the Musmeci Bridge by Joint Application of Ground-Based Microwave Radar Interferometry and Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio Techniques," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 870-874, 2013.

  4. Modelling uncertainties in the climate of the last millennium: the ASTER project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutre, M. F.; Mouchet, A.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    large warming during the last century as well as a large variability occasionally out of the range of observation. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration over the last century is strongly depending on how the anthropogenic emission and the land-use scenario are taken into account. Difference in atmospheric CO2 concentration can reach up to 50 ppmv. All the parameter sets are not able to reproduce the decreasing trend of the Arctic summer sea ice as recorded over the last decades. Parameter sets corresponding to the largest climate sensitivity lead to a strong reduction of the summer sea ice. However, different scenarios for deforestation lead to significantly different time evolution of the NH Summer sea ice area for the same parameter set. The ocean C storage remains within the range of estimates when CO2 is prescribed. However, values are much larger when both fossil fuel and land cover change emission are prescribed. The deforestation emissions as computed by the model lead to intermediate cumulative CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere. Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., Goosse H., Huybrechts P., Janssens I., Mouchet A., Munhoven G., Brovkin V., and Weber S. L., 2007. Modelling the influence of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the next millennia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L1070, 2007. Goosse H., Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., and Loutre M.F., 2007. Information on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century Clim. Past 3, 683-692. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  5. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  6. EDITORIAL: Happy New Year!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-ming

    2006-02-01

    foundation of this journal, Professor Nan-quan Lou, who has just become a senior advisory board member of this journal. I also want to thank the senior associate editor, Prof. Shu-qin Yu, who has made great contributions to the development of CJCP. Many thanks also go to the other senior associate editors, Profs. Die-yan Chen, Hai-lung Dai, Xing-xiao Ma, Han-qing Wang, Hou-wen Xin, Cun-hao Zhang and Qi-he Zhu, who have made important contributions to CJCP in the past 18 years. We plan that CJCP will soon become available online so that members of our community can access this journal easily through internet. This will also help us to provide greater visibility of this journal in the international research community.

  7. Zircon Saturation and the Viability of Magma Bodies During Intrusion of the Tuolumne Intrusive Series, Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Burgess, S.; Miller, C.; Miller, R.; Bergantz, G.

    2005-05-01

    The Tuolumne Intrusive Series (TIS) is a prime example of a zoned arc intrusion, and is one of a belt of large (>1000 km2) consanguineous, Cretaceous, zoned intrusions within the Sierra Nevada batholith. Past work linked the differentiation of the TIS with field petrology and modification of magma in situ in large reservoirs. New single-zircon geochronology and field studies show that the TIS was assembled from numerous magma inputs from 94-85 Ma, casting doubt on the existence of a large body of mobile magma during growth and emplacement [1], and calling into question where the bulk of the chemical differentiation occurred (exposure level or deep source). Zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrc; [2]) for the TIS are useful for understanding its assembly, particularly in combination with high precision, single zircon ages. The two largest units of the TIS (Half Dome and Cathedral Peak granodiorites) have low calculated Tzrc (Half Dome: 710-765°C, mean=740°C; Cathedral Peak: 715-780°C, mean=760°C), which implies complexities in how zircon ages are used to interpret the construction of the TIS: (1) at T's appropriate for anatexis, transport, and initial emplacement of granitoid magmas, source-derived zircons would be dissolved; zircons in TIS thus crystallized during post-emplacement conductive cooling upon reaching Tzrc, or were inherited late; (2) because Tzrc is not far above the solidus, appreciable age differences (several 105 yr?) might be produced by slow cooling of a large magma body that was open to heat input; heat added need only have been sufficient to maintain near-eutectic conditions, perhaps as persistent mush, but with net cooling (qout > qin), such that ages track the migration of the Tzrc isotherm during solidification; (3) reheating of any mush, or melting of intrusions associated with earlier inputs to T's >> Tzrc would dissolve older zircons on time scales of 104-105 years (e.g. [3]); this time scale sets a limit on the longevity of melt

  8. Past, Present, and Future Sea Level Change Assessments of Storm Surge: A Case Study Using Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hagen, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    waves to the water column. The results will be used to gain insight into possible morphological changes given several sea level scenarios coupled with an intense tropical cyclone. References Donoghue, J. (2011). "Sea Level History of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast and Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the near Future." Climatic Change, 107(1-2), 17-33. IPCC (2007). "The Physical Sceince Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." Climate Change 2007, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Avery, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds., Cambridge Univesity Press, Cambridge. Resio, D. T. (2007). "White Paper on Estimating Hurricane Inundation Probabilities." U.S. Army Engineering Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 125. Trenberth, K. (2005). "Uncertainty in Hurricanes and Global Warming." Science, 308(5729), 1753-1754. Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A., and Chang, H.-R. (2005). "Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment." Science, 309(5742), 1844-1846.

  9. Quantification of Fugitive Methane Emissions with Spatially Correlated Measurements Collected with Novel Plume Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tracy; Rella, Chris; Crosson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    with known releases from a methane tank, a 2-pixel plume camera measured 496 ± 160 sccm from a release of 650 sccm located 21 m away, and 4,180 ± 962 sccm from a release of 3,400 sccm located 49 m away. These results in addition to results with a higher-pixel camera will be discussed. Field campaign data collected with the plume camera pixels mounted onto a vehicle and driven through the natural gas fields in the Uintah Basin (Utah, United States) will also be presented along with the limitations and advantages of the instrument. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011). 3. U.S. Energy Information Administration. "Number of Producing Wells." . Accessed 6 January 2013.

  10. Improving understanding of controls on spatial variability in methane fluxes in Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Scott J.; Sloan, Victoria; Phoenix, Gareth; Wagner, Robert; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    determining the direction and magnitude of methane flux, with methane emissions occurring in saturated micro-topographic locations and drier sites showing low rates of uptake. An interesting exception was in tussock sedge vegetation, which had a deep water table (approximately 20cm - 40cm below the soil surface) but which emitted methane in comparable quantities to saturated communities late in the growing season. This highlights the importance of plant transport and of understanding temporal variation in fluxes. Automated chamber measurements from peak and late growing season showed minimal diurnal trends in methane fluxes, indicating that short-term chamber measurements are representative of average diurnal CH4 fluxes. The breadth of environmental and vegetation variables measured across a wide spatial extent of arctic tundra vegetation communities within this study highlights the overriding controls on methane emissions and will significantly help with upscaling methane emissions from the plot scale to the landscape scale. Reference: IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp, doi:10.1017/CBO97811074153

  11. Real-time analysis of ambient organic aerosols using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Stelzer, Torsten; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. 2) Shelley, J. T.; Wiley, J. S.; Hieftje, G. M. Ultrasensitive Ambient Mass Spectrometric Analysis with a Pin-to-Capillary Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Source. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83(14), 5741-5748; DOI 10.1021/Ac201053q. 3) Albert, A.; Shelley, J.; Engelhard, C. Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: state-of-the-art in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 2014, 406(25), 6111-6127; DOI 10.1007/s00216-014-7989-z.

  12. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

  13. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  14. Towards depth profiling of organic aerosols in real time using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    separate analysis of the particles' shells and cores is feasible by adjusting flow rates and temperatures in the ionization region. References: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. A. Virtanen; J. Joutsensaari; T. Koop; J. Kannosto; P. Yli-Pirila; J. Leskinen; J. M. Makela; J. K. Holopainen; U. Pöschl; M. Kulmala; D. R. Worsnop; A. Laaksonen, "An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles", Nature 7317, 824-827 [2010]. M. Shiraiwa; M. Ammann; T. Koop; U. Pöschl, "Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles", P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 27, 11003-11008 [2011].

  15. Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    emissions from sterilized soils and their unsterilized counterparts are compared. Moreover, different pH treatments are compared to analyze how soil pH affects extracellular CO2 release. Students benefit from experimental learning. Practical courses, being either in the field or indoors are of vital importance to bring soil processes to life and to evaluate implications for environment and climate change. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 996 pp. Maire, V., G. Alvarez, J. Colombet, A. Comby, R. Despinasse, E. Dubreucq, M. Joly, A.-C. Lehours, V. Perrier, T. Shahzad, and S. Fontaine. 2013. An unknown oxidative metabolism substantially contributes to soil CO2 emissions. Biogeochemistry, 10, 1155-1167, 2013

  16. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    ). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

  17. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

  18. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  19. An assessment of the reliability of palaeointensity results obtained from the Cretaceous aged Suhongtu section, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi J.; Pan, Yongxin; Davies, Ceri J.

    2008-08-01

    Here we present microwave palaeointensity results from 89 sister samples from the study of Zhu et al. [Zhu, R., Pan, Y., He, H., Qin, H., Ren, S., 2008. Palaeomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar age from a Cretaceous volcanic sequence, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the field variation during the Cretaceous normal superchron. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 169, 59-75] who carried out Thellier palaeointensity analysis as part of their integrated palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating study of Cretaceous lava from the Suhungtu section, Inner Mongolia, China. Additionally, a comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been carried out in order to determine the mineralogy and hence the validity of assuming that the remanence is a thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM). The microwave results are of apparent high quality and give flow mean palaeointensity estimates ranging from 13 to 49 μT corresponding to virtual dipole moment (VDM) estimates ranging from 2.5 to 8.9 × 10 22 Am 2, and an overall mean VDM of 5.5 ± 1.9 × 10 22 Am 2 for the 24 flows (aged 110.6 ± 0.1 Ma). When the microwave results (using the perpendicular applied field method with partial microwave thermal remanence (pT MRM) and pT MRM tail checks) are compared to those obtained with the Thellier method (Coe version with pTRM but not tail checks, and heating in argon atmosphere) differences are seen at the sample, flow and palaeomagnetic unit level however, the overall means and spread in palaeointensity estimates are consistent. Some discrepancy is due to the differing sized sample sets and sample inhomogeneity but discrepancy is also interpreted to be due to the differing protocols, methodology, plus the subjectivity in interpretation. Considering only those results that are consistent to within 20% the spread in palaeointensity estimates remains. There is substantial rock magnetic evidence from progressive heating in air and argon experiments (both showing irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour) as well as

  20. EDITORIAL: World Year of Physics 2005 Focus on Photoemission and Electronic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    , ultra-precise clocks and, at some point, maybe true nanomachines. Focus on Nano-electromechanical Systems Contents Thermomechanical noise limits on parametric sensing with nanomechanical resonators A Cleland Dynamics of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting single-electron transistor M Blencowe, J Imbers and A Armour Simple models suffice for the single dot quantum shuttle A Donarini, T Novotny and A-P Jauho Quantum nano-electromechanics with electrons, quasiparticles and Cooper pairs: effective bath descriptions and strong feedback effects A Clerk and S Bennett Nuclear wave function interference in single-molecule electron transport M R Wegewijs and K C Nowack Self-excitation in nanoelectromechanical charge shuttles below the field emission regime F Rüting, A Erbe and C Weiss Formation of micro-tubes from strained SiGe/Si heterostructures H Qin, N Shaji, N E Merrill, H S Kim, R C Toonen, R H Blick, M M Roberts, D Savage, M G Lagally and G Celler Spin-controlled nanoelectromechanics in magnetic NEM-SET systems L Y Gorelik, D Fedorets, R I Shekhter and M Jonson Coupling between electronic transport and longitudinal phonons in suspended nanotubes S Sapmaz, P Jarillo-Herrero, Ya M Blanter and H van der Zant Phonon-assisted tunneling in interacting suspended single wall carbon nanotubes W Izumida and M Grifoni Theoretical and experimental investigations of three-terminal carbon nanotube relays S Axelsson, E E B Campbell, L M Jonsson, J M Kinaret, S W Lee, Y W Park and M Sveningsson Quantum dots in Si/SiGe 2DEGs with Schottky top-gated leads K A Slinker, K L M Lewis, C C Haselby, S Goswami, L J Klein, J O Chu, S N Coppersmith and R Joynt VHF, UHF and microwave frequency nanomechanical resonators X M H Huang, X L Feng, C A Zorman, M Mehregany and M Roukes Robert H Blick, University of Wisconsin at Madison, USA Milena Grifoni, Universität Regensburg, Germany

  1. What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Qin, Hong; Waldron, Will; Leitner, Mattaheus; Kwan, Joe; Henestroza, Enrique; Caporaso, George; Meier, Wayne; Tabak, Max; Callahan, Debbie; Moir, Ralph; Peterson, Per

    2006-04-19

    In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % {Delta}v/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly

  2. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    observations from isolated sites and using a common regression model based on climatological/geographical covariates. The behaviour of the fitted spatial GEV-distribution is heavy-tailed with γ ≡ 0.3 over Belgium. A comparison between the RL-maps using GEV model and the ones obtained from Universal Kriging (UK) confirms the reliability of the spatial GEV model in explaining atmospheric drought in Belgium. References [1] Beniston, M., Stephenson, D. B., Christensen, O. B., Ferro, C. A. T., Frei, C., Goyette, S., Halsnaes, K., Holt, T., Jylhü, K., Koffi, B., Palutikoff, J., Schöll, R., Semmler, T., and Woth, K. (2007), Future extreme events in European climate; an exploration of Regional Climate Model projections. Climatic Change, 81, 71-95. [2] Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (Eds.)] (2007), king Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp. [3] Coles, S. (2001), An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Germany. [4] Embrechts, P., C. Klüppelberg, and T. Mikosch (1997), Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [5] Smith, R., (2004), Statistics of extremes, with application in environment, insurance and finance, in : Extreme Values in Finance, Telecommunications and the Environment, edited by: Finkenstadt, B. and Rootzen, H., 373-388, Chapman and Hall CRC Press, London.

  3. Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

    2012-12-01

    %), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

  4. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor as a Prognostic Parameter in Subjects with “Plateau Red Face”

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lan; Chen, Ying; Jin, Guoen; Yang, Yingzhong; Ga, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ma, Lan, Ying Chen, Guoen Jin, Yingzhong Yang, Qin Ga, and Ri-Li Ge. Vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic parameter in subjects with “plateau red face.” High Alt Med Biol 16:147–153, 2015.—Some individuals living at high altitude on the Qinghai Plateau in China develop a red face called “ Plateau Red Face” (PRF). It is characterized by telangiectasia of the cheeks, which become a unique ruddy color. It is more common in young females than males, subjects who have polycythemia are more susceptible to PRF, and its pathogenesis is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between PRF and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Methods: A total of 158 subjects (82 male and 76 female) residing at 4300 m and 140 subjects (73 male and 67 female) residing at 2260 m on the Qinghai Plateau, China, participated in this study. The determination and magnitude of PRF is evaluated by the dilation of veins on the face in the Qinghai chronic mountain sickness(CMS) score, established during the World Congress in 2004. Arterial O2 saturation (Sao2), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, pulmonary function tests, and serum concentration of VEGF (by ELISA) were measured in all participants. Results: The occurrence of PRF was 32.9% (52/158) among subjects living at 4300 m and 15.7% (22/140) among those living at 2260 m. The levels of VEGF in PRF and non-PRF subjects were 399.9±115.6 pg/mL and 270.7±78.1 pg/mL, respectively (p<0.001) at 4300 m, and 244.4±109.0 pg/mL and 135.6±65.3 pg/mL, respectively (p<0.01) at 2260 m. However, comparing the levels of VEGF between the genders and ethnic groups at the same altitude, there were no significant differences between male and female both in Xining (p=0.12) and Maduo (p=0.18). There was also no significant difference between Tibetan and Han nationality in Xining (p=0.71), but In Maduo, the levels of VEGF in Han (351.70±122.62 pg/mL) were higher than that of

  5. Sensitivity of sediment contamination in the Elbe Estuary to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Haase, Holger; Hentschke, Uwe; Schubert, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    the far future exceed the national assessment criteria for the handling of dredged material within coastal waterways more distinct than today. Therefore, adaptations of practices for the management of dredged material to higher particulate matter contaminations should be considered there in the medium or long-term perspective. On the one hand, e.g. the practices of depositing dredged- material within the water system might be adapted (BfG 2014). On the other hand, the implementation of remediation measures like those planned under the Water Framework Directive could mitigate the climate-induced increase of contaminants. However, before the planning of adaption measures begins, the respectively prevailing contamination status should be verified, as climate-induced changes of contaminant concentrations might be superimposed by direct anthropogenic activities, e.g. remediation measures to reduce contamination or construction works in waterways. Literature: BfG - Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (2014) Sedimentmanagement Tideelbe - Strategien und Potenziale - Systemstudie II. Ökologische Auswirkungen der Unterbringung von Feinmaterial. Band 1, Endbericht. Im Auftrag des Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamtes Hamburg. Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde, Koblenz, BfG-Bericht 1763 IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007 The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  6. Estimation of the spatial validity of local aerosol measurements in Europe using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, Carlos; Gómez-Amo, J. Luis; Pedrós, Roberto; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

    2013-04-01

    (R ? -log(r)). Among all the factors studied, the aerosol load is the most influential one in the aerosol spatial variability: for averaging radii smaller than 40 km, the RMSD increases with AODloc. Another important factor is the latitude and longitude: the variation of the RMSD in the AOD with regard to the averaging radius can differ up to a 60%, depending on the location. On the contray, the proximity to the sea and the amount of population surrounding each reference point do not have a noticeable influence compared to the above mentioned factors. Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1-16, 1998. IPCC (2007). S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, USA. Remer, L. A., y co-authors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1

  7. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  8. Comparing the relative peripheral refraction effect of single vision and multifocal contact lenses measured using an autorefractor and an aberrometer: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Ho, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the contributions of single vision (SVCL) and multifocal contact lenses (MFCL) to the relative peripheral refraction (RPR) profiles obtained via an autorefractor and an aberrometer in a pilot study. Methods Two instruments, Shin-Nippon NVision K5001 (SN) and COAS-HD, were modified to permit open field PR measurements. Two myopic adults (CF, RB) were refracted (cycloplegia) under eight conditions: baseline (no CL); three SVCLs: Focus Dailies® (Alcon, USA), PureVision® (Bausch & Lomb, USA) and AirOptix® (Alcon, USA); and four MFCLs: AirOptix® (Alcon, USA), Proclear® Distant and Near (Cooper Vision, USA), and PureVision® (Bausch & Lomb, USA). CLs had a distance prescription of −2.00D and for MFCLs, a +2.50D Add was selected. Five independent measurements were performed at field angles from −40° to +40° in 10° increments with both instruments. The COAS-HD measures were analyzed at 3 mm pupil diameter. Results are reported as a change in the relative PR profile, as refractive power vector components: M, J180, and J45. Results Overall, at baseline, M, J180 and J45 measures obtained with SN and COAS-HD were considerably different only for field angles ≥±30°, which agreed well with previous studies. With respect to M, this observation held true for most SVCLs with a few exceptions. The J180 measures obtained with COAS-HD were considerably greater in magnitude than those acquired with SN. For SVCLs, the greatest difference was found at −40° for AirOptix SV (ΔCF = 3.20D, ΔRB = 1.56D) and for MFCLs it was for Proclear Distance at −40° (ΔCF = 2.58D, ΔRB = 1.39D). The J45 measures obtained with SN were noticeably different to the respective measures with COAS-HD, both in magnitude and sign. The greatest difference was found with AirOptix Multifocal in subject RB at −40°, where the COAS-HD measurement was 1.50D more positive. In some cases, the difference in the RPR profiles observed between subjects appeared to be

  9. A Grid Service for Automatic Land Cover Classification Using Hyperspectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasso, H.; Shin, P.; Fountain, T.; Pennington, D.; Ding, L.; Cotofana, N.

    2004-12-01

    ) binary classes are trained for a k class problem . To deploy the data mining system as a grid service, we are using the Globus Toolkit to build a distributed environment over a computational grid. It is consisted of two major components: a) a service-oriented infrastructure b) a set of client tools to communicate with the service-oriented infrastructure, i.e., a web service based on the Kepler system, a visual modeling system for designing and executing scientific workflows that access distributed data and tools, and uses a semantic-mediation engine to integrate those resources [4] and the SKIDLkit data mining toolkit for high-dimensional data mining [5] to train and test new classification models. References [1] http://aviris.jpl.nasa.gov [2] http://sev.lternet.edu [3] Pennington, D., H. Jasso, P. Shin, & T. Fountain. The effect of landscape heterogeneity on classification accuracy: a comparison of classifier prediction in sub-opotimal sampling conditions. Seventh Workshop on Mining Scientific and Engineering Datasets, 2004 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (SDM 2004), Orlando, Florida, 2004. [4] I. Altintas, C. Berkley, E. Jaeger, M. Jones, B. Ludäscher, S. Mock. Kepler: Towards a Grid-Enabled System for Scientific Workflows, In the Workflow in Grid Systems Workshop in GGF10 - The Tenth Global Grid Forum, Berlin, Germany, March 2004. [5] http://daks.sdsc.edu/skidl/skidldownloads.html

  10. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Extragalactic astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    V Golenetskii, E P Mazets, V D Pal'shin, D D Frederiks Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 401-406 • Discovery of the fast optical variability of GRB 080319B and the prospects for wide-field optical monitoring with high time resolution, G M Beskin, S V Karpov, S F Bondar, V L Plokhotnichenko, A Guarnieri, C Bartolini, G Greco, A Piccioni Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 406-414 • Galactic disks and their evolution, A V Zasov, O K Sil'chenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 415-419 • Dark components of the Universe, V V Burdyuzha Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 4, Pages 419-424

  11. Disseminated pheohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Shivaswamy, Kanakapura N; Pradhan, Prashanth; Laxmisha, Chandrashekar; Thappa, Devinder M; Jayanthi, Soundararaghavan

    2007-03-01

    A 40-year-old male agricultural laborer presented to our clinic with asymptomatic swellings on his left hand and left leg of 2 years' duration. A pea-sized swelling was first noticed on the back of the left hand, which was gradual in onset and slowly progressed to its present size. The patient later noticed multiple swellings over his left leg and thigh, with a similar progression. There was no history suggestive of inflammatory changes or discharge from the lesions. There was no previous history of trauma. The patient was an asthmatic and was on long-term oral steroid therapy (10-20 mg/day prednisolone). None of his family members had similar complaints. On physical examination, the patient was febrile. Cutaneous examination showed multiple, circumscribed, lobulated, non-tender, mobile, cystic swellings of various sizes, ranging from less than 2 cm over the left shin to more than 8 cm over the dorsum of the left hand and ankle (Fig. 1a,b). The surface over these swellings was shiny, smooth, and intact. The skin over the swellings was pliable and normal in color. There was no regional lymphadenopathy. The rest of the clinical examination was normal, except for decreased breath sounds over the left mid and lower pulmonary lobes. Routine laboratory tests, including complete blood count and liver and renal function tests, were within normal limits. Random blood glucose was greater than 400 mg%. Histopathologic examination of one of the cysts (from the hand) showed pheohyphomycotic cysts lined by dense fibrous tissue with chronic inflammatory infiltrate admixed with scattered giant cells in the dermis (Fig. 2). No fungal elements were visualized in the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. The fungal elements were found within the cystic cavity on special staining with Gomori's methenamine silver (GMS) and Masson-Fontana stains. The hyphae had irregularly placed branches and showed constrictions around their septae, thus resembling pseudohyphae and yeast forms (Fig

  12. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  13. - and Mesoscopic Soft Condensed Matter Architectures on Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, John; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2003-03-01

    , Magnetotransport in mesoscopic carbon networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.319-323, 2001. 2. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, L.V. Govor, V.K. Ksenevich, I.A. Bashmakov, I.M. Grigorieva, L.V. Solovjova, Fabrication of regular mesoscopic networks of GaAs wires, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.127-130, 1999. 3. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, V.K. Ksenevich, G. Kiss, G. Remenyi, Observation of transport in mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped networks, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.197-202, 1999 4. J. Galibert, V.A. Samuilov, V.K. Ksenevich, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, Magnetoresistance of low dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shape GaAs networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.314-318, 2001. 5. S. Zhu, R.J. Gambino, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, S.A. Schwarz, and R.D. Gomez, "Microscopic Magnetic Characterization of Submicron Cobalt Islands Prepared Using Self-Assembled Polymer Masking Technique," IEEE Trans. Magn., 33, 3022, 1997. 6. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85, p.p.5651-5654, 2000.

  14. Relation of bedrock aquifer property and geological structure in Mockcheon area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kang, L. S.; Choi, S. J.; Lee, B. D.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, 72 companies are producing natural mineral water mostly from bedrock aquifer of different depths (Sung et al., 2002). It is important to insure quantity of natural mineral water. However, when several natural mineral-water companies are gathered in small area, the amount of producing water can be often limited by pumping rate of the companies in the area. In the study area, five natural mineral water producing companies (Siwon Semmul, Daejeong Eumryo, Jain Guanguang, Cheongsu Eumryo and Hanju Sikpum) are located in range of 2 km radius. Consequently, wells for natural mineral water of five companies and other private wells are drilled in Mockchun area. These wells produce groundwater from bedrock with total discharge rate 1,991m3/day. Thus, it is necessary to understand the hydrogeological characteristics of bedrock groundwater to preserve groundwater quantity in the study area. Geology was investigated to understand geological structure controlling aquifer characteristics in the study area. Precambrian metamorphic rocks (metamorphosed limestone, biotite schist, augen gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss) are intruded by Jurassic porphyritic granite and two-mica granite and by numerous acidic and intermediate dykes. Alluvium overlies older rocks by unconformity (Kang and Lim, 1974; Shin et al., 1975). Two NS-direction thrusts are developed in the study area. Main aquifer is formed between the lower thrust and the upper thrust, and the lower thrust plays role as impermeable layer. It is considered that the main aquifer was developed by brecciation during the thrust faulting. Thus, pumping wells of mineral water are also located along the thrusts. Wells of Siwon Semmul, Daejeong Eumryo and Jain Guanguang mineral water producing companies are drilled in different aquifers. However, the wells of Chungsoo Eumryo and Hanjoo Sikpoom are drilled in the same aquifer, and are influenced each other during pumping. To understand hydrogeological characteristics, field

  15. The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

    The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 μg m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 μg m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/

  16. Automated navigation of Mars rovers using HiRISE-CTX-HRSC co-registered orthorectified images and DTMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2014-05-01

    are sets of co-registered multi-layer maps and updated SPICE kernel files in a common global coordinates. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No.312377 PRoViDE. References: [1] W.D. Poole, J.-P. Muller (2012), On the calibration of MOLA pulse-width surface roughness estimates using high-resolution DTMs, in LPSC, The Woodlands, Texas. LPI contribution No.1659, id: 1854 [2] D. Shin and J.-P. Muller (2012), Progressively weighted affine adaptive correlation matching for quasi-dense 3D reconstruction. Pattern Recognition. Pages 1-49 [3] Y. Tao, and J.-P. Muller (2013), A Multi-resolution 3D Reconstruction Tool: Exemplar using MSL NavCam PDS and MastCam PIO imagery, in EPSC (Europlanets), London, UK, EPSC2013-584

  17. The Infectious and Noninfectious Dermatological Consequences of Flooding: A Field Manual for the Responding Provider.

    PubMed

    Bandino, Justin P; Hang, Anna; Norton, Scott A

    2015-10-01

    can remain latent for many years before presenting as the host's immunocompetence wanes. It can present with a variety of skin findings or as a nonspecific febrile illness, and preferred treatment consists of ceftazidime or a carbapenem with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for 2 weeks, then continuing TMP/SMX for at least 3 months. Leptospirosis is a waterborne zoonosis that is often prevalent after heavy rains or flooding. Different forms exist, including Fort Bragg fever, which produces a distinctive erythematous papular rash on the shins. Doxycycline is often sufficient; however, volume and potassium repletion may be necessary if renal involvement exists. Chromobacterium violaceum infection may occur after open skin is exposed to stagnant or muddy water. Cultured colonies produce a unique violacein pigment, and treatment typically consists of a carbapenem. Both typical and atypical fungal infections are increased in the flooding disaster scenario, such as dermatophytosis, chromoblastomycosis, blastomycosis, and mucormycosis. Appropriate antifungals should be used. In addition, land inundated with water expands the habitat for parasites and/or vectors, thus increased vigilance for regional parasitic infections is necessary after a flood. Lastly, noninfectious consequences of a flooding disaster are also common and include miliaria, immersion foot syndromes, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, traumatic wounds and animal bites, and arthropod assault, as well as exacerbation of existing skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and alopecia areata due to increased stress or nonavailability of daily medications. PMID:26159354

  18. Six Year Refractive Change among White Children and Young Adults: Evidence for Significant Increase in Myopia among White UK Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data. Design Population-based prospective study. Participants The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER) study Phase 1 examined 1068 children in two cohorts aged 6–7 years and 12–13 years. Prospective data for six-year follow-up (Phase 3) are available for 212 12–13 year olds and 226 18–20 year olds in each cohort respectively. Methods Cycloplegic refractive error was determined using binocular open-field autorefraction (Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001, cyclopentolate 1%). Participants were defined by spherical equivalent refraction (SER) as myopic SER ≤-0.50D, emmetropic -0.50D

  19. [To Discern the Medical Thoughts of Heo Joon, the Best Physician in Korean History--An Analysis of Disease Experiences and Treatment Cases in the Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine].

    PubMed

    Oh, Chaekun

    2015-12-01

    came to light in a time when tensions between the pre-existing Chosun medicine and the newly introduced Chinese medicine were evident. Among the clinical cases in the TMEM, there are only 41 cases that can be considered as Medical Cases which include the pathology and treatment mechanism. After analyzing these mechanisms, we were able to discover that they cover not only the theories of the 4 great physicians of Jin-Yuan Dynasty, but also the theories of the Danxi's Medical Current, a big trend in the Early Ming Dynasty, and some of the most recent clinical cases that had been just reported at the time. However, Heo Joon did not lean towards a particular theory of medicine; rather, he insisted on establishing a classical medicine based on the traditional medicinal scriptures such as the Yellow Emperor's Inner Canon or Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica, and had created his own Body-Viscera medicine, as Shin Dongwon's recent research. Moreover, he successfully secured his own right to be a clinical physician by customizing the amount of medication in prescriptions for the people of Chosun. Heo Joon was one of the chief physicians for the Royal Family of the Chosun Dynasty. Despite the tendency of traditional medicine to lean towards Taoism or Fangshu, for him the most important thing was the actual treatment of diseases. As a result, Heo Joon successfully treated smallpox by utilizing traditional medicinal methods, by breaking the taboo of not using medication on such diseases, as well as he was able to treat an unknown disease, scarlet fever, by discovering the pathological mechanism of the illness. Also he made bold decisions on altering existing prescriptions to treat diseases more efficiently. The TMEM consists of not only justified methods that integrate the different and scattered medicinal and clinical practices, which many insisted their originality, but also was backed with Heo Joon's such credible and endeavored clinical medicine. PMID:26819435

  20. Hydrologic regime alteration of a Mediterranean catchment under climate change projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellami, Haykel; Benabdallah, Sihem; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Herrmann, Frank; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2014-05-01

    the following results. Climate change at the horizon of 2050 is likely to induce severe changes on the magnitude, frequency and extremes of the flow in the Chiba catchment. Monthly flow discharge is likely to be reduced by a median relative change (in respect to the reference period) ranging between -15% in summer to -40% in winter months. The maximum and minimum flow magnitude of different time duration (1-day, 3-days, 7-days, 30-days and 90-days) are likely to experience a significant decrease at the horizon of 2050. However, no significant change is projected in the timing of the flow. Changes in the flow duration curve suggest that the Chiba catchment is likely to face drier and more intermittent condition in the future. However, the predictions remain uncertain especially for high flows with flow percentiles equaled or exceeded less than 10% of the time. This study highlights the alarming situation that the Chiba catchment is likely to face in the future due to change in climate. More water threats and shortage are expected to occur which may threat the livelihood, the ecosystem and the local socio-economic development of the region. Therefore, the need for practical management plans that cope with those changes in climate and hydrology of the catchment is apparent. * Climate models were produced in the framework of the CLIMB project (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins; http://www.climb-fp7.eu/home/home.php). References Giorgi, F., and Lionello, P.: Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region, Global and Planetary Change, 63, 90-104, 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.005, 2008. IPCC: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996, 2007