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Sample records for xiaolong qin shin

  1. TianQin mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Mei, Jianwei; Shao, Chenggang; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Michail

    We introduce the mission concept of TianQin, a spaceborne gravitational waves detector. TianQin will be consisted of three drag-free satellites, forming an equilateral-triangle constellation and orbiting Earth with an altitude of about 105 km. The major scientific goal of TianQin is to detect possible gravitational radiation from Hm Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527), a candidate ultracompact white dwarf binary with a putative orbital period of about 321.5 s. Based on current best models of the binary system, we expect SNR ≥10 after 3 month of observation, given that the noise is dominated by 1 pm Hz-1/2 in position noise and 3×10-15 m s-2 Hz-1/2 in residual acceleration. The progress of preliminary study will be presented in the conference.

  2. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... tibial stress syndrome - self-care; MTSS - self-care; Exercise-induced leg pain - self-care; Tibial periostitis - self- ... Shin splints are an exercise problem. You get shin splints from ... tendons or shin bone. Shin splints happen from overuse with ...

  3. An acoustical study of the qin.

    PubMed

    Waltham, Chris; Lan, Yang; Koster, Evert

    2016-04-01

    The qin (guqin, chi'in) is a seven-string zither of ancient lineage that is prominent in Chinese musical culture. The qin's history is intertwined with philosophy and folklore and its construction is replete with symbolism. The qin was associated with the Imperial aristocracy, and it remains an instrument of high culture. The qin is played with strings horizontal, and the soundbox is made in two halves; the front is usually carved out of paulownia and the back is a flat plate of catalpa. There are two sound holes in the back. It appears that no acoustical study of the qin has been published hitherto. This paper describes vibroacoustic measurements on five examples, the analysis of which reveals the qin's basic sound radiation mechanisms. At low frequencies the qin shows beam bending and torsional modes with some coupling to air in the cavity. At higher frequencies the radiation is dominated by a dense spectrum of mixed cavity and wood modes; the cavity modes are described by a one-dimensional transmission matrix model. PMID:27106307

  4. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have…

  5. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have

  6. Shin splints--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bates, P

    1985-09-01

    "Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately. PMID:3907743

  7. Shin splints--a literature review.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, P

    1985-01-01

    "Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately. Images p132-a PMID:3907743

  8. Factors Associated with Shin Soreness in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myburgh, Kathryn H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    To identify factors which cause shin soreness in athletes, 25 injured exercisers and a control group of 25 uninjured exercisers were studied. Methodology and results are presented and analyzed. Differences in calcium intake between the two groups is cited as a key factor in causing shin soreness. (JL)

  9. Shin splints--a review of terminology.

    PubMed

    Batt, M E

    1995-01-01

    This review is intended to improve the understanding of and rationale for the use of the term shin splints. Currently the term is used widely and variably, with little consensus of definition. Broadly, it denotes the occurrence of exertional lower leg pain; more specifically, it refers to an anatomical site of periostitis. The literature reports a multiplicity of descriptions and definitions of shin splints resultant from the complex etiologies and differing perceptions of these conditions. It is proposed that the term shin splint be recognized as generic, rather than diagnostic, and that specific conditions that currently exist under this term be differentiated. The etiology and interaction of these related conditions are considered, and a classification based on the current literature is given of conditions currently termed shin splints, providing a rationale for their clinical presentations, investigative findings, and interactions. PMID:7614083

  10. TianQin: a space-borne gravitational wave detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Li-Sheng; Duan, Hui-Zong; Gong, Yun-Gui; Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Qi; Mei, Jianwei; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Toth, Viktor T.; Tu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Yamin; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhan, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yonghe; Zharov, Vladimir; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2016-02-01

    TianQin is a proposal for a space-borne detector of gravitational waves in the millihertz frequencies. The experiment relies on a constellation of three drag-free spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Inter-spacecraft laser interferometry is used to monitor the distances between the test masses. The experiment is designed to be capable of detecting a signal with high confidence from a single source of gravitational waves within a few months of observing time. We describe the preliminary mission concept for TianQin, including the candidate source and experimental designs. We present estimates for the major constituents of the experiment’s error budget and discuss the project’s overall feasibility. Given the current level of technological readiness, we expect TianQin to be flown in the second half of the next decade.

  11. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late…

  12. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late

  13. The human homologue of the retroviral oncogene qin maps to chromosome 14q13

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, K.; Druck, T.; Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K.; Li, Jian; Vogt, P.K.; Su, Heyun

    1994-04-26

    Chromosomal mapping of the human QIN gene (renamed FKH2 by the Human Genome Organization Nomenclature Committee) was initially accomplished by correlation of the presence of the QIN locus with specific chromosome regions in a rodent-human hybrid panel. This analysis revealed that the human QIN gene maps to chromosome region 14q11.2{yields}14q32, between the TCR and IGH loci. Further analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques with a human QIN genomic clone refined the human QIN gene localization to 14q13. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  14. QINS studies of water diffusion in Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay-Duchosal, Michael; Hugh Powell, D.; Lechner, R. E.; Rufflé, Benoit

    2000-03-01

    We have used quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering (QINS) to study the diffusion of interlayer water in partially orientated Na-montmorillonite samples. In order to observe the anisotropy of the motion we performed measurements for two orthogonal sample orientations and for two different energy resolutions. Fits to the spectra yield phenomenological translational line widths which, for the 135° orientation, can be fitted by a two-dimensional Chudley-Elliott model with a diffusion coefficient D=1.3×10 -9 m 2 s -1and a mean square jump distance l=1.7 Å.

  15. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  16. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  17. Videodisks Offer a Detailed Portrait of Qin, the First Chinese Emperor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Project Emperor-I has issued two interactive videodiscs on China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di. The videodiscs contain film footage from the archaeological excavation in China, images of artifacts, interviews with Qin specialists, and the full text of articles about the ancient burial site. Development of the videodiscs for scholars involved…

  18. Comparison of soccer shin guards in preventing tibia fracture.

    PubMed

    Francisco, A C; Nightingale, R W; Guilak, F; Glisson, R R; Garrett, W E

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of shin guards in protecting against tibia fracture in soccer players. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the material and structural differences in shin guard design and the protection provided. Twenty-three commercially available shin guards were tested on a model leg containing a synthetic tibia that had been calibrated against human cadaver specimens. Each guard was categorized into one of four material types: plastic (N = 9), fiberglass (N = 6), compressed air (N = 4), and Kevlar (N = 4). The maximum combined force at the ends of the tibia, the principal strain on the posterior side of the tibia, and the contact time of the impact were measured using a drop track impact simulation. Shin guards provided significant protection from tibia fracture at all drop heights. The average guard reduced force by 11% to 17% and strain by 45% to 51% compared with the unguarded leg. At the higher drop heights, material composition and structural characteristics of the shin guards showed significant differences in protective abilities. These findings indicate that all shin guards provide some measure of protection against tibia fracture, although the level of protection may vary significantly among the different guards. PMID:10751000

  19. Shin-Guard Dermatitis-Detection and Protection.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    With the popularity of soccer among American youth and the associated use of protective shin guards, dermatitis from the guard components has emerged. Awareness and protective measures may help prevent irritation and the development of contact sensitization from the guards. PMID:27040461

  20. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  1. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  2. [The medical system around the time of unification of the Qin dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-lin

    2009-01-01

    The State of Qin had formulated a series of relatively complete medical systems which covered the aspects such as the systems of medical officer, military doctor, sanitation and epidemic prevention, the administrations of the invalid, old and young, the medical literatures and legal medicine, around the time of the first unified feudal dynasty establishment in Chinese history. The medical officer system related to the appointment, removal, reward and punishment of medical officials; the sanitation and epidemic prevention related to the mice prevention, fire smoking and isolation; the medicolegal system involved the medicolegal organizations, death examinations, test reports etc. All of the above systems not only inherited the successful experiences in traditional medical systems of the State of Qin before the time of unification, but also absorbed the advantages of medical systems throughout the whole country after the time of unification,which had far-reaching effects on the Han dynasty and successive generations. PMID:19824354

  3. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Lin, Jun-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods : Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results : The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation. Conclusions : Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats. PMID:25182288

  4. [Textual research of scabies in the Warring States and Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Luo, Baozhen

    2014-09-01

    Scabies, a kind of skin disease frequently seen in the period of Warring States and Qin-Han Dynasties. By investigating the epidemic condition, disease title, recognition on the disease and the prevention and its treatment through the textual documents, unearthed texts, and dictionaries of this period, it can be seen that "scabies" refers to the itching and corrugation of skin. It was also called "jia" (scar) and belonged to the "dry itching"disease. At that time, people also knew the seasonal, and geographical rules of its incidence and its pathogenic agent, the scabies parasite (sacoptic mite). Treatments included hot compress, rubbing, bathing, and internal medications, mostly inherited in later generations. PMID:25579210

  5. Cardiovascular Benefits of Acupressure (Jin Shin) Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Kristina L.; Hernández, Theresa D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Acupressure, a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment, uses fingertips, rather than needles, to stimulate acupoints on the skin and has been implicated as a successful treatment for a variety of medical disorders. However, acupressure’s underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One theory is that acupoint stimulation modulates autonomic nervous system activity. Previous studies have suggested that acupressure may positively affect heart rate and blood pressure. The current study investigated the effects of a type of acupressure, Jin Shin, on cardiovascular function in stroke survivors, a population that could especially benefit from a treatment promoting cardiovascular health. The study tested the hypothesis that active acupressure treatments would reduce heart rate and blood pressure (i.e., induce a greater relaxation response) above and beyond that seen during placebo acupressure treatments. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover design was utilised, in which 16 participants received 8 weeks of either active or placebo acupressure followed by washout and crossover into the opposite treatment condition. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken throughout treatments. Results Active acupressure treatments were associated with a significantly greater (p = .043, partial η2 =.30) and faster (p = .002, partial η2 = .76) reduction in heart rate compared to that seen during placebo treatments. No treatment effect on blood pressure was found. Conclusions Active acupressure reduced heart rate significantly more than did placebo acupressure during treatments. Although no treatment effect on blood pressure was found, this could be due to 67% of participants taking antihypertensive medications during the study. PMID:20178877

  6. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium. PMID:24564138

  7. A rapid UPLC method for simultaneous determination of eleven components in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ decoction

    PubMed Central

    An, Rui; You, Lisha; Zhang, Yizhu; Wang, Xinhong; Ma, Yuemin

    2014-01-01

    Background: ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ Decoction derived from ‘Shang-Han-Lun’ compiled by Zhang Zhongjing. It is widely used in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis, bacillary dysentery, virus diarrhea. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of the 11-marker compounds using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Objective: To develop an UPLC method for simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ preparations. Materials and Methods: The chromatography analysis was performed on an Agilent Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.7 μm) at 30°C with a gradient elution of methanol, 0.5% formic acid and 0.5% ammonium acetate at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min and UV detected at 270 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r ≥ 0.9993) within tested ranges. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) fell in the range between 0.0691-1.04 μg/ml and 0.23–3.43 μg/ml, respectively. The mean recovery of each herbal medicine ranged from 96.60 to 102.11%. Conclusion: The method was validated for repeatability, precision, stability, accuracy, and selectivity. The validated method was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of these active components in ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ decoction. PMID:25422547

  8. Heterotypic piRNA Ping-Pong requires qin, a protein with both E3 ligase and Tudor domains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao; Xu, Jia; Koppetsch, Birgit S; Wang, Jie; Tipping, Cindy; Ma, Shengmei; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E; Zamore, Phillip D

    2011-11-18

    piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. Reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage--catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila melanogaster--expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. We show that qin, a piRNA pathway gene whose protein product contains both E3 ligase and Tudor domains, colocalizes with Aub and Ago3 in nuage, a perinuclear structure implicated in transposon silencing. In qin mutants, less Ago3 binds Aub, futile Aub:Aub homotypic Ping-Pong prevails, antisense piRNAs decrease, many families of mobile genetic elements are reactivated, and DNA damage accumulates in nurse cells and oocytes. We propose that Qin enforces heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3, ensuring that transposons are silenced and maintaining the integrity of the germline genome. PMID:22099305

  9. Remarks on the Qin-Ma parametrization of quark mixing matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Oh, Sechul

    2011-07-01

    Recently, Qin and Ma (QM) have advocated a new Wolfenstein-like parametrization of the quark mixing matrix based on the triminimal expansion of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) parametrization. The CP-odd phase in the QM parametrization is around 90° just as that in the CKM parametrization. We point out that the QM parametrization can be readily obtained from the Wolfenstein parametrization after appropriate phase redefinition for quark fields and that the phase δ in both QM and CKM parametrizations is related to the unitarity angles α, β and γ, namely, δ = β + γ or π - α. We show that both QM and Wolfenstein parametrizations can be deduced from the CKM and Chau-Keung-Maiani ones. By deriving the QM parametrization from the exact Fritzsch-Xing (FX) parametrization of the quark mixing matrix, we find that the phase of the FX form is in the vicinity of -270° and hence sin δ ≈ 1. We discuss the seeming discrepancy between the Wolfenstein and QM parametrizations at the high order of λ ≈ |Vus |.

  10. QIN. Promise and pitfalls of quantitative imaging in oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Graham, Michael M.; Buatti, John M.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eikman, Edward A.; Kumar, Virendra; Forster, Kenneth M.; Wahl, Richard L.; Lieberman, Frank S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative imaging using CT, MRI, and PET modalities will play an increasingly important role in the design of oncology trials addressing molecularly targeted, personalized therapies. The advent of molecularly targeted therapies, exemplified by antiangiogenic drugs, creates new complexities in the assessment of response. The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) addresses the need for imaging modalities which can accurately and reproducibly measure not just change in tumor size, but changes in relevant metabolic parameters, modulation of relevant signaling pathways, drug delivery to tumor, and differentiation of apoptotic cell death from other changes in tumor volume. This article provides an overview of the applications of quantitative imaging to phase 0 through phase 3 oncology trials. We describe the use of a range of quantitative imaging modalities in specific tumor types including malignant gliomas, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and sarcoma. In the concluding section, we discuss potential constraints on clinical trials using quantitative imaging, including complexity of trial conduct, impact on subject recruitment, incremental costs, and institutional barriers. Strategies for overcoming these constraints are presented. PMID:22898682

  11. [On Liu qin xi (six animal frolics) in Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi)].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaozhong

    2014-05-01

    The six styles of the art of Daoyin recorded in Liu An's Huai nan zi (Discourses of Master Huainanzi) of the Western Han Dynasty was called the Liu qin xi which was simplified from the complicated ancient Daoyin art of bionic practice imitating the movements of six kinds of animal. Among them, the "xiong jing"imitates the erecting walking style of a bear so as to strengthen the waist and lower extremities; the "niao shen"follows the spreading of wings of a bird so as to extend the arms and legs, to train the shoulders and extremities; the "fu yu"imitates the movements of swimming and moving head of a wild duck so as to train the head and neck; the "yuan jue"imitates the jumping of a monkey among the tree branches so as to train the legs and waist; the "chi shi"imitates the streching neck movements of an eagle so as to strengthen the neck and improvement of vision; while the "hu gu"imitates the movement of turning head of a tiger so as to train one's nape and the buttock. PMID:25208832

  12. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  13. Interstitial pressure measurements in the anterior and posterior compartments in athletes with shin splints.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosia, R D; Zelis, R F; Chuinard, R G; Wilmore, J

    1977-01-01

    We found no basis for increased intercompartmental pressure in either the anterior or posterior compartments as the cause of shin splints. The pain in all 14 of the patients studied was localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibial muscle, and evidence of periostitis in this area was seen in two of our patients, suggesting the possible tearing away of the posterior tibial muscle from its origin. Shin splints is a lay term which has assumed medical diagnostic significance and should be removed from common usage by more accurately localizing the focus of pain. PMID:871182

  14. An Interview with Dr. Shin'ichi Suzuki at the Talent Education Institute, Matsumoto, Japan, on 18 April 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilli, Susan; Suzuki, Shin'ichi

    1992-01-01

    Shin-ichi Suzuki, founder of the Talent Education Movement and creator of the Sukuzi Method of musical training, responds to a variety of questions concerning his philosophy of life and lifelong education. (DMM)

  15. [Studies on developmental features of theories of syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera in Qin and Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-mei; Wang, Gui-lan; Li, De-xing

    2006-07-01

    The formation of the theories of visceral manifestations as well as channels and collaterals in the books Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) and Nan Jing (Classic of Questioning) laid down the theoretical foundation for the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera. From the early occurrence of syndrome classification to that of the disease manifestations of zang and fu viscera, the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera were basically not put into practice until Shanghan Zabing Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases) appeared. The theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera in the Qin and Han Dynasties were not systematic and were scattered, indicating that it was a period of gestation for the theories. PMID:17278438

  16. Does Gracilis Tendon Harvest During ACL Reconstruction with a Hamstring Autograft Affect Torque of Muscles Responsible for Shin Rotation?

    PubMed Central

    Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a combined semitendinosus and gracilis (STGR) graft there are large deficits in the internal rotation strength, which has led some authors to recommend harvest of only ST tendon whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the isometric (IT) and peak torque (PT) of the muscles responsible for shin rotation in patients after ACLR with an ST or with an STGR graft. Material/Methods Twenty patients with an ST graft and 20 patients with a combined STGR graft underwent a 6-month postoperative rehabilitation program after ACLR. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the IT and PT of the muscles responsible for internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the shin were measured. The results were compared to the results of a control group. Additionally, to determine the reliability of the dynamometer for clinical research, a test-retest assessment was performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups of participants. Nevertheless, in the STGR group there was a statistically significant difference between the IT of muscles internally rotating the shin in the involved knee and uninvolved knee at 25° of the internal shin rotation. Conclusions Comparison of IT and PT measurements performed after 24 weeks of postoperative rehabilitation generally showed no differences between patients after ACLR with the use of ST graft and patients who received a combination graft consisting of STGR. Nevertheless, there was an influence of GR harvest on internal shin rotation torque at a deep internal rotation angle. PMID:26190033

  17. The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints).

    PubMed

    Michael, R H; Holder, L E

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scans have demonstrated linear uptake along the posterior medial border of the tibia in patients with shin splints. This area was investigated by anatomical dissection (14 human cadavers), electromyographic (EMG) and muscle stimulation studies (10 patients), and open biopsy (1 patient). Histologically, the increased metabolic activity manifested on the radionuclide scan is due to a periostitis with new bone formation. The soleus muscle and its investing fascia are anatomically and biomechanically implicated in the production of these stress changes, particularly when the heel is in the pronated position. The soleus muscle and fascia form a tough "soleus bridge" over the deep compartment which is thought to be important in patients requiring surgical decompression. PMID:3985265

  18. Metallic Discoloration on the Right Shin Caused by Titanium Alloy Prostheses in a Patient with Right Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Young; Choi, Jong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of bluish-gray pigmentation of the skin includes dermal melanocytosis, malignant melanoma and metallic discoloration. Of these disorders, metallic discoloration, which develops from deposits of fine metallic particles on the skin, is an uncommon dermatologic disease. We report a case of metallic discoloration of the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement. The patient had bluish-gray pigmentation on her right shin as well as pain while walking. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion showed abundant black particles in the perivascular area of the lower dermis. Polarizing microscopy revealed refractile foreign materials in the dermis. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer unit attached to a transmission electron microscope detected titanium and aluminium peaks in the specimen. PMID:24003281

  19. Metallic discoloration on the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Jong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2013-08-01

    The differential diagnosis of bluish-gray pigmentation of the skin includes dermal melanocytosis, malignant melanoma and metallic discoloration. Of these disorders, metallic discoloration, which develops from deposits of fine metallic particles on the skin, is an uncommon dermatologic disease. We report a case of metallic discoloration of the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement. The patient had bluish-gray pigmentation on her right shin as well as pain while walking. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion showed abundant black particles in the perivascular area of the lower dermis. Polarizing microscopy revealed refractile foreign materials in the dermis. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer unit attached to a transmission electron microscope detected titanium and aluminium peaks in the specimen. PMID:24003281

  20. LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS IN RUNNING ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF MEDIAL SHIN PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Medial shin pain (MSP) is a common complaint that may stop an athlete from running. No previous study has identified deficits in pelvic, hip or knee motion as potential contributing factors to MSP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics during running between uninjured athletes and those with MSP. Secondary analyses investigated differences in limbs between groups and differences between sexes. Methods: This case-control study investigated fourteen runners aged 18–40 years old with a history of unilateral MSP and fourteen runner controls. Three dimensional lower quarter kinematics were captured as runners ran on a treadmill. Specifically, peak hip internal rotation (IR), frontal plane pelvic tilt (PT) excursion, and knee flexion were examined. Results: Groups were similar in age, mass, height, and training mileage. Subjects with a history of MSP demonstrated significantly greater frontal plane PT (P = 0.002, Effect size = 0.55) and peak hip IR (P = 0.004, Effect size = 0.51); and less knee flexion (P = 0.02, Effect size = 0.46) than the control group. No significant difference was found in kinematics of the MSP group during their involved side stance phase as compared to their non-involved side. Conclusions: Runners with MSP displayed greater PT excursion, peak hip IR, and decreased knee flexion while running as compared to a control group. These results should help guide treatment for the running athlete that experiences MSP. Level of Evidence: 3b PMID:22893855

  1. Population issues key to finding solutions at the grassroots -- Mr. Shin Sakurai.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The speech by Hon. Mr. Shin Sakurai, Chairman of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, during the 6th General Assembly focuses on population issues and how it can be used as a key in finding solutions to the global problems brought about by population. In his speech, he stressed on the parliamentary movement who had a working relationship among the various regional parliamentary and legislative groups on population and development. In line with food supply, he suggested that it is important to build a rational solution from a long-term perspective by changing the rules of international trade to reflect the projected increase of population and the earth's capacity to ensure people a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve sustainable development by resolving population problems, it is important for the elected officials of the people to join hands across national borders, seize the initiative and work on governments. He called on parliamentarians to work together to achieve sustainable development and resolve population issues. PMID:12295496

  2. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  3. Single-dose Toxicity of ShinYangHur Herbal Acupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongcheol; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Kim, Sungchul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was carried out to analyze the single-dose toxicity of ShinYangHur (SYH) herbal acupuncture injected into the muscles of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The SYH herbal acupuncture was made in a clean room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI, Korea-Good Manufacturing Practice, K-GMP). After the mixing process with sterile distilled water, the pH was controlled to between 7.0 and 7.5. Then, NaCl was added to make a 0.9% isotonic solution by using sterilized equipment. All experiments were conducted at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). SD rats were chosen for the pilot study. Doses of SYH herbal acupuncture, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL, were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution, 1.0 mL, was administered to the control group. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths or abnormalities occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. To check for abnormalities in organs and tissues, we used microscopy was used to examine representative histological sections of each specified organ; the results showed no significant differences in any of the organs or tissues. Conclusion: The above outcomes suggest that treatment with SYH herbal acupuncture is relatively safe. Further studies on this subject are needed to yield more concrete evidence. PMID:26120490

  4. [On illnesses and treatments of scholar officials in the Qing Dynasty from the perspective of Dou Ke-qin, a neo-confucianist philosopher].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-11-01

    Illnesses and treatments are an inevitable part of life in the daily life of the neo-confucianist Dou Ke-qin whose life outlook on the treatment and recognition of diseases was influenced by his neo-confucianist conception. He claimed that diseases can be conquered by spiritual force formed on the basis of Neo-Confucianism and can be recovered by peace of the heart and moral merits and can be seen as an approach of self-accomplishment. He opposed Taoist and Buddhist ideas of life preservation and keeping fit by taking the advantages of external mystic force, and stressed that his own diseases and that of his relatives can be cured by the filial affection advocated by the Neo-Confucianism. PMID:24524634

  5. Winter and summer characteristics of airborne particles inside emperor Qin's Terra-Cotta Museum, China: a study by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tafeng; Cao, Junji; Ho, Kinfai; An, Zhisheng; Lee, Shuncheng; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Li, Hua

    2011-09-01

    Day- and nighttime total suspended particulate matter was collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-Cotta Museum in winter and summer 2008. The purpose was to characterize the winter and summer differences of indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilation conditions, namely the Exhibition Hall and Pit No. 1. The morphology and elemental composition of two season samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It is found that the particle size, particle mass concentration, and particle type were associated with the visitor numbers in the Exhibition Hall and with the natural ventilation in Pit No. 1 in both winter and summer. Evident winter and summer changes in the composition and physicochemical properties of the indoor suspended particulate matters were related to the source emission and the meteorological conditions. Particle mass concentrations in both halls were higher in winter than in summer. In winter, the size of the most abundant particles at the three sites were all between 0.5 and 1.0 microm, whereas in summer the peaks were all located at less than 0.5 microm. The fraction of sulfur-containing particles was 2-7 times higher in winter than in summer. In addition to the potential soiling hazard, the formation and deposition of sulfur-containing particles in winter may lead to the chemical and physical weathering of the surfaces of the terra-cotta statues. PMID:22010376

  6. Metabonomic study on the plasma of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Ge Gen Qin Lian Decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyun; Xu, Guoliang; Li, Jia; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong; Li, Bingtao; Tu, Jun; Zhang, Huashan

    2016-02-20

    Changes in endogenous metabolites in the plasma of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated with Ge Gen Qin Lian Decoction (GGQLD) were studied. The endogenous compounds in plasma were detected using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Rats were divided into three groups: control, model, and administration (4.95g crude drug/kg body weight). After the final administration, plasma samples from the three groups were analyzed using metabonomics. The three sample groups could be clearly distinguished. The administration group exhibited a distinct return to the levels of phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine of the control group according to the principal component analysis score, and the corresponding biomarkers were defined. Significant changes in endogenous metabolites, such as dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, cholylglycine, and pantothenic acid, were identified in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These biochemical changes are associated with the metabolism of sphingolipids, fats, and acetyl coenzyme-A, which could be useful to further investigate the characteristics of STZ-induced diabetes mellitus and the therapeutic mechanism of action of GGQLD. This metabonomic analysis could provide a useful starting point toelucidate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of action of GGQLD in diabetes mellitus. PMID:26744987

  7. [Dynamics of cellular populations in reparation for the burn wounds in patients with subfascial burns and the opening of the shin bones].

    PubMed

    Podurets', D P; Fistal', N M; Zborovs'kyĭ, O M; Chehlakov, E V; Postoliuk, I H

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of reparation of deep burn wounds after performance of ostheonecrectomy, ostheotrepanation and ostheotrepa-nation in conjunction with application of allofibroblasts culture was studied, basing on the morphometric investigations data. The authors have had concluded, that application of ostheotrepanation, solely or in combination with the allofibroblasts culture usage, make the reparation process less durable as well as the term before effective autodermoplasty is possible and stationary treatment period in injured persons, suffering subfascial burns and the shin bones opening. PMID:18402038

  8. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016. PMID:25447754

  9. Tibial stress reaction presenting as bilateral shin pain in a man taking denosumab for giant cell tumor of the bone.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sian Yik; Rastalsky, Naina; Choy, Edwin; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged bisphosphonate use has been associated with increased risk of atypical femoral fractures. Very few cases of atypical femoral fractures have been reported with denosumab. We report a case of bilateral tibial stress reactions in a 60-year-old man with no history of osteoporosis who was on prolonged high-dose denosumab for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone. He presented with a 3-month history of pain in his bilateral shins worsening with activity and improving with rest. Although initial radiographs were unremarkable, he was found to have changes consistent with a stress reaction on magnetic resonance imaging of the distal tibia. To our knowledge, bilateral tibial stress reactions have not been previously reported with anti-resorptive therapies (neither bisphosphonates nor denosumab). Our case is intriguing in terms of the development of stress reactions as a precursor to stress fractures which may also relate to atypical fractures. Our case suggests a possible association between denosumab use and stress reactions. Of note the indication for denosumab in our case was for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved dose is substantially higher than the FDA approved dose for osteoporosis treatment. Although rare, clinicians should consider the possibility of stress fractures in patients on anti-resorptive medications such as denosumab, especially when a patient presents with new onset thigh pain, hip pain or pain over an area affecting the long bones. Evaluation by imaging of affected areas should be pursued to enable early detection and intervention, as well as prevention of morbidity and associated ongoing risk to the patient. PMID:26117225

  10. [Analysis of tension-distraction state in the shin bones fractures in conditions of external fixation with application of apparatuses with different spatially oriented supports].

    PubMed

    Hutsuliak, V I

    2014-09-01

    In Autodesk Inventor 11 program, using method of end-capping elements, a three- dimensional computeric modelling of biomechanical systems of two models was conducted: I - "tibia - Ilizarov's apparatus with concentric location of supports"; II - "tibia - Ilizarov's apparatus with excentric location of supports". The loading, which was applied towards distal fragment in 6 standard degrees of freedom, was modelled for studying of the fixation rigidity of tibial fragments in these systems. Determination of the loading value in various directions, in which the fragment have had shifted by 1 mm, have constituted the main task of the investigation. In a model II a rigidity of the fragments fixation, in comparison with such in a model I, is bigger by 631.43% - while applying a compression loading, by 8.35 - 31.75% - the transversal one and by 19.72% - the rotation loading. While choosing the method of transosteal osteosynthesis of the shin bones the advantage, have the apparatuses with excentric location of supports, what secures the enhanced rigidity of the fragments fixation in comparison with such in apparatuses with concentric location of supports. Although, even in excentric location of supports in the apparatus the fixation rigidity is insufficient for early full loading of the traumatized extremity while walking. It is necessary to elaborate such apparatus, the form of which may be adopted toanatomic configuration of segment. PMID:25509440

  11. [The influence of the C-leg knee-shin system from the Otto Bock Company in the care of above-knee amputees. A clinical-biomechanical study to define indications].

    PubMed

    Wetz, H H; Hafkemeyer, U; Drerup, B

    2005-04-01

    The C-Leg microprocessor-controlled knee-shin system for the above-knee amputees is introduced as a dramatic improvement over all other prosthetic knees. This is due to its combination of on-board microprocessor and the hydraulic controls acting both on the swing and stance phase. A more secure, natural and efficient gait is expected. Following the recommendations of Otto Bock the indications for the prescription of the C-leg are: Amputees with mobility level "able to walk outdoors without limitations" (AK3) and "able to walk outdoors without limitations plus engage in high performance activities" (AK4) if they face at least one extra obstacle as listed in the Otto Bock catalogue of indications. In this article it is aimed to critically review the indications for the C-leg. In particular the question is posed, whether a different or sophisticated indication of mobility levels might be suggested. Therefore this study does not concentrate on the 3C-100 C-Leg((R)) component but on the system patient + C-leg. So the testing is done by comparing the C-Leg against the regular knee, which is assumed to be an adequate choice for this patient and to which he is accustomed. So far 25 patients with activity levels AK 2 (5), AK 3 (13) and AK 4 (7) have participated in the study. 23 patients, i.e. all patients except one AK 2 and one AK 3 exhibit functional improvement at least according to one criterion. On the other side, only three patients (2 AK 4), fulfill all criteria of functional improvement, which have been defined for this test. It is concluded, that multi-handicapped patients of all activity levels generally experience substantial improvement due to this system. AK 2 patients may show significant functional improvement. As a prerequisite, however, they must not exhibit deficiencies regarding stump movement, muscular status or cognitive abilities. Active patients (AK 3 and AK 4) benefit in the majority of cases. However, some highly active patients of AK 4 complain about interferences between their intended movement and the microprocessor control of knee movements. PMID:15812621

  12. QIN “Radiomics: The Process and the Challenges”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Virendra; Gu, Yuhua; Basu, Satrajit; Berglund, Anders; Eschrich, Steven A.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Forster, Kenneth; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Dekker, Andre; Fenstermacher, David; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Hall, Lawrence O; Lambin, Philippe; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    “Radiomics” refers to the extraction and analysis of large amounts of advanced quantitative imaging features with high throughput from medical images obtained with computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Importantly, these data are designed to be extracted from standard-of-care images, leading to a very large potential subject pool. Radiomic data are in a mineable form that can be used to build descriptive and predictive models relating image features to phenotypes or gene-protein signatures. The core hypothesis of radiomics is that these models, which can include biological or medical data, can provide valuable diagnostic, prognostic or predictive information. The radiomics enterprise can be divided into distinct processes, each with its own challenges that need to be overcome: (i) image acquisition and reconstruction (ii) image segmentation and rendering (iii) feature extraction and feature qualification (iv) databases and data sharing for eventual (v) ad hoc informatic analyses. Each of these individual processes poses unique challenges. For example, optimum protocols for image acquisition and reconstruction have to be identified and harmonized. Also, segmentations have to be robust and involve minimal operator input. Features have to be generated that robustly reflect the complexity of the individual volumes, but cannot be overly complex or redundant. Furthermore, informatics databases that allow incorporation of image features and image annotations, along with medical and genetic data have to be generated. Finally, the statistical approaches to analyze these data have to be optimized, as radiomics is not a mature field of study. Each of these processes will be discussed in turn, as well as some of their unique challenges and proposed approaches to solve them. The focus of this article will be on images of non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC. PMID:22898692

  13. Acceptance of the 2014 Houtermans Award by Liping Qin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Liping

    2015-06-01

    Thank you for the very kind words, Rick. Thank you EAG for the award and Nicolas Dauphas for the nomination. When I look at the list of previous recipients of this award, I saw many familiar names who have made major contributions to the field of geochemistry. I am humbled by this recognition. I would like to take this moment to thank all individuals who have generously helped me along the way. I would not be standing here today without them.

  14. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg. PMID:7125040

  15. QIN. A Feasible High Spatiotemporal Resolution Breast DCE-MRI Protocol for Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Tudorica, Luminita A.; Oh, Karen Y.; Roy, Nicole; Kettler, Mark D.; Chen, Yiyi; Hemmingson, Stephanie L.; Afzal, Aneela; Grinstead, John W.; Laub, Gerhard; Li, Xin; Huang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Three dimensional bilateral imaging is the standard for most clinical breast dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI protocols. Because of high spatial resolution (sRes) requirement, the typical 1–2 min temporal resolution (tRes) afforded by a conventional full-k-space-sampling gradient echo (GRE) sequence precludes meaningful and accurate pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE time-course data. The commercially available, GRE-based, k-space undersampling and data sharing TWIST (time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories) sequence was used in this study to perform DCE-MRI exams on thirty one patients (with 36 suspicious breast lesions) before their biopsies. The TWIST DCE-MRI was immediately followed by a single-frame conventional GRE acquisition. Blinded from each other, three radiologist readers assessed agreements in multiple lesion morphology categories between the last set of TWIST DCE images and the conventional GRE images. Fleiss’ κ test was used to evaluate inter-reader agreement. The TWIST DCE time-course data were subjected to quantitative pharmacokinetic analyses. With a four-channel phased-array breast coil, the TWIST sequence produced DCE images with 20 s or less tRes and ~ 1.0×1.0×1.4 mm3 sRes. There were no significant differences in signal-to-noise (P = 0.45) and contrast-to-noise (P = 0.51) ratios between the TWIST and conventional GRE images. The agreements in morphology evaluations between the two image sets were excellent with the intra-reader agreement ranging from 79% for mass margin to 100% for mammographic density and the inter-reader κ value ranging from 0.54 (P < 0.0001) for lesion size to 1.00 (P < 0.0001) for background parenchymal enhancement. Quantitative analyses of the DCE time-course data provided higher breast cancer diagnostic accuracy (91% specificity at 100% sensitivity) than the current clinical practice of morphology and qualitative kinetics assessments. The TWIST sequence may be used in clinical settings to acquire high spatiotemporal resolution breast DCE-MRI images for both precise lesion morphology characterization and accurate pharmacokinetic analysis. PMID:22770687

  16. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  17. [A brief history of osteo-traumatology of the pre-Qin period].

    PubMed

    Li, A

    1996-05-01

    Historical materials from oracle inscriptions to Mawangdui Ancient Books are summarized. Research is made on four aspects, including recognition on bone, wounds to bone, and bone diseases, osteological treatment by drugs, acu-moxibustion, massage and Daoyin, traumatological medical jurisprudence and prevention of such diseases. This fills the gap left out in the developmental history of osteo-traumatology. PMID:11613349

  18. The heart of China revisited, I. Proterozoic tectonics of the Qin mountains in the core of supercontinent Rodinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Franz, Leander; Yang, Zhao; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf; Yuan, Honglin

    2013-06-01

    The Qinling-Dabie orogenic collage, central China, constitutes the geographic, geologic, and cultural heart of China; it plays a key role in understanding the amalgamation and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and the subduction and exhumation of continental crust under ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Herein, we investigate the Proterozoic evolution of the Qinling-Dabie orogenic collage and surrounding segments of the bounding South China craton (SCC) and North China craton (NCC), employing published and new U/Th-Pb geochronology. The Kongling, Hong'an-Dabie, and Douling-Foping complexes constitute the nucleus of the Yangtze block, recording a common ~2.0 Ga orogenic event that integrated the Yangtze block into the supercontinent Columbia. The ~1.10-0.95 Ga Miaowan "ophiolite"-Shennongjia arc association of the Huangling dome-Shennongjia massif seems to have split and reassembled that nucleus. It formed earlier than or contemporaneously with the Sibao orogeny along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze block. The ~0.95-0.80 Ga Mian-Lue complex comprises an oceanic accretionary wedge that formed outboard of an associated fore-arc-arc system represented by the Bikou-Hannan-Micangshan massifs along the north(western) margin of the Yangtze block. The Qinling complex, currently sandwiched between the SCC and NCC, lacks pre-Mesoproterozoic cratonal basement, and its igneous rocks intruded a ~1.7-1.0 Ga old clastic wedge that incorporates meta-basites; it might have been part of the extended passive margin of East Antarctica and/or Australia. Neoproterozoic Qinling-complex magmatism spanned ~260 Myr and evolved from partial melting of the thick clastic sequence over an arc to a rift setting; most Qinling-complex paragneisses are erosional products of these igneous rocks. The ~1.0-0.85 Ga Qinling-complex magmatism formed independently from that along the north(west)ern Yangtze-block margin, but its ~0.8-0.7 Ga magmatism, peaking at ~750 Ma, is widespread throughout the Yangtze block; this suggests post- ~ 825 Ma accretion of the Qinling complex to the Yangtze block. The Daba and Wudang Shan, Douling, and Hong'an-Dabie areas of the northern Yangtze block are dominated by ~0.8-0.6 Ga bimodal continental-rift igneous rocks; in accordance with similar ages in the Qinling complex and the entire SCC, continental rifting appears to have been most active at ~750 Ma. Our Rodinia scenario suggests that the Qinling-Dabie orogenic collage records the final stages of the assemblage of the core of Rodinia, and this was completed not earlier than ~825 Ma, and its breakup, which was most active at ~750 Ma.

  19. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  20. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.

    PubMed

    Meier, J L; Mollet, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome. PMID:3728786

  1. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity. PMID:3787005

  2. A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following are…

  3. [Textual research on Huang shinüke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology)].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jianfang; Wu, Tong

    2015-07-01

    Huang shi nü ke (Huang's Obstetrics and Gynecology), a handwritten copy of the Ming Dynasty passed on by Huang Xiaoyou, Yuanyi and Huang Dongjiu, and sorted out by Huang Yanrong, was a family medical book of Huang's obstetrics and gynecology in Xin'an, being a summary of their clinical experience.There were altogether 44 chapters divided into 4 parts, including general introduction, general principle of treatment, discussions on prenatal conditions and qi acquired from the mother, and gynecological diseases in sequence, with the appendixes of pulse diagnostics for differentiating male and female, and the 10-month methods of protecting the fetus. PMID:26815029

  4. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  5. QIN. Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio, and pharmacokinetic modeling considerations in Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Huang, Wei; Rooney, William D.

    2012-01-01

    With advances in MRI technology, Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI is approaching the capability to simultaneously deliver both high spatial- and temporal-resolutions for clinical applications. However, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) considerations, and their impacts regarding pharmacokinetic modeling of the time-course data continue to represent challenges in the design of DCE-MRI acquisitions. Given that many acquisition parameters can affect the nature of DCE-MRI data, minimizing tissue-specific data acquisition discrepancy (among sites and scanner models) is as important as synchronizing pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. For cancer related DCE-MRI studies where rapid contrast reagent (CR) extravasation is expected, current DCE-MRI protocols often adopt a 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence to achieve spatial-temporal resolution requirements. Based on breast and prostate DCE-MRI data acquired with different FLASH sequence parameters, this paper elucidates a number of SNR and CNR considerations for acquisition optimization and pharmacokinetic modeling implications therein. Simulations based on ROI data further indicate that the effects of intercompartmental water exchange often play an important role in DCE time-course data modeling, especially for protocols optimized for post-CR SNR. PMID:22795931

  6. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  7. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  8. A Method of DTM Construction Based on Quadrangular Irregular Networks and Related Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    A new method of DTM construction based on quadrangular irregular networks (QINs) that considers all the original data points and has a topological matrix is presented. A numerical test and a real-world example are used to comparatively analyse the accuracy of QINs against classical interpolation methods and other DTM representation methods, including SPLINE, KRIGING and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). The numerical test finds that the QIN method is the second-most accurate of the four methods. In the real-world example, DTMs are constructed using QINs and the three classical interpolation methods. The results indicate that the QIN method is the most accurate method tested. The difference in accuracy rank seems to be caused by the locations of the data points sampled. Although the QIN method has drawbacks, it is an alternative method for DTM construction. PMID:25996691

  9. [Sprouting of forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, J

    1994-01-01

    Since there are materials relevant to medical jurisprudence in Qin Lu (law of Qin Dynasty), Feng Zhen Shi (sealed pattern of investigation) and Huangdi Neijing (inner canon of Yellow Emperor), and the examining system of Warring States Period include procedures, personnel and reports on examination of medical jurisprudence, it can be concluded that the pre-Qin Period saw the sprouting period of Chinese medical jurisprudence. PMID:11615229

  10. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

  11. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  12. Protection against aflatoxin-B1-induced liver mutagenesis by Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johan G; Quiney, Brendan; Walter, Patrick B; Thomas, Cynthia; Hodgson, Kimberley; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2005-10-15

    We have measured the inhibition of the mutagenicity of the mycotoxin aflatoxin-B(1) in the liver of the rat by plant material of Scutellaria baicalensis, or Huang-qin. The addition of one percent dried Huang-qin to the feed of the animals reduced the mutant frequency of a subsequent administration of aflatoxin-B1 by approximately 60 and 77%, respectively, for two different batches of the plant material. The addition of Huang-qin also increased the expression of the gene for glutathione S-transferase A5 subunit by 2.5-3.0-fold, and decreased expression of P450 cytochrome 3A2 by 1.8-2.0-fold. The greater increase of the expression of the GST gene may result in the protection shown by Huang-qin. The sensitivity of the hepatic mitochondria to swelling, a measure of the mitochondrial permeability transition, is increased significantly in animals that are on a diet containing Huang-qin. This may lead to increased sensitivity to apoptosis on treatment with toxic compounds. The two batches of Huang-qin material show differences in both chemical composition and preventive potential. This study demonstrates how a combination of generating and analysis of plant varieties together with a mammalian assay for efficacy may improve the search for better plant-based prevention of cancer initiation. PMID:16202794

  13. Quantitative Imaging Network: Data Sharing and Competitive AlgorithmValidation Leveraging The Cancer Imaging Archive1

    PubMed Central

    Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Freymann, John Blake; Kirby, Justin Stephen; Kinahan, Paul Eugene; Prior, Fred William

    2014-01-01

    The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), supported by the National Cancer Institute, is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods and candidate biomarkers for the measurement of tumor response in clinical trial settings. An integral aspect of the QIN mission is to facilitate collaborative activities that seek to develop best practices for the analysis of cancer imaging data. The QIN working groups and teams are developing new algorithms for image analysis and novel biomarkers for the assessment of response to therapy. To validate these algorithms and biomarkers and translate them into clinical practice, algorithms need to be compared and evaluated on large and diverse data sets. Analysis competitions, or “challenges,” are being conducted within the QIN as a means to accomplish this goal. The QIN has demonstrated, through its leveraging of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), that data sharing of clinical images across multiple sites is feasible and that it can enable and support these challenges. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) imaging data, many TCIA collections provide linked clinical, pathology, and “ground truth” data generated by readers that could be used for further challenges. The TCIA-QIN partnership is a successful model that provides resources for multisite sharing of clinical imaging data and the implementation of challenges to support algorithm and biomarker validation. PMID:24772218

  14. Sendai virus-mediated expression of reprogramming factors promotes plasticity of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Rafiqul; Suenaga, Yusuke; Takatori, Atsushi; Ueda, Yasuji; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kawana, Hidetada; Itami, Makiko; Ohira, Miki; Yokoi, Sana; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-10-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor that originates from multipotent neural crest cells. NB cell populations that express embryonic stem cell-associated genes have been identified and shown to retain a multipotent phenotype. However, whether somatic reprogramming of NB cells can produce similar stem-cell like populations is unknown. Here, we sought to reprogram NB cell lines using an integration-free Sendai virus vector system. Of four NB cell lines examined, only SH-IN cells formed induced pluripotent stem cell-like colonies (SH-IN 4F colonies) at approximately 6 weeks following transduction. These SH-IN 4F colonies were alkaline phosphatase-positive. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicated identical genomic aberrations in the SH-IN 4F cells as in the parental cells. SH-IN 4F cells had the ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers in vitro, but rather formed NBs in vivo. Furthermore, SH-IN 4F cells exhibited resistance to cisplatin treatment and differentiated into endothelial-like cells expressing CD31 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that SH-IN 4F cells are partially reprogrammed NB cells, and could be a suitable model for investigating the plasticity of aggressive tumors. PMID:26190440

  15. Sendai virus-mediated expression of reprogramming factors promotes plasticity of human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Islam, S M Rafiqul; Suenaga, Yusuke; Takatori, Atsushi; Ueda, Yasuji; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Kawana, Hidetada; Itami, Makiko; Ohira, Miki; Yokoi, Sana; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor that originates from multipotent neural crest cells. NB cell populations that express embryonic stem cell-associated genes have been identified and shown to retain a multipotent phenotype. However, whether somatic reprogramming of NB cells can produce similar stem-cell like populations is unknown. Here, we sought to reprogram NB cell lines using an integration-free Sendai virus vector system. Of four NB cell lines examined, only SH-IN cells formed induced pluripotent stem cell-like colonies (SH-IN 4F colonies) at approximately 6 weeks following transduction. These SH-IN 4F colonies were alkaline phosphatase-positive. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicated identical genomic aberrations in the SH-IN 4F cells as in the parental cells. SH-IN 4F cells had the ability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers in vitro, but rather formed NBs in vivo. Furthermore, SH-IN 4F cells exhibited resistance to cisplatin treatment and differentiated into endothelial-like cells expressing CD31 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. These results suggest that SH-IN 4F cells are partially reprogrammed NB cells, and could be a suitable model for investigating the plasticity of aggressive tumors. PMID:26190440

  16. Molecular Targets Laboratory

    Cancer.gov

    front row: Jason Evans, Heidi Bokesch, Emily Whitson-Whennen, Hee Jae Shin, Wendy Popplewell, Kirk Gustafson, Lauren Krumpe, Anne Powell*, Shilpa Kurian, Carrie Saucedo back row: Jennifer Wilson, Tad Guszczynski, Laura Cartner, Lana Crutchley, Alan Masche

  17. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... sure your child has—and consistently uses—proper gear for a particular sport. This may reduce the ... the rules of the sport. Wear appropriate protective gear (for example, shin guards for soccer, a hard- ...

  18. Diabetic Dermopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, ... on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

  19. Osteotomy of the knee

    MedlinePlus

    Osteotomy of the knee is surgery that involves making a cut in one of the bones in your lower leg. This can be ... surgery done on the shin bone below the knee cap. Femoral osteotomy is surgery done on the ...

  20. Extremal norms of the potentials recovered from inverse Dirichlet problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiangang; Chen, Shaozhu

    2016-03-01

    Consider the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem -y\\prime\\prime (x)+q(x)y(x)=λ y(x),x\\in [0,1],y(0)=y(1)=0, where q\\in {L}1[0,1], and its spectrum is denoted by σ (q). For a real number λ, define {{Ω }}(λ )=\\{q\\in {L}1[0,1] :λ \\in σ (q)\\} and E(λ )={inf}\\{\\parallel q\\parallel :q\\in {{Ω }}(λ )\\}. We will set up a formula for E(λ ) explicitly in terms of λ and specify where the infimum can be attained. As an application, we will give the extremal values of the nth eigenvalue of the Dirichlet problem for potentials on a sphere {L}1[0,1], n≥slant 1. The proofs are based on a new Lyapunov-type inequality for Sturm-Liouville equations with potentials.

  1. Integration of bacteriophage. lambda. into the cryptic lambdoid prophages of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lichens-Park, A. ); Smith, C.L. ); Syvanen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Bacteriophage lambda missing its chromosomal attachment site will integrate into recA{sup +} Escherichia coli K-12 and C at the site of cryptic prophages. The specific regions in which these recombination events occur were identified in both lambda and the bacterial chromosomes. A NotI restriction site on the prophage allowed its physical mapping. This allowed them to identify the locations of Rac, Qin, and Qsr{prime} cryptic prophages on the NotI map of E. coli K-12 and, by analogy, to identify the cryptic prophage in E. coli C as Qin. No new cryptic prophages were detected in E. coli K-12.

  2. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  3. Rhizobium ipomoeae sp. nov., isolated from a water convolvulus field.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chen, Zih-Han; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2016-04-01

    A bacterial strain, designated shin9-1T, was isolated from a water sample taken from a water convolvulus field in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomical approach. Cells of strain shin9-1T were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and surrounded by a thick capsule and formed cream-coloured colonies. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), with 0-3.0 % NaCl (optimum, 0.5 %) and at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Strain shin9-1T did not form nodules on a legume plant, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and the nodulation genes nodA, nodC and the nitrogenase reductase gene nifH were not detected by PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping gene sequences (recA, atpD and rpoB) showed that strain shin9-1T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Strain shin9-1T had the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with respect to Rhizobium daejeonense L61T (97.6 %). The major fatty acid of strain shin9-1T was C18 : 1ω7c. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and several uncharacterized lipids. The DNA G+C content was 58.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain shin9-1T with respect to recognized species of the genus Rhizobium was less than 70 %. Phenotypic characteristics of the novel strain also differed from those of the most closely related species of the genus Rhizobium. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain shin9-1T should be classified as a representative of a novel species, for which the name Rhizobium ipomoeae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is shin9-1T ( = LMG 27163T = KCTC 32148T). PMID:26739022

  4. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in Fú shuō fú yī jīng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zhŏu hòu băi yīfāng written by Táo Hóng-jĭng and Sūn Sī-miăo who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Suśrutasa hitā and 'Jīnzhēn-shù'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Suśrutasa hitā which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hitā. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna) or Lóng shù lùn and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn mentioned in Wài tái mì yào(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shàng dào ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lóng shù. Although Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this regard. Thereafter, Tài píng shèng huì fāng (Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) compiled by a national agency at the beginning of the Song Dynasty period introduced Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn without clear indication of the reference. Contemporary with this book, many ophthalmological books such as Mì chuán yăn kē lóng mù lùn(Longmu's Ophthalmology Secretly Handed Down) were published. As Chinese culture was spreading out into surrounding countries, medical knowledge was also introduced to Korean peninsula and Japan. The ophthalmological knowledge contained in Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was also reflected and some parts of it were introduced in I shin bō in Japan. Based on the policy decision of King Sejong, the fourth king of Joseon Dynasty, large scaled promoting projects of medical knowledge was established. It is notable that the Ui bang ryu chwi compiled as a result of the synthesis of the medical treatises available at that time initiated by King Sejong contained a considerable part of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn in reedited form that had already passed into oblivion in China. The intellectuals in Joseon Dynasty who participated in the compilation of Ui bang ryu chwi not only indicated that Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was a medical text published in the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties in China but also clearly indicated the textual reference and left the original text for later generation without modifying the contents. According to the Ui bang ryu chwi, the Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn indicated that the core causes of eye diseases were heat, winds, and three body fluids(trido a) and contained the analyses of symptoms, related treatments, and several analyses of wrong treatments. In addition, Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn explained diverse eye diseases through more than 30 medical treatments. In particular, this book accurately described golden needle acupuncture for treatment of a Nèi-zhàng understood to be cataract. Therefore, this book is a significant textual record in the history of ophthalmological medicine in East Asia. Along with the golden needle acupuncture which is a method of removing the crystalline lens in which white turbidity occurred by stabbing the eyeball with a needle, traces of Indian medicine that had been already lost in China were clearly indicated in Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn kept in the Ui bang ryu chwi. In particular, the book indicates that the eyes were directly correlated with the brain and that to treat the internal disorder, treating the brain that lost stability due to heat and bodily wind was indispensable; these are the traces of Indian influence. This textual source demonstrates a case of knowledge exchange in field of medicine with concrete cases of the encounter and clash between the standpoints of understanding human body. PMID:23695753

  5. China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

    These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

  6. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children

  7. Kakuna taibaiensis sp. n. and a newly recorded species of Dicranotropis (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae) from China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-Juan; Xie, Qi; Qiao, Li; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the delphacid genus Kakuna Matsumura, Kakuna taibaiensis Ren & Qin, sp. n. is described from Mt. Taibai in Shaanxi Province, China. Dicranotropis montana (Horvath, 1897) is reported for the first time from China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the two species are given. PMID:25349503

  8. 78 FR 55266 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892. Contact Person...). Contact Person: Wei-Qin Zhao, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific Review, National..., 2430 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20037. ] Contact Person: Kirk Thompson, Ph.D.,...

  9. Construction and use of saturated genetic map for identification of QTLs associated with disease resistance, oil quality, morphological descriptors, and yield components in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut production and consumer acceptability are adversely affected by several biotic/abiotic stresses and poor oil quality. In order to deal with these concerns, the developed genetic map from one peanut population derived from SunOleic 97R NC94022 by Qin et al. (2012) using 190 subset with 172 m...

  10. Gauge properties of the guiding center variational symplectic integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, J.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

    2012-05-01

    Variational symplectic algorithms have recently been developed for carrying out long-time simulation of charged particles in magnetic fields [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008); H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. Tang, Phys. Plasmas (2009); J. Li, H. Qin, Z. Pu, L. Xie, and S. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052902 (2011)]. As a direct consequence of their derivation from a discrete variational principle, these algorithms have very good long-time energy conservation, as well as exactly preserving discrete momenta. We present stability results for these algorithms, focusing on understanding how explicit variational integrators can be designed for this type of system. It is found that for explicit algorithms, an instability arises because the discrete symplectic structure does not become the continuous structure in the t →0 limit. We examine how a generalized gauge transformation can be used to put the Lagrangian in the "antisymmetric discretization gauge," in which the discrete symplectic structure has the correct form, thus eliminating the numerical instability. Finally, it is noted that the variational guiding center algorithms are not electromagnetically gauge invariant. By designing a model discrete Lagrangian, we show that the algorithms are approximately gauge invariant as long as A and φ are relatively smooth. A gauge invariant discrete Lagrangian is very important in a variational particle-in-cell algorithm where it ensures current continuity and preservation of Gauss's law [J. Squire, H. Qin, and W. Tang (to be published)].

  11. 77 FR 39500 - Center For Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ...: National Institutes of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Wei-Qin Zhao, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific... of Health, 6701 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: David...

  12. Correction: In situ study of the catalytic mechanism for the oxygen reduction reaction on a polypyrrole modified carbon supported cobalt hydroxide cathode in direct borohydride fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiying; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jiabin; He, Yan; Li, Zhoupeng; Yan, Shuai; Li, Aiguo; Yu, Xiaohan

    2015-02-01

    Correction for 'In situ study of the catalytic mechanism for the oxygen reduction reaction on a polypyrrole modified carbon supported cobalt hydroxide cathode in direct borohydride fuel cells' by Haiying Qin et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 9070-9074. PMID:25531556

  13. Identifying the Generation Gap in Higher Education: Where Do the Differences Really Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula; Qin, Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of incoming college students come complete with new technological skills and, seemingly, new expectations for learning. Yet how different are these students from the ones educators have encountered in the past? Under the auspices of Northern Arizona University's e-Learning Center, Paula Garcia and Jingjing Qin investigated the…

  14. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  15. ACL and differentiability of a generalization of quasi-conformal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. R.

    2008-10-01

    It is established that Q-homeomorphisms (in the sense of O. Martio) defined in \\mathbb{R}^n, n\\geq2, are absolutely continuous on lines. Furthermore, they belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1} and are differentiable almost everywhere for Q\\in L^{1}_{\\mathrm{loc}}.

  16. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P to...: EF=BOH QIN+(POH−BOH)QP where: BOH=average number of burner operating hours=104 h POH=average...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P to...: EF=BOH QIN+(POH−BOH)QP where: BOH=average number of burner operating hours=104 h POH=average...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix P to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Pool Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Pool Heaters P Appendix P to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. P Appendix P to... operating hours=104 h POH=average number of pool operating hours=4464 h QIN=rated fuel energy input...

  19. Effects of different sitting positions on skin temperature of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair. PMID:26355265

  20. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Crous) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora leucadendri (Cooke) U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora snelliana (Reichert) U. Braun, H.D. Shin, C. Nakash. & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; Typifications: Epitypifications - Pseudocercospora angolensis (T. Carvalho & O. Mendes) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora araliae (Henn.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora cercidis-chinensis H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora corylopsidis (Togashi & Katsuki) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora dovyalidis (Chupp & Doidge) Deighton, Pseudocercospora fukuokaensis (Chupp) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo, Pseudocercospora humuli (Hori) Y.L. Guo & X.J. Liu, Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lyoniae (Katsuki & Tak. Kobay.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora lythri H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora sambucigena U. Braun, Crous & K. Schub., Pseudocercospora stephanandrae (Tak. Kobay. & H. Horie) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pseudocercospora viburnigena U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercosporella chaenomelis (Y. Suto) C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Xenostigmina zilleri (A. Funk) Crous; Lectotypification - Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton; Neotypifications - Pseudocercospora kiggelariae (Syd.) Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lonicericola (W. Yamam.) Deighton, Pseudocercospora zelkovae (Hori) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo. PMID:24014898

  1. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  2. Bone pain as the presenting manifestation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S; Rowntree, C; Rudge, S

    1990-08-01

    A 31 year old fireman presented with acute pain and tenderness in both shins and forearms. Radiographs were normal but bone scintigraphy showed widespread increased isotope uptake. Serology was consistent with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis, and the patient's symptoms resolved completely six weeks after a course of penicillin. PMID:2396873

  3. Cultural Translation in Two Directions: The Suzuki Method in Japan and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Suzuki Method represents a significant contribution by a Japanese, Suzuki Shin'ichi (1898-1998), to the teaching of musical instruments worldwide. Western observers often represent the method as "Japanese," although it could be called "Western" with equal justification. Suzuki left no detailed description of his method. Consequently, it is…

  4. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  5. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  6. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  7. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of

  8. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  9. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and

  10. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they…

  11. Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin

  12. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.

  13. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…

  14. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  15. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they

  16. Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

  17. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  18. 78 FR 49255 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... & Steel Corp., Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., Tension Steel Industries Co., Ltd., and Yieh Phui Enterprise Co... Request for Revocation in Part, 78 FR 38924 (June 28, 2013). On July 25, 2013, Petitioner withdrew its... Corp.; (4) Tension Steel Industries Co., Ltd.; and (5) Yieh Phui Enterprise Co., Ltd. This review...

  19. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE TO SULFATE PRODUCTION OF OXIDATION PATHWAYS AND CLOUDS AS PREDICTED BY THE REGIONAL ACID DEPOSITION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent investigations into the oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) in the aqueous phase have suggested that clouds play a major role in to production of sulfate in the troposphere (McHenry and Dennis, 1991; Hegg and Hobbs, 1981; Hegg, 1985; Shin and Carmichael, 1992). loud production of ...

  20. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Jeffries, S.J.; Hobbs, R.C.; Bowlby, C.E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  1. Reinstatement of Distantasca Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) as a valid genus with new species and new combinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fletcher, Murray J; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Distantasca Dworakowska originally established as a genus but more recently has been treated as a subgenus of Empoasca Walsh. Here we reinstate Distantasca as a valid genus and provide a revised diagnosis. New combinations created are Distantasca atika (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca barawa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca bulbosa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latava (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latibasis (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., Distantasca paraterminalis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca riora (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca rokasa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca serratipenis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca tiaca (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tna (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tuberculata (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., all from Empoasca (Distantasca). Distantasca terminalis (Distant) and D. faciata Dworakowska are reinstated from Empoasca (Distantasca). Two new species, Distantasca longihamatilis Zhang & Liu and Distantasca ricina Zhang & Liu spp. nov. are described and illustrated. Empoasca (Empoasca) smithi Fletcher & Donaldson, 1992 is transferred into the genus as Distantasca smithi (Fletcher & Donaldson). PMID:25283902

  2. [Try to talk about characteristics of Canggong in collection of medical records and the train of thought in diagnosis and treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Zhuo, Chun-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Zhi; Li, Rui

    2008-08-01

    Textual researches of the origin of medical records indicate that the medical workers in the Qin and Han periods had definite purpose for collection of medical records and show important position of Records of the Historian in developing history of medical records. Analysis on concrete medical records indicates that medical records of acupuncture and moxibustion in Zhenji in writing also formed a certain style and reflected doctors' some trains of thought in clinical diagnosis and treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion. PMID:18767590

  3. [Effects of exotic Larix kaempferi on forest soil quality and bacterial diversity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Jing; Dong, Mao-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2008-10-01

    The study on the soil quality and bacterial diversity under 8-30 years old exotic Larix kaempferi, native Pinus tabulaeformis, and secondary deciduous broadleaf forest stands in Xiaolong-shan Mountains of Gansu, Northwest China showed that the soil pH under different forest stands had no distinct variation, but soil moisture content was increased with increasing age of forest stands. Soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were the highest under secondary deciduous forest, followed by under L. kaermpferi, and P. tabulaeformis. However, the soils under different ages of forest stands had no obvious variations in their organic matter and nitrogen contents, suggesting that tree species was the main factor affecting soil quality. Compared with P. tabulaeformis, exotic L. kaempferi could significantly increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. PCR-DGGE banding patterns suggested that the soil under secondary deciduous broadleaf forest had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by under L. kaempferi, and P. tabulaeformis. The sequenced DGGE bands were classified into three bacterial groups, i. e., Proteobacteria, Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides, and high G + C content gram-positive type, among which, Proteobacteria occurred most frequently. Further detailed analyses suggested that the soil bacterial compositions under exotic Larix stands were more similar to each other than those under pine and secondary deciduous broadleaf forests. It was concluded that exotic L. kaempferi induced the changes of microbial diversity in the forest soils of this region. PMID:19123342

  4. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy matters such as the BPA direct sale of energy proposal, identify key business opportunities like charcoal production and train QIN members in business building, and establish a renewable energy education program and center to enhance the education of QIN youth and market to schools and community colleges in Western Washington. Overall, this final report includes the final Renewable Energy Plan for the QIN, the final Financial Analysis, and appendices. The two final plans are the culmination of research and planning represented by the appendices.

  5. Intergenerational cultural dissonance in parent-adolescent relationships among Chinese and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K

    2011-03-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps. The authors of the study examined the associations of such generational gaps with adolescents' behavioral problems and whether youth's appreciation of Chinese parent-adolescent relationships (parental devotion, sacrifice, thoughtfulness, and guan) described by the notion of qin would moderate the relationship between discrepancies and youth's adjustment. A total of 634 high school students (M = 15.97 years; 95 and 154 first- and second-generation Chinese American respectively, and 385 European Americans) completed measures of parental warmth, parent-adolescent open communication, qin, and psychological adjustment. The U.S.-born Chinese American adolescents' ideals exceeded perceptions of parents' warmth and open communication to a greater degree than it did for European American adolescents (ps < 0.05). Such discrepancies in parental warmth were related to greater internalizing symptoms for second-generation Chinese American youth than for their European American peers. In addition, for second-generation Chinese, their perceptions of qin, particularly parents' devotion and sacrifice, had stronger moderating effects, diminishing the associations between generational cultural gaps and youth's behavioral problems compared with those of European American and first-generation Chinese youth. Parental thoughtfulness also played a similar beneficial role, but did so for all youth. PMID:21219066

  6. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jesus

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  7. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement with simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices

  8. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Neville C.

    2012-04-01

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ˜50-60 GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement with simulation data. These micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices.

  9. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  10. Nylon friction dermatitis: A distinct subset of macular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Somani, V K; Hari, S; Sita, V N; Razvi, F

    1995-01-01

    43 patients were taken up for the study, all of whom were asymptomatic and presented with bluish black pigmentation. 23 patients presented with pigmentation which was proximal and distal to the bony prominences, all of whom gave a history of using nylon scrubbers during bathing. 20 patients gave no history of friction and the pigmentation was present on the extensor forearms, shins and upper back. Histopathological examination confirmed amyloid deposits. PMID:20952929

  11. β4-integrin-mediated cytotoxic activity of AexU in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Masafumi; Miyake, Hideaki; Abolghait, Said K; Behnsawy, Hosny M; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the cytotoxic activity of AexU, an effector-mediating type three secretion system (TTSS) of gram-negative bacteria, in human prostate cancer cells, focusing on the association with β4-integrin expression. The cytotoxic effects of AexU either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated using several human prostate cancer cell lines. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which an expression vector containing siRNA targeting β4-integrin had been introduced, were established (PC3/sh-In), and the cytotoxic effects of AexU on the PC3/sh-In cells were compared with the PC3 cells that were transfected with a control vector (PC3/C). The expression levels of β4-integrin in the PC3 cells were markedly higher compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells, and the cytotoxic effects of AexU in the PC3 cells were more pronounced compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells. The sensitivity of the PC3 cells to docetaxel and cisplatin was significantly enhanced following treatment with AexU, resulting in a decrease in the IC50 of the two agents by ~90%. The cytotoxic effect of AexU in the PC3/C cells was more marked compared with that in the PC3/sh-In cells, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the PC3/C cells appeared to be significantly more inhibited by the treatment with AexU compared with the PC3/sh-In cells. In conclusion, treatment with AexU may be a useful therapeutic option for prostate cancer when β4-integrin is overexpressed. The treatment appears to exert its effects through growth inhibition and by enhancing the sensitivity of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24179545

  12. Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, J.Z.; Nakashima, C.; Nishikawa, J.; Shin, H.-D.; Park, J.-H.; Jama, A.N.; Groenewald, M.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Cercospora coniogrammes Crous & R.G. Shivas, Cercospora delaireae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora euphorbiae-sieboldianae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora pileicola C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora vignigena C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin. Typifications: epitypifications - Cercospora alchemillicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Cercospora althaeina Sacc., Cercospora armoraciae Sacc., Cercospora corchori Sawada, Cercospora mercurialis Pass., Cercospora olivascens Sacc., Cercospora violae Sacc.; neotypifications - Cercospora fagopyri N. Nakata & S. Takim., Cercospora sojina Hara. PMID:24014899

  13. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

  14. The Beta-2 Relievor: a source of therapeutic galvanic current. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, John CP

    1984-01-01

    Galvanic current has been used in the relief of pain and inflammation since the 19th century. Two techniques for applying the current have traditionally been employed. A third technique, using the Beta-2 Relievor as the source of current, has been recently proposed. A case of chronic shin-splint is presented to illustrate use of the Beta-2 unit. ImagesFigure 3

  15. Quantitative SHINERS analysis of temporal changes in the passive layer at a gold electrode surface in a thiosulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott R; Leitch, J Jay; Zhou, Chunqing; Mirza, Jeff; Li, Song-Bo; Tian, Xiang-Dong; Huang, Yi-Fan; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Baron, Janet Y; Choi, Yeonuk; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Shell-isolated gold nanoparticles (SHINs) were employed to record shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectra (SHINERS) of a passive layer formed at a gold surface during gold leaching from thiosulfate solutions. The (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and a sodium silicate solution were used to coat gold nanoparticles with a protective silica layer. This protective silica layer prevented interactions between the thiosulfate electrolyte and the gold core of the SHINs when the SHINs-modified gold electrode was immersed into the thiosulfate lixiviant. The SHINERS spectra of the passive layer, formed from thiosulfate decomposition, contained bands indicative of hydrolyzed APTES. We have demonstrated how to exploit the presence of these APTES bands as an internal standard to compensate for fluctuations of the surface enhancement of the electric field of the photon. We have also developed a procedure that allows for removal of the interfering APTES bands from the SHINERS spectra. These methodological advancements have enabled us to identify the species forming the passive layer and to determine that the formation of elemental sulfur, cyclo-S8, and polymeric sulfur chains is responsible for inhibition of gold dissolution in oxygen rich thiosulfate solutions. PMID:25751526

  16. Surface analysis using shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Feng; Tian, Xiang Dong; Li, Song Bo; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi Lin; Ding, Yong; Wu, Yuan Fei; Zeng, Yong Ming; Chen, Qi Zhen; Ren, Bin; Wang, Zhong Lin; Tian, Zhong Qun

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful fingerprint vibrational spectroscopy with a single-molecule detection limit, but its applications are generally restricted to 'free-electron-like' metal substrates such as Au, Ag and Cu nanostructures. We have invented a shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique, using Au-core silica-shell nanoparticles (Au@SiO(2) NPs), which makes SERS universally applicable to surfaces with any composition and any morphology. This protocol describes how to prepare shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) with different well-controlled core sizes (55 and 120 nm), shapes (nanospheres, nanorods and nanocubes) and shell thicknesses (1-20 nm). It then describes how to apply SHINs to Pt and Au single-crystal surfaces with different facets in an electrochemical environment, on Si wafer surfaces adsorbed with hydrogen, on ZnO nanorods, and on living bacteria and fruit. With this method, SHINs can be prepared for use in ~3 h, and each subsequent procedure for SHINERS measurement requires 1-2 h. PMID:23237829

  17. 3D Slicer as an image computing platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open-source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

  18. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer. PMID:22770690

  19. Twiss parameters and beam matrix formulation of generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled transverse beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Moses; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; /Princeton U., Plasma Physics Lab.

    2010-07-01

    Courant-Snyder (CS) theory for one degree of freedom has recently been generalized by Qin and Davidson to the case of coupled transverse dynamics with two degrees of freedom. The generalized theory has four basic components of the original CS theory, i.e., the envelope equation, phase advance, transfer matrix, and the CS invariant, all of which have their counterparts in the original CS theory with remarkably similar expressions and physical meanings. In this brief communication, we further extend this remarkable similarity between the original and generalized CS theories and construct the Twiss parameters and beam matrix in generalized forms for the case of a strong coupling system.

  20. Nonlinear d--ta-f Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

    2002-05-07

    In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b} >> T{sub {parallel}b}). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigen frequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} = 0.

  1. Specialized Initiatives - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    CIP has sponsored a number of programs for specific purposes, using set-aside funds. Among these are Phase 2 N01 ProgramIn-Vivo Cellular & Molecular Imaging Centers (ICMICs) Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies (QIN) Network for Translational Research (NTR): Optical Imaging in Multimodal Platforms Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) The Interagency Council on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology (ICBIO) was developed as a means for developers of new imaging techniques to seek advice on the best way to proceed to commercialize their ideas, and Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

  2. [Passive SLF spectrum analysis for tracing the mining dynamic of CBM].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-bo; Qin, Qi-ming; Li, Bai-shou

    2011-07-01

    Exploration and development of the coal-bed methane (CBM) is very important to economics, environment and society. It is a key factor to trace and assess the process of the coal-bed gas mining dynamically for its efficient development. In the present article, based on the theory of natural resources super low frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detecting, the method that uses the SLF to trace the coal-bed gas mining dynamic is introduced. The field tests in 2007 and 2010 in the Qin-Shui basin, Shanxi province of China indicate that this method is efficient for the dynamic of the coal-bed gas mining. PMID:21942047

  3. Reply to 'Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2006-07-15

    In the preceding Comment [Jian-Zhong Du, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fu-Chen Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 016301 (2006)], it has been shown that in a quantum secret sharing protocol proposed in [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], one of the receivers can cheat by splitting the entanglement of the carrier and intercepting the secret, without being detected. In this reply we show that a simple modification of the protocol prevents the receivers from this kind of cheating.

  4. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China's initial political unification and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M; Nicholas, Linda M

    2015-07-28

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000-1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900-221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin-Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  5. A targeted strategy to analyze untargeted mass spectral data: Rapid chemical profiling of Scutellaria baicalensis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry and key ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Li, Ru; Song, Wei; Miao, Wen-Juan; Liu, Jia; Chen, Hu-Biao; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2016-04-01

    Structural identification of natural products by tandem mass spectrometry requires laborious spectral analysis. Herein, we report a targeted post-acquisition data processing strategy, key ion filtering (KIF), to analyze untargeted mass spectral data. This strategy includes four steps: (1) untargeted data acquisition by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/orbitrap-MS); (2) construction of a key ion database according to diagnostic MS/MS fragmentations and conservative substructures of natural compounds; (3) high-resolution key ion filtering of the acquired data to recognize substructures; and (4) structural identification of target compounds by analyzing their MS/MS spectra. The herbal medicine Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) was used to illustrate this strategy. Its extract was separated within 20min on a C18 column (1.8μm, 2.1×150mm) eluted with acetonitrile, methanol, and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The compounds were detected in the (-)-ESI mode, and their MS/MS spectra were recorded in the untargeted manner. Key ions were then filtered from the LC/MS data to recognize flavones, flavanones, O-/C-glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides. Finally, a total of 132 compounds were identified from Huang-Qin, and 59 of them were reported for the first time. This study provides an efficient data processing strategy to rapidly profile the chemical constituents of complicated herbal extracts. PMID:26952367

  6. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  7. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan; Qin Hong

    2011-05-15

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  8. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Qin, Hong; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan

    2011-05-01

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  9. Rock magnetic and grain size evidence for intensified Asian atmospheric circulation since 800,000 years B.P. related to Tibetan uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiao-Min; Li, Ji-Jun; Van der Voo, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and grain size studies of a thick loess sequence in the West Qin Ling (mountain range) show that loess deposition there began about 800 ka. The data reveal a progressively increasing coarse grain size fraction upwards into the Holocene. The averages of these coarse size fractions are higher than in the central Loess Plateau, which was apparently farther from the source area, and slightly lower than those of the western Loess Plateau and the eastern Tibetan Plateau, which were therefore closer to the source area. The coarsening and source area location suggest (1) that Asian air circulation may have changed and intensified at about 800 ka resulting in dust deposition in West Qin Ling; (2) that dust-carrying winds were driven not only by the Asian winter monsoon, but included also the westerlies and a winter monsoon caused by the Tibetan Plateau High, and (3) that intensification of all these air circulation systems continues to the present. Increased elevation of the Tibetan Plateau so that it reached into the cryosphere by about 800 ka and a subsequent persistent uplift of the plateau may have been the mechanisms to trigger a change and intensify the air circulation system. Moreover, this circulation shift and intensification, simultaneous with a shift in Milankovitch periodicity, may have contributed to large global climate changes such as the 15% increase in global ice volume at ca. 800 ka.

  10. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous micro- circulation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, 0 deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, 0 deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P < 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar-X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  11. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  12. In Vivo Stable Tumor-Specific Painting in Various Colors Using Dehalogenase-Based Protein-Tag Fluorescent Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.; Karassina, Natasha; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Lynch, David; Hoyt, Clifford; Levenson, Richard; Los, Georgyi V.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2010-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence cancer imaging is an important tool in understanding tumor growth and therapeutic monitoring and can be performed either with endogenously produced fluorescent proteins or exogenously introduced fluorescent probes bound to targeting molecules. However, endogenous fluorescence proteins cannot be altered after transfection, thus requiring rederivation of cell lines for each desired color, while exogenously targeted fluorescence probes are limited by the heterogeneous expression of naturally occurring cellular targets. In this study, we adapted the dehalogenase-based protein-Tag (HaloTag) system to in vivo cancer imaging. By introducing highly expressed HaloTag receptors (HaloTagR) in cancer cells coupled with an externally injected a range of fluorophore-conjugated dehalogenase-reactive sequences. Tumor nodules arising from a single transfected cell line were stably labeled with fluorescence varying in emission spectra from green to near infrared. After establishing and validating a SHIN3 cell line stably transfected with HaloTagR (HaloTagR-SHIN3), in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging studies were performed in live animals using a peritoneal dissemination model. The tumor nodules arising from HaloTagR-SHIN3 could be successfully labeled by 4 different fluorophore-conjugated HaloTag-ligands each emitting light at different wavelengths. These fluorophores could be alternated on serial imaging sessions permitting assessment of interval growth. Fluorescence was retained in histological specimens after fixation. Thus, this tagging system proves versatile both for in vivo and in vitro imaging without requiring modification of the underlying cell line. Thus, this strategy can overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of endogenous fluorescent proteins and exogenous targeted optical agents in current use. PMID:19514716

  13. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous microcirculation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  14. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  15. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described. PMID:15039267

  16. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  17. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica with sequential occurrence in a patient: report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rupley, Katherine A.; Riahi, Ryan R.; Hooper, Deirdre O’Boyle

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) and necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) are granulomatous diseases of undetermined etiology. Rarely, both dermatoses have been reported to occur concomitantly in patients. GA and NL are characterized histologically by areas of necrobiosis of collagen. The two diseases share some common characteristics, which may suggest that these dermatoses could occur as a spectrum in some patients or possibly share a similar pathogenesis. We report on a 67-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of NL on the anterior shins that later developed lesions of GA on the breasts, trunk, and wrist. We also review the literature and discuss the characteristics of patients with concomitant GA and NL. PMID:25692078

  18. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements. PMID:16494054

  19. Simplified variant of an optical chip to evaluate aggregation of red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toderi, Martín. A.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.; Castellini, Horacio V.

    2015-06-01

    Traditional techniques to evaluate the aggregation of red blood cells by optical methods require large sample volume and provide parameters that vary significantly from one method to another. A simplified variant of a chip system previously developed by Shin et al. (2009)1 based on light transmission for measuring erythrocyte aggregation is presented. Through a detailed analysis of intensity versus time curves, relevant information about erythrocyte aggregation and its variables is obtained. Parameters that provide more accuracy for the diagnosis of patients in order to have an immediate application in Clinical Medicine are proposed.

  20. [Regional and systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Baĭchev, G; Gorchev, G; Deliĭski, T

    1996-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin and Cisplastin was administered on ten patients with cervical cancer (IIB, IIIA, IIIB). On three successive days, five minutes after deep bilateral subcutaneous application of 100E Hylase in the medical surface of the lower third of the shin, 20 mg/msq of bleomycin was introduced slowly. The chemotherapeutic drug was absorbed by the lymph capillaries predominantly, and then transferred to the pelvic lymph nodes. Cisplastin was administered intravenously, at a dose of 50 mg/msq. Treatment was applied three times, third week. Remission was observed in 5 out of the 10 cases. PMID:9254558

  1. Effect of even and odd numbers of atoms in a condensate inside a double-well potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhu, J. L.; You, L.

    2008-07-01

    We study macroscopic quantum phenomena for an atomic condensate in a double-well potential as realized in recent experiments by Albiez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 010402 (2005)] and Shin [Phys. Rev. Lett 95, 170402 (2005)]. By keeping the leading correction in the usually adopted mapping to an anisotropic spin model, we find that the topological Berry phase, a parity effect due to the even and odd atom numbers of a condensate, can be observed in the tunnel splitting. Our investigation suggests a cleaner, perhaps significantly improved, alternative for observing macroscopic quantum coherence (MQC) in large spin models.

  2. [Using delta34S-SO4(2-) and Delta15N-NO3-, delta18O-NO3- to Trace the Sources of Sulfur and Nitrate in Lihu Lake Undergound Water, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Qiong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Fang; Pan, Mou-cheng; Yu, Shi

    2015-08-01

    To reveal the temporal and spatial variation pattern of groundwater chemistry in Lihu Lake and explore the causes for the change of water quality through analysis of sulfur isotope and nitrogen-oxygen isotope, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and protection of karst water resources. Several groundwater samples, collected from January to December in 2010 and May, October in 2014 were monitored to analyze the chemical composition of conventional water and the characteristics of delta34S-SO4(2-), and delta15N-NO3-. The results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical type of the underground water was HCO3-Ca type and effected by the seasonal precipitation and human activity, the temporal and spatial variation of the main cations was obvious. (2) The sulfur concentration in the underground river was slightly decreased since the operation of the sewage plant, however, the sulfur concentration was still high. The nitrate pollution aggravated in the year 2014 compared to 2010. Impacted by human activity, the concentration of sulfur and nitrate was higher in the upstream Nandan river, Layi cave and the midstream Liangfeng cave, and Gantianba than in the downstream Xiaolong cave. (3) The delta34S-SO4(2-) value ranged from -4.12%o to -0.93%o. It was inferred that the emission of sulfur oxides through burning coal resulted in the rainwater acidification, which input a large amount of SO4(2-) into the underground water in the form of acid rain. (4) The delta15N-N03- value ranged from 0.26%o to 11.58%o, with an average value of 7.61%o, the delta18O-NO3- value ranged from -2.33%o to 21.76%o, with an average value of 9.38%o. In combination of the composition analysis of nitrogen-oxygen isotope of nitrate, it was believed that soil organic nitrogen, manure and sewage were the main sources of nitrate in the groundwater and the main causes for aggravation of nitrate pollution of the underground water. PMID:26592016

  3. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the invited speakers, all the participants and organizing committee of the ICC3. I am pleased to publish the Proceedings of the Symposium 1 of ICC3. I hope that the papers contained in these Proceedings will prove helpful to Professors, researchers and students in improving the fields of Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials. Masatomo Yashima April 2011 Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

  4. A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Tibetan Plateau and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.

    2013-12-01

    In situ measurements are required to support the calibration and validation of satellite remote sensing of soil moisture. For this purpose, we established a dense monitoring network on central Tibetan Plateau to measure two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) at three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree) and four soil depths (0~5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 40cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, large soil moisture dynamic range and typical freeze-thaw cycle. The network consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 ~ 4950 m. Soil texture and soil organic matters are measured at each station, as auxiliary parameters of this network. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. As the highest soil moisture network in the world, our network meets the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products and for soil moisture scaling. The data is being publicized via the International Soil Moisture Network. Based on the soil moisture data, we have conducted studies to evaluate GLDAS output and remotes sensing products, and to develop soil moisture upscaling and data assimilation algorithms. References: Yang, K., J. Qin, L. Zhao, Y. Y. Chen, W. J. Tang, M. L. Han, Lazhu, Z. Q. Chen, N. Lv, B. H. Ding, H. Wu, C. G. Lin, 2013: A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Third Pole, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00203.1, in press Chen, Y. Y., K. Yang, J. Qin, L. Zhao, W. J. Tang and M. L. Han, 2013: Evaluation of AMSR-E retrievals and GLDAS simulations against observations of a soil moisture network on the central Tibetan Plateau, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50301. Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y. Y. Chen, W. J. Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C. G. Lin, M. L. Han, and H. Vereecken., 2013: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, Journal of Hydrology, 482, 92-104 doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.

  5. [THE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS FOR ULCERATIVE-NECROTIC DEFECTS IN CHRONIC ISCHEMIA OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY TISSUES, USING BIOTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS].

    PubMed

    Kirimov, V I; Barna, I E; Dryuk, N F; Dmitrenko, I P

    2015-09-01

    The results of treatment of 53 patients, suffering "unreconstructable" affection of the lower extremities (LE) arteries and ulcerative-necrotic defects in their distal parts tissues, were analyzed. In 33 patients (the main group) the allotted mononuclear cells fraction, the bone marrow and the plasm, enhanced by thrombocytes, were applied, using multiple injections along a perimeter and into the bottom of the ulcerative-trophic defect in combination with autotransplantation of the bone marrow aspirate into the ischemized tissues--the shin muscles; in 20 patients (the comparison group)--the autotransplantation of the bone marrow aspirate was accomplished into the ischemized tissues--the shin and the foot muscles. In terms up to 3 mo postoperatively a clinical improvement in the main group was noted in 25 (75.7%) patients, the bearing function of the LE was preserved in 90.9%; and in the comparison group--accordingly, in 8 (40%) and 70%. In 36 mo in the main group the bearing function of the LE was preserved in 75.7% patients, and in the comparison group--in 50%. Application of the biotechnological methods proposed in patients, suffering ulcerative-necrotic defects in chronic ischemia of the LE tissues, have promoted the angiogenesis processes activation, the tissues reparation and regeneration, the wounds healing, and the disease clinical course optimization. PMID:26817087

  6. Necrobiosis lipoidica: A clinicopathological study in the Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

    2013-01-01

    Context: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis that is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus. Most of the current knowledge about this entity is from western literature. Aims: This study evaluates the clinicohistological features of NL in an Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical features, associated comorbidities, and biopsies of all patients with NL over a period of one year. Results: Five cases of NL were seen during the duration of the study. The preliminary clinical diagnosis ranged from sarcoidosis to tinea incognito. The commonest clinical presentation in the Indian scenario was of asymptomatic erythematous to skin-colored plaques and nodules on the shins with or without central atrophy. The most common site of involvement was the shin (3 of 5 patients). NL was associated with Diabetes mellitus in only two cases, both of whom were male patients. On histology, various patterns of inflammation were seen including the palisading, interstitial, and mixed granulomatous infiltrates. One patient had sarcoidal granulomas in association with an interstitial pattern. Features seen consistently in all cases include perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates, and fibroplasia. Interstitial mucin deposition was not observed in any of the biopsies. Conclusion: The diagnosis of NL was missed in most cases due to the rarity of the disease, absence of concomitant diabetes, and atypical presentations. Histology was a useful tool in clinching the diagnosis. PMID:24350007

  7. Measuring nonlinear behavior in time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-12-01

    Stationary Test is an important test in detect the time series behavior since financial and economic data series always have missing data, structural change as well as jumps or breaks in the data set. Moreover, stationary test is able to transform the nonlinear time series variable to become stationary by taking difference-stationary process or trend-stationary process. Two different types of hypothesis testing of stationary tests that are Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test are examine in this paper to describe the properties of the time series variables in financial model. Besides, Least Square method is used in Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to detect the changes of the series and Lagrange multiplier is used in Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin test to examine the properties of oil price, gold price and Malaysia stock market. Moreover, Quandt-Andrews, Bai-Perron and Chow tests are also use to detect the existence of break in the data series. The monthly index data are ranging from December 1989 until May 2012. Result is shown that these three series exhibit nonlinear properties but are able to transform to stationary series after taking first difference process.

  8. Radiation of anginal pain to the legs.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A

    1986-02-01

    Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes. PMID:3942655

  9. γ-PGA-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles with covalently attached prodrugs for enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular GSH-responsive release.

    PubMed

    Du, Xin; Xiong, Lin; Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Poor cellular uptake of drug delivery carriers and uncontrolled drug release remain to be the major obstacles in cancer therapy due to their low delivery efficiency. In this study, a multifunctional intracellular GSH (glutathione)-responsive silica-based drug delivery system with enhanced cellular uptake capability is developed. Uniform 50 nm colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with mercaptopropyl-functionalized core and silanol-contained silica surface (MSNs-SHin ) are designed and fabricated as a platform for drug covalent attachment and particle surface modification. Doxorubicin (DOX) with primary amine group as an anticancer model drug is covalently conjugated to the mesopores of MSNs-SHin via disulfide bonds in the presence of a heterobifunctional linker (N-Succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate). Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) can be coated onto the particle surface by sequential electrostatic adsorption of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and γ-PGA. The constructed delivery system exhibits enhanced cellular uptake via a speculated γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-mediated endocytosis pathway and controlled drug release capacity via intracellular GSH-responsive disulfide-bond cleavage, and thus significantly inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The multifunctional delivery system paves a new way for developing high-efficient particle-based nanotherapeutic approach for cancer treatment. PMID:25582379

  10. Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

    2014-08-01

    Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (p<0.05) in TVCs were observed at the flank, shin, brisket and neck. These differences can be attributed to possible deficiencies in the implementation of the HACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se. PMID:24769148

  11. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1α, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria neosaccardoi Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New combinations - Parastagonospora avenae (A.B. Frank) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phaeosphaeria papayae (Speg.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudocercospora domingensis (Petr. & Cif.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria unedonis (Roberge ex Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides pini-thunbergii (S. Kaneko) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina abeliceae (Hiray.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina azaleae (Voglino) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina berberidis (Niessl) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina betulae (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina cercidis (Fr.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina menispermi (Thüm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina musiva (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina oxyacanthae (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina patriniae (Miura) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina populicola (Peck) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina quercicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina rhabdoclinis (Butin) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria castaneicola (Desm.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous. Typifications: Epitypifications - Phaeosphaeria oryzae I. Miyake, Phaeoseptoria papayae Speg.; Neotypification - Hendersonia paludosa Sacc. & Speg. PMID:24014902

  12. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative imaging of the subsurface objects is essential part of modern geophysical technology important in oil and gas exploration and wide-range engineering applications. A significant advancement in developing a robust, high resolution imaging technology is concerned with using the different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic) sense the subsurface structure. A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data (electromagnetic and seismic) due to their differing physical nature - diffusive and attenuated propagation of electromagnetic energy and nonlinear, multiple scattering wave propagation of seismic energy. Recent progress has been reported in the solution of this problem by reducing the complexity of seismic wave field. Works formed by Shin and Cha (2009 and 2008) suggests that low-pass filtering the seismic trace via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach for obtaining seismic data that has similar spatial resolution to EM data. The effect of Laplace- Fourier transformation on the low-pass filtered trace changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from multi-wave propagation to diffusion. The key benefit of transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets seismic (Shin and Cha, 2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman 2008, Newman et al., 2010). Moreover the different data sets can also be matched for similar and consistent resolution. Finally, the low pass seismic image is also an excellent choice for a starting model when analyzing the entire seismic waveform to recover the high spatial frequency components of the seismic image; its reflectivity (Shin and Cha, 2009). Without a good starting model full waveform seismic imaging and migration can encounter serious difficulties. To produce seismic wave fields consistent for joint imaging in the Laplace-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

  13. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  14. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-01

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  15. [Analysis on length of meridians and ebb-flow of ying-qi based on ancient Shushu].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-Shi

    2008-08-01

    The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and expositions of foreigner scholars about ancient way of thought are consulted, and compared with the recordation about the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians in ancient medical books to probe into the relationship between Shushu and these recordation. It is found that the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians are completely conform with the principle of Shushu, i. e. the ebb-flow degrees of ying-qi and the length of meridians all are deduced from Shushu for building the close inseparable response relation between nature and humans. Because Shushu can not be verified, modern scientific methods are not suitable to the study on the ebb-flow of ying-qi. PMID:18767585

  16. [Analysis on theory of meridians and acupuncture manipulation based on ancient Shushu].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Lian-shi

    2009-10-01

    The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and related expositions of foreign scholars are consulted, and Shushu theory is compared with the recordation in ancient medical books so as to probe into the relationship between Shushu and theory of meridians together with acupuncture manipulation. It is found that the eleven meridians system is the mathematical foundation of Five Shu Poits, Yuan-primary acupoints and the acupoints of all over the body, and which plays an important role in the theories of TCM. The exterior-interior relationship between viscera and meridians and circulation of ying-qi can be executed on the establishments of twelve meridians system. Shushu can affect needling instrument, needling methods, contraindications, etc. The construction of the meridians theory is full of philosophical dialectics, and it has certain subjectivity but does not influence the ancients to observe physiological phenomenon of viscera and meridians generally. PMID:19873918

  17. The prevalence of mind-body dualism in early China.

    PubMed

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2011-07-01

    We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. PMID:21658101

  18. Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chih-Kang

    2010-03-01

    Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional limit is studied on ultra-thin lead (Pb) films down to two atomic layers, where only a single channel of quantum well states exist. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that local superconducting order remains robust until two atomic layers, where the transition temperature abruptly plunges to lower values depending sensitively on the exact atomic structure of the film. Our result shows that Cooper pairs can still form in the last two dimensional channel of electron states, although their binding are strongly affected by the substrate [1]. In this presentation, I will also discuss this new result in comparison with several recent experimental results on ultra-thin metallic films performed using local STS probes and macroscopic transport measurements.[4pt] [1] ``Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit,'' Shengyong Qin, Jungdae Kim, Qian Niu and Chih-Kang Shih, Science 324, 1314 (2009).

  19. An analogue of a theorem of Kurzweil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, David

    2015-05-01

    A theorem of Kurzweil ('55) on inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation states that if θ is an irrational number, then the following are equivalent: (A) for every decreasing positive function ψ such that \\sumq = 1^∞ \\psi(q) = ∞ , and for almost every s\\in R , there exist infinitely many q\\in N such that ‖qθ - s‖ < ψ(q), and (B) θ is badly approximable. This theorem is not true if one adds to condition (A) the hypothesis that the function q ↦ qψ(q) is decreasing. In this paper we find a condition on the continued fraction expansion of θ which is equivalent to the modified version of condition (A). This expands on a recent paper of Kim (2014 Nonlinearity 27 1985-97).

  20. Revivals in quantum walks with a quasiperiodically-time-dependent coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedzich, C.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    We provide an explanation of recent experimental results of Xue et al. [P. Xue, R. Zhang, H. Qin, X. Zhan, Z. H. Bian, J. Li, and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 140502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.140502], where full revivals in a time-dependent quantum walk model with a periodically changing coin are found. Using methods originally developed for "electric" walks with a space-dependent, rather than a time-dependent, coin, we provide a full explanation of the observations of Xue et al. We extend the analysis from periodic time dependence to quasiperiodic behavior with periods incommensurate to the step size. Spectral analysis, one of the principal tools for the study of electric walks, fails for time-dependent systems, but we find qualitative propagation behavior of the time-dependent system in close analogy to the electric case.

  1. Optimal decay rates of classical solutions for the full compressible MHD equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jincheng; Tao, Qiang; Yao, Zheng-an

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with optimal decay rates for higher-order spatial derivatives of classical solutions to the full compressible MHD equations in three-dimensional whole space. If the initial perturbation is small in {H^3}-norm and bounded in {L^q(qin [1, 6/5 ))}-norm, we apply the Fourier splitting method by Schonbek (Arch Ration Mech Anal 88:209-222, 1985) to establish optimal decay rates for the second-order spatial derivatives of solutions and the third-order spatial derivatives of magnetic field in {L^2}-norm. These results improve the work of Pu and Guo (Z Angew Math Phys 64:519-538, 2013).

  2. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  3. LANDSAT monitoring of Lake Erie for phycocyanin content in cyanobacteria blooms from 06/2006-10/2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Robert

    An algorithm for mapping phycocyanin content (PC) in lake water from LANDSAT TM satellite data was derived in the past from Western Lake Erie data for July 1, 2000, and found to be robust when applied to a withheld LANDSAT TM and in situ water data set for September 27, 2000 (Vincent et al, 2004). This same algorithm was applied to LANDSAT 5 data of Path 20 Row 31 (Toledo Frame) and Path 19 Row 31 (Cleveland Frame) in Western Lake Erie on overpass dates with less than 30 This work was funded by NOAA Contract Award NA06OAR4600197. Reference Vincent, R.K., X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J.Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, Phycocyanin Detection from LANDSAT TM Data for Mapping Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp 381-392, 2004.

  4. Reply to ``Comment on `Low-temperature lattice excitation of icosahedral Al-Mn-Pd quasicrystals' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuilian; Liu, Youyan

    2002-01-01

    In response to the comment by Wang and Qin, we have rewritten our equation (22) following the coordinate system of Ding et al. [J. Wuhan Univ. (Nature Science Edition) 3, 23 (1992)]. According to the thermodynamic stability condition and the experiment of Capitan et al., we have chosen the new parameters of the phason elastic constants. Based on this, we have recalculated the coefficients of the expressions on the vibrational denty of states and the specific heat of the icosahedral Al-Mn-Pd quasicrystal. Our results are still in agreement with the experimental data measured by Wälti et al. [Phys. Rev. B 57, 10 504 (1998)]. It demonstrates that our method is useful for dealing with the low-temperature vibrational excitation of icosahedral quasicrystals.

  5. [Dried meats and the provisions of poisonous dried meat recorded in Er nian lü ling (Statutes of the second year) on Han bamboo slips unearthed in Zhangjiashan].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-ming

    2007-10-01

    It was a common social phenomenon to process, to store and to consume dried meat in the Qin and Han Dynasties. But some dried meat was poisonous, which did much harm to people's health and even influenced the social stability at that time. A provision of poisonous dried meat in Statutes of the Second Year is the earliest statutes in ancient China on preventing and dealing with food poisoning now discovered. For the purpose of maintaining the social stability in early Han Dynasty, they stipulated the principles and methods of disposing the dried meat, and established the penalty standard for the breach of the dried meat disposing regulations, which has great significance in medical history and legislative history. PMID:19127843

  6. ydfD encodes a novel lytic protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hisako; Awano, Naoki; Inouye, Masayori

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria carry a number of genes that cause cell growth arrest or cell lysis upon expression. Notably, defective prophages retain many lysis proteins. Here, we identified a novel lytic gene, ydfD, on the Qin prophage segment of the Escherichia coli genome. YdfD lyses 99.9% of cells within 2 h of its induction. The co-expression of the upstream gene, dicB, encoding a cell division inhibitor, as well as sulA, encoding another cell division inhibitor, abolished YdfD-induced cell lysis. These results imply that YdfD-induced lysis is a cell division-dependent event. We further found that by deleting the hydrophobic 22-residue N-terminal domain, the resulting 42-residue C-terminal domain was still toxic to cause cell lysis. We propose that YdfD, associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, inhibits an essential cellular process(s). PMID:26887840

  7. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  8. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  9. Identification of landslide spatial distribution and susceptibility assessment in relation to topography in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianqi; Peng, Jianbing; Iqbal, Javed; Liu, Tieming; Liu, Na; Li, Yazhe; Ma, Penghui

    2015-09-01

    Landslides are among the most serious of geohazards in the Xi'an Region, Shaanxi, China, and are responsible for extensive human and property loss. In order to understand the distribution of landslides and assess their associated hazards in this region, we used a combination of frequency analysis, logistic analysis, and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis, with consideration of the spatial distribution of landslides. Using the GIS approach, the five key factors of surface topography, including slope gradient, topographic wetness index (TWI), height difference, profile curvature and slope aspect, were considered. First, the distribution and frequency of landslides were considered in relation to all of the five factors in each of three sub-regions susceptible to landslides (Qin Mountain, Li Mountain, and Loess Tableland). Secondly, each factor's influence was determined by a logistic regression method, and the relative importance of each of these independent variables was evaluated. Finally, a landslide susceptibility map was generated using GIS tools. Locations that had recorded landslides were used to validate the results of the landslide susceptibility map and the accuracy obtained was above 84%. The validation proved that there is sufficient agreement between the susceptibility map and existing records of landslide occurrences. The logistic regression model produced acceptable results (the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve were 0.865, 0.841, and 0.924 in the Qin Mountain, Li Mountain and Loess Tableland). We are confident that the results of this study can be useful in preliminary planning for land use, particularly for construction work in high-risk areas.

  10. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; <0.1 m/s air speed). Mean skin temperature was calculated from four local sites (neck, scapula, hand and shin) in accordance with International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (P<0.01), scapula (P<0.001) and shin (P<0.05); but not at the hand (P = 0.482). The largest difference (± SEM) at each site was as follows: neck 0.2 (0.1)°C; scapula 0.2 (0.0)°C; shin 0.1 (0.0)°C and hand 0.1 (0.1)°C. The largest potential error (mean ± SD) in weighted mean skin temperature was 0.4 (0.1)°C (P<0.001) and the associated 95% limits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. PMID:25774024

  11. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken important as a means of finding the origin of disease, while deploring how doctors then neglected to study. PMID:20098054

  12. Hawk migration over White Marsh, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackman, C.D.; Henny, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The average number of hawks observed per hour in autumn migration between 1951-1954 and 1958-1961 at White Marsh, Maryland, was compared. The counts indicated that the status of the ten species observed may be divided into three categories: (1) relatively stable species (red-tailed hawk), (2) declining species (sparrow hawk, red-shouldered hawk, osprey, marsh hawk, and broad-winged hawk), and (3) rapidly declining species (peregrine falcon, Cooper?s hawk, bald eagle, and sharp-shinned hawk). The findings from this study are in agreement with the available literature and the status of the populations appears to be related to the food habits of the species.

  13. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  14. Hepatic Fibrinogen Storage Disease in a Patient with Hypofibrinogenemia: Report of a Case with a Missense Mutation of the FGA Gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Venick, Robert; Bhuta, Sunita; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Hanlin L

    2015-11-01

    We report a 9-year-old patient with abnormal liver tests found incidentally during routine bloodwork as part of a preoperative evaluation for excision of a benign cyst. A liver biopsy demonstrated hepatocytes to have pale and expanded cytoplasm that contained multiple vague globular eosinophilic inclusions. Electron microscopy showed fingerprint-like structures in the dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, characteristic of fibrinogen. Whole exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense mutation at codon 35 of the fibrinogen α (FGA) gene. No mutation was identified in the β or γ chains. His plasma fibrinogen levels were found to be decreased to 85 mg/dL (normal range 215-464). His family history was pertinent for his mother and maternal grandfather with hypofibrinogenemia. He had not had any significant bleeding episodes except for minor bruising over the shins. This case illustrates a rare etiology of storage disease that causes abnormal liver function tests. PMID:26676819

  15. Magnetoelectric effects of laminated structures with particulate composite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2008-07-01

    We have investigated the magnetoelectric (ME) properties of laminated structures with piezoelectric and magnetostrictive particulate composite layers. Simple explicit expressions for the ME coefficients α33 and α31 of a bilayer comprising uniform piezoelectric and magnetostrictive lamina are first derived. They are then combined with our previously developed models for piezoelectricity (Wong et al 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 90 4690) and magnetostriction (Zhou and Shin 2005 IEEE Trans. Magn. 41 2071) of particulate composites, to obtain expressions for the ME effects of the final 'laminated particulate composites'. Theoretical calculations are discussed in relation to the published experimental data. Effects of the longitudinal and transverse magnetostrictions of the particles of the magnetostrictive layer on the ME responses of the overall structure are also examined.

  16. Two-dimensional dynamics of expansion of a degenerate Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazets, Igor E.

    2012-11-01

    Expansion of a degenerate Bose gas released from a pancakelike trap is numerically simulated under the assumption of separation of the motion in the plane of the loose initial trapping and the motion in the direction of the initial tight trapping. The initial conditions for the phase fluctuations are generated using the extension to the two-dimensional case of the description of the phase noise by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. The numerical simulations, taking into account both the finite size of the two-dimensional system and the atomic interactions, which cannot be neglected on the early stage of expansion, did not reproduce the scaling law for the peaks in the density fluctuation spectra experimentally observed by Choi, Seo, Kwon, and Shin [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.125301 109, 125301 (2012)]. The latter experimental results may thus require an explanation beyond our current assumptions.

  17. Design Issues Affecting Pipings Associated with a New Moisture Separator Reheater

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung-Keun, Kim; Jae-Kyoung, Cho

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes the piping design effects on a New Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) in Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SKN 1 and 2) being under the construction in Korea. This SKN 1 and 2 has the same arrangement of a Turbine-Generator set as one of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant Units ( OPR 1000 ) in commercial operation. The Turbine-Generator Supplier has developed a new Moisture Separator Reheater which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections respectively, at both ends of the shell side of the vessel in comparison to MSR of OPR 1000 which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections at only one end. The different locations of reheaters in MSR cause changes in the associated pipings such as 2. stage reheater heating steam, 2. stage reheater drain, shell drain, drain tank location and tank condensate drainage pipings. (authors)

  18. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  19. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  20. Sweet's syndrome associated with cellulitis - a challenging diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Cristina; Santos, Rui; Pereira, Teresa; Brito, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis with worldwide distribution that has been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, drugs, and pregnancy. The disease is idiopathic in up to 50% of patients. A 64-year-old woman, diagnosed with right limb cellulitis (4 days of evolution), was seen at our department, due to persistent cellulitis and progressive appearance of painful nodules and plaques in both shins and the right forearm (2 days of evolution). Taken together, clinical, laboratory and pathological data suggested the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome, probably secondary to cellulitis of the right inferior limb. We suggest that cellulitis may be associated with Sweet's syndrome, a rare association in the literature. PMID:26982787

  1. Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.

  2. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin et al. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis of keloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-β, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling. PMID:26802232

  3. Identification of a high-risk anterior tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    The patient was a deployed 34-year-old female soldier with a chief complaint of bilateral anterior shin pain for the past 8 weeks. Due to concern for a stress fracture, radiographic views of the bilateral tibia and fibula were completed, which revealed cortical thickening through the anterior midtibial regions bilaterally, consistent with stress reactive changes. Furthermore, a transverse lucency through the anterior cortex of the anterior right midtibial region was noted, which was consistent with a stress fracture. The patient was immediately placed in a short leg cast and was given strict non-weight-bearing instructions for gait. She was subsequently evacuated to her home duty station for consultation with an orthopaedic surgeon to determine if surgical intervention was warranted. This report illustrates the importance of identifying stress fractures considered to be high risk. PMID:21169720

  4. Electrical conductivity enhanced dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the effects of electrical conductivity of the constituents on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. The time-dependent internal electric fields are first derived, which can be induced by an applied ac field in dielectric measurement or stress in piezoelectric measurement. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the electrical conductivities and the frequency of measurement, which can be significant for ceramic/polymer composites possessing high conductivity in the matrix phase. The model provides an explanation to the surprisingly high piezoelectric d33 values reported by, e.g., Chen et al. [Sens. Actuators, A 65, 194 (1998)]. Explicit expressions for the transient and steady-state responses are given and the effective permittivity, d33, d31, and dh coefficients have been derived.

  5. Evolution of gout: “malignant” change over time?

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  6. Primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma: a rare skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Carla Natalie; Green, Ruth; Khan, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented to the plastic surgery outpatient department with a nodular lesion to her shin. This nodule had increased in size, but was slow growing. The patient had a history of sun-damaged skin. On visual examination, the lesion was thought to be a naevus or basal cell carcinoma. The nodule was excised. Histologically, the lesion was classified as a primary cutaneous myxoid spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma. Currently, there is only one other paper that describes this rare skin cancer. As a result of the histological findings, the lesion margin was further excised. The wound failed to heal as expected due to the patient developing a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. She is currently being closely monitored due to the unknown pathway the carcinoma may take. PMID:26472290

  7. Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed.

  8. Evolution of gout: "malignant" change over time?

    PubMed

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-10-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  9. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  10. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  11. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology – which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

  12. Experimental study of biological effects on canine bronchia by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meixiang; Bao, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bronchia by Nd:YAP laser with different power and irradiation time. Method: The canine bronchia were irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. We observed the effects of ablation and thermal coagulation of different laser settings. We evaluated the damage scale with naked eyes、microscope and electroscope. Result: The thermal coagulation is primary and ablation is secondary. The dose of perforation is 10w, 3s. The diameter of facula is 3mm.Conclusion: (1) The thermal coagulation is primary and ablation is secondary for Nd:YAP laser shinning on canine bronchia. The ablation and thermal coagulation effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bronchia is relevant to mean power and irradiation time.(2) Safety dose is less than 10w, 3s. The diameter of facula is 3mm.

  13. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. PMID:27013413

  14. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  15. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

  16. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  17. A fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray image and 3D CT images for TKA surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fumihito; O. D. A, Prima; Uwano, Ikuko; Ito, Kenzo

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast rigid-registration method of inferior limb X-ray films (two-dimensional Computed Radiography (CR) images) and three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT) images for Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) surgery planning. The position of the each bone, such as femur and tibia (shin bone), in X-ray film and 3D CT images is slightly different, and we must pay attention how to use the two different images, since X-ray film image is captured in the standing position, and 3D CT is captured in decubitus (face up) position, respectively. Though the conventional registration mainly uses cross-correlation function between two images,and utilizes optimization techniques, it takes enormous calculation time and it is difficult to use it in interactive operations. In order to solve these problems, we calculate the center line (bone axis) of femur and tibia (shin bone) automatically, and we use them as initial positions for the registration. We evaluate our registration method by using three patient's image data, and we compare our proposed method and a conventional registration, which uses down-hill simplex algorithm. The down-hill simplex method is an optimization algorithm that requires only function evaluations, and doesn't need the calculation of derivatives. Our registration method is more effective than the downhill simplex method in computational time and the stable convergence. We have developed the implant simulation system on a personal computer, in order to support the surgeon in a preoperative planning of TKA. Our registration method is implemented in the simulation system, and user can manipulate 2D/3D translucent templates of implant components on X-ray film and 3D CT images.

  18. Radial diffusion comparing a THEMIS statistical model with geosynchronous measurements as the outer boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hudson, M. K.; Chen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The outer boundary energetic electron flux is used as a driver in radial diffusion calculations, and its precise determination is critical to the solution. A new model was proposed recently based on THEMIS measurements to express the boundary flux as three fit functions of solar wind parameters in a response window, that depend on energy and which solar parameter is used: speed, density, or both (Shin and Lee, 2013). The Dartmouth radial diffusion model has been run using LANL geosynchronous satellite measurements as the outer boundary for a one-month interval in July to August 2004 and the calculated phase space density (PSD) is compared with GPS measurements at the GPS orbit (L=4.16), at magnetic equatorial plane crossings, as a test of the model. We also used the outer boundary generated from the Shin and Lee model and examined this boundary condition by computing the error relative to the simulation using a LANL geosynchronous spacecraft data-driven outer boundary. The calculation shows that there is overestimation and underestimation at different times, however the new boundary condition can be used to drive the radial diffusion model generally, producing the phase space density increase and dropout during a storm with a relatively small error. Having this new method based on a solar wind parametrized data set, we can run the radial diffusion model for storms when particle measurements are not available at the outer boundary. We chose the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) as an example and compared the result with MHD/test-particle simulations (Hudson et al., 2012), obtaining much better agreement with PSD based on GPS measurements at L=4.16 using the diffusion model, which incorporates atmospheric losses.

  19. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

  20. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on the public enterprise sites and the improvement of labor conditions for Korean laborers. PMID:25608504

  1. Initiation of Sprite Streamers from Natural Mesospheric Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are large, luminous electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere caused by intense cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. They manifest a possible, impulsive coupling mechanism between low atmospheric regions and the upper atmosphere. Their dynamics are governed by filamentary plasma discharges, of tens to hundreds of meter wide, known as streamers. The propagation properties of sprite streamers have been well studied by past work [e.g., Liu, et al., JGR, 114, A00E02, 2009; Liu et al, JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009; Luque and Ebert, Nat. Geosci., 2, 757, 2009; Liu, GRL, 37, L04102, 2010; Luque and Ebert, GRL, 37, L06806, 2010]. However, how sprite streamers are initiated is not well understood. Recent high-speed images show that mesospheric/lower ionospheric structures are frequently involved in initiation of sprite streamers [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., Surv. Geophys., 34, 769, 2013; Qin et al., Nat. Comm., 5, 2014]. Although earlier theoretical and numerical studies routinely used strong plasma inhomogeneities to initiate streamers, it is only recently that inhomogeneities are concluded to be required for sprite streamer initiation [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011; Liu et al., PRL, 109, 025002, 2012; Kosar et al., JGR, 117, A08328, 2012; Kosar et al, GRL, 40, 6282, 2013]. However, the inhomogeneities used in various models are rather ad hoc and often unrealistic. In this talk, we present numerical simulations to show naturally-existing mesospheric structures, such as those produced by gravity waves via instability and breaking [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003], can initiate sprite streamers under the influence of the measurement-inferred lightning field. Evidence from high-speed video observations supporting this theory is discussed. This mechanism naturally explains many aspects of observed sprite streamer initiation including variability in the delay of sprite initiation, sprites caused by weak lightning, optical signatures of streamer initiation, initiation of isolated streamers from different sites, etc. In addition, the dependence of the initiation process on the mesospheric structures can potentially be utilized to study those structures at sprite initiation altitudes, which at present are nearly impossible to be observed by other means.

  2. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, Ph. Guenter, S.; Koenies, A.; Pinches, S.D.

    2007-09-10

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) with analytical results, ideal MHD codes, drift-kinetic codes and other codes based on kinetic models are reported.

  3. Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Findings Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. Conclusions The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed the extracts can inhibit SRB, IB and TGB with moderate to highly efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes extracts potential to be used as bifunctional oil field chemicals. PMID:23816431

  4. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-04-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4'-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4'-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4'-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid-specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4'-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  5. RNA clamping by Vasa assembles a piRNA amplifier complex on transposon transcripts.

    PubMed

    Xiol, Jordi; Spinelli, Pietro; Laussmann, Maike A; Homolka, David; Yang, Zhaolin; Cora, Elisa; Couté, Yohann; Conn, Simon; Kadlec, Jan; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kaksonen, Marko; Cusack, Stephen; Ephrussi, Anne; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-06-19

    Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex that mediates biogenesis of secondary piRNAs in insect cells. Amplifier is nucleated by the DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa and contains the two Piwi proteins participating in the ping-pong loop, the Tudor protein Qin/Kumo and antisense piRNA guides. These components assemble on the surface of Vasa's helicase domain, which functions as an RNA clamp to anchor Amplifier onto transposon transcripts. We show that ATP-dependent RNP remodeling by Vasa facilitates transfer of 5' sliced piRNA precursors between ping-pong partners, and loss of this activity causes sterility in Drosophila. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the small RNA amplification that confers adaptive immunity against transposons. PMID:24910301

  6. Eventually Periodic Solutions of a Max-Type Difference Equation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; He, Qiuli; Liu, Xin-He; Tao, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    We study the following max-type difference equation xn = max⁡{An/xn−r, xn−k}, n = 1,2,…, where {An}n=1+∞ is a periodic sequence with period p and k, r ∈ {1,2,…} with gcd(k, r) = 1 and k ≠ r, and the initial conditions x1−d, x2−d,…, x0 are real numbers with d = max⁡{r, k}. We show that if p = 1 (or p ≥ 2 and k is odd), then every well-defined solution of this equation is eventually periodic with period k, which generalizes the results of (Elsayed and Stevic´ (2009), Iričanin and Elsayed (2010), Qin et al. (2012), and Xiao and Shi (2013)) to the general case. Besides, we construct an example with p ≥ 2 and k being even which has a well-defined solution that is not eventually periodic. PMID:25101315

  7. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4′-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4′-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4′-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid–specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4′-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  8. Calculation of the shangyuan jinian elapsed-year-since--grand-epoch of the kaixi calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. X.

    2007-01-01

    Gauss C.F. (1777-1855) pointed out in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) that linear congruences came from the problems of calendars: ``This usage arose in the problem of chronology when we seek to determine what Julian year it is whose indiction, golden number, and solar cycle are given.'' The Problem of Zhili Yanji (Design for a Calendar by Means of the Sexagenary Cycle) in Qin Jiushao's Shushu Jiuzhang ( Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections ) (A.D. 1247) recorded the design development of the Kaixi Calendar (1207-1251) which was the unique existent material recorded during this period of more than 1000 years when the algorithm of Shangyuan Jinian Elapsed-Year-since--Grand-Epoch used by ancient and medieval Chinese calendarists until A.D. 1280. It is devoted to restituting the full calculation of this data by analysising original thought on concept about linear congruences for the conditions of the Grand-Epoch, the cycle consonant principle, the concept of the Qiyuan Solar-period, the reason for the Ruyuansui Entry-of-Solar-period, the Dayan method and the counting process for the Yuansu Number-of-Solar-period.

  9. Q-colourings of the triangular lattice: exact exponents and conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Eric; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper; Salas, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    We revisit the problem of Q-colourings of the triangular lattice using a mapping onto an integrable spin-one model, which can be solved exactly using Bethe ansatz techniques. In particular we focus on the low-energy excitations above the eigenlevel g 2, which was shown by Baxter to dominate the transfer matrix spectrum in the Fortuin-Kasteleyn (chromatic polynomial) representation for {Q}0≤slant Q≤slant 4, where {Q}0=3.819 671\\cdots . We argue that g 2 and its scaling levels define a conformally invariant theory, the so-called regime IV, which provides the actual description of the (analytically continued) colouring problem within a much wider range, namely Q\\in (2,4]. The corresponding conformal field theory is identified and the exact critical exponents are derived. We discuss their implications for the phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic triangular-lattice Potts model at non-zero temperature. Finally, we relate our results to recent observations in the field of spin-one anyonic chains.

  10. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia). PMID:24774895

  11. [Characteristics of acupoint selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for vertigo in history: a data mining research].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Shou, Yi-Xia; Ren, Yu-Lan; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2014-05-01

    The data mining technique is adopted to analyze characteristics and rules of acupoint and meridian selection of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo at different time periods in the ancient. The data is collected from literature regarding acupuncture-moxibustion from the pre-Qin period to the end of Qing Dynasty, so as to establish a clinical literature database of ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo. Data mining method is applied to analyze the commonly used meridians, acupoints and special acupoints in different dynasties, also possible rules are explored. Totally 82 pieces of prescription of acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo are included. In the history the leading selection of acupoitns are Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Shangxing (GV 23) and Jiexi (ST 41) while that of meridians are mainly three yang meridians of foot and the Governor Vessel, especially the acupoints on the Bladder Meridian of foot yangming had the highest utilization rate, accounting for 23.04%. The acupoint selection is characterized by special acupoint, accounting for 80.6%, among which the crossing points are the most common choice. Distal-proximal acupoints combination is the most frequent method. The results indicate that the ancient acupuncture-moxibustion for treatment of vertigo focused on acupoints in the yang meridians, and the specific acupoints play an essential role in prescription; also the principle of syndrome differentiation and selecting acupoints along the meridians could be seen. PMID:25022134

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Zhang, Li; Long, Hongzhu; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Schmidt-Taenzer, Wolfgang; Genthner, Alexander; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use became popular worldwide. Treatment was perceived as safe, with neglect of rare adverse reactions including liver injury. To compile worldwide cases of liver injury by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database and searched for the items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, Traditional Asian Medicine, and Traditional Oriental Medicine, also combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury. The search focused primarily on English-language case reports, case series, and clinical reviews. We identified reported hepatotoxicity cases in 77 relevant publications with 57 different herbs and herbal mixtures of TCM, which were further analyzed for causality by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, positive reexposure test results, or both. Causality was established for 28/57 different herbs or herbal mixtures, Bai Xian Pi, Bo He, Ci Wu Jia, Chuan Lian Zi, Da Huang, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Huang Qin, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Xue Cao, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Jiguja, Kudzu, Ling Yang Qing Fei Keli, Lu Cha, Rhen Shen, Ma Huang, Shou Wu Pian, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Syo Saiko To, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, and Zhen Chu Cao. In conclusion, this compilation of liver injury cases establishes causality for 28/57 different TCM herbs and herbal mixtures, aiding diagnosis for physicians who care for patients with liver disease possibly related to herbal TCM. PMID:25536637

  13. Two-Dimensional Boron-Nitride Layers as Flexoelectric Nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, I.; Bratkovsky, A.; Ranjan, V.

    2009-03-01

    The direct conversion of ambient motion into electrical energy, especially at nanoscale, is fundamental and technological challenge. Boron-Nitride non-centrosymmetric monolayers are piezoelectrics that can sustain much larger structural and produce very large (a few Volts) voltage drop across flexed nanostrips. We show, with the use of ab-initio calculations, the existence of giant nonlinear flexoelectric effect in BN 2D strips. The induced polarization is quadratic in amplitude of atomic displacements A, yet the dipole moment per unit cell is about four times larger compared to PbZrTiO3 [1]. The resulting voltage drop across the BN nanostrip is set by bandgap in material Eg/q˜5 Volts and nearly independent of the strip width. The large voltage produced by this inert bio-compatible material may find a variety of applications and, in particular, as nanogenerators and sensors powered by an ambient motion or agitation. Prior alternatives, like ZnO, GaN and CdS, are leaky, generate much smaller voltage, and impractical [2]. [1] I.Naumov, A.Bratkovsky, V.Ranjan, arXiv:0810.1775 (2008). [2] Y. Qin, X. Wang, Z.L. Wang, Nature 451, 809 (2008); M.A. Schubert et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 316, 122904 (2008)

  14. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  15. Empirical processes with estimated parameters under auxiliary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genz, Michael; Haeusler, Erich

    2006-02-01

    Empirical processes with estimated parameters are a well established subject in nonparametric statistics. In the classical theory they are based on the empirical distribution function which is the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator for a completely unknown distribution function. In the presence of some "nonparametric" auxiliary information about the distribution, like a known mean or a known median, for example, the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator is a modified empirical distribution function which puts random masses on the observations in order to take the available information into account [see Owen, Biometrika 75 (1988) 237-249, Ann. Statist. 18 (1990) 90-120, Empirical Likelihood, Chapman & Hall/CRC, London/Boca Raton, FL; Qin and Lawless, Ann. Statist. 22 (1994) 300-325]. Zhang [Metrika 46 (1997) 221-244] has proved a functional central limit theorem for the empirical process pertaining to this modified empirical distribution function. We will consider the corresponding empirical process with estimated parameters here and derive its asymptotic distribution. The limiting process is a centered Gaussian process with a complicated covariance function depending on the unknown parameter. The result becomes useful in practice through the bootstrap, which is shown to be consistent in case of a known mean. The performance of the resulting bootstrap goodness-of-fit test based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic is studied through simulations.

  16. Wogonin preferentially kills malignant lymphocytes and suppresses T-cell tumor growth by inducing PLCgamma1- and Ca2+-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Sven; Fas, Stefanie C; Giaisi, Marco; Müller, Wolfgang W; Merling, Anette; Gülow, Karsten; Edler, Lutz; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min

    2008-02-15

    Herbs have successfully been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. However, their curative mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that Wogonin, derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), induces apoptosis in malignant T cells in vitro and suppresses growth of human T-cell leukemia xenografts in vivo. Importantly, Wogonin shows almost no toxicity on T lymphocytes from healthy donors. Wogonin induces prolonged activation of PLCgamma1 via H(2)O(2) signaling in malignant T cells, which leads to sustained elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) in malignant but not normal T cells. Subsequently, a Ca(2+) overload leads to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane. The selective effect of Wogonin is due to its differential regulation of the redox status of malignant versus normal T cells. In addition, we show that the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels are involved in the intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in T cells. Furthermore, we show that malignant T cells possess elevated amounts of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels compared with normal T cells, which further enhance the cytotoxicity of Wogonin for malignant T cells. Taken together, our data show a therapeutic potential of Wogonin for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:18070986

  17. Particle Simulation Schemes for High Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wei-Li; Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-10-01

    Numerical schemes for the electromagnetic particle simulations of high intensity charged particle beams have been developed. The purpose of devising these schemes is to avoid the numerical difficulties associated with the direct calculation of the time derivatives of the vector potential, partial A / partial t, in the Darwin model, for which the transverse induction current in Ampere's law is neglected. The first scheme requires the calculations of higher order velocity moments of the distribution function to obtain the time derivatives for both the scalar potential Φ and A, similar to the method used for shear-Alfven waves.[1] The second uses the canonical momentum P = p + q A/c in the equations of motion as a means to eliminate the troublesome time derivatives.[2] The use of these schemes for physics problems in heavy ion fusion systems will be reported. [1] W. W. Lee, J. L. V. Lewandowski, T. S. Hahm, and Z. Lin, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4435 (2001). [2] W. W. Lee, E. Startsev, H. Qin and R. C. Davidson, Proceedings of 2001 Particle Accelerator Conference 1906 (2001).

  18. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  19. Spatial profiles of methane at the Swiss Plateau: A confrontation between measurements and emission inventories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Buchmann, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Methane and carbon dioxide are the two most prominent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a detailed knowledge about their sources is essential for climate predictions (Solomon et al., 2007). The knowledge about greenhouse gas fluxes is usually merged, albeit including considerable uncertainties, to emission inventories. To increase the quality of the inventories a comparison with measurements is necessary. We evaluate the values given by a Swiss emission inventory with regard to atmospheric measurements of methane in Switzerland. Spatial profiles of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated at the Swiss Plateau during two consecutive warm and sunny summer days in July 2012. For the mobile methane and carbon dioxide measurements a LGR methane analyser and a LI-COR closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA) were mounted on a car together with an AIRMAR WeatherStation to track geodetic-coordinates and meteorological parameters. First results of the measurements including aerial profiles of the greenhouse gases and bin-averaged elevation profiles of methane and temperature will be presented and a highly-resolved methane emission inventory will be evaluated in comparison with the spatial profiles of atmospheric methane at the Swiss Plateau. References: Solomon, S., Qin D., et al. (Eds.) (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 S. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  20. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China’s initial political unification and its aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000–1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900–221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin–Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  1. Slicing and Binding by Ago3 or Aub Trigger Piwi-Bound piRNA Production by Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Bo W; Tipping, Cindy; Ge, Daniel Tianfang; Zhang, Zhao; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-09-01

    In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. Here, we report that RNA cleavage by Argonaute3 initiates production of most Piwi-bound piRNAs. We find that the cardinal function of Argonaute3, whose piRNA guides predominantly correspond to sense transposon sequences, is to produce antisense piRNAs that direct transcriptional silencing by Piwi, rather than to make piRNAs that guide post-transcriptional silencing by Aubergine. We also find that the Tudor domain protein Qin prevents Aubergine's cleavage products from becoming Piwi-bound piRNAs, ensuring that antisense piRNAs guide Piwi. Although Argonaute3 slicing is required to efficiently trigger phased piRNA production, an alternative, slicing-independent pathway suffices to generate Piwi-bound piRNAs that repress transcription of a subset of transposon families. This alternative pathway may help flies silence newly acquired transposons for which they lack extensively complementary piRNAs. PMID:26340424

  2. Analysis of acid rain effects on vegetation in eco-regions in China based on AVHRR/NDVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaobin

    2010-09-01

    The vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystems, is the main receptor of acid rain pollution. Because of the discrepancy of the vegetation characteristics and environment, the responses of the different types of vegetation to acid rain in different regions are different. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. The result shows that the most tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were positively correlated with the acidity of precipitation and the growth was inhibited obviously. On the contrary, the growth of temperate coniferous forests was promoted by acid rain to some extent. In generally, the vegetation in the condition of the weak acid rain grew better, especially the Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests and the Changjiang Plain evergreen forests. For South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forest, Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests and Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests, the significant difference of NDVI between the different gradients of acid rain lasted almost the whole year, while that of the other eco-regions only appeared most obviously in Winter.

  3. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  4. A New Approach to Modelling Water Flooding in a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution and migration of liquids in various layers of a PEFC is commonly modelled by the 3D flow equations. Given the fact these layers are very thin, there are major problems with such models, including heavy computational efforts and doubts in their applicability to the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL). Recently, a new approach for modelling multiphase flow through a stack of thin porous layers has been developed [Qin and Hassanizadeh, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 70 (2014) 693-708]. In this approach, which is called "reduced continua model", each layer is modelled as a 2D domain with governing equations in terms of thickness-averaged properties. This work is aimed to illustrating the advantages of the reduced continua model in modelling liquid water dynamics in a PEFC. In comparison to the Richards model, the reduced continua model predicts quite similar water dynamics in the micro porous layer (MPL), but lower steady-state water saturation in the GDL, particularly under the channel area. This is qualitatively in agreement with experimental observations in the literature. Finally, sensitivity studies of a few material parameters by the reduced continua model have been provided.

  5. On the form of ROCs constructed from confidence ratings.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2002-03-01

    A classical question for memory researchers is whether memories vary in an all-or-nothing, discrete manner (e.g., stored vs. not stored, recalled vs. not recalled), or whether they vary along a continuous dimension (e.g., strength, similarity, or familiarity). For yes-no classification tasks, continuous- and discrete-state models predict nonlinear and linear receiver operating characteristics (ROCs), respectively (D. M. Green & J. A. Swets, 1966; N. A. Macmillan & C. D. Creelman, 1991). Recently, several authors have assumed that these predictions are generalizable to confidence ratings tasks (J. Qin, C. L. Raye, M. K. Johnson, & K. J. Mitchell, 2001; S. D. Slotnick, S. A. Klein, C. S. Dodson, & A. P. Shimamura, 2000, and A. P. Yonelinas, 1999). This assumption is shown to be unwarranted by showing that discrete-state ratings models predict both linear and nonlinear ROCs. The critical factor determining the form of the discrete-state ROC is the response strategy adopted by the classifier. PMID:11911394

  6. First-Principles Study of Superconductivity in Ultra- thin Pb Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noffsinger, Jesse; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, superconductivity in ultrathin layered Pb has been confirmed in samples with as few as two atomic layers [S. Qin, J. Kim, Q. Niu, and C.-K. Shih, Science 2009]. Interestingly, the prototypical strong-coupling superconductor exhibits different Tc's for differing surface reconstructions in samples with only two monolayers. Additionally, Tc is seen to oscillate as the number of atomic layers is increased. Using first principles techniques based on Wannier functions, we analyze the electronic structure, lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling for varying thicknesses and surface reconstructions of layered Pb. We discuss results as they relate to superconductivity in the bulk, for which accurate calculations of superconducting properties can be compared to experiment [W. L. McMillan and J.M. Rowell, PRL 1965]. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR07-05941, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by the Lawrencium computational cluster resource provided by the IT Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231)

  7. Interaction forces between nanoparticles in Lennard-Jones (L-J) solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Indrajit; Mukherjee, Ashim K.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular simulations, such as Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) have been recently used for understanding the forces between colloidal nanoparticles that determine the dispersion and stability of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein we review the current status of research in the area of nanoparticles immersed in L-J solvents. The first study by Shinto et al. used large smooth spheres to depict nanoparticles in L-J and soft sphere solvents. The nanoparticles were held fixed at a particular interparticle distance and only the solvents were allowed to equilibrate. Both Van-der-waals and solvation forces were computed at different but fixed interparticle separation. Later Qin and Fitchthorn improved on this model by considering the nanoparticles as collection of molecules, thus taking into the account the effect of surface roughness of nanoparticles. Although the inter particle distance was fixed, the rotation of such nanoparticles with respect to each other was also investigated. Recently, in keeping with the experimental situation, we modified this model by allowing the nanoparticles to move and rotate freely. Solvophilic, neutral and solvophobic interactions between the solvent atoms and those that make up the nanoparticles were modelled. While neutral and solvophobic nanoparticles coalesce even at intermediate distances, solvophilic nanoparticles are more stable in solution due to the formation of a solvent shield.

  8. Baicalein prevents human prion protein-induced neuronal cell death by regulating JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hong; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-02-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform of the protease-insensitive isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein. Human prion protein fragment 106?126 [PrP (106?126)] contains most of the pathological characteristics associated with PrPSc. Although a number of compounds have been identified to inhibit PrP accumulation or dissolve fibrils and aggregates in vitro, there is currenlty no treatment available for these progressive neurodegenerative diseases. Baicalein, the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) Georgi (known as Huang-qin in traditional Chinese medicine) has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of baicalein on the development of prion diseases using SH-SY5Y and SK-N-SH cells in vitro. We found that baicalein protected the cells against PrP?induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction using ROS detection assay and MTP assay. We demonstrated that baicalein treatment regulated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by using western blot analysis and Annexin V assay. Our data suggest that baicalein has potential for use as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, including prion diseases. PMID:25435015

  9. GHz - THz plasmonic circuits using low dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Donhee

    2012-02-01

    Nature offers a broad variety of plasma systems consisting of electrons unbound from atoms, e.g.; astrophysical plasmas in intergalactic, interstellar, and stellar media; the Earth's ionosphere; and solid-state plasma, the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, only to name a few. A key feature of many plasma systems is collective motions of electrons; as the electron density profile is perturbed from equilibrium, Coulomb restoring forces (and sometimes quantum pressure in dense plasma) arise to power these collective motions, usually in the form of bulk electron density oscillations or electron density waves. Solid-state plasmas are particularly interesting, as the fabrication technologies available for solid-state materials allow us to alter the boundaries and interfaces of the plasma media in various ways to engineer the collective motion. A notable example is the surface plasmons, which have been a source of many breakthroughs in photonics. I will talk about a set of our recent developments where the plasmons are brought down to the electronics-regime (GHz˜THz) and manipulated to produce a range of functionalities, while offering unique advantages to electronics over their purely electromagnetic counterparts. (Co-workers) William Andress (Harvard), Hosang Yoon (Harvard), Kitty Yeung (Harvard), Ling Qin (Harvard), Ken West (Princeton), and Loren Pfeiffer (Princeton).

  10. Excess FoxG1 causes overgrowth of the neural tube.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Sara; Vogt, Peter; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-12-01

    The winged helix transcription factor FoxG1 (Bf-1, qin) plays multiple roles in the development of the telencephalon, with different parts of the protein affecting either proliferation or differentiation. We examined the consequences of over-expression, via retroviral expression, of FoxG1 on the growth of different regions of the chicken brain. Excess expression of FoxG1 caused a thickening of the neuroepithelium, and ultimately large outgrowths of the telencephalon and mesencephalon. In contrast, the myelencephalon appeared unaffected, exhibiting normal apoptosis and growth characteristics. A DNA binding defective form of FoxG1 did not exhibit these abnormalities, suggesting that these effects are due to FoxG1's function as a transcriptional repressor. To examine the means by which excess FoxG1 caused overgrowth of the brain, we examined alterations in cell proliferation and death. No increase in proliferation was noted in any portion of the neural tube, rather a significant decrease in neuroepithelial apoptosis was seen. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for winged helix factors in the regulation of neural cell apoptosis. PMID:14608667

  11. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making. PMID:26401812

  12. Coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two-dimensional kinematic wave theory for flood forecast in semi-arid catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.-L.; Chen, D.-H.; Li, Z.-J.; Zhao, L.-N.

    2011-08-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of semi-arid catchments, this paper aims to establish a grid-and-Green-Ampt-and-two-dimensional-kinematic-wave-based distributed hydrological physical model (Grid-GA-2D model) coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and two dimensional overland flow routing model based on kinematic wave theory for flood simulation and forecasting with using GIS technology and digital elevation model (DEM). Taking into consideration the soil moisture redistribution at hillslope, Green-Ampt infiltration physical method is applied for grid-based runoff generation and two-dimensional implicit finite difference kinematic wave model is introduced to solve depressions water storing for grid-based overland flow concentration routing in the Grid-GA-2D model. The Grid-GA-2D model, the Grid-GA model with coupling Green-Ampt infiltration method and one-dimension kinematic wave theory, and Shanbei model were employed to the upper Kongjiapo catchment in Qin River, a tributary of the Yellow River, with an area of 1454 km2 for flood simulation. Results show that two grid-based distributed hydrological models perform better in flood simulation and can be used for flood forecasting in semi-arid catchments. Comparing with the Grid-GA model, the flood peak simulation accuracy of the newly developed model is higher.

  13. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  14. An early Jurassic dextral strike-slip system in southern South China and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Ductile shear structure of the Guanging-Bobai fault belt in the SW part of the Qin-Hang belt, South China, has been investigated and interpreted in terms of radiometric dating data. A series of ductile shear zones occurs within the fault belt with deformation and metamorphic features indicative of formation under medium temperature and pressure conditions. The foliation such formed is steeply dipping and bears a gently plunging lineation, which along with the dextral kinematic indicators determines a broad NE-SW-trending dextral strike-slip regime responsible for the development of these shear zones. Field overprinting relationships indicate that this dextral shear is pre-dated by the Indosinian (P2-T) NNE-verging thrusting and post-dated by the Yanshanian (J2-K2) SE-verging thrusting, and thus occurred during a transitional period between the two orogenies. 40Ar-39Ar radiometric dating on muscovite from mylonites further constrains timing of the dextral shear to the Early Jurassic (187-193 Ma). Based on the coeval tectonic framework of eastern Asia, we propose here that the dextral strike-slip system was initiated by the far-field oblique stress field from the incipient subduction of the Izanagi oceanic plate. An offset continental margin of the South China plate may have been created in response to this transcurrent movement along the fault belt, dissecting and displacing not only a relict Caledonian foreland basin, but also an Indosinian magmatic belt.

  15. Human symbol manipulation within an integrated cognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R

    2005-05-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children learn to solve linear equations and perfect their skills over a 6-day period. Functional MRI data show that: (a) a motor region tracks the output of equation solutions, (b) a prefrontal region tracks the retrieval of declarative information, (c) a parietal region tracks the transformation of mental representations of the equation, (d) an anterior cingulate region tracks the setting of goal information to control the information flow, and (e) a caudate region tracks the firing of productions in the ACT-R model. The article concludes with an architectural comparison of the competence children display in this task and the competence that monkeys have shown in tasks that require manipulations of sequences of elements. PMID:21702777

  16. [Study on rules of acupoints selection for vertigo in ancient acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiana; Chen, Hua-De

    2014-04-01

    The characteristics of selection and matching acupoint and application rules of meridians in ancient acupuncture literature for vertigo were explored. The data were collected from literature regarding acupuncture for vertigo from the pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty and then database was established. Frequency statistics method and comparison of support degree were applied to analyze and explore application rules of acupoints and meridians, while association rules in data mining was used to extract combinations of acupoints. As a result, for treatment of vertigo, according to frequency of use and support degree, generally the most selected acupoints, in turn, were Fengchi (GB 20), Shangxing (GV 23), Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Shenting (GV 24), etc.; the most methods for matching acupoint were combination of adjacent acupoints, combination of same-meridian acupoints, combination of the superior-inferior acupoints, combination of yang-meridian and yang-meridian acupoints and combination of child-mother meridians acupoints; the most selected meridians were bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang and governor vessel. Compared between the ancient and modern literature, it was found out that the ancient and modern clinic has same points in selection of acupoint-meridian and matching acupoints methods. However, the use of Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41) and Feiyang (BL 58) as well as combination of child-mother meridians acupoints were less seen in modern clinic, which could provide new reference. PMID:24946637

  17. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

    2013-11-15

    Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant β-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area. PMID:24103096

  18. A peptide of the RGS domain of GRK2 binds and inhibits Gαq to suppress pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah M; Gao, Erhe; Cohen, Maya; Lieu, Melissa; Kurt Chuprun, J; Koch, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a critical role in cardiac function by regulating GPCR activity. GRK2 suppresses GPCR signaling by phosphorylating and desensitizing active GPCRs, and through protein-protein interactions that uncouple GPCRs from their downstream effectors. Several GRK2 interacting partners, including Gαq, promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, which leads to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of GRK2 interacts with and inhibits Gαqin vitro. We generated TgβARKrgs mice with cardiac-specific expression of the RGS domain of GRK2 and subjected these mice to pressure overload to trigger adaptive changes that lead to heart failure. Unlike their nontransgenic littermate controls, the TgβARKrgs mice exhibited less hypertrophy as indicated by reduced left ventricular wall thickness, decreased expression of genes linked to cardiac hypertrophy, and less adverse structural remodeling. The βARKrgs peptide, but not endogenous GRK2, interacted with Gαqand interfered with signaling through this G protein. These data support the development of GRK2-based therapeutic approaches to prevent hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27016525

  19. Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ku; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Huang, Chia-Hui; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2009-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction. PMID:19298708

  20. Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.

    PubMed

    Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

    2006-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

  1. Seismic activity of the East Sea, Korea offshore earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, E.; Park, S.; Hahm, I.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Korea is known to be relatively low compared to China and Japan. But it seems to be more active historically, according to historical documents on earthquake. The magnitudes of historical earthquakes were estimated to be about 4 - 6 by previous studies and there were several events with magnitude over 6. Instrumental earthquakes recorded in 1978 - 2012 seem to be smaller than historical earthquakes, according to the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) catalog. Their magnitudes are smaller than 4 in general. Although epicenters of instrumental earthquakes seem to be randomly distributed on the entire Korean Peninsula, some earthquakes occur intensively in several specific areas in the East Sea and the eastern region of Jeju Island. The areas having intensive seismic activity in the East Sea are offshore regions of Uljin (Region A), Yeongdeok (Region B), and Ulsan (Region C) from north to south. Eleven earthquakes of ML 2.0 - 3.2 occurred in Region A on April 2006. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 0.7 km. And the focal depths were in the range of 1.6 - 13.0 km (Kang and Shin, 2006). Kang and Shin (2006) propose that the sequence is closely related to the marginal geometry of the Ulleung Basin and the regional stress regime. Seven events with ML 2.1 - 3.0 occurred between September 12 and October 17 in 2007, and four events with ML 2.3 - 3.5 did between 07 December 2008 and 13 January 2009 in Region B. The relocations of eleven events greatly improved the epicenter locations that fall within an area with a radius of about 4 km. The relocated depths are in a range of 8 km to 14 km. According to Shin et al. (2012), the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution of the largest earthquake in the sequences implied that the earthquake sequences are closely related to the Hupo fault at the eastern margin of Hupo basin. The sequences have been considered to have swarm seismicity pattern. In this study, we analyzed the source parameters of 6 earthquakes occurred in Region C on February 19 - March 27, 2012. For analysis of this sequence, we used various data sets, including permanent stations of KMA and Broadband Seismograph Network (F-net) of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). For the hypocenter determination, 1D velocity structure (Chang and Baag, 2006) and HYPOELLIPSE (Lahr, 1980) were used. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 1.5 km. And the focal depths of earthquakes were in the range of 13 - 17 km, indicating shallow events. Using the equation of Tsuboi (1954), magnitudes were estimated to be 2.0 - 3.2. To understand fault movement of earthquake sequence, focal mechanism for the largest earthquake (ML 3.2) was analyzed. According to the result, this earthquake was a oblique strike-slip fault event along either a failure plane of strike 294°, dip 84° and rake 38°, or that of strike 202°, dip 51° and rake 169°. Considering the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution, the sequence in 2012 seems to be related to the Dolgorae Thrust Belt of complex structure. In these regions of A - C, micro earthquakes are observed persistently. Continuous monitoring and researches on these micro seismic events may be needed to understand the characteristics of seismic activity and fault movement in the margin of Ulleung Basin of the East Sea.

  2. Effects of support unloading on inhibitory processes in motoneurons pools of postural muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueva, Tatiana; Zakirova, Albina; Tomilovskaya, Elena

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of support unloading on characteristics of shin extensor muscles (m.soleus and m.gastrocnemius lat.) motor units` (MU) activity evoked by electrical stimulation and intensity of spinal inhibitory processes. Conditions of support unloading were reproduced by "dry" immersion (DI), that it seen to be is the most adequate ground simulation model of weightlessness [Shulzhenko E.B. et al, 1976]. The experiments were performed with participation of 10 healthy men of 20-27 years old. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. In the first one (control group) the subjects stayed in DI for 3 days without any other influences; in the second one (experimental group) in the course of DI the mechanical stimulation of soles’ support zones in the regimen of locomotion was applied daily for 20 min at the beginning of each hour for 6 hours per day [Kozlovskaya I.B., 2007]. MUs’ activity of shin muscles (mm. gastrocnemius lat. and soleus) was recorded with needle concentric electrodes during execution of the task of maintaining a small plantar flexion effort (not stronger than 7% of maximal voluntary contraction force). Single electrical pulses 0,1 ms duration were applied to n.tibialis during spontaneous MU activity. The duration of silent period (SP) following H-reflex response and presence of rebound phenomenon - an increase of MU activity at the end of SP, that is usually observed under normal conditions and reflects trace of inhibitory and excitatory processes in motoneurons pools, were analyzed [Person R.S., 1985]. Experiments were performed before, on the 2nd and 3d day of DI and on the 2nd day after its accomplishment. The Wilcoxon nonparametric criteria were used for statistical data analysis. Exposure to the conditions of support unloading was followed by significant decline of SP duration. The mean of SP duration in shin muscles before DI was 227±31,4 ms. On the 2nd and 3rd days of DI in the control group it decreased in m. soleus significantly (p<0,05) - reaching 117,6±23,8 ms and 100,1±22,6 ms, respectively. Analogous, but non-significant changes were observed in m. gastrocnemius lat. The rebound phenomenon in the course of DI in this group was not observed. In the group with mechanical stimulation of the soles’ support zones the duration of SP in m. soleus on the 2nd and 3rd days of DI remained close to that of control - 208,1±23,4 ms and 210,2±20,7 ms, respectively. Duration of SP in m.gastrocnemius lat. decreased too, but not as much as it was in the control group. The rebound phenomenon in the experimental group was also unchanged. Thus, withdrawal of support was followed by decline of strength of inhibitory processes that followed evoked responses. Under these conditions application of artificial support eliminated the described above effects. The study was supported by RFBR grant NN 13-04-12091-OFI-m and 11-04-01240-a.

  3. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to an experiment that is suitable for older students, Circles of Light--The Mathematics of Rainbows at http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/. Frederick J. Wicklin and Paul Edelman of the University of Minnesota note that this comprehensive lab is based on a module developed by Steven Janke. Go back to About Rainbows to link to a Java applet, allowing you to change the incident angle and color of light striking a water droplet. This great teaching device is from Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taiwan Normal University at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html. And while you are here in this site (choose English or Chinese), look at the more than 30 Java applets created by F.-K. Hwang at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/index.html. The interactive applet on Shadow/Image and Color is great fun, (http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow /shadow.html). From mixing colors, we can go to Thomas Chasteen's fine work at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html for an animation (and movie also) of how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). This colorful graphic, showing incoming parallel white light, is clipped from that monochromator animation. While you are here at this site at Sam Houston State University, look at the other great animations and movies, including a movie showing solution-phase chemiluminescence at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html. So now that we have explored the breaking down of light into its component colors, we need to also look at another process--polarizing light. Let's go to Science Media's comprehensive site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) to examine polarized light ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm). Of course, most sunglasses polarize light--bringing us back to the question of the rainbow again. Explore here for a while--appreciate the beautiful visible electromagnetic spectrum at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-visib.jpg. Great spectroscopy tutorials from Brian Tissue of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are found at Science Media's site. One of my favorite graphics ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif) reminds us of why light is electromagnetic radiation. But how to we actually see color? Go to the Access Excellence Classic Collection sponsored by Genentech, Inc. (http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/). From here, go to How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision at http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.html. Here are good graphics and explanations of the roles of rod and cone cells, and lots more! And marvel a little the next time you see a rainbow. World Wide Web Addresses About Rainbows http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan--Blue- Skies http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html Why is the Sky Blue http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml Patterns in NatureLight and Optics Activities http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml Circles of Lightthe Mathematics of Rainbows http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/ The Physics of a Rainbow http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html The NTNU Virtual Physics Laboratory http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /index.html Shadow/Image and Color http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow/shadow.html Thomas Chasteen's Chemistry-Based QuickTime Movies, Animations, and Streaming Audio http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html Tuneable Monochromator http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif The Chemiluminescence Home Page http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html Science Hypermedia Home Page http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia Polarimetry http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm The Visible Spectrum http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-visib.jpg Propagation Direction of Electromagnetic Radiation http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif Access Excellence Classic Collection http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/ How We SeeThe First Steps of Human Vision http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.html access date for all sites: April 1999

  4. Galactosyl human serum albumin-NMP1 conjugate: a near infrared (NIR)-activatable fluorescence imaging agent to detect peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Vinita M; Sano, Kohei; Yu, Zhanqian; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L; Ptaszek, Marcin; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-08-15

    Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM), and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it. hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by colocalizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 h of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1. We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity. PMID:22799539

  5. The effective latent heat of aqueous nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soochan; Taylor, Robert A.; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Phelan, Patrick E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions, popularly termed ‘nanofluids’, have been extensively investigated for their thermal and radiative properties (Eastman et al 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 457; Keblinski et al 2005 Mater. Today 8 36-44 Barber et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-13 Thomas and Sobhan 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-21 Taylor et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-11 Fang et al 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1736-42 Otanicar et al 2010 J. Renew. Sustainable Energy 2 03310201-13 Prasher et al 2006 ASME J. Heat Transfer 128 588-95 Shin and Banerjee 2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4 Taylor and Phelan 2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48 Ameen et al 2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44 Lee et al 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 1-4). Such work has generated great controversy, although it is (arguably) generally accepted today that the presence of nanoparticles rarely leads to useful enhancements in either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer. On the other hand, there are still examples of unanticipated enhancements to some properties, such as the specific heat of molten salt-based nanofluids reported by Shin and Banerjee (2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4) and the critical heat flux mentioned by Taylor and Phelan (2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48). Another largely overlooked example is the reported effect of nanoparticles on the effective latent heat of vaporization (hfg) of aqueous nanofluids, as reported by Ameen et al (2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44). Through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling supplemented with limited experimental data they found that hfg increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, for Pt nanoparticles (MD) and Al2O3 nanoparticles (experiments). Here, we extend those exploratory experiments in an effort to determine if hfg of aqueous nanofluids can be manipulated, i.e., increased or decreased by the addition of graphite or silver nanoparticles. Our results to date indicate that, yes, hfg can be substantially impacted, by up to ±30% depending on the type of nanoparticle. Moreover, in this paper, we report further experiments with changing surface area based on volume fraction (0.005 to 2%) and various nanoparticle sizes to investigate the mechanisms for hfg modification in aqueous graphite and silver nanofluids.

  6. In vivo imaging of intraperitoneally disseminated tumors in model mice by using activatable fluorescent small-molecular probes for activity of cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomohiko; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru

    2014-10-15

    It is difficult to completely remove carcinomas in unguided ablative surgery because they cannot be distinguished with the unaided human eye. Therefore, in order to precisely visualize tiny tumors and the borders between cancerous lesions and normal tissues, we have been developing fluorescence probes activatable only in cancer cells. We previously reported the hydroxymethylrhodamine green (HMRG)-based fluorescence probe gGlu-HMRG for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), which is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells, and we showed that it enables in vivo rapid detection of human ovarian cancer SHIN-3 nodules with a high tumor-to-background (T/B) fluorescence ratio in model mice. However, cancer cell lines with low GGT expression could hardly be detected with gGlu-HMRG. Here we developed two new HMRG-based fluorescence probes for the cathepsin family of cysteine proteases, including cathepsin B (CatB) and cathepsin L (CatL), which show increased expression and/or activity, secretion, and altered localization in many kinds of cancer cells. The developed probes, Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG and Z-Arg-Arg-HMRG, are colorless and nonfluorescent at the physiological pH of 7.4, but are hydrolyzed to HMRG upon reaction with purified cathepsins, resulting in a more than 200-fold fluorescence increase. These probes could visualize human ovarian cancer cell lines SHIN-3, SK-OV-3, and OVCAR-3, of which the latter two were hardly detectable with gGlu-HMRG. Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG showed higher applicability than Z-Arg-Arg-HMRG for in vivo imaging, and we confirmed that 0.5-mm-sized SK-OV-3 tumor nodules disseminated on the mesentery in a mouse model could be rapidly visualized by Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG, with a T/B fluorescence ratio of 4.2. Further, intraperitoneally disseminated tumor could be visualized in real time in vivo by fluorescence endoscopy after spraying Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG, with a T/B ratio of 3. In conclusion, our HMRG-based activatable probes targeted to cathepsins have expanded the detectable range of cancers, and appear to be suitable for clinical application. PMID:25196809

  7. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

  8. Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related phenomena, J. Fluid Mech. 31, 209-248. Shin, J.O., Dalziel, S.B. and Linden, P.F. 2004 Gravity currents produced by lock exchange, J. Fluid Mech. 521, 1-34.

  9. Measuring the risk of sustaining injury in sport a novel approach to aid the re-design of personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Velani, Nikunj; Wilson, Ollie; Halkon, Ben J; Harland, Andy R

    2012-09-01

    Despite the possibilities offered by new approaches in design and advances in materials and manufacturing methods, few items of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in sport have seen significant change for many decades. A major reason for this is the tradition and conservative attitudes associated with many sports, although the absence of appropriate tools and techniques to assist the design and development process has also played a large part. The aim of this study was to develop the first stage of a method of identifying specific regions of the human anatomy that are at the greatest risk of sustaining injury during participation in sports in which the player is subjected to multiple ballistic impacts. It is proposed that the findings could be used to confirm future designs of sports PPE. Previous studies have identified the amount and the location of the protection provided by current commercially available products but, until now, no evidence has been reported to determine what protection is required based on an understanding of the likely impact and the anatomy of the athlete. Using the leg and cricket as examples of an anatomical feature and a sporting application respectively, the severity and probability of injury due to ball impacts typically observed in play are quantified, with respect to their location on the leg, to estimate the level of risk in that region. Results show that the level of risk is greatest in the shin regions of the front leg, suggesting that this region should be offered the greatest degree of protection, as is generally the case in commercially available leg guard designs. Conversely, however, the inner region of the mid shin of the back leg is at the lowest risk, suggesting that protection in this region might be substantially reduced, a feature which is certainly not included in current product; such a reduction may significantly enhance the ergonomic performance of the leg guard design. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that the method offers the potential to quantify the relative risk of sustaining injury, in a sports specific application, as a function of location on the body and is thus a potentially useful design tool for design engineers of sports PPE. Given the embryonic nature of this approach, however, a number of assumptions and additional considerations is presented which reveal that, whilst the technique offers additional design insight, further research is required before it should be applied to equipment design. PMID:22245636

  10. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey-Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r2 = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from the isocenter during a fraction, and this variance increases with time, such that shorter fractions are beneficial to the problem of intra-fraction motion. As a consequence, fixed safety margins (which would over-compensate at the beginning and under-compensate at the end of a fraction) cannot optimally account for intra-fraction motion. Instead, online tracking and position correction on-the-fly should be considered as the preferred approach to counter intra-fraction motion.

  11. Sensitive ?-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on ?-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-?Gal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-?Gal sensitively detects intracellular ?-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1?mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. PMID:25765713

  12. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  13. The great medical imitator: a case of syphilitic osteitis in the setting of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Trevillyan, Janine M; Yap, Kenneth S; Hoy, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    A 44-year-old man with well-controlled HIV presented with low-grade fever, pharyngitis, frontal headache, abdominal and shin pain, and abnormal liver function tests 8 weeks after switching from zidovudine to abacavir (while continuing nevirapine and lamivudine). An abacavir reaction was the working diagnosis and thus his antiretroviral regimen was returned to the previously tolerated combination and he received 10 days of oral penicillin (500mg twice daily) for presumptive tonsillitis with significant improvement. A whole-body bone scan demonstrated multiple foci of increased patchy osteoblastic activity of the long bones and skull. Six months later during routine screening, a syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre of 128 was detected. Retrospective testing on stored samples demonstrated a first positive RPR at the time of symptomatic presentation. He received three injections of 1.8g benzathine penicillin on a weekly basis with a subsequent decrease in RPR titre and normalisation of the bone scan. Although syphilitic osteitis is rare, this case re-emphasises the importance of considering syphilis when HIV-infected patients present with unusual symptoms. The use of bone scan in this setting and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23557690

  14. Steady State Properties of Magnetron Sputter Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, C. H.; Shin, Y. K.; Park, J. S.; Lee, J. K.; Moon, Y. S.; Chung, T. H.

    1998-10-01

    Results of the particle simulation of a magnetron sputter are presented. By a kinetic code OOPIC, we obtain the spatial profiles of plasma density, potential, and velocity distribution-function along with the electron and ion temperature, the current density, and the deposition profiles at the substrate. The current density from simulation is compared with the Child-Langmuir law applied to the magnetron discharge ( K. Kuwahara and H. Fujiyama, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 22, 442 (1994).), and the global model ( H.J. Lee and J.K. Lee, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1, 35, 6252 (1996).) (J.K. Lee, L. Meng, Y.K. Shin, H.J. Lee and T.H. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl., Phys. Part 1, 36, 5714 (1997).) (M. Yoon, S.C. Kim, H.J. Lee and J.K. Lee, J. Korean Phy. Soc., 32(5), L635 (1998).) to estimate the steady state properties of magnetron sputter. When normalized to above Child-Langmuir law, the current density profile from simulation converges. The velocity distribution-function of electron is Maxwellian, but that of ions is non-Maxwellian near the cathode with majority in the energy range below 50 eV which shows the need for particle simulation.

  15. 2-D Simulation and Breakdown Characteristics of PDP Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. K.; Shon, C. H.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, W.; Lee, J. K.

    1998-10-01

    Fluid and hybrid simulations for PDP cell are presented and benchmarked by the comparison with a particle code OOPIC. Fluid simulation based on our previous code (J.K. Lee, L. Meng, Y.K. Shin, H.J. Lee and T.H. Chung, Jpn. J. Appl., Phys. Part 1, 36, 5714 (1997); ibid), 36 (5A), 2874 (1997). has an advantage of saving computation time, but it has an inherent assumption for velocity distributions. Kinetic simulation yields the ion energy distribution which plays an important role in secondary electron emission and MgO sputtering but it is not efficient computationally. Combining the advantages of fluid and kinetic codes, various hybrid methods using the Monte-Carlo collision are employed. The breakdown characteristics of PDP cells in various geometry are compared. The current absorbed at the dielectric above the anode electrode is linearly proportional to the applied voltage but the half width of the current pulse is not. If the cell voltage does not vanish after the discharge-turnoff, quasi-neutrality inside the cell does not hold.

  16. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  17. Isoniazid Induced Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis in Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Pott’s Spine): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    V, Dharma Rao; Rampure, Dilip; S, Rama Rao

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drugs frequently result in cutaneous adverse reactions but Isoniazid is known to have least toxic potential for cutaneous reactions. We report a rare case of Isoniazid induced cutaneous leucocytoclastic vasculitis. A 64-year-old male was diagnosed to have Pott’s spine with multiple vertebral body involvement (D8-12 vertebrae). Subsequently, he was treated with first line anti-TB drugs i.e., Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol. On the fourth day of treatment with Anti Tuberculosis Treatment (ATT), the patient developed an erythematosus rash over right upper limb not associated with itching or pain, non-blanchable macules and papules over bilateral shins on lower limbs, petechiae on both forearms and hyper pigmented, scaly rash over right axilla and buttocks. The skin biopsy report was consistent with cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Although rare, Isoniazid among anti-tuberculosis drugs should be considered as potential cause of drug-induced cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of erythematosus rash with petechiae. PMID:25302231

  18. Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Hislop, M; Tierney, P

    2004-09-01

    The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed. PMID:15518304

  19. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options. PMID:22341017

  20. Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome according to the Fascial Distortion Model: A Prospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Finze, Susanne; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS. PMID:25379543

  1. Elaborated 1H NMR study for the ligitional behavior of two thiosemicarbazide derivatives towards some heavy metals (Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III)), thermal, antibacterial and antifungal studies.

    PubMed

    el-Metwaly, Nashwa M; Refat, Moamen S

    2011-10-15

    A new series of heavy metal complexes are prepared. Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III) are the metal ions used in complexation with two thiosemicarbazide ligands. The IR and (1)H NMR spectra of the free ligands display their presence in thiole-thione forms coincide with each other. The IR spectra of the complexes support the presence of 2:2 molar ratio (M:HL) with HL(1) ligand and 1:1 beside 1:2 with HL(2). The ligand coordinates as bi molecules in some complexes and displays two tautomer forms at the same complex molecule (1)H NMR spectra of Sn(II) and Sb(III) complexes were done and comes coincide with IR data. The electronic spectral analysis displays a lower shift appearance in n→π* charge transfer band in most isolated complexes. As well as, a new band is shinned in visible region with Sb(III), Bi(III) complexes and Sn(II)-HL(2). This band is pointed to its use in spectrophotometric analysis for these metal ions. The TG analysis for all isolated compounds was briefly discussed. The molecular modeling parameters support the stability of thiole form of the free ligands in comparing with their thiones by a small difference. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were studied against some organisms and reveal the priority of most investigated complexes. PMID:21767980

  2. An injury profile of elite ironman competitors.

    PubMed

    Pen, L J; Barrett, R S; Neal, R J; Steele, J R

    1996-03-01

    An injury questionnaire was administered to the 30 elite ironman competitors (mean age = 25.7 +/- 4.6 yrs) participating in a commercially sponsored seven race national series. Responses provided retrospective data from the preceding three years indicating the type, location, frequency, cause and severity of injuries sustained by ironmen, and associated these injuries with particular race components (run, swim, board, ski). Twenty self-reported questionnaires were returned for analysis that described a total of 67 injuries incurred by 19 subjects. Results indicated the following: (i) the most frequently injured body parts were the knee (n = 18) and shoulder (n = 14) with the lower extremity accounting for 55% of all injuries reported; (ii) knee, shin and calf injuries had a significant association with the run component and upper extremity injuries had a significant association with the swim component; (iii) running was perceived to be the most injurious race component in terms of the frequency and severity of injury; (iv) overtraining was perceived to be the main cause of injury; (v) tendinitis was perceived to be the main type of injury; (vi) athletes adjusted their training mode to accommodate injury so that total training volume could be maintained; and (vii) injury did not result in withdrawal from competition. Further research investigating the techniques used in the ironman event and their relationship to injury is recommended. PMID:8742860

  3. Reliability and validity of instrumented soccer equipment.

    PubMed

    Akins, Jonathan S; Heebner, Nicholas R; Lovalekar, Mita; Sell, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90-98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention. PMID:25734398

  4. Primary, large extra-axial chordoma in proximal tibia: a rare case report with literature review and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat

    2016-03-01

    Primary extra-axial chordomas have been rarely documented, especially in the appendicular bones. Until now, nine such cases, objectively confirmed with positive brachyury immunostaining, have been reported. A 42-year-old male presented with pain in his right tibial tuberosity (shin) of 2-3 years duration without any associated swelling. He denied complaints related to any other lesion elsewhere in his body. Plain radiograph of his lower limbs revealed a large, eccentric, well-defined, lytic lesion containing internal septae with a narrow zone of transition and a sclerotic medullary border in the upper metaphysis of his right tibia, associated with a pathological fracture. There was no other lesion identified in his spine on radiographic imaging. Biopsy sections revealed a tumour composed of polygonal cells with moderate to abundant eosinophilic to vacuolated/'bubbly' cytoplasm (physaliphorous cells) arranged in lobules within a conspicuous myxoid matrix. By immunohistochemistry, tumour cells were diffusely positive for pan cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK19, S100P, meso (HBME1) and Brachyury/T. Diagnosis of an a primary extra-axial chordoma was finally rendered. Subsequently, the patient underwent bone grafting from his iliac crest. The present case constitutes as the 11th documented case of an extra-axial, intraosseous chordoma and the 10th such case occurring in the appendicular bones. Literature review of similar cases; their diagnostic mimics along with diagnostic and therapeutic implications of such cases are discussed herewith. PMID:26522887

  5. Role of glycine-534 and glycine-1179 of human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) in drug-mediated control of ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Szakács, G; Ozvegy, C; Bakos , E; Sarkadi, B; Váradi, A

    2001-01-01

    The human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) (P-glycoprotein), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, causes multidrug resistance by an active transport mechanism, which keeps the intracellular level of hydrophobic compounds below a cell-killing threshold. Human MDR1 variants with mutations affecting a conserved glycine residue within the ABC signature of either or both ABC units (G534D, G534V, G1179D and G534D/G1179D) were expressed and characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell membranes. These mutations caused a loss of measurable ATPase activity but still allowed ATP binding and the formation of a transition-state intermediate (nucleotide trapping). In contrast with the wild-type protein, in which substrate drugs accelerate nucleotide trapping, in the ABC signature mutants nucleotide trapping was inhibited by MDR1-substrate drugs, suggesting a miscommunication between the drug-binding site(s) and the catalytic domains. Equivalent mutations of the two catalytic sites resulted in a similar effect, indicating the functional equivalence of the two sites. On the basis of these results and recent structural information on an ABC-ABC dimer [Hopfner, Karcher, Shin, Craig, Arthur, Carney and Tainer (2000) Cell 101, 789-800], we propose a key role of these glycine residues in the interdomain communication regulating drug-induced ATP hydrolysis. PMID:11336637

  6. Pathological laughing as a manifestation in a clinically isolated brainstem syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocer, Belgin; Oner, Yusuf; Batur, Hale; Nazliel, Bijen; Cengiz, Bulent; Tali, Turgut

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of pathological laughing and crying in multiple sclerosis (MS) is 10%. It has been speculated that the anatomical lesion responsible for the pathological laughing is located in the pontine base, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum. We report an 18-year-old male patient presenting with pathological laughing and hypomania. In his neurological examination, he had a euphoric effect with ataxic walking and dysarthria speech. He had a bilateral conjugated gaze limitation, with a prominent bilateral horizontal nystagmus on left gaze, dysmetria, dysdiadokokinesia, and remarkable dysfunction in a heel-to-shin test on the left. The IgG index in cerebrospinal fluid was normal with an oligoclonal band was present. In cranial MRI, there was a lesion on central pons which was hypointense in T1 images with contrast enhancement and hyperintense in T2 and flair images. Also another lesion in right brachium pontis which did not contrast enhancement but was hyperintense on T2 and flair images was present. There was an elevation of myoinositol/creatine ratio and choline and a reduction of NAA in proton MR spectroscopy. MR spectroscopic evaluation of the patient demonstrated the demyelination process. There has been no report of patients in whom pathological laughter was the presenting symptom of clinically isolated brainstem syndrome. PMID:18826440

  7. Palmoplantar Keratoderma as a Variant of Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Aggarwal, Ashok; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Rasool, Farhan; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old air conditioner mechanic presented with progressively itchy grayish white eruptions affecting the skin and mucous membranes, including his palms and soles for the past 2 months. The inner aspects of the palms and weight-bearing areas of the soles were the initial sites of presentation, resulting in a diffuse thickness of the palms and soles, which inhibited his everyday activity. The eruptions were asymptomatic but conspicuous. There was marked presence of multiple erythematous to grayish white (violaceous) flat-topped polygonal papules of varying sizes, with a few coalescing to form plaques. The papules varied in size from 5 mm to 4 cm and had prominent adherent scales on top when examined after smearing with mineral oil. Koebnerization was seen over the shin. The lesions were found on the wrists, forearms, ankles, legs, and thighs. There was a yellow to brown thick symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, including the medial and lateral aspect of the fingers and toes, sparing the dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet (Figure 1). In addition, the medial arch and weight-bearing region of both soles were involved. The nails showed subungual hyperkeratosis, nail plate discoloration, and paronychia of the toes and fingers. Hyperkeratosis and scaly plaques were also identified in the web spaces (Figure 2). The buccal mucosa showed symmetrical white plaques with a lacy white pattern. PMID:27072734

  8. Establishment and characterization of a novel ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell line, TU-OS-4, that overexpresses EGFR and HER2.

    PubMed

    Itamochi, Hiroaki; Kato, Misaki; Nishimura, Mayumi; Oishi, Tetsuro; Shimada, Muneaki; Sato, Shinya; Naniwa, Jun; Sato, Seiya; Nonaka, Michiko; Kudoh, Akiko; Terakawa, Naoki; Kigawa, Junzo; Harada, Tasuku

    2012-12-01

    A new line of human ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cells, TU-OS-4, was established and characterized. The cells showed a short, spindle-shaped morphology and grew in monolayers without contact inhibition while forming an arrangement resembling a jigsaw puzzle. Chromosome numbers ranged from 55 to 73. The proliferation rate was lower than other serous adenocarcinoma cell lines tested (KF, SHIN-3, and SK-OV-3), and the doubling time was 53.3 h. Western blot analysis showed that TU-OS-4 cells overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2, and phosphorylated HER2 protein. The IC(50) values to cisplatin, paclitaxel, and lapatinib were 25.8 μM, 686 nM, and 183 nM, respectively. Heterotransplantation in nude mice reflected the original tumor of the cells. These results suggested that this cell line would be useful to study chemoresistant mechanisms and contribute to establishing novel treatment strategies for patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:23274876

  9. Role of Photons, Ion Implantation and Mixing in Sub-threshold Selective Etching of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeb, Juline; Sriraman, Saravanapriyan; Kamp, Tom; Paterson, Alex

    2012-10-01

    As device sizes shrink, control of selectivity and damage during plasma etching becomes important. Recent literature reports the role of photons in the cleaving of surface and sub-surface Si-Si bonds which may initiate Si etching by radicals, even below the threshold energies needed for ion-assisted etch.footnotetextH. Shin, W. Zhu, V. M. Donnelly, and D. J. Economou, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(2), 021306 (2012). Simultaneous effects of photons and ion penetration can degrade the selectivity. Photon assisted Si etching in below-threshold ion energies in Cl2 plasmas reported 4-10 nm/Min. etch rate.footnotetextIbid. We investigated the effects of photons in sub-threshold etching of Si in HBr/He/O2 plasmas. As photons with wavelengths <170 nm have enough energy to cleave Si-Si bonds, we concentrated on 58.4 nm photons emitting from He(2 ^1p) and 130nm photons emitted by O(3s) which can penetrate ˜10nm intoe Si.footnotetextJ. R. Woodworth, M. E. Riley, V. A. Amatucci, T. W. Hamilton, and B. P. Aragon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 19, 45 (2001). This paper will discuss the role of photons and mixing in silicon-dioxide/silicon etching using modeling & simulation, experiments and diagnostics.

  10. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  11. Conference Committees: Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Gnther Schmahl University Gttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

  12. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  13. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Bailey, Nicholas P; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

    2015-06-28

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed. PMID:26133435

  14. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  15. Role of glycine-534 and glycine-1179 of human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) in drug-mediated control of ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Szakács, G; Ozvegy, C; Bakos, E; Sarkadi, B; Váradi, A

    2001-05-15

    The human multidrug resistance protein (MDR1) (P-glycoprotein), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family, causes multidrug resistance by an active transport mechanism, which keeps the intracellular level of hydrophobic compounds below a cell-killing threshold. Human MDR1 variants with mutations affecting a conserved glycine residue within the ABC signature of either or both ABC units (G534D, G534V, G1179D and G534D/G1179D) were expressed and characterized in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell membranes. These mutations caused a loss of measurable ATPase activity but still allowed ATP binding and the formation of a transition-state intermediate (nucleotide trapping). In contrast with the wild-type protein, in which substrate drugs accelerate nucleotide trapping, in the ABC signature mutants nucleotide trapping was inhibited by MDR1-substrate drugs, suggesting a miscommunication between the drug-binding site(s) and the catalytic domains. Equivalent mutations of the two catalytic sites resulted in a similar effect, indicating the functional equivalence of the two sites. On the basis of these results and recent structural information on an ABC-ABC dimer [Hopfner, Karcher, Shin, Craig, Arthur, Carney and Tainer (2000) Cell 101, 789-800], we propose a key role of these glycine residues in the interdomain communication regulating drug-induced ATP hydrolysis. PMID:11336637

  16. The utility of anatomic diagnosis for identifying femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Baba, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We describe a case in which an anatomic diagnosis was useful for diagnosing and estimating the cause of femoral nerve palsy following gynecologic surgery. A 49-year-old female received general and epidural anesthesia for radical ovarian cancer surgery. Although injection pain was noted in the left medial shin with 1 % mepivacaine administered as a test dose, the catheter was left indwelling because it improved her symptoms. The surgery, which lasted 195 min, was performed in the lithotomy position, and a self-retained retractor was used to gain a good surgical field. Postoperatively, the patient complained of difficulty in stretching her knee joint and left lower limb paresthesia that did not improve after stopping continuous epidural administration. A spinal cord injury related to epidural anesthesia was suspected because the sites of sensory impairment and epidural injection pain were the same; however, the patient had greater weakness of the quadriceps muscle than the iliopsoas, and no other muscle weakness was observed. These findings and previous reports suggest that her femoral nerve palsy was caused by compression of the inguinal ligament from the self-retaining retractor and lithotomy position. Twenty months after surgery, her muscle strength had fully recovered. PMID:26661449

  17. Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    PubMed Central

    Bonura, Clara; Frontino, Giulio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Battaglino, Roseila; Favalli, Valeria; Ferro, Giusy; Rubino, Chiara; Del Barba, Paolo; Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Meschi, Franco; Chiumello, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous dermatitis that usually appears in the lower extremities. It affects about 0.3–1.2% of diabetic patients, the majority of whom have type 1 diabetes. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are still unclear. NL is characterized by skin rash that usually affects the shins. The average onset is 30 years, with females being affected more commonly. There are very few reported cases of necrobiosis lipoidica in children. Case report: We report a case of a 16 year old girl affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (15 years disease duration) who developed an erythematous nodular rash on the lower extremities and interscapular area. In the suspect of necrobiosis lipoidica, a skin biopsy was performed (lower extremities and interscapular area). The microscopic evaluation of the pretibial lesions was suggestive of necrobiosis lipoidica. The smaller lesions in the interscapular area showed signs of perivascular dermatitis which could be consistent with early stages of necrobiosis lipoidica. Local treatment with tacrolimus determined a progressive improvement of the lesions. Conclusion: In patients with T1DM, diagnosis of NL of the lower legs is usually unequivocal. However, diagnosis may be more challenging in the presence of lesions with recent onset and/or atypical clinical presentation and unusual site. In these cases, NL must always be taken in consideration in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong/late treatment decisions and progression to ulceration. PMID:24575162

  18. Temperature dependence of the complex effective piezoelectric coefficient of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Poon, Y. M.; Shin, F. G.

    2002-09-01

    Temperature dependence of the complex effective piezoelectric coefficient d31* for a ferroelectric 0-3 composite of small ceramic volume fraction has been studied. Theoretical predictions are based on our previously derived explicit expression of d31 for a dilute dispersion of spherical particles in a continuous matrix [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, Ferroelectrics 264, 39 (2001); J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)]. Comparison is made with the well-known Furukawa's model and their experimental measurements on a lead zirconate titanate (PZT)/epoxy composite with 13 vol % PZT [T. Furukawa, K. Fujino, and E. Fukada, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2119 (1976)], covering a wide temperature range from -140 to +140 degC. The real part and the imaginary part of the effective piezoelectric coefficient for the composite are investigated separately. Predictions for the real part of d31* agree well with the observed values for temperatures larger than 60 degC, but are larger than the observed values for lower temperatures, while predictions for the imaginary part of d31* give fairly good agreement with the experimental data throughout the temperature range.

  19. The Influence in Airforce Soldiers Through Wearing Certain Types of Army-Issue Footwear on Muscle Activity in the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities. 37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing – one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris. When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

  20. Role of interfacial charge in the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. K.; Shin, F. G.

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the effects of compensating charges (at the inclusion-matrix interface) on the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric 0-3 composites. Our previously developed model [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] has been extended to include the additional contribution from the deformation of the inclusion particles due to the applied stress in the piezoelectric measurement. The relative significance of this contribution is mainly determined by the amount of compensating interfacial charge, which is significantly governed by the degrees of poling of the constituent materials in the composite sample. This model provides an explanation to an anomaly in the piezoelectric coefficients of 0-3 composite samples with the matrix and inclusion phases polarized in opposite directions. Explicit expressions in closed form have been derived for the effective d33, d31, and dh coefficients. After taking into consideration the degree of poling of the constituents and the effects of the compensating interfacial charges, theoretical predictions show good agreement with published experimental data. Goodness of fit is not limited to low volume concentration of inclusions.

  1. The influence in airforce soldiers through wearing certain types of army-issue footwear on muscle activity in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities.37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing - one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris.When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

  2. Direct and indirect effects of petroleum production activities on the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) as a surrogate for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus).

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Knox, Ami; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard's habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2 S). Lizards were exposed to 2 concentrations of H2 S (30 ppm or 90 ppm) and herbicide formulations (1× or 2× label application rate) representing high-end exposure scenarios. Sublethal behavioral endpoints were evaluated, including sprint speed and time to prey detection and capture. Neither H2 S nor herbicide formulations caused significant behavioral effects compared to controls. To understand potential indirect effects of oil and gas drilling on the prey base, terrestrial invertebrate biomass and order diversity were quantified at impacted sites to compare with nonimpacted sites. A significant decrease in biomass was found at impacted sites, but no significant effects on diversity. The results suggest little risk from direct toxic effects, but the potential for indirect effects should be further explored. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1276-1283. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26456391

  3. Elaborated 1H NMR study for the ligitional behavior of two thiosemicarbazide derivatives towards some heavy metals (Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III)), thermal, antibacterial and antifungal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-10-01

    A new series of heavy metal complexes are prepared. Sn(II), Sb(III), Pb(II) and Bi(III) are the metal ions used in complexation with two thiosemicarbazide ligands. The IR and 1H NMR spectra of the free ligands display their presence in thiole-thione forms coincide with each other. The IR spectra of the complexes support the presence of 2:2 molar ratio (M:HL) with HL 1 ligand and 1:1 beside 1:2 with HL 2. The ligand coordinates as bi molecules in some complexes and displays two tautomer forms at the same complex molecule 1H NMR spectra of Sn(II) and Sb(III) complexes were done and comes coincide with IR data. The electronic spectral analysis displays a lower shift appearance in n → π* charge transfer band in most isolated complexes. As well as, a new band is shinned in visible region with Sb(III), Bi(III) complexes and Sn(II)-HL 2. This band is pointed to its use in spectrophotometric analysis for these metal ions. The TG analysis for all isolated compounds was briefly discussed. The molecular modeling parameters support the stability of thiole form of the free ligands in comparing with their thiones by a small difference. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were studied against some organisms and reveal the priority of most investigated complexes.

  4. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  5. Block copolymers confined in a nanopore: Pathfinding in a curving and frustrating flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, G. J. A.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied structure formation in a confined block copolymer melt by means of dynamic density functional theory. The confinement is two dimensional, and the confined geometry is that of a cylindrical nanopore. Although the results of this study are general, our coarse-grained molecular model is inspired by an experimental lamella-forming polysterene-polybutadiene diblock copolymer system [K. Shin et al., Science 306, 76 (2004)], in which an exotic toroidal structure was observed upon confinement in alumina nanopores. Our computational study shows that a zoo of exotic structures can be formed, although the majority, including the catenoid, helix, and double helix that were also found in Monte Carlo nanopore studies, are metastable states. We introduce a general classification scheme and consider the role of kinetics and elongational pressure on stability and formation pathway of both equilibrium and metastable structures in detail. We find that helicity and threefold connections mediate structural transitions on a larger scale. Moreover, by matching the remaining parameter in our mesoscopic method, the Flory-Huggins parameter χ, to the experimental system, we obtain a structure that resembles the experimental toroidal structure in great detail. Here, the most important factor seems to be the roughness of the pore, i.e., small variations of the pore radius on a scale that is larger than the characteristic size in the system.

  6. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S

    2015-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  7. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E; Seité, Sophie; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Scheen, André; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM) and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis) are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren’s disease) have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo) were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between “dry skin,” xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. PMID:23696712

  8. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, "Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices." Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, "Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus," by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, "Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, "Neuromyelitis optica," by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, "Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes," by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  9. Exact Green's functions for a Brownian particle reversibly binding to a fixed target in a finite, two-dimensional, circular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2012-06-01

    Despite the apparent need to study reversible reactions between molecules confined to a two-dimensional space such as the cell membrane, exact Green’s functions for this case have not been reported. Here we present exact analytical Green’s functions for a Brownian particle reversibly reacting with a fixed reaction center in a finite two-dimensional circular region with reflecting or absorbing boundaries, considering either a spherically symmetric initial distribution or a particle that is initially bound. We show that Green’s function can be used to predict the effect of measurement uncertainties on the outcome of single-particle/molecule-tracking experiments in which molecular interactions are investigated. Hence, we bridge the gap between previously known solutions in one dimension (Agmon 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 81 2811) and three dimensions (Kim and Shin 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1578), and provide an example of how the knowledge of Green’s function can be used to predict experimentally accessible quantities.

  10. Low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model for unsteady turbulent boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur; Barnett, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions used in low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models suggests that they are not suitable for the near-wall region of unsteady turbulent boundary layers, where the flow is characterized by rapid changes in phase. An improved low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model is developed in this paper. The near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions in this model are formulated as functions of the local turbulent Reynolds numbers instead of the inner variable y(+). The present model also has the correct asymptotic behavior in the near-wall region. The turbulence model has been incorporated in an unsteady boundary-layer code and validated for unsteady turbulent boundary layers with and without adverse pressure gradients. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. For the cases tested, the present model correctly predicts the unsteady near-wall flow and the unsteady shin friction at various frequencies.

  11. Muli-state operation in quantum dot channel FETs incorporating spatial wavefunction-switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, F.; Baskar, K.; Karmakar, S.; Chan, P.-Y.; Suarez, E.; Miller, B.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2012-02-01

    Three-state behavior has been demonstrated in Si and InGaAs quantum dot gate (QDG) field-effect transistorsootnotetextS. Karmakar, et al., J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1746, 2011.^,ootnotetextF Jain, J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1717, 2011. (FETs). Recently, spatial wavefunction switchedootnotetextIbid. (SWS) and quantum dot channelootnotetextF. Jain et al., Proc. II-VI Workshop, Oct.2011. (QDC) FETs have been reported to exhibit four-state operation. This paper presents simulations of versatile combinations of SWS features in QDC channels to optimally design multi-state transport in FETs that have the potential of scaling to sub-12nm regime. A QDC-FET channel is modeled as having superlattice-like mini-energy bands where the carrier wavefunctions are transferred across the channel as drain voltage is changed, producing step-like multi-state electrical characteristics. This behavior is analogous to that of single electron transistors.ootnotetextS. J. Shin, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 103101, 2010. The difference is that QDC devices use more than a few electrons and operate at room temperature. The SWS feature additionally provides carrier transfer from lower to upper dot layer(s) in a QDC having more than one layer of quantum dots.

  12. Characterization of a novel photoresist redistribution material for advanced packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2002-07-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is primarily driven by electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a 27% compound annual rate and it is expected that by 2005 over 60% of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic materials that are optimized for these applications. Flip chip packaging frequently uses one or more redistribution levels to increase the number of pads that can be bumped in the minimum form factor. The redistribution level requires a photosensitive dielectric material to be used as a permanent insulating layer. The mechanical, electrical and lithographic properties of the material for this level are all important. This study will characterize a novel photosensitive siloxane material (Shin-Etsu SINRT Photoresist) for the use in the redistribution layer. Siloxanes are a good choice for redistribution because of their excellent physical properties, ease of processing and relatively low curing temperatures. The lithographic performance of SINR photoresist has been optimized using a broad band 1X stepper to control critical dimensions (CD). This study evaluates process capability at multiple exposure wavelengths and post exposure bake (PEB) conditions. Cross sectional SEM analysis, process linearity, Bossung plots and process windows are used to establish the lithographic capabilities. Material modifications also were investigated to control the photoresist sidewall angles.

  13. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking. PMID:25570638

  14. Modulation of flagellar expression in Escherichia coli by acetyl phosphate and the osmoregulator OmpR.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, S; Park, C

    1995-01-01

    During the search for unknown factors involved in motility, we have found that expression of the flagellar master operon flhDC is affected by mutations of the pta and ackA genes, encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase, respectively (S. Shin, J. Sheen, and C. Park, Korean J. Microbiol. 31:504-511, 1993). Here we describe results showing that this effect is modulated by externally added acetate, except when both pta and ackA are mutated, suggesting the role of acetyl phosphate, an intermediate of acetate metabolism, as a regulatory effector. Furthermore, the following evidence indicates that the phosphorylation of OmpR, a trans factor for osmoregulation, regulates flagellar expression. First, in a strain lacking ompR, the expression of flhDC is no longer responsive to a change in the level of acetyl phosphate. Second, an increase in medium osmolarity does not decrease flhDC expression in an ompR mutant. It is known that such an increase normally enhances OmpR phosphorylation. Third, OmpR protein binds to the DNA fragment containing the flhDC promoter, and its affinity is increased with phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate. DNase I footprinting revealed the regions of the flhDC promoter protected by OmpR in the presence or absence of phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that the phosphorylated OmpR, generated by either osmolarity change or the internal level of acetyl phosphate, negatively regulates the expression of flagella. PMID:7642497

  15. CD metrology for avoiding shrinkage of ArF resist patterns in 100 nm ArF lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Tae-Jun; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Ki-Soo

    2002-07-01

    ML 4689-80 CD Metrology for Avoiding Shrinkage of ArF Resist Patterns in 100nm ArF Lithography Tae-Jun You, Cheolkyu Bok, Ki-Soo Shin Hynix Semiconductor, San 136-1 Amiri, Bubal-eub, Ichon-si, Kyongki-do 467-701, Korea We have observed CD(Critical Dimension) shrinkage of acrylate type ArF resist patterns during SEM measurement. CD change was 30% shrinkage for line pattern and 10% expansion for contact hole patterns after 30 times measurement. CD shrinkage was proportion to line pattern size but no relation with LER(Line Edge Roughness). We confirm that CD shrinkage different from resist to resist and SEM measurement condition. CD shrinkage was bigger for acrylate type resist than COMA(Cyclo Olefin Maleic Anhydride) type resist and smaller at lower electron voltage and current conditions. In order to get the improvement of CD shrinkage, we performed electron-beam curing before SEM measurement. Above (see paper for formula) electron-beam dose condition, CD shrinkage improved from 10% to 3%. However, this method caused OPC(Optical Proximity Correction) issue as CD also changed after electron-beam curing. Therefore, we tried to develop a new measurement method instead of applying additional process technique. In this paper, we will describe our CD measurement method, Off-Site measurement technique, for 100nm DRAM lithography. The Off-Site CD measurement repeatability (formula available in paper) was controlled below (see paper).

  16. New insights into the families of PLC enzymes: looking back and going forward

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A study in this issue of the Biochemical Journal by Harden and colleagues, in association with one published in the Biochemical Journal very recently [Hwang, Oh, Shin, Kim, Ryu and Suh (2005) Biochem. J. 389, 181–186], have defined a new member of the superfamily of PLC (phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C) enzymes, PLCη. Two isoforms, PLCη1 and PLCη2, and their splice variants add to the molecular diversity of PLC enzymes. The studies of PLCη regulation suggest that at least some splice variants of PLCη2 could be regulated by the G-protein subunits Gβγ. As two other families, PLCβ and PLCϵ, are also regulated through heterotrimeric G-proteins, this finding reveals further complexity and possible interplay between different PLC families and their regulatory networks. At this point, when it is likely that the PLCη family completes the effort of identifying new members of this related group of PLC enzymes, I also discuss some more general concepts of PLC regulation and catalysis, and challenges awaiting their further studies. PMID:16238548

  17. The venomous hair structure, venom and life cycle of Lagoa crispata, a puss caterpillar of Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Lamdin, J M; Howell, D E; Kocan, K M; Murphey, D R; Arnold, D C; Fenton, A W; Odell, G V; Ownby, C L

    2000-09-01

    The presence of a unique population of Lagoa crispata, puss caterpillar, in western Oklahoma is reported. A detailed microscopic examination shows the structure of the L. crispata spines resemble the type 4 spines described by [Kawamoto, F., Kumada, N., 1984. Biology and venoms of lepidoptera. In: Tu, A.T. (Ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, Insect Poisons, Allergens and other invertebrate venoms, vol. 2, pp. 291-332 (ch. 9)]. The major food source of L. crispata are the leaves of oak (shin oak). The high tannin content of this food source results in spine extracts high in oak tannins. These extracts have activity but enzyme and toxin activity is lost with time. The gel filtration protein fractions are colored from brown to yellow and are inactive as enzymes or toxins. No hyaluronidase, protease or phosphohydrolase activity is detected in these protein fractions. The life cycle shows these caterpillars have 6 instars. Characterizations and annual emerging times of each instar are included. PMID:10736472

  18. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

  19. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors. PMID:9950339

  20. Plasmon-Enhanced Raman and Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Hernandez, Ariel Rodrigo

    This thesis contains five major contributions to the field of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy. We start with the report of a unique SERS study of the amino acid hydroxyproline and a deuterated analogue. Later, we move on to the exploration of a major new research path known as shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence (SHINEF), consisting in the application of silica-shelled noble metal nanoparticles to achieve surface-enhanced fluorescence. The proof of concept of this technique is explained in one chapter. The two following chapters are devoted to the exploration of the plasmonic properties of SHINEF: spectral profile modification showing the close relationship between the observed enhanced fluorescence and the nanoparticle scattering. The SHIN particles are employed to experimentally prove the relationship between the SEF and SERS enhancement factors, theoretically predicted before, but never verified experimentally until now. The thesis ends with an investigation, in aqueous solutions, of several different factors that play a role in the origin of SEF, showing greater enhancement for SHINEF after inducing nanoparticle aggregation.

  1. Dielectric shell isolated and graphene shell isolated nanoparticle enhanced Raman spectroscopies and their applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Anema, Jason R; Wandlowski, Thomas; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2015-12-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful technique that provides fingerprint vibrational information with ultrahigh sensitivity. However, only a few metals (gold, silver and copper) yield a large SERS effect, and they must be rough at the nanoscale. Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) was developed to overcome the long-standing materials and morphological limitations of SERS. It has already been applied in a variety of fields such as materials science, electrochemistry, surface science, catalysis, food safety and the life sciences. Here, the principles and applications of SHINERS are highlighted. To provide an understanding of the plasmonics involved, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations and single nanoparticle SHINERS experiments are reviewed. Next, various shell-isolated nanoparticle (SHIN) types are described. Then a number of applications are discussed. In the first application, SHINERS is used to characterize the adsorption processes of pyridine on Au(hkl) single-crystal electrode surfaces. Then, SHINERS' applicability to food inspection and cultural heritage science is demonstrated by the detection of parathion and fenthion pesticides, and Lauth's violet (thionine dye). Finally, graphene-isolated Au nanoparticles (GIANs) are shown to be effective for multimodal cell imaging, photothermal cancer therapy and photothermally-enhanced chemotherapy. SHINERS is a fast, simple and reliable method, suitable for application to many areas of science and technology. The concept of shell-isolation can also be applied to other surface-enhanced spectroscopies such as fluorescence, infrared absorption and sum frequency generation. PMID:26426491

  2. Risk assessment of human exposure to cypermethrin during treatment of mandarin fields.

    PubMed

    Choi, H; Moon, J K; Liu, K H; Park, H W; Ihm, Y B; Park, B S; Kim, J H

    2006-04-01

    The potential dermal and respiratory exposure assessment and risk assessment for applicator were performed with cypermethrin EC. The pesticide was applied on a mandarin field using a power sprayer. Gloves were used for the hand exposure assessment, mask for face, and dermal patches for the other parts of the body. Personal air monitor equipped with a XAD-2 resin was used for the respiratory exposure assessment. During the application of cypermethrin in the field, the rate of potential dermal exposure ranged from 28.1 to 58.8 mg/h. The major exposure parts were upper-arms (22.1-24.6%) and legs (thigh and shin, 28.3-29.2%) for females and thigh (21.0-46.9%) and hand (14.9-19.3%) for males. Females were exposed more than males. No exposure was detected from the respiratory monitoring. For risk assessment, the potential dermal exposure (PDE), the absorbable quantity of exposure (AQE), and the margin of safety (MOS) were calculated. Among those four risk assessments, MOS was < 1 in only trial I, which indicated any possibility of risk. However, in the others, the possibility of risk was little. Moreover, the safe work time ranged from 3.61 h to 9.69 h. PMID:16502205

  3. Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoen Giddings, Linda

    This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

  4. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  5. X-Ray Pulse Selector With 2 ns Lock-in Phase Setting And Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenau, B.; Raebiger, J.; Polachowski, S.; Fremerey, J.K.

    2004-05-12

    Selector devices, which are based on magnetically suspended, high speed triangular shutter rotors, have been designed and built in cooperation with ESRF, APS, and recently Spring-8 for time resolved studies with isolated x-ray pulses at white beam lines. The x-ray pulse selection is accomplished by means of a beam channel along one of the edges of the triangular rotor, which opens once per revolution. Entrance and exit apertures of the channel can be designed wedge shaped for variable tuning of the channel height between 0.1 mm to 0.9 mm. At the 1 kHz maximum operation frequency of a 220 mm diameter disk with 190 mm channel length, the practicable open times of the channel are demonstrated to range down to 200 ns. The selector drive electronics is directly coupled to the storage ring RF clock for rotational phase control. It allows for continuous selector operation in phase locked mode to the temporal pulse structure of the synchrotron at 2 ns RMS stability. The phase angle between the pulse transmission period and the synchrotron bunch sequence can be adjusted with similar precision for X-ray pulse selection according to the experimental needs. ID09, Michael Wulff ; BioCARS 14-BM, Reinhard Pahl; BL40-XU, Shin-ichi Adachi.

  6. Participation in sports clubs is a strong predictor of injury hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence. PMID:18435690

  7. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-05-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Center (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  8. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  10. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of sedimentation of a single fiber in a weak vertical shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; He, Guowei; Liu, Yingming

    2013-09-01

    Instability of a suspension is directly related to the problem of the cross-stream migration of a particle relative to its neighboring particle suspension. Such cross-stream or lateral migration of a single non-spherical particle (fiber) settling in a bounded weak shear flow with vertical streamlines produced by a perturbation to the fiber number density is studied using lattice Boltzmann simulations. The present simulation results demonstrate that at a given shear rate, the lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on settling Reynolds number Rsd and particle aspect ratio κ. At a low settling Reynolds number Rsd, the suspension becomes more stable in phase 1. As Rsd increases and excesses a critical settling Reynolds number Rsd1, the fiber suspension becomes unstable in phase 2. In phase 3, at an enough large Rsd, the inertia dominates the weak shear flow and it may have little effect on stability. A mechanism of the instability induced by an inertial fiber orientation drift and a shear induced cross-streamline drift, recently proposed by Shin, Koch, and Subramanian ["Structure and dynamics of dilute suspensions of finite reynolds number settling fibers," Phys. Fluids 21, 123304 (2009)], is examined and confirmed.

  11. Instability of settling non-spherical particle in a vertical shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dewei; Koch, Donald; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2010-11-01

    Two mechanisms are attributed to the cross-stream migration when fiber settles in a vertical shear flow. First, a particle may migrate toward streamlines of the imposed shear flow with smaller downward fluid velocities, due to relative translation of the particle and fluid, called the Saffman effect. Second, a non-spherical particle at finite Reynolds number will attempt to rotate with its long body along the horizontal direction due to inertial torque. On the other hand, the torque due to the imposed weak vertical shear flow rotates the non-spherical in the opposite direction. The dynamic balance between the two torques may lead to a small angle between the particle long body and horizontal plane and may drive the particle migrate toward the streamlines of the shear flow with the large downward fluid velocity. The second mechanism was recently proposed by Shin, Koch and Subramanian.A fiber with aspect ratio κ=2, 1.6, 1.2 1.1 and 0 is used to study the lateral migration. It is shown that at a given shear and aspect ratio, fiber lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on the Reynolds number. The simulation results identified the lateral migration phase diagram and confirm the second mechanism.

  12. Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

    2010-07-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

  13. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  14. A quantum reactive scattering perspective on electronic nonadiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yang; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Appel, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Based on quantum reactive-scattering theory, we propose a method for studying the electronic nonadiabaticity in collision processes involving electron-ion rearrangements. We investigate the state-to-state transition probability for electron-ion rearrangements with two comparable approaches. In the first approach the information of the electron is only contained in the ground-state Born-Oppenheimer potential-energy surface, which is the starting point of common reactive-scattering calculations. In the second approach, the electron is explicitly taken into account and included in the calculations at the same level as the ions. Hence, the deviation in the results between the two approaches directly reflects the electronic nonadiabaticity during the collision process. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the well-known proton-transfer model of Shin and Metiu, generalized in order to allow for reactive scattering channels. We show that our explicit electron approach is able to capture electronic nonadiabaticity and the renormalization of the reaction barrier near the classical turning points of the potential in nuclear configuration space. In contrast, system properties near the equilibrium geometry of the asymptotic scattering channels are hardly affected by electronic nonadiabatic effects. We also present an analytical expression for the transition amplitude of the asymmetric proton-transfer model based on the direct evaluation of integrals over the involved Airy functions.

  15. A comparative approach to predicting effective dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic properties of PZT/PVDF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Prasad, Ashutosh; Prasad, K.

    2009-11-01

    The present study addresses the problem of quantitative prediction of effective relative permittivity, dielectric loss factor, piezoelectric charge coefficient, and Young's modulus of PZT/PVDF diphasic ceramic-polymer composite as a function of volume fraction of PZT in the different compositions. Theoretical results for effective relative permittivity derived from several dielectric mixture equations like those of Knott, Rother-Lichtenecker, Bruggeman, Maxwell-Wagner-Webmann-Skipetrov or Dias-Dasgupta, Furukawa, Lewin, Wiener, Jayasundere-Smith, Modified Cule-Torquato, Taylor, Poon-Shin and Rao et al. were fitted to the experimental data taken from previous works of Yamada et al. Similarly, the results for effective piezoelectric coefficient and Young's modulus, derived from different appropriate equations were fitted to the corresponding experimental data taken from the literature. The study revealed that only a few equations like modified Rother-Lichtenecker equation, Dias-Dasgupta equation and Rao equation for dielectric and piezoelectric properties while the four new equations developed in the present study of elastic property (Young's modulus) well fitted the corresponding experimental results. Further, the acceptable data put to various regression analyses showed that in most of the cases the third order polynomial regression analysis provided more acceptable fits.

  16. Stressful Life Events, Sexual Orientation, and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Young Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine whether sexual minority young adults are more vulnerable to developing cardiometabolic risk following exposure to stressful life events than heterosexual young adults. Method Data came from the National Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Shin, Edwards, & Heeren, 2009; Brummett et al., 2013), a prospective nationally representative study of U.S. adolescents followed into young adulthood. A total of 306 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents and 6,667 heterosexual respondents met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Measures of cumulative stressful life events were drawn from all 4 waves of data collection; sexual orientation and cardiometabolic biomarkers were assessed at Wave 4 (2008–2009). Results Gay/bisexual men exposed to 1–2 (β = 0.71, p = .01) and 5 + (β = 0.87, p = .01) stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk, controlling for demographics, health behaviors, and socioeconomic status. Moreover, in models adjusted for all covariates, lesbian/bisexual (β = 0.52, p = .046) women with 5 + stressful life events had a statistically significant elevation in cardiometabolic risk. There was no relationship between stressful life events and cardiometabolic risk among heterosexual men or women. Conclusion Stressful life events during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood place LGB young adults at heightened risk for elevated cardiometabolic risk as early as young adulthood. The mechanisms underlying this relationship require future study. PMID:25133830

  17. Human kinesin superfamily member 4 is dominantly localized in the nuclear matrix and is associated with chromosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y M; Lee, S; Lee, E; Shin, H; Hahn, H; Choi, W; Kim, W

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study, we identified the human counterpart of murine kinesin superfamily member 4 (KIF4), a microtubule-based motor protein [Oh, Hahn, Torrey, Shin, Choi, Lee, Morse and Kim (2000) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1493, 219-224]. As an initial step to understand the function(s) of human KIF4, its subcellular localization in HeLa cells was examined by using immunocytochemical and subcellular fractionation methods, and it was found that most KIF4 is localized in the nucleus. Since murine KIF4 is known to transport cytoplasmic vesicles, dominant nuclear localization of the human counterpart was somewhat surprising. Subsequent subnuclear fractionation revealed predominant association of KIF4 with the nuclear matrix. These results clearly indicate that human KIF4 is, at least, a nuclear protein. In further confirmation of this conclusion, the hexapeptide PKLRRR (amino acids 773-778) in the molecule was found to function as a nuclear localization signal. During the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, human KIF4 was associated with the chromosomes, suggesting that human KIF4 might be a microtubule-based mitotic motor, with DNA as its cargo. PMID:11736643

  18. Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience. Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure.

    PubMed

    Sarter, M; Berntson, G G; Cacioppo, J T

    1996-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has emerged from the neurosciences and cognitive psychology as a scientific discipline that aims at the determination of "how brain function gives rise to mental activity" (S. M. Kosslyn & L. M. Shin, 1992, p. 146). While research in cognitive neuroscience combines many levels of neuroscientific and psychological analyses, modern imaging techniques that monitor brain activity during behavioral or cognitive operations have significantly contributed to the emergence of this discipline. The conclusions deduced from these studies are inherently localizationistic in nature; in other words, they describe cognitive functions as being localized in focal brain regions (brain activity in a defined brain region, phi, is involved in specific cognitive function, psi). A broad discussion about the virtues and limitations of such conclusions may help avoid the emergence of a mentalistic localizationism (i.e., the attribution of mentalistic concepts such as happiness, morality, or consciousness to brain structure) and illustrates the importance of a convergence with information generated by different research strategies (such as, for example, evidence generated by studies in which the effects of experimental manipulations of local neuronal processes on cognitive functions are assessed). Progress in capitalizing on brain-imaging studies to investigate questions of the form "brain structure or event phi is associated with cognitive function psi" may be impeded because of the way in which inferences are typically formulated in the brain imaging literature. A conceptual framework to advance the interpretation of data describing the relationships between cognitive phenomena and brain structure activity is provided. PMID:8585670

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 ; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  20. Nest site characteristics of three coexisting Accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, K.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat data were evaluated at 34 Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 31 Cooper's Hawk (A. cooperii), and 15 Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus) nest sites in coniferous forests of northeastern Oregon. Crown volume profiles indicate a strong similarity in vegetative structure at nest sites of cooperii and striatus; both commonly nest in younger successional stands than gentilis. Habitat separation of nest sites among the three species was illustrated using a stepwise discriminant analysis; 88% of all gentilis sites were correctly classified. Interspecific overlap in nest site habitat was further demonstrated using a canonical analysis of habitat variables. Nest site habitat space of gentilis is distinct and is less variable in structure than that of the other species. Cooperii preferred nesting sites with norhern aspects, whereas striatus and gentilis showed no preference. The use of mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) growth by cooperii for nest platforms (64% of all nests) may explain its preference for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as a nesting tree. Douglas fir is most commonly parasitized by mistletoe.

  1. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites. PMID:17587678

  2. The human foot and heel–sole–toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, J. R.; Channon, A. J.; Myatt, J. P.; Rankin, J. W.; Hubel, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an ‘inverted pendulum’, with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic ‘M’-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse–vault–impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the ‘M’-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel–sole–toe stance; it is maintained in tip–toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure—with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front—enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel–sole–toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all—largely avoiding the ‘cost of muscle force’—during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

  3. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  4. Comparison of sheath thickness obtained from the theories of ion correction in the floating potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyeong Sik; Hwang, Kwang Tae; Choe, Ik Jin; Chung, Chin Wook

    2009-10-01

    In the cold plasmas, when the cylindrical probe is used to measure the ion density, an expansion of the sheath thickness related to the sheath voltage increases the ion current. The expansion of the sheath thickness results in an incorrect measurement of ion current. To measure ion density correctly, the sheath thickness should be considered. In the collisionless sheath, the sheath thickness can be calculated by the Child- Langmuir (CL) theory or the Allen-Boyd-Reynolds(ABR) theory. We measured the sheath thicknesses using the floating harmonics method [1] and the cut-off method by the microwave [2], and the results compared with the CL theory [3] and ABR theory [4] in the floating potential. The sheath thicknesses obtained from the ABR theory were in good agreement with the experimental results. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang and C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys., 101, 033305 (2007)[0pt] [2] J.H. Kim, S.C. Choi, Y.H. Shin, and K. H. Chung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2706 (2004)[0pt] [3] FF Chen, JD Evans, D Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1449 (2002)[0pt] [4] F. F. Chen and D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 8, 5051 (2001)

  5. Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

    2010-03-01

    Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In a changing climate the non-steady state series of climatic characteristics will affect on the groundwater recharge.. A well-tested approach to calculating water flux through the vadoze zone is the application of Richard’s equations for a heterogeneous one-domain porosity continuum with specially formulated atmospheric boundary conditions at the ground surface. In this approach the climatic parameters are reflected in upper boundary conditions, while the recharge series is the flux through the low boundary. In this work developed by authors code Surfbal that simulates water cycle at surface of topsoil to take into account the various condition of precipitation transformation at the surface in different seasons under different vegetation cover including snow accumulation in winter and melting in spring is used to generate upper boundary condition at surface of topsoil for world-wide known Hydrus-1D code (Simunek et al, 2008). To estimate the proposal climate change effect we performed Surfbal and Hydrus simulation using the steady state climatic condition and transient condition due to global warming on example of Moscow region, Russia. The following scenario of climate change in 21 century in Moscow region was selected: the annual temperature will increase on 4C during 100 year and annual precipitation will increase on 10% (Solomon et al, 2007). Within the year the maximum increasing of temperature and precipitation falls on winter time, while in middle of summer temperature will remain almost the same as observed now and monthly precipitation. For simulating climate input the weather generator LARSWG (Semenov and Barrow 1997) was trained for generation daily meteorological records for both steady state and transient climatic conditions and two 100 year of meteorological series of minimum and maximum of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation were generated. The numerical experiment for studying of transient climate on groundwater was performed for typical vadoze zone parameters of western part of Moscow Artesian basin. As the result, the 100 years series of recharge were simulated. Examination of stochastic properties of simulated time-series and comparative analysis series for the transient and for the steady state conditions shows the trend of increasing of recharge in this region in transient climate. Analysis of daily and monthly simulated water balance shows that this increasing is result of winter snow melting and winter infiltration into thaw topsoil. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant 08-05-00720a REFERENCES Semenov M.A and Barrow E.M., 1997. Use of a stochastic weather generator in the development of climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 35:397-414 Šimůnek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue "Vadose Zone Modeling", 7(2), 587-600. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  6. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions. PMID:24175515

  7. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they have them in differing degrees. PMID:26016698

  8. The mechanical consequences of load bearing in the equine third metacarpal across speed and gait: the nonuniform distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Clinton T.; Seeherman, Howard; Qin, Yi-Xian; Gross, Ted S.

    2013-01-01

    Distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density (SED) were determined across the midshaft of the third metacarpal (MCIII, or cannon bone) of 3 adult thoroughbred horses as a function of speed and gait. A complete characterization of the mechanical demands of the bone made through the stride and from mild through the extremes of locomotion was possible by using three 3-element rosette strain gauges bonded at the diaphyseal midshaft of the MCIII and evaluating the strain output with beam theory and finite element analysis. Mean ± sd values of normal strain, shear strain, and SED increased with speed and peaked during a canter (−3560±380 microstrain, 1760±470 microstrain, and 119±23 kPa, respectively). While the location of these peaks was similar across animals and gaits, the resulting strain distributions across the cortex were consistently nonuniform, establishing between a 73-fold (slow trot) to a 330-fold (canter) disparity between the sites of maximum and minimum SED for each gait cycle. Using strain power density as an estimate of strain history across the bone revealed a 154-fold disparity between peak and minimum at the walk but fell to ∼32-fold at the canter. The nonuniform, minimally varying, strain environment suggests either that bone homeostasis is mediated by magnitude-independent mechanical signals or that the duration of stimuli necessary to establish and maintain tissue integrity is relatively brief, and thus the vast majority of strain information is disregarded.—Rubin, C. T., Seeherman, H., Qin, Y.-X., Gross, T. S., The mechanical consequences of load bearing in the equine third metacarpal across speed and gait: the nonuniform distributions of normal strain, shear strain, and strain energy density. PMID:23355269

  9. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26428288

  10. A study on the migration policy in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1995-01-01

    During the Chinese dynasties of Sui and Tang, neighboring minority groups were forced to migrate to less settled areas of China. During the Song dynasty (960-1279) the Han government lost control of neighboring ethnic groups. Ethnically dominated states on their own expanded to the hinterlands, formed the national governments of Yuan and Qing, and established the local power of Liao and Jin in Han-dominated areas. During the Han dynasty the movement of minorities fulfilled the purpose of helping cultivate undeveloped land. The Han governments of feudal China held compulsory migration policies and policies encouraging minorities to move to less inhabited places. Han governments prior to the Tang and Song dynasties held policies favorable to minority settlements. During the Tang dynasty land was given to minority settlers. During the Song dynasty the Han government held a policy which prohibited taxation and harassment of new minority settlers. Minorities gained improved living conditions and the government achieved pacification. Resettlement of minorities either from forced or voluntary migration facilitated communication with the Han and promoted the exchange of culture, but also intensified ethnic conflict. The reason for the ethnic conflict was a question of control. Ethnic governments encouraged in-migration and adopted policies of compulsory and voluntary migration. Ethnic minorities in the north and west practiced mainly compulsory migration. Ethnic conflict in the Qin and Han dynasties occurred between the Han and the Huns. During the Eastern Jin and Northern dynasties minority governments captured Han and other ethnic groups. The rule of minority government was strengthened by voluntary migration. The frequent power shifts in ancient China contributed to the blending of Chinese nationalities. PMID:12288967

  11. The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-08-01

    All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing. PMID:22855815

  12. Polymorphisms in the TSHR (thyrotropin receptor) gene on chromosome 14q31 are not associated with mental retardation in the iodine-deficient areas of China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting-Wei; Zhang, Fu-Chang; Gao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Li; Gao, Xiao-cai; Ma, Jie; Yang, Maosheng; Ji, Qian; Duan, Shi-wei; Zheng, Zi-jian; Li, Rui-lin; Feng, Guo-yin; St Clair, David; He, Lin

    Mental retardation (MR) is one of the most frequent handicaps among children. Fetal iodine deficiency disorder (FIDD) is the commonest cause of preventable MR. However, not everyone in the iodine-deficient areas is affected and familial aggregation is common. This suggests that genetic factors may play an important role. Thyroid hormone (TH) plays an important role in fetal and early postnatal brain development. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) receptor (TSHR) is located on the surface of thyroid cells and binds TSH. It results in the production of thyroid hormones via the activation of adenylate cyclase and phospatidylinositol-dependent signaling pathways. Some researchers formulated the hypothesis that TSH receptor expression in the brain may be involved in local thyroid homeostasis through TSH stimulating the DIO2 activity. In the previous study, we have proposed that DIO2 may protect against FIDD in the iodine-deficient areas of China. The TSHR gene, which located on chromosome 14q31 is a potential candidate gene for susceptibility to FIDD. To investigate the potential genetic contribution of TSHR gene, we performed a case-control association study in Chinese Han population from the Qin-Ba mountain regions using four common SNPs in the gene (rs2284716, rs917986, rs2075173 and rs2075179). Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that LD was observed between rs2284716 and rs917986 and between rs2075173 and rs2075179. Single-locus analysis found that all four SNPs in TSHR gene showed no association after correction for multiple testing. Haplotype analysis showed no significant differences in frequency for three sets of haplotypes based on the pariwise LD results. In conclusion, our association results suggest that TSHR gene is not a susceptibility gene for FIDD in the iodine-deficient areas of China. PMID:15911145

  13. Study on the Main Components Interaction from Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae and Their Dissolution In Vitro and Intestinal Absorption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Xiaobin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    The Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple is the basic components of Chinese herbal preparations (Shuang-Huang-Lian tablet, Yin-Qiao-Jie-Du tablet and Fufang Qin-Lan oral liquid), and its pharmacological effects were significantly higher than that in Flos Lonicerae or Fructus Forsythiae, but the reasons remained unknown. In the present study, pattern recognition analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap MS system were performed to study the chemical constitution difference between co-decoction and mixed decoction in the term of chemistry. Besides, the pharmacokinetics in vivo and intestinal absorption in vitro combined with pattern recognition analysis were used to reveal the discrepancy between herb couple and single herbs in the view of biology. The observation from the chemical view in vitro showed that there was significant difference in quantity between co-decoction and mixed decoction by HCA, and the exposure level of isoforsythoside and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in co-decoction, higher than that in mixed decoction, directly resulted in the discrepancy between co-decoction and mixed decoction using both PCA and HCA. The observation from the pharmacokinetics displayed that the exposure level in vivo of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A, higher than that in single herbs, was the main factor contributing to the difference by both PCA and HCA, interestingly consistent with the results obtained from Caco-2 cells in vitro, which indicated that it was because of intestinal absorption improvement of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A that resulted in a better efficacy of herb couple than that of single herbs from the perspective of biology. The results above illustrated that caffeic acid derivatives in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple could be considered as chemical markers for quality control of its preparations. PMID:25275510

  14. Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  15. A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Zhao, Long; Chen, Yingying; Han, Menglei

    2013-04-01

    Multi-sphere interactions over the Tibetan Plateau directly impact its surrounding climate and environment at a variety of spatial/temporal scales. Remote sensing and modeling are expected to provide hydro-meteorological data needed for these process studies, but in situ observations are required to support their calibration and validation. For this purpose, we established a dense monitoring network on central Tibetan Plateau to measure two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) at three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree) and four soil depths (0~5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 40cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, large soil moisture dynamic range and typical freeze-thaw cycle. The network consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 ~ 4950 m. Soil texture and soil organic matters are measured at each station, as auxiliary parameters of this network. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. As the highest soil moisture network in the world, our network meets the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products and for soil moisture scaling. It also directly contributes to the "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interaction theme of the "Third Pole Environment" Program. The data will be publicized via the International Soil Moisture Network. Publication: Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y-Y Chen, W-J Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C-G Lin, M-L Han, and H. Vereecken., 2012: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, Journal of Hydrology DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.

  16. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchun; Lu, Yongling; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dong; Li, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2008-12-10

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known trigger in the pathogenesis of sepsis, lipid A being the toxic component. One of several adjuvant therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is currently focusing on the neutralization of LPS. In order to obtain the components from traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize the endotoxin, aqueous extractions of twelve herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. From twelve herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) found to possess high lipid A-binding abilities, and was selected in subsequent experiments. After subjected to macroporous adsorptive resins and HPLC, we obtained 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF) from S. baicalensis Georgi under the direction of neutralization of LPS and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, THF directly bound to LPS and neutralized its activity. THF not only down-regulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression but also decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. THF-mediated inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine release is probably associated with downregulation of LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA augmentation. In vivo, THF could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with heat-killed E. coli 35218 (E. coli 35218) in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the plasma LPS level in endotoxemia mice. These findings provide compelling evidence that THF may be an important potential drug for sepsis treatment. Considering the inhibitory effects of THF on LPS-induced cytokine release are unlikely due to its nonspecific cellular toxicity, THF should be considered as a safe putative candidate for development as a drug for sepsis treatment. PMID:18755299

  17. Baicalein inhibits formation of α-synuclein oligomers within living cells and prevents Aβ peptide fibrillation and oligomerisation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jia-Hong; Ardah, Mustafa Taleb; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Xie, Li-Xia; Fong, Wang-Fun David; Hasan, Mohamed Y; Huang, Jian-Dong; El-Agnaf, Omar M A; Li, Min

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal protein aggregation in the brain is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies revealed that the oligomeric form of aggregates is most likely the toxic species, and thus could be a good therapeutic target. To screen for potent inhibitors that can inhibit both oligomerisation and fibrillation of α-synuclein (α-syn), we systematically compared the antioligomeric and antifibrillar activities of eight compounds that were extracted from Chinese herbal medicines through three platforms that can monitor the formation of α-syn fibrils and oligomers in cell-free or cellular systems. Our results revealed that baicalein, a flavonoid extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi ("huang qin" in Chinese), is a potent inhibitor of α-syn oligomerisation both in cell-free and cellular systems, and is also an effective inhibitor of α-syn fibrillation in cell-free systems. We further tested the protective effect of baicalein against α-syn-oligomer-induced toxicity in neuronal cells. Our data showed that baicalein inhibited the formation of α-syn oligomers in SH-SY5Y and Hela cells, and protected SH-SY5Y cells from α-syn-oligomer-induced toxicity. We also explored the effect of baicalein on amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregation and toxicity. We found that baicalein can also inhibit Aβ fibrillation and oligomerisation, disaggregate pre-formed Aβ amyloid fibrils and prevent Aβ fibril-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Our study indicates that baicalein is a good inhibitor of amyloid protein aggregation and toxicity. Given the role of these processes in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and PD, our results suggest that baicalein has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of these devastating disorders. PMID:21271629

  18. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  19. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually. PMID:25993834

  20. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK) and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2) in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method). rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%), while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%). The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%). Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24%) and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating 'Qin-Jiao' Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica), which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs. PMID:27050315

  1. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Background Radiation From Electron Acceleration Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Farges, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    It was recently proposed that the acceleration of electrons during the growth and branching of streamers above thunderclouds initiated by intense lightning discharges could result in detectable low frequency electromagnetic radiation from several tens of kHz up to several hundreds of kHz (Qin et al., GRL, 2012). The intensity of the predicted radiation scales with the streamer density which is particularly large during spectacular sprite occurrences such as jellyfish sprites and/or dancing sprites. Dancing sprites are up to one second long sequences of consecutive sprites or sprite groups which are typically separated by some hundreds of milliseconds and which tend to follow the spatial development of large scale intracloud lightning discharges. A particularly spectacular series of 10 dancing sprite events over a Mediterranean mesoscale convective system was recorded with a low light video camera in south-eastern France during the early morning hours of August 31, 2012. Each dancing sprite event was composed of ~3-4 consecutive sprites or groups of sprites. All of these sprite occurrences were associated with a sudden enhancement ~2 uV/m/Hz-1/2 of the low frequency electromagnetic background radiation as measured with a radio receiver in south-west England. It is estimated that ~1000 streamers at a height of ~40 km are necessary to epxlain the observed electric field strengths. These sudden enhancements are superimposed on a more continuous low frequency electromagnetic background radiation which accompanies each dancing sprite event. It is speculated that this low frequency 'radio glow' results from filamentary streamers near the cloud top as a result of the large scale electrostatic charging of the thundercloud and that it may be used as an indicator for sprite occurrences in future studies.

  2. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK) and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2) in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method). rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%), while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%). The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%). Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24%) and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating ‘Qin-Jiao’ Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica), which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs. PMID:27050315

  3. Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin

    2003-01-21

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

  4. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  5. Locating Radio Noise from Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Mezentsev, A.; Watson, R.; Gaffet, S.; Astin, I.; Evans, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into exponentially growing streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010). The acceleration of the electrons to a few eV results in the radiation of a small amount of electromagnetic energy. The incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the low frequency radio noise from sprites near ~40 km height (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this theoretically predicted radiation was recently confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). To locate the radio noise from sprites in the sky, an interferometric network of low frequency radio receivers was developed (Mezentsev and Fullekrug, JGR, 2013). The key parameter for the interferometric signal processing is the frequency dependent wave propagation velocity of the radio waves within the Earth's atmosphere. This wave propagation velocity is determined by the wave number vector which needs to be inferred from the measurements. Here we adapt and subsequently apply array analyses which have been developed for seismic and infrasound arrays to determine the horizontal wave number vectors of ~20-24 kHz radio waves measured with an array of ten radio receivers distributed over an area of ~1 km × 1 km. It is found that the horizontal slowness of ~20-24 kHz radio waves ranges from ~2.7 ns/m to ~4.1 ns/m depending on the arrival azimuth of the radio wave. For comparison, an electromagnetic wave in vacuum has a slowness of ~3.34 ns/m. A larger slowness indicates an apparent velocity which is smaller than the speed of light and a smaller slowness indicates that the radio wave arrives at the array from an elevation angle. The observed variability of the observed slowness almost certainly results from the distance dependent superposition of the transverse electric and magnetic TEn and TMn radio wave propagation modes.

  6. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  7. Xinyinqin: a computer-based heart sound simulator.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X X; Pei, J H; Xiao, Y H

    1995-01-01

    "Xinyinqin" is the Chinese phoneticized name of the Heart Sound Simulator (HSS). The "qin" in "Xinyinqin" is the Chinese name of a category of musical instruments, which means that the operation of HSS is very convenient--like playing an electric piano with the keys. HSS is connected to the GAME I/O of an Apple microcomputer. The generation of sound is controlled by a program. Xinyinqin is used as a teaching aid of Diagnostics. It has been applied in teaching for three years. In this demonstration we will introduce the following functions of HSS: 1) The main program has two modules. The first one is the heart auscultation training module. HSS can output a heart sound selected by the student. Another program module is used to test the student's learning condition. The computer can randomly simulate a certain heart sound and ask the student to name it. The computer gives the student's answer an assessment: "correct" or "incorrect." When the answer is incorrect, the computer will output that heart sound again for the student to listen to; this process is repeated until she correctly identifies it. 2) The program is convenient to use and easy to control. By pressing the S key, it is able to output a slow heart rate until the student can clearly identify the rhythm. The heart rate, like the actual rate of a patient, can then be restored by hitting any key. By pressing the SPACE BAR, the heart sound output can be stopped to allow the teacher to explain something to the student. The teacher can resume playing the heart sound again by hitting any key; she can also change the content of the training by hitting RETURN key. In the future, we plan to simulate more heart sounds and incorporate relevant graphs. PMID:8591549

  8. Reply to the comment on “Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess” by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Zarza, A. M.; Zhao, Z.; Song, C. H.; Li, J. J.; Zhang, J.; Martín-Pérez, A.; Martín-García, R.; Wang, X. X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M. H.; Meléndez, A.

    2010-10-01

    Guo's et al. comments on our paper (Z.T. Guo, J.Y, Ge, G.Q. Xiao, Q.Z. Hao, H.B. Wu, T. Zhan, L. Liu, L. Qin, F.M. Zeng, B.Y. Yuan, Comment on "Mudflat/distal fan and shallow lake sedimentation (upper Vallesian-Turolian) in the Tianshui Basin, Central China: Evidence against the late Miocene eolian loess" by A.M. Alonso-Zarza, Z. Zhao, C.H. Song, J.J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Martín-Pérez, R. Martín-García, X.X. Wang, Y. Zhang and M.H. Zhang [Sedimentary Geology 222 (2009) 42-51], Sedimentary Geology, 2010-this issue) mostly stress their previous data and their model of configuration and evolution of the study area; it is not a real discussion of the sedimentological features we describe. In this reply we will discuss some of the key features of the basin configuration, correlations and sedimentology of the Tinshui basin. Our work has followed the common procedures used in stratigraphy and sedimentology and so we can confirm our interpretation on basin configuration and correlations. In all cases we have taken into account previous papers, including those of Guo's group. In addition the sedimentological model we proposed is new due to the lack of previous sedimentological studies, including facies analysis and petrography, in the studied area. Our model of a continental alluvial-lacustrine basin fits well with other well-known examples over the world and explains clearly the lateral facies transitions across the basin. It is not the aim of this reply to discuss all the previous papers by Guo's group, but to reply to their main comments on our paper.

  9. [Analysis on characteristics of meridians and acupoints of acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Yu-Lan; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Qin, Hai-Zhi; Chen, Da-Shuai; Liu, Ting; Li, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory. PMID:24377223

  10. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  11. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Rahimi, Layla; Yan, Xinhua; Silver, Marcy; Qin, Gangjian; Losordo, Douglas W.; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that TNF–tumor necrosis factor receptor-2/p75 (TNFR2/p75) signaling plays a critical role in ischemia-induced neovascularization in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. To determine the role of TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling in ischemia-induced inflammation and muscle regeneration, we subjected wild-type (WT) and TNFR2/p75 knockout (p75KO) mice to hind limb ischemia (HLI) surgery. Ischemia induced significant and long-lasting inflammation associated with considerable decrease in satellite-cell activation in p75KO muscle tissue up to 10 d after HLI surgery. To determine the possible additive negative roles of tissue aging and the absence of TNFR2/p75, either in the tissue or in the bone marrow (BM), we generated 2 chimeric BM transplantation (BMT) models where both young green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive p75KO and WT BM-derived cells were transplanted into adult p75KO mice. HLI surgery was performed 1 mo after BMT, after confirming complete engraftment of the recipient BM with GFP donor cells. In adult p75KO with the WT-BMT, proliferative (Ki67+) cells were detected only by d 28 and were exclusively GFP+, suggesting significantly delayed contribution of young WT-BM cell to adult p75KO ischemic tissue recovery. No GFP+ young p75KO BM cells survived in adult p75KO tissue, signifying the additive negative roles of tissue aging combined with decreased/absent TNFR2/p75 signaling in postischemic recovery.—Sasi, S. P., Rahimi, L., Yan, X., Silver, M., Qin, G., Losordo, D. W., Kishore, R., Goukassian, D. A. Genetic deletion of TNFR2 augments inflammatory response and blunts satellite-cell-mediated recovery response in a hind limb ischemia model. PMID:25466901

  12. Exploration of the relationship between geographical environment and human diseases in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, created in the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) described a phenomenon whereby the eastern, western, northern, southern, and central regions were liable to different diseases. It brought forward the principle of treatment in accordance with local conditions. Lv's Spring and Autumn Annals, Huai Nan Tzu (Huainanzi), and the Regiment of Health (Yangshenglun) in the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties all describe regional diseases such as goiter (endemic goiter) and yellowish teeth (dental fluorosis) as being caused by geologic and climatic factors. Zhang (miasma), first mentioned in the Han Dynasty, was considered related to the summer heat and dampness particular to the geographical environment of the south. Zhang was further associated with malaria in the Jin Dynasty. General Treatise on the Etiology and Symptomology of Diseases (Zhubingyuanhou Lun), in the Sui Dynasty, held that as a type of poisonous gas, Zhang was the predisposing cause of malaria, seasonal disease, and barbiers, among other conditions. General Guide (Zhinan Zonglun), in the Southern Song Dynasty, regarded Zhang malaria as a separate disease. Healthy Prescription in the Southern Wuling District (Lingnan Weisheng Fang), in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties, explicitly put forward the concepts of cold Zhang, hot Zhang, and lockjaw Zhang. Guidelines for Treatment of Zhang Malaria (Zhangnue Zhinan), in the Ming Dynasty, maintained that cold Zhang was equivalent to malaria, while hot Zhang and lockjaw Zhang were equivalent to cold damage, the latter of which can be treated by prescriptions for cold damage. Records on Zhang gas and Zhang disease decreased during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. PMID:22462249

  13. An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

    1997-07-01

    Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

  14. Effects of FUT1 gene mutation on resistance to infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Liu, W J; Yang, L G; Sargent, C A; Liu, H B; Wang, C; Liu, X D; Zhao, S H; Affara, N A; Liang, A X; Zhang, S J

    2012-03-01

    Alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for regulating the expression of Escherichia coli F18 receptor gene (ECF18R) which promotes adherence of Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and Verotoxigenic (VTEC) Escherichia coli (E. coli) via F18 fimbriae. In order to illustrate the polymorphisms of FUT1 and their effects on resistance to natural infection by Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Symdrome Virus (PRRSV) and Haemophilus parasuis, the distributions of different genotypes and the relative risks of disease incidence in pigs were investigated. A total of 1,041 pigs representing three European breeds (Duroc, Landrace and LargeWhite), five Chinese local breeds (Wild pig, Small MeiShan, QinPing, JinHua, and JianLi) and three commercial populations (LargeWhite × JianLi, Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite and Duroc × wild pig) were selected to analyze the genotype of the FUT1 gene by PCR-RFLP. Only the GG genotype associated with susceptibility to ECF18 bacteria was detected in Chinese local pig breeds and a population of LargeWhite × JianLi, while the AA genotype which confers resistance to ECF18 was detected in two European breeds (Duroc and LargeWhite), two populations of Duroc × wild pig and Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite. Regarding relative risk of incidence, Duroc × Landrace × LargeWhite with genotypes GG or AG showed greater relative risk (OR = 2.040, P = 0.025; OR = 1.750, P = 0.081, respectively) than those with genotype AA during natural infection by both PRRSV and Haemophilus parasuis. It can be concluded that the mutation of FUT1 gene might play a role in pig infection by multi-pathogens, and that AA may be a favourable genotype for increasing the resistance to disease. PMID:21695432

  15. Spin Dependent Transport in Si/SiGe Few-Electron Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Christie

    2008-03-01

    Si/SiGe quantum dots are of interest for quantum information processing due in large part to the existence of spin zero isotopes of both Si and Ge. We present the results of transport measurements and integrated charge sensing in silicon double and single quantum dots.[1,2] We observe two effects arising from spin dependent transport in a double quantum dot. First, and as expected, for one direction of current flow we observe spin blockade -- the canonical example of spin-to-charge conversion in transport. In addition, when current flow is reversed, we observe a second effect: strong tails of current extend from the sharp triangular regions in which current conventionally is observed. The presence of these tails is explained by a combination of long spin relaxation times and preferential loading of an excited spin state. We also present charge-sensing measurements of single and double quantum dots using an integrated quantum point contact. The charge sensor signal from single electron tunneling is well correlated with conventional transport through the system. When the tunnel barriers are large and transport through the dot is not measurable, charge sensing remains a viable means to track charge transitions and is used to confirm individual-electron occupation in a single quantum dot. Work performed in collaboration with Nakul Shaji, Madhu Thalakulam, Levente J. Klein, H. Luo, Hua Qin, R. H. Blick, D. E. Savage, M. G. Lagally, A. J. Rimberg, R. Joynt, M. Friesen, S. N. Coppersmith, M. A. Eriksson. Work supported by ARO, LPS, NSF and DOE. (1) Shaji, N. et al. e-print arXiv:0708.0794 (2) Simmons, C. B. et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 213103 (2007).

  16. 16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Y.

    2004-12-01

    On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

  17. 16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Y.

    2007-12-01

    On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

  18. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-01

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation.Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05319f

  19. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  20. Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

    2011-12-01

    The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

  1. Severe injuries in football players. Influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Chomiak, J; Junge, A; Peterson, L; Dvorak, J

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to analyze factors related to the occurrence of severe football injuries in players of different ages (14 to 42 years) and different skill levels (local teams to first league teams). In the Czech Republic, 398 players were followed up for 1 year, during which time they sustained 686 injuries. Of these, 113 (16.5%) were severe injuries. Ninety-seven severe injuries (86%) were able to be documented in detail. Trauma was the cause of 81.5% of the injuries and overuse was the cause of 18.5%. Joint sprains predominated (30%), followed by fractures (16%), muscle strains (15%), ligament ruptures (12%), meniscal tears and contusions (8%), and other injuries. Injuries to the knee were most prevalent (29%), followed by injuries to the ankle (19%) and spine (9%). More injuries occurred during games (59%) than in practice. Twenty-four percent of the injured players had suffered a previous injury of the same body part. Forty-six percent of injuries were caused by contact and 54% involved no body contact. Thirty-one percent of severe injuries were caused by foul play. From these results and the analysis of injuries in specific body parts, the following factors were determined to influence the occurrence of severe injuries: 1) personal factors (intrinsic): age of player, previous injuries, joint instability, abnormality of the spine, poor physical condition, poor football skills, or inadequate treatment and rehabilitation of injuries; 2) environmental factors (extrinsic): subjective exercise overload during practices and games, amount and quality of training, playing field conditions, equipment (wearing of shin guards and taping) and violations of existing rules (foul play). PMID:11032109

  2. Potential Magma Chambers beneath the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan: Results from Magnetotelluric Survey and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Previous earthquakes analysis indicated existing seismicity anomaly beneath Tatun volcano, Taiwan, possibly caused by the fluid activity of the volcano. Helium isotope studies also indicated that over 60% of the fumarolic gases and vapors originated from deep mantle in the Tatun volcano area. The chemistry of the fumarolic gases and vapors and seismicity anomaly are important issues in view of possible magma chamber in the Tatun volcano, where is in the vicinity of metropolitan Taipei, only 15 km north of the capital city. In this study magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and monitoring were deployed to understand the geoelectric structures in the Tatun volcano as Electromagnetic methods are sensitive to conductivity contrasts and can be used as a supplementary tool to delineate reservoir boundaries. An anticline extending more than 10 km beneath the Chih-Shin-Shan and Da-You-Kan areas was recognized. Low resistivity at a shallow and highly porous layer 500m thick might indicate circulation of heated water. However, a high resistivity layer at depth between 2 and 6 km was detected. This layer could be associated with high micro-earthquakes zone. The characteristics of this layer produced by either the magma chamber or other geothermal activity were similar to that of some other active volcanic areas in the world. At 6 km underground was a dome structure of medium resistivity. This structure could be interpreted as a magma chamber in which the magma is possibly cooling down, as judged by its relatively high resistivity. The exact attributes of the magma chamber were not precisely determined from the limited MT soundings. At present, a joint monitors including seismic activity, ground deformation, volcanic gases, and changes in water levels and chemistry are conducted by universities and government agencies. When unusual activity is detected, a response team may do more ground surveys to better determine if an eruption is likely.

  3. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  4. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J Zagrodzinski, Alexei Zhedanov

  5. Ionospheric disturbances by volcanic eruptions by GNSS-TEC: Comparison between Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.; Takeo, A.; Cahyadi, M. N.; Aditiya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic waves from volcanic eruptions are often observed as infrasound in near fields. Part of them propagate upward and disturb the ionosphere, and can be observed in Total Electron Content (TEC) data derived by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the past, Heki (2006 GRL) detected ionospheric disturbances by the 2004 explosion of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, and Dautermann et al. (2009 JGR) studied the 2003 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies. Here we present new examples, and try to characterize such disturbances. We first show TEC disturbances by the 2014 February Plinian eruption (VEI 4) of the Kelud volcano, East Java, Indonesia (Figure), observed with a regional GNSS network.The 2014 Kelud eruption broke a lava dome made by 2007 eruption and created a new creator. Significant disturbances were detected with four GPS and two GLONASS satellites, and the wavelet analyses showed that harmonic oscillations started at ~16:25 UT and continued nearly one hour. The frequency of the oscillation was ~3.8 mHz, which coincides with the atmospheric fundamental mode. We also confirmed concentric wavefronts, moving outward by ~0.8m/sec (stronger signals on the northern side). These features are similar to the 2003 Soufriere Hills case, although the signals in the present Kelud case is much clearer. Next, we compare them with ionospheric disturbances by Vulcanian explosions that occurred recently in Japan, i.e. the 2004 Asama case and the 2009 Sakurajima, and the 2011 Shin-moedake eruptions. They are characterized with one-time N-shaped disturbances possibly excited by the compression of the air above the vents. On the other hand, data from nearby seismometers suggested that atmospheric oscillations of various frequencies were excited by this continuous Plinian eruption. Part of such oscillations would have grown large due to atmospheric resonance.

  6. Assessment of the risk of dermal exposure to pesticides during treatment with a back-pack sprayer in the presence and absence of vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Z; Sylla, S; Lebeau, F; Schiffers, B

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the dermal exposure of applicators to pesticides is still an important issue, and the measurement methods used remain open to improvement. This is particularly true when it comes to characterising the exposure of applicators using back-pack sprayers. The scenarios used for the different mathematical models continue to be riddled with approximations and uncertainties. With a view to improving these scenarios, test were performed in an open environment to measure the levels of dermal exposure on various parts of an operator's body during treatment with this type of equipment. The main parameters studied are the presence of vegetation and the height of the crop. The method uses a tracer (fluorescein salt) and collectors placed all over the body in order to determine which parts are subject to most contamination during spraying. The quantitative determinations of the tracer show that exposure, in the presence of vegetation, reaches levels of 0.02%, 0.006% and 0.04% of the total quantity applied in treatment, at heights of 0.5, 1 and 2 m respectively. In the absence of vegetation, it stands at 0.21%, 0.61% and 0.62% of the total quantity applied at heights of 0.5, 1 and 2 m. In each of these situations, the lower limbs of the body (shins and thighs) collected large proportions of fluorescein. The contamination of the upper parts of the body increases in proportion to the height of treatment. These results show that the presence of vegetation and the spraying height are important parameters to be considered and to be integrated into the models, to validly assess the exposure of operators using a backpack sprayer. PMID:23885410

  7. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-28

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid "omics"-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation. PMID:26415633

  8. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure. PMID:24698386

  9. Endosymbiotic Mycobacterium chelonae in a Vermamoeba vermiformis strain isolated from the nasal mucosa of an HIV patient in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Mena, Rosmery; Zuñiga, Johanna; Cermeño, Pablo; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    In March 2010, a 35 year-old HIV/AIDS female patient was admitted to hospital to start treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since during a routine control a dramatic decrease in the CD4(+) levels was detected. At this stage, a nasal swab from each nostril was collected from the patient to include it in the samples for the case study mentioned above. Moreover, it is important to mention that the patient was diagnosed in 2009 with invasive pneumococcal disease, acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The collected nasal swabs from both nostrils were positive for Vermamoeba vermiformis species which was identified using morphological and PCR/DNA sequencing approaches. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the amoebic strain to belong to V.vermiformis species. Molecular identification of the Mycobacterium strain was carried out using a bacterial universal primer pair for the 16S rDNA gene at the genus level and the rpoB gene was amplified and sequenced as previously described to identify the Mycobacterium species (Shin et al., 2008; Sheen et al., 2013). Homology and phylogenetic analyses of the rpoB gene confirmed the species as Mycobacterium chelonae. In parallel, collected swabs were tested by PCR and were positive for the presence of V.vermiformis and M.chelonae. This work describes the identification of an emerging bacterial pathogen,M.chelonae from a Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) strain belonging to the species V.vermiformis that colonized the nasal cavities of an HIV/AIDS patient, previously diagnosed with TB. Awareness within clinicians and public health professionals should be raised, as pathogenic agents such as M.chelonae may be using FLA to propagate and survive in the environment. PMID:24594260

  10. Physiological strain of next generation combat uniforms with chemical and biological protection: importance of clothing vents.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Boscarino, Cathy; Duncan, E J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether vents in the arms, legs and chest of new protective assault uniforms (PTAU) reduced heat strain at 35 °C during a low dressed state (DSlow), and subsequently improved tolerance time (TT) after transitioning to DShigh compared with the battle dress uniform and overgarment (BDU+O). Small but significant reductions in rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate and vapour pressures over the thigh and shin were observed during DSlow with vents open (37.9 ± 0.2 °C, 120 ± 10 b/min, 3.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 1.0 kPa) versus closed (38.0 ± 0.1 °C, 127 ± 5 b/min, 4.3 ± 0.3 and 4.6 ± 0.5 kPa). During DShigh Tre was reduced and TT increased significantly with the PTAUs (1.1 ± 0.2 °C/h and 46 ± 24 min) versus BDU+O (1.6 ± 0.2 °C/h and 33 ± 16 min). The vents marginally reduced heat strain during DSlow and extended TT during DShigh) compared with BDU+O. Practitioner Summary: Clothing vents in chemical and biological protective uniforms can assist with heat transfer in situations where the uniforms must be worn for extended periods prior to exposure to a hazardous condition. Once the vents are closed, exposure time is increased and the increase in body temperature reduced. PMID:23231665

  11. Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H Jasmine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)) (median = 780 CFU/m(3)) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM(10))), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO(2) level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria. PMID:22219040

  12. Nerve Growth Factor for the Treatment of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 3: An Open-label Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Song; Wang, Rui-Hao; Niu, Hui-Xia; Shi, Chang-He; Mao, Cheng-Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Song, Bo; Sun, Shi-Lei; Liu, Xin-Jing; Hou, Hai-Man; Liu, Yu-Tao; Gao, Yuan; Fang, Hui; Kong, Xiang-Dong; Xu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is the most common subtype of SCA worldwide, and runs a slowly progressive and unremitting disease course. There is currently no curable treatment available. Growing evidence has suggested that nerve growth factor (NGF) may have therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly also in SCA3. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of NGF in SCA3 patients. Methods: We performed an open-label prospective study in genetically confirmed adult (>18 years old) SCA3 patients. NGF was administered by intramuscular injection (18 μg once daily) for 28 days consecutively. All the patients were evaluated at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks after treatment using the Chinese version of the scale for assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA). Results: Twenty-one SCA3 patients (10 men and 11 women, mean age 39.14 ± 7.81 years, mean disease duration 4.14 ± 1.90 years, mean CAG repeats number 77.57 ± 2.27) were enrolled. After 28 days of NGF treatment, the mean total SARA score decreased significantly from a baseline of 8.48 ± 2.40 to 6.30 ± 1.87 (P < 0.001). Subsections SARA scores also showed significant improvements in stance (P = 0.003), speech (P = 0.023), finger chase (P = 0.015), fast alternating hand movements (P = 0.009), and heel-shin slide (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that NGF may be effective in treating patients with SCA3. PMID:25635421

  13. 1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  14. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada & Katsuki) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium lythri (Westend.) U. Braun & H.D. Shin, comb. nov., Zasmidium wikstroemiae (Petch) U. Braun, comb. nov. PMID:22815589

  15. Strong electron correlation and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Haranath

    2012-07-01

    Based on experimental and theoretical research during the last decade, giant optical nonlinearities found in Mott-Hubbard insulators like Sr2CuO3,Ca2CuO3, Nickel halides ([Ni(chxn)2X]X2 where X = Br, Cl and `chxn' refers to cyclohexanediamine) are presented. These materials are reported to be potential materials for all optical switching devices. The occurrence of nearly degenerate lowest one- and two-photon states, strong Coulomb correlation and strong dipole coupling between the one- and two-photon states are believed to be the reason for such colossal optical nonlinearities in these systems. In some of these materials (at least), the two photon state is below the one-photon state. This leads to the possibility that such material can be excited to the lowest optical state by shinning laser of suitable wavelength, the populations thus generated decays to the two-photon state at ultrafast short time. Thus nonlinear measurements can be made from an excited state (we call as excited state nonlinear optical properties). One dimensional strongly correlated materials are predicted to have several orders-of-magnitude larger excited state optical non-linearities in comparison to that from the ground state, in the wavelength region suitable for terahertz communications. A large number of measurable nonlinear optical properties like Two Photon absorption, Photo induced absorption, Third Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman Scattering are obtained theoretically and compared with available experimental observations. Then a large number excited state nonlinear optical properties are predicted which are experimentally measurable. We emphasize that the mechanism of nonlinear optics in one dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators is different from that of the π-conjugated polymers — in the former spin excitation play an important role. We argue from detailed understanding of nonlinear optics of π-conjugated systems that some features in the Third Harmonic Generation susceptibility measurements are perhaps finger print of gapless spin excitations of Mott-Hubbard insulators.

  16. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  17. [Electrochemical deposition of copper by using ionic liquids as additive and its surface-enhanced Raman scatting effect].

    PubMed

    Xu, Cun-ying; Yan, Lei; Liu, Ya-wei; Li, Yan; Hua, Yi-xin; Zhang, Peng-xiang

    2010-10-01

    The use of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as green media for electrochemical application has attracted great attention recently. However, the effects of RTILs used as additives for electrodeposition of metals have hardly been explored. In the present work, the electrochemical deposition of copper was investigated on a pure copper plate from acid cupric sulfate solutions in the presence of RTILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim] BF4) additive by cyclic voltammetric technique, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For comparison, the electrodeposition of copper from acid cupric sulfate solutions was also investigated. The voltammograms showed that the cathodic peak potential shifted toward more negative potential and cathodic peak current increased when 1.0 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) [bmim] BF4 was added into acid cupric sulfate solutions. SEM images indicated that the shinning electrodeposits of copper were lamellar structure and the size of layered grain decreased with addition of [bmim]BF4 additive. The XRD results indicated that copper deposits exhibited face-centered cubic structure and (220) highly preferred orientation. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of copper deposits were measured by using methyl orange (MO) as the probe molecules. The copper electrodeposit obtained in acid cupric sulfate solutions with [bmim]BF4 is shown to be excellent substrate for SERS measurements, demonstrating significant enhancement and good stability. The enhancement factor was calculated to be up to 4.7 x 10(5). It was also found that copper electrodeposit stored for 60 days in air shows no significant degradation in its sensitivity. PMID:21137394

  18. Professional footwear evaluation for clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Min-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun J

    2007-03-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicate that nursing professionals experience a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) than most other occupational groups. Most nursing activities require standing and walking for prolonged periods. Such job requirements may contribute to MSD problems in the lower extremities. Thus, wearing comfortable nursing shoes is essential to reduce the lower-extremity discomfort for clinical nurses. The objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate three brands of commercially available nursing footwear and identify the important shoe features for adequate shoe support during nursing activities, and (2) to assess the effect of wearing compression hosiery by measuring the biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical responses of test participants. The method of this study involved two phases. First, field observations were conducted to collect job demand data, including walking speed, and the ratios of walking, standing, and sitting. Second, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the functions of professional nursing footwear and examine the influence of compression hosiery on lower extremity discomfort relief. Measurements included electromyography (EMG) of the lower leg, joint range of motion (ROM) in the lower extremity, foot pressure, ground reaction force (GRF), and subjective discomfort ratings for the lower body and feet. Summarizing the findings of this study, comfortable footwear for nursing professionals should emphasize a footbed with arch support outside with 1.5 cm thickness of EVA materials in the metatarsal zone and heel height between 1.8 and 3.6 cm; this can minimize foot pressure distribution, impact force, and increase shin and ankle comfort. In addition, wearing compression hosiery is recommended to alleviate lower body and foot discomfort for clinical nurses. PMID:16765904

  19. Determining the fate of seeded cells in venous tissue-engineered vascular grafts using serial MRI

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Jamie K.; Chahboune, Halima; Criscione, Jason M.; Li, Alice Y.; Hibino, Narutoshi; Yi, Tai; Villalona, Gustavo A.; Kobsa, Serge; Meijas, Dane; Duncan, Daniel R.; Devine, Lesley; Papademetri, Xenophon; Shin'oka, Toshiharu; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    A major limitation of tissue engineering research is the lack of noninvasive monitoring techniques for observations of dynamic changes in single tissue-engineered constructs. We use cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track the fate of cells seeded onto functional tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) through serial imaging. After in vitro optimization, murine macrophages were labeled with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles and seeded onto scaffolds that were surgically implanted as inferior vena cava interposition grafts in SCID/bg mice. Serial MRI showed the transverse relaxation times (T2) were significantly lower immediately following implantation of USPIO-labeled scaffolds (T2=44±6.8 vs. 71±10.2 ms) but increased rapidly at 2 h to values identical to control implants seeded with unlabeled macrophages (T2=63±12 vs. 63±14 ms). This strongly indicates the rapid loss of seeded cells from the scaffolds, a finding verified using Prussian blue staining for iron containing macrophages on explanted TEVGs. Our results support a novel paradigm where seeded cells are rapidly lost from implanted scaffolds instead of developing into cells of the neovessel, as traditionally thought. Our findings confirm and validate this paradigm shift while demonstrating the first successful application of noninvasive MRI for serial study of cellular-level processes in tissue engineering.—Harrington, J. K., Chahboune, H., Criscione, J. M., Li, A. Y., Hibino, N., Yi, T., Villalona, G. A., Kobsa, S., Meijas, D., Duncan, D. R., Devine, L., Papademetri, X., Shin'oka, T., Fahmy, T. M., Breuer, C. K. Determining the fate of seeded cells in venous tissue engineered vascular grafts using serial MRI. PMID:21846838

  20. Non-random association between vowel sounds and colors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Nam, Ho-Sung; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that graphemes of similar sound tend to be associated with analogous synesthetic colors in grapheme-color synesthesia (Asano & Yokosawa, 2011; 2012; Shin & Kim, 2014). A work in our group also showed that graphemes sharing phonetic rules - i.e., the place and the manner of articulation - tend to induce similar synesthetic colors (Kang et al., ASSC 2014). In the present study, we investigated whether phonetic properties are associated with colors in a specific manner even when other visual and linguistic features of graphemes are removed. We employed Haskins Laboratories articulatory synthesizer to generate vowel sounds as our stimuli by systematically manipulating gender (male and female voice) and tongue body position ('frontness' and 'height') (Iskarous et al. 2010, Nam et al. 2004). Four Korean grapheme-color synesthetes and nine non-synesthetes underwent a modified version of the standardized color-matching procedure (Eagleman et al., 2007) where they matched colors three times for each auditorily presented vowel sound. The matched RGB values were converted to HSV values and to CIE Lab color coordinates. Results showed the difference in both saturation and value of matched colors between male and female voices in most participants. However, only the synesthetes showed a consistent trend; male voices were associated with less saturated and darker colors than were female voices. In addition, saturation and value of the matched colors were higher for the vowel sounds generated at front. For the four participants (two synesthetes and two non-synesthetes) who showed statistically significant color-matching consistency, the front and high vowel stimuli were associated with brighter colors (L), and the high vowel stimuli were matched with more greenish colors (a*) on a red-green color axis. These results imply that the association between phonetic features and colors is not random, and this synesthetic association might be extended to individuals without synesthesia. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325818

  1. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on cytokine related diseases/syndromes is necessary. PMID:19818374

  2. Lawmakers: population and social development inseparable. Social development summit.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    Parliamentarians from around the world endorsed action to promote social development by approving the Copenhagen Statement on Population and Social Development during the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development held at the National Parliament in Copenhagen, Denmark, March 4-5, 1995. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is a similar meeting held ahead of the International Conference on Population and Development during September 1994 in Cairo, Egypt. Among the key points of the Copenhagen Statement is the recognition of the importance of slowing rapid population growth, eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, creating jobs, and promoting social integration so that people can participate equally and fully in all spheres of social, cultural, economic, and political life. The document also acknowledges the need to promote universal access to education and health care, affirms the 20/20 principle as an useful concept against poverty and in development cooperation, and notes South-South cooperation as a means to promote national and international cooperation. Shin Sakurai, chairman of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, presided over the event and led the Japanese delegation of four legislators. The first such national suprapartisan body of lawmakers concerned with population and development, the Japan Parliamentarians Federation for Population was established in 1974. The federation has since been a pioneer in Asia and worldwide in fostering political commitment on population and development, playing an important role in gaining and maintaining support in Japan for multilateral and bilateral assistance in the field. Sakurai stressed in his March 4 address that population problems cannot be resolved without social development. PMID:12289009

  3. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool. PMID:17144922

  4. Eye Shape Using Partial Coherence Interferometry, Autorefraction and SD OCT

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Christopher A.; Elsner, Ann E.; Konynenbelt, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral refraction and retinal shape may influence refractive development. Peripheral refraction has been shown to have a high degree of variability and can take considerable time to perform. SD OCT and peripheral axial length measures may be more reliable, assuming that the retinal position is more important than the peripheral optics of the lens/cornea. Methods 79 subjects right eyes were imaged for this study (age range: 22 to 34 yr, refractive error: −10 to +5.00.) Thirty deg SD OCT (Spectralis, Heidleberg) images were collected in a radial pattern along with peripheral refraction with an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon Auto-refractor) and peripheral axial length measurements with partial coherence interferometry (PCI) (IOLmaster, Zeiss). Statistics were performed using repeat measures ANOVA in SPSS (IBM), Bland-Altman analyses, and regression. All measures were converted to diopters to allow direct comparison. Results SD OCT showed a retinal shape with an increased curvature for myopes compared to emmetropes/hyperopes. This retinal shape change became significant around 5 deg. The SD OCT analysis for retinal shape provides a resolution of 0.026 dipopters, which is about ten times more accurate than using autorefraction or clinical refractive techniques. Bland-Altman analyses suggest that retinal shape measured by SD OCT and the PCI method were more consistent with one another than either was with AR. Conclusions With more accurate measures of retinal shape using SD OCT, consistent differences between emmetrope/hyperopes and myopes were found nearer to the fovea than previously reported. Retinal shape may be influenced by central refractive error, and not merely peripheral optics. Partial coherence interferometry and SD OCT appear to be more accurate than autorefraction, which may be influenced other factors such as fixation and accommodation. Autorefraction does measure the optics directly, which may be a strength of that method. PMID:25437906

  5. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-01

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to ΔkTARGET. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f =∑i (ΔkF A-Δki ) ] , and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to ΔkTARGET as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  7. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly apologize for any delays in the editing process.

  8. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  9. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries, Parkinson's disease and other neurological diseases. PMID:27188147

  10. Correlates and Escitalopram Treatment Effects on Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the correlates of sleep disturbance and to assess escitalopram treatment effects of depression on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Design: A cross-sectional study in patients with ACS within 2 w post-ACS, and a 24-w double-blind controlled trial of escitalopram against placebo for patients with ACS who have comorbid depressive disorders. Setting: A university hospital in South Korea. Participants: There were 1,152 patients with ACS who were consecutively recruited. Of 446 patients with comorbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to the trial. Measurements and Results: Sleep disturbance was evaluated by the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed, including cardiovascular risk factors, current cardiac status, and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were most strongly and consistently associated with sleep disturbance. In addition, older age, female sex, hypertension, and more severe ACS status were associated with certain aspects of sleep disturbance. Escitalopram was significantly superior to placebo for improving sleep disturbance over the 24-w treatment period. These effects were substantially explained by improvement in depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Depression screening is indicated in patients with acute coronary syndrome with sleep disturbance. Successful treatment of depression has beneficial effects on sleep outcomes in these patients. Clinical Trials Information: ClinicalTrial.gov identifier for the 24-w drug trial, NCT00419471. Citation: Kim JM, Stewart R, Bae KY, Kang HJ, Kim SW, Shin IS, Hong YJ, Ahn Y, Jeong MH, Yoon JS. Correlates and escitalopram treatment effects on sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome: K-DEPACS and EsDEPACS. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1105–1111. PMID:25581916

  11. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as “Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung.” Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Methods Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. Results We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Conclusion Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  12. Characterization of 100 micron thick positive photoresist on 300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott; Abreau, Kelly

    2005-05-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a thirty percent compound annual rate and it is expected that in the near future over sixty percent of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic equipment and materials that are optimized for these applications. Due to the constantly shrinking bump pitch, it is critical to show excellent CD uniformity across the entire 300 mm wafer surface for feature sizes as small as 70 microns. Flip chip packaging as well as Nanotechnology (MEMS) applications frequently use one or more very thick photoresist layers for electroplating applications. The plating levels require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and electroplating with conventional equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. Additionally the process times for coating, baking, exposure and development must be considered since these impacts the overall cost of ownership of the lithography cell. For thick photoresist layers the sidewall profile, plating resistance and postplating stripability are important characteristics. This study will characterize a novel single coat, positive tone photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR 7120-20) used in electroplating levels up to 100 ?m thick on 300 mm wafers exposed with the Ultratech Spectrum 300e2 stepper and coated and developed with a Steag Hamatech Modutrack system. Process capability is determined by analyzing photoresist film thickness uniformity and critical dimension (CD) control across the wafer. Basic photoresist characterization techniques such as cross sectional SEM analysis are used to establish lithographic capabilities. This study shows excellent adhesion to copper with no surface treatment and no photoresist popping during exposure or post exposure bake (PEB). High aspect ratio, lead-free, solder structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability.

  13. A novel photosensitive material for redistribution and stress buffer reduction on 300mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott

    2006-03-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flipchip packaging is currently growing at a 25% compound annual rate and it is expected that 90% of all 65 nm logic devices will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership, it is imperative to employ lithographic materials that are optimized for these applications and that meet all device specifications. Bump processing typically has one or more levels that require a permanent layer either to relieve stress on the die (stress buffer layer) or to redistribute electrical connections (redistribution layer). Since these layers remain on the wafer, the mechanical and electrical properties of the material are as important as the lithographic properties. This study will characterize a novel negative, siloxane (Shin-Etsu SINR (R)) photoresist for the redistribution and stress buffer application on 300 mm wafers. Siloxanes are a good choice for redistribution and stress buffer layers because of their excellent physical properties, ease of processing and relatively low cure temperatures. The lithographic performance of the SINR is optimized using a broad band, low numerical aperture, 1X stepper. This study evaluates softbake, post exposure bake (PEB), develop conditions and exposure optimization. Due to decreasing feature size at the redistribution level, it is critical to demonstrate CD uniformity and resolution across the entire 300 mm wafer surface. While the CD uniformity data is collected on 300 mm wafers, all process optimization results will be applicable for all standard wafer sizes. The physical properties of the SINR material are evaluated through curing temperature studies and sputtering tests.

  14. Evolution of low flows in Czechia revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvinka, O.

    2015-06-01

    Although a nationwide study focusing on the evolution of low flows in Czechia was conducted in the past, a need for the revision of the results has arisen. By means of the trend analysis, which specifically considers the presence of significant serial correlation at the first lag, the former study highlighted areas where 7-day low flows increase or decrease. However, taking into account only the lag-one autoregressive process might still have led to the detection of so-called pseudo-trends because, besides short-term persistence, also long-term persistence may adversely influence the variance of the test statistic when the independence among data is required. Therefore, one should carefully investigate the presence of persistence in time series. Before the trend analysis itself, the authors' previous studies aimed at the discrimination between short memory processes and long memory processes employing jointly the Phillips-Perron test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. This analysis was accompanied by the Hurst exponent estimation. Here, the subsequent identification of trends is carried out using three modifications of the Mann-Kendall test that allow different kinds of persistence. These include the Bayley-Hammersley-Matalas-Langbein-Lettenmaier equivalent sample size approach, the trend-free pre-whitening approach and a block bootstrap with automatic selection of the block length, which was applied for the first time in hydrology. The general results are similar to those presented in the former study on trends. Nevertheless, the divergent minimum discharges evolution in the western part of Czechia is now much clear. Moreover, no significant increasing trend in series incorporating Julian days was found.

  15. Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusell Tiede, Vance

    2010-01-01

    Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

  16. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  17. PREFACE: Eucas '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    During the 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 6 plenary, 22 invited, 206 oral and 429 poster contributions were presented on recent developments in the field of applied superconductivity. This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains all contributed papers that were accepted for the Conference Proceedings. The Dresden EUCAS conference with 712 participants from 43 countries continued the tradition of preceding EUCAS conferences of combining basic superconductivity research contributions with the discussion of recent material advances and new developments in large scale and electronic applications. In Dresden, contributions on the recently discovered Fe based superconductors were presented for the first time during a EUCAS conference and their potential for applications was intensively discussed. Finally we want to acknowledge the help of the International Advisory and National Committees in setting up the scientific program and especially we would like to express our gratitude to all members of the Local Organization Committee. Their enthusiastic and well organized work made this Dresden EUCAS conference a memorable event for all participants. Last but not least we are very grateful to W. Goldacker , S. Haindl, J. Hänisch, R. Hühne, M. Noe, P. Seidel and M. Siegel for their extraordinary help during the proceedings review process. Bernhard Holzapfel Ludwig Schultz Conference Chairmen The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

  18. The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Smith, S A

    1992-03-01

    A small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. Gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. The tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. Two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the humeroscapular bone to the proximal humerus: one passes to the proximal edge of the pectoral crest of the humerus, and the other passes to the ventral tubercle of the humerus. The bone was described as the humeroscapular bone in reference to a similar fibrocartilaginous structure possessed by some birds. The humeroscapular bone is present in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), the screech owl (Otus asio), the barred owl (Strix varia), the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicencis), the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and the sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). The bone is absent in the barn owl (Tyto alba), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the golden eagle (Aquila chysaetos), and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), though some of these species possessed a similar fibrocartilaginous structure. Whether the humeroscapular structure develops as bone or cartilage in a given species may be related to other morphological features of the wing, and/or to characteristics of the predatory behavior of the species. Clinicians and anatomists dealing with birds of prey must be aware of the presence of the humeroscapular bone to avoid misinterpreting it as a fracture fragment. PMID:1585989

  19. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

  20. Impact of Exposure Uncertainty on the Association between Perfluorooctanoate and Preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project Population

    PubMed Central

    Avanasi, Raghavendhran; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Verónica M.; Savitz, David A.; Bartell, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uncertainty in exposure estimates from models can result in exposure measurement error and can potentially affect the validity of epidemiological studies. We recently used a suite of environmental models and an integrated exposure and pharmacokinetic model to estimate individual perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) serum concentrations and assess the association with preeclampsia from 1990 through 2006 for the C8 Health Project participants. Objectives The aims of the current study are to evaluate impact of uncertainty in estimated PFOA drinking-water concentrations on estimated serum concentrations and their reported epidemiological association with preeclampsia. Methods For each individual public water district, we used Monte Carlo simulations to vary the year-by-year PFOA drinking-water concentration by randomly sampling from lognormal distributions for random error in the yearly public water district PFOA concentrations, systematic error specific to each water district, and global systematic error in the release assessment (using the estimated concentrations from the original fate and transport model as medians and a range of 2-, 5-, and 10-fold uncertainty). Results Uncertainty in PFOA water concentrations could cause major changes in estimated serum PFOA concentrations among participants. However, there is relatively little impact on the resulting epidemiological association in our simulations. The contribution of exposure uncertainty to the total uncertainty (including regression parameter variance) ranged from 5% to 31%, and bias was negligible. Conclusions We found that correlated exposure uncertainty can substantially change estimated PFOA serum concentrations, but results in only minor impacts on the epidemiological association between PFOA and preeclampsia. Citation Avanasi R, Shin HM, Vieira VM, Savitz DA, Bartell SM. 2016. Impact of exposure uncertainty on the association between perfluorooctanoate and preeclampsia in the C8 Health Project population. Environ Health Perspect 124:126–132; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409044 PMID:26090912

  1. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Cerebral White Matter Change in a Middle-Aged and Older General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun; Yun, Chang-Ho; Thomas, Robert Joseph; Lee, Seung Hoon; Seo, Hyung Suk; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Suh, Sooyeon; Shin, Chol

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to the development of systemic hypertension, and hypertension strongly predicts the development of white matter change (WMC). Thus, it is plausible that OSA mediates WMC. The goal of the current study is to determine whether a contextual relationship exists between OSA and cerebral WMC. Design: Cross-sectional analyses conducted in a population-based study. Setting: Korean community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) who attended examinations in 2011 at a medical center. Participants: There were 503 individuals (mean ± SD, age 59.63 ± 7.48 y) who were free of previously diagnosed cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent 1-night polysomnography and were classified as no OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] < 5, n = 289), mild OSA (AHI 5-15, n = 161), and moderate to severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15, n = 53). WMC was identified with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was found in 199 individuals (39.56%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for covariates revealed that moderate to severe OSA was significantly associated with the presence of WMC (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.13) compared with no OSA. Additional adjustment of hypertension to the model did not alter the significance of the association (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.02-4.05). Conclusions: Moderate to severe OSA is an independent risk factor for WMC in middle-aged and older individuals. Thus, early recognition and treatment of OSA could reduce the risk of stroke and vascular dementia. Citation: Kim H; Yun CH; Thomas RJ; Lee SH; Seo HS; Cho ER; Lee SK; Yoon DW; Suh S; Shin C. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cerebral white matter change in a middle-aged and older general population. SLEEP 2013;36(5):709-715. PMID:23633753

  3. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  4. Monitoring Sound To Quantify Snoring and Sleep Apnea Severity Using a Smartphone: Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kenji; Sadamitsu, Yumiko; Toshimitsu, Ayaka; Fujita, Hisayuki; Shin, Shizue; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Habitual snoring is a prevalent condition that is not only a marker of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but can also lead to vascular risk. However, it is not easy to check snoring status at home. We attempted to develop a snoring sound monitor consisting of a smartphone alone, which is aimed to quantify snoring and OSA severity. Methods: The subjects included 50 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), of which the data of 10 patients were used for developing the program and that of 40 patients were used for validating the program. A smartphone was attached to the anterior chest wall over the sternum. It acquired ambient sound from the built-in microphone and analyzed it using a fast Fourier transform on a real-time basis. Results: Snoring time measured by the smartphone highly correlated with snoring time measured by PSG (r = 0.93). The top 1 percentile value of sound pressure level (L1) determined by the smartphone correlated with the ambient sound L1 during sleep determined by PSG (r = 0.92). Moreover, the respiratory disturbance index estimated by the smartphone (smart-RDI) highly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by PSG (r = 0.94). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the smart-RDI for diagnosing OSA (AHI ≥ 15) were 0.70 and 0.94, respectively. Conclusions: A smartphone can be used for effectively monitoring snoring and OSA in a controlled laboratory setting. Use of this technology in a noisy home environment remains unproven, and further investigation is needed. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 79. Citation: Nakano H; Hirayama K; Sadamitsu Y; Toshimitsu A; Fujita H; Shin S; Tanigawa T. Monitoring sound to quantify snoring and sleep apnea severity using a smartphone: proof of concept. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):73-78. PMID:24426823

  5. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each condition. Thus, dermoscopy is a good diagnostic tool in the differentiation of HLP and PN. PMID:27222766

  6. SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Shinohara, Iku; Yamamoto, Yukio; Okada, Tatsuaki; Okumura, Hayato

    SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will observe the distribution of the elements and minerals on the surface, the surface and sub-surface structure, the gravity field, the remnant of the magnetic field and the environment of energetic particles and plasma of the Moon. The Relay satellite 'OKINA' will relay the Doppler ranging signal between the Main Orbiter and the ground station for the world's first direct measurement of he gravity field in the farside of the Moon. The differential VLBI Radio-Sources on board the Relay satellite "OKINA" and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA' are used to determine the gravity field of the Moon most precisely. SELENE data will be used for studying 'lunar origin and evolution' and "exploration" of the Moon and will be archived and distributed in PDS-like format with the descriptions of data format and technical information. This PDS-like format is slightly different from catalog for search and order in catalog DB (some keyword (attribute) and value definition are different). Thus, to establish the catalog interoperability function with PDS/NASA and PSA/ESA by using PDAP, it is necessary to develop PDS label (keyword and value) mapping software to translate SELENE PDS like label extracted from SELENE product to PDS compatible PDS-label and archive such the label information to our prototype catalog database We also implemented the retrieving prototype system to access that prototype catalog database. Those systems were finished to implement by the end of this March. This paper describes the result of this prototype development and evaluation report. In addition, this paper shows some proposal to PDAP system through this prototype effort.

  7. Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Oita, Shigeru; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2007-07-11

    Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected. We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans). This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17555327

  8. A biomechanical comparison of the traditional squat, powerlifting squat, and box squat.

    PubMed

    Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Keogh, Justin W L; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur D

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. PMID:22505136

  9. Proton pump inhibitors and pain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Howard S; Dhingra, Reena; Ryckewaert, Lori; Bonner, Dave

    2009-01-01

    There may be a relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and iron absorption. PPIs may decrease the amount of iron absorbed gastrointestinally specifically due to alteration of the pH in the duodenum. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that includes an urge to move legs, accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs; the urge to move begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, the urge to move is partially or totally relieved by movement, and the urge is worse or only occurs at night. In the majority of the restless leg syndrome population, the sensation is deep seated, often described as being in the shin bones, and most commonly felt between the knee and ankle. It may be described as a creepy, shock-like, tense, electric, buzzing, itchy, or even numb sensation. A subpopulation of this restless leg syndrome patient population experiences restless leg syndrome associated pain (RLSAP) that has been described as a deep "achy pain." This pain has not been found to be relieved by many of the typical over the counter analgesics. Often, constant movement of the legs appears to be the only remedy, as these sensations usually appear during periods of rest. Furthermore, there appears to be an association between iron deficiency and those suffering from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). The authors theorize that there may be a possible correlation between PPIs and the symptoms (e.g. pain) associated with RLS. The authors propose that PPIs, such as omeprazole, may interfere with iron absorption in certain patients and that a subpopulation of patients who develop significant iron deficiency characterized by low serum ferritin levels while on PPIs may also develop RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP). While there is no robust direct evidence to support any associations of PPIs and iron deficiency or PPIs associated with RLS-like symptoms (including RLSAP), it is hoped that this manuscript may spark research efforts on this issue. PMID:19935988

  10. Expression of the smg p25A (a ras p21-like GTP-binding protein) gene in human neuroblastoma cell lines and tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Nakamura, H; Mabuchi, S; Tanaka, T; Nakagawara, A; Takai, Y

    1990-11-15

    We have examined expression of the smg p25A (a ras p21-like GTP-binding protein) gene in neural crest-derived tumor cell lines and neuroblastoma tissues. The human neuroblastoma cell lines GOTO, IMR-32, NB-1, and SK-N-SH expressed the 1.6-kilobase smg-25A mRNA. SH-SY5Y and SH-IN, variant cell lines with a neuronal phenotype derived from SK-N-SH, expressed much more smg-25A mRNA than did SH-EP1, a variant line with an epithelium-like phenotype also derived from SK-N-SH. The primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell lines SK-N-MC and KU-SN and the Ewing's sarcoma cell lines RD-ES and SK-ES expressed the smg-25A mRNA to a much smaller extent than did neuroblastoma cell lines. Of 15 human neuroblastoma specimens tested, 13 expressed the smg-25A mRNA to various extents. When the relative ratio of the smg-25A mRNA level to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA level was compared among neuroblastoma tumor tissues, the value was significantly higher in tumors histologically diagnosed as ganglioneuroblastoma. The smg-25A mRNA was not detected in the tissues of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, or undifferentiated sarcoma of the liver. These results suggest that the smg-25A mRNA level is closely related to the neuronal differentiation state of tumors derived from the neural crest. PMID:2121331

  11. The Impact of Gender on Timeliness of Narcolepsy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Won, Christine; Mahmoudi, Mandana; Qin, Li; Purvis, Taylor; Mathur, Aditi; Mohsenin, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the impact of gender in narcoleptic patients on timeliness of diagnosis, symptomology, and health and lifestyle impairment Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 109 consecutive patients (68 women) with newly diagnosed narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, from a University sleep disorders center. Consecutive patients were administered an 8-page questionnaire at the time of their diagnosis regarding sleep habits, medications, and medical conditions, lifestyle impairments, as well as details regarding narcolepsy-related symptoms. Results: Men and women presented with remarkably similar narcolepsy related symptoms, yet women were more likely to be delayed in diagnosis; 85% of men were likely to be diagnosed by 16 years after symptom onset, compared to 28 years in women. More women were likely to remain undiagnosed at any given time point after symptom onset (hazard ratio for diagnosis of men compared to women 1.53; 95% CI 1.01-2.32; p = 0.04). Men and women reported similar degree of subjective sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (mean 16.2 ± 4.5; p = 0.18), though women demonstrated significantly more severe objective sleepiness on multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) (mean sleep latency in women = 5.4 min (± 4.1), in men 7.4 min (± 3.5); p = 0.03). Despite being more objectively sleepy, women were less likely to report lifestyle impairments in the areas of personal relationships (71% men, 44% women, p = 0.01) and physical activity (36% men, 16% women, p = 0.02), but were also more likely to self-medicate with caffeine (63.4% men, 82.4% women; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Narcolepsy impacts men and women's health and lifestyle differently, and may cause delays diagnosis for women. Citation: Won C; Mahmoudi M; Qin L; Purvis T; Mathur A; Mohsenin V. The impact of gender on timeliness of narcolepsy diagnosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):89-95. PMID:24426826

  12. Recent climatic changes and their impacts on energy and water budgets over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K.; Qin, J.; Tang, W.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    Since the early of 1980s, the TP surfaces have been experiencing an overall rapid warming and wetting while wind speed and sunshine duration have been declining. This paper reviews recent progress in Tibetan Plateau (TP) climate changes studies. First, the surface warming rate shows clear increases from 3000 m to 4800 m ASL, and then becomes quite stable with a slight decline near the highest elevations. This altitudinal dependence of the warming rate has a significant implication for TP water resources and environmental changes, since most glaciers and snow surfaces are located above 5000 m ASL over the TP (refer to: Qin et al., 2009, Climatic Change, 97, 321-327). Second, an obvious transition from brightening to dimming around 1978 is found over the TP, and the dimming has been continued up to now. This transition is different from the average status of whole China, where solar radiation reached a stable level since the 1990s. As aerosol loads are very low over TP, this difference indicates that the importance of cloud changes in altering solar radiation may be comparable to or even exceed that of the aerosol changes (refer to: Tang et al., 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 393-406). Third, a state-of-the-art estimate of atmospheric heating source over the TP, which enhances the Asian monsoon, indicates that sensible heat, radiative convergence, and the total heat source have decreased since the 1980s, but their weakening trends were overestimated in a recent study (refer to: Yang et al., 2011, Journal of Climate, 24, 1525-1541). Last, surface water balance has been changed in recent decades. Observed precipitation shows insignificant increasing trends in central TP and decreasing trends along the TP periphery while evaporation shows overall increasing trends, leading to decreased discharge at major TP water resource areas (semi-humid and humid zones in the eastern and southern TP). The increase of evaporation is approximately consistent with the decrease of potential evaporation and pan evaporation, but deviated slightly from Bouchet's complementary relationship when vapor pressure deficit (or air temperature) is too low, which suppresses the power of vapor transfer (refer to: Yang et al. 2011, Climatic Change, DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0099-4).

  13. Geochemical Characteristics And Zones Of Surface Snow On East Antarctic Ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.

    2004-12-01

    Geochemical characteristics and zones of surface snow on east Antarctic Ice Sheet Jiancheng KANG1,4, Leibao LIU1, Dahe QIN2, Dali WANG1, Jiahong WEN1, Dejun TAN1, Zhongqin LI2, Jun LI3 & Xiaowei ZHANG1,4 1 Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai 200129, China; 2 Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China; 3 Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC, Private Bag 80 Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia; 4 Geography Department of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China Correspondence should be addressed to Jiancheng KANG (email: kangjc@sh163.net, kangjc@126.com ) Abstract The surface-snow geochemical characteristics are discussed on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, depending on the stable isotopes ratios of oxygen and hydrogen, concentration of impurities (soluble-ions and insoluble micro-particle) in surface snow collected on the ice sheet. The purpose is to study geochemical zones on the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and to research sources and transportation route of the water vapor and the impurities in surface snow. It has been found that the ratio coefficients, as S1, d1 in the equation ƒOD = S1ƒO18O + d1, are changed near the elevation 2000m on the ice sheet. The weight ratio of Cl-/Na+ at the area below the elevation of 2000m is close to the ratio in the sea salt; but it is about 2 times that of the sea salt, at the inland area up to the elevation of 2000m. The concentrations of non-sea-salt Ca2+ ion (nssCa2+) and fine-particle increase at the interior up to the elevation 2000m. At the region below the elevation of 2000m, the impurity concentration is decreasing with the elevation increasing. Near coastal region, the surface snow has a high concentration of impurity, where the elevation is below 800m. Combining the translating processes of water-vapor and impurities, it suggests that the region up to the elevation 2000m is affected by large-scale circulation with longitude-direction, and that water-vapor and impurities in surface snow come from long sources. The region below the elevation 2000m is affected by some strong cyclones acting at peripheral region of the ice sheet, the sources of water and impurities could be at high latitude sea and coast. The area below elevation 800m is affected by local coastal cyclones. Keywords: Antarctic Ice Sheet, Snow, Geochemical Zones

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some susceptible individuals, necessitating a stringent pretreatment evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio, based on results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. PMID:26357619

  16. PREFACE: The International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC 2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, David; Xue Dou, Shi

    2004-09-01

    The International Cryogenic Materials Conference entitled `Materials Processing, Microstructures and Critical Current of Superconductors' was hosted by the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, on 10-13 February 2004. The objective of this ICMC topical conference was to bring together world experts in materials processing, characterization and microstructure control of modern superconductors, to discuss the critical issues in superconductor technology and application. Topics of the conference included: processing of wires, tapes, coated conductors, melt textured bulk forms and thin films; synthesis of new materials; microstructure control; critical current density and current-limiting mechanisms; flux pinning, flux dynamics and AC loss; and applications of superconductors. The scientific challenges in the development of high field and high temperature superconductors (HTS) are interdisciplinary in nature, a characteristic very well reflected by the wide spectrum of participants at the conference. The workshop attracted 90 participants from 20 countries. These researchers were from the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, electrical engineering and electronics. Applied superconductivity has developed to the stage where a range of valuable materials have been identified and characterized, and many of the problems of fabrication into long lengths or thin films have been overcome. The conference programme covered BSCCO, YBCO, MgB2 and other related materials, and characterization of their electromagnetic properties. As is well known, applications of Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn wires are well advanced for MRI, NMR and many accelerator magnets. Bi-2223 wires from a number of companies have reached the level required for initial introduction into commercial applications. Bringing HTS and MgB2 wires to large-scale commercial application depends critically on understanding and further exploiting the full potential of these complex nanomaterials. The workshop was lively, informative and successful with many high quality oral and poster presentations. The papers selected for this issue after review represent a good cross-section of the work presented at the conference. The members of the workshop organizing committee contributed much of their spare time to the organization of the conference. In particular, we would like to acknowledge Dr Alex Pan and Dr Meng Jun Qin for their excellent work on the workshop programme and Mrs Babs Allen for her assistance in all aspects of the workshop. We would also like to thank the ICMC board and ISEM at the University of Wollongong for their financial support.

  17. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the regions. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin that can be attributed to natural gas fugitive emissions has been determined to be 71 +/- 9%. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011).

  18. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both eschewed metaphysical explanations. The Seongho School's interest in the materia medica stemmed from a desire to improve the delivery and quality of medical practices in rural communities, where metaphysical theories of medicine did not prevail and the cost of medicine was prohibitive. PMID:26394994

  19. Nucleosynthetic Nd isotope anomalies in primitive enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyet, M.; Gannoun, A.

    2013-11-01

    We carried out stepwise dissolutions of four primitive enstatite chondrites (EC) belonging to the EH subgroup. Large Nd isotope anomalies are found in the most refractory phases, dissolved using strong acids. Residues are characterized by excesses in 142Nd and deficits in 145Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd isotopes. The Nd anomalies measured in the ALHA77295 residue are even greater than those measured in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite (CC) using a similar analytical technique (Qin et al., 2011). Once corrected for a common Sm/Nd evolution, the 142Nd excess in the ALHA77295 residue is equal to 700 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard value. The Nd isotope patterns measured in EC and CC residues can be adjusted to coincide by adding a small amount of an s-process-rich carrier phase such as SiC and 0.075% is required to fit the ALHA7795 residue. Small isotope differences still persist between these residues even if they can be considered similar within error. In enstatite chondrites, residues have a deficit in 150Nd similar to or smaller than that measured in 148Nd, whereas in SiC extracted from carbonaceous chondrites or in whole rock, the deficit in 150Nd is always greater than that in 148Nd. Moreover in a binary 142Nd-148Nd diagram, the best-fit lines obtained for leachates and residues from carbonaceous chondrites and enstatite chondrites have slightly different slopes. For the same 148Nd/144Nd ratio, the anomalous component in an enstatite chondrite has a higher 142Nd/144Nd ratio compared to carbonaceous chondrites, a feature already observed at the whole rock scale. Our results suggest that different chondrite groups sample different reservoirs of presolar grains formed in different environments. Assuming that the carrier of this anomalous component measured in residues of enstatite chondrites are SiC, our results may suggest that different meteorite parent bodies sample reservoirs of presolar SiC formed in different stellar environments. This could explain why ALHA77295, the sample which is the most enriched in presolar grains, has a bulk 142Nd isotope composition similar to the terrestrial value. Further investigation of enstatite chondrites is needed to test whether the isotope composition of the most refractory phases is similar to that measured in carbonaceous chondrites and in particular the 144Sm that is a p-process isotope only. Finally this study highlights the difficulty of interpreting the 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites since incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula creates significant 142Nd variation, as shown by ALHA77295.

  20. Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guitang; Wang, Liquan; Li, Rongshe; Yuan, Sihua; Ji, Wenhua; Yin, Fuguang; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Baodi

    2012-07-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, composed of several continental slivers within the eastern Tethyan domain, is one of the pivotal sites to examine to better understand the theory of plate tectonics and the orogenic evolution on Earth. This plateau is generally inferred to be a collage of several continental blocks that rifted from Gondwanaland and subsequently accreted to the Asian continent. However, recent recognition of over twenty ophiolite mélange zones and their associated island arcs indicates that the traditional model of tectonic evolution requires revision. Based on 177 recently finished 1:250,000 scale geological maps and related studies, we summarize the main tectonic context of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and propose a new integrated model to account for the new findings. The complex orogen of the immense Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consisting of multiple island arc-basin systems that developed at different stages while surrounded by the North China, Yangtze, Tarim, and Indian plates, is emphasized. The entire orogen, surrounded by suture zones that mark the locations of oceanic closure, is investigated by examining (I) the first-order tectonic units and ophiolitic mélanges (including arc-arc/continent collision zones) and (II) their internally enclosed blocks as the second-order tectonic units. Therefore, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is divided into three major orogenic systems, namely, from northeast to southwest, the Early Paleozoic Qinling-Qilianshan-Kunlunshan (Qin-Qi-Kun), the Late Paleozoic-Triassic Qiangtang-Sanjiang, and the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic Gangdese-Himalaya orogenic systems, which are separated by the Kangxiwa-Muzitagh-Maqin-Mianxian and the Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian sutures, respectively. We propose that the formation and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to have been intrinsically related to those of the eastern Tethys, recorded by the Longmu Co-Shuanghu ophiolite mélange zone, the Southern Qiangtang Paleozoic accretionary arc-basin system, the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, and their associated, composite island arc-basin systems. The present-day Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian suture system marks the final closure of the Tethyan Ocean. The Yarlung Zangbo Ocean opened as a back-arc basin in response to the southward subduction of the Tethyan Ocean lithosphere in the Middle Triassic and closed as a result of the India-Asia collision at the end of Cretaceous, followed by the northward indention of the Indian plate that resulted in significant intra-continental deformation and plateau uplift in the Cenozoic.

  1. Evolution of supra-glacial lakes across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundal, A. V.; Shepherd, A.; Nienow, P.; Hanna, E.; Palmer, S.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    We have used 268 cloud-free Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images spanning the 2003 and 2005-2007 melt seasons to study the seasonal evolution of supra-glacial lakes in three different regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Lake area estimates were obtained by developing an automated classification method for their identification based on 250 m resolution MODIS surface reflectance observations. Widespread supra-glacial lake formation and drainage is observed across the ice sheet, with a 2-3 weeks delay in the evolution of total supra-glacial lake area in the northern areas compared to the south-west. The onset of lake growth varies by up to one month inter-annually, and lakes form and drain at progressively higher altitudes during the melt season. A correlation was found between the annual peak in total lake area and modelled annual runoff across all study areas. Our results indicate that, in a future warmer climate (Meehl et al., 2007), Greenland supra-glacial lakes can be expected to form at higher altitudes and over a longer time period than is presently the case, expanding the area and time period over which connections between the ice sheet surface and base may be established (Das et al., 2008) with potential consequences for ice sheet discharge (Zwally et al., 2002). Das, S., Joughin, M., Behn, M., Howat, I., King, M., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supra-glacial lake drainage. Science, 5877, 778-781. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., Kitoh, A., Knutti, R., Murphy, J.M., Noda, A., Raper, S.C.B., Watterson, I.G., Weaver, A.J. & Zhao, Z.C. (2007). Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Zwally, H.J., Abdalati, W., Herring, T., Larson, K., Saba, J. & Steffen, K. (2002). Surface Melt-Induced Acceleration of Greenland Ice-Sheet Flow. Science, 297, 218-221.

  2. Baicalin Activates Glycine and [Formula: see text]-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors on Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subsnucleus Caudalis in Juvenile Mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Oh, Sun Mi; Park, Soo Joung; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-04-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives nociceptive afferent inputs from thin-myelinated A[Formula: see text] fibers and unmyelinated C fibers and has been shown to be involved in the processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-Qin, SbG), one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been used historically as anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medicine. Baicalin, one of the major compounds of SbG, has been reported to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, the receptor type activated by baicalin and its precise action mechanism on the SG neurons of Vc have not yet been studied. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the ion channels activated by baicalin on the SG neurons of Vc. In high Cl[Formula: see text] pipette solution, the baicalin (300[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) induced repeatable inward currents ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]pA, [Formula: see text]) without desensitization on all the SG neurons tested. Further, the inward currents showed a concentration (0.1-3[Formula: see text]mM) dependent pattern. The inward current was sustained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a voltage sensitive Na[Formula: see text] channel blocker. In addition, baicalin-induced inward currents were reduced in the presence of picrotoxin (50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil (100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptor antagonist, and strychnine (2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a glycine receptor antagonist, respectively. These results indicate that baicalin has inhibitory effects on the SG neurons of the Vc, which are due to the activation of GABAA and/or the glycine receptor. Our results suggest that baicalin may be a potential target for orofacial pain modulation. PMID:27080947

  3. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the authors of all accepted papers for their high quality and fruitful contributions. Special thanks are due to all reviewers for their careful critical reading of the manuscripts and useful comments and suggestions. We do hope that this volume will be beneficial for readers to their future research endeavours and careers. We also gratefully acknowledge tremendous efforts and dedication of many individuals, especially CMSE Conference Secretary Ms. Liu Qin, Editor Anete Ashton and all the Editorial Board members in IOP Publishing for their support in producing the proceedings of this event. Guest Editors: Prof. Harry E. Ruda University of Toronto, Canada Dr. Alexander Khotsianovsky Pisarenko Institute of Problems of Strength of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine

  4. Statistical downscaling of regional climate scenarios for the French Alps : Impacts on snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, M.; Durand, Y.; Giraud, G.; Mérindol, L.; Déqué, M.; Sanchez, E.; Pagé, C.; Hasan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Mountain areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Owing to the complexity of mountain terrain, climate research at scales relevant for impacts studies and decisive for stakeholders is challenging. A possible way to bridge the gap between these fine scales and those of the general circulation models (GCMs) consists of combining high-resolution simulations of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) to statistical downscaling methods. The present work is based on such an approach. It aims at investigating the impacts of climate change on snow cover in the French Alps for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 under several IPCC hypotheses. An analogue method based on high resolution atmospheric fields from various RCMs and climate reanalyses is used to simulate local climate scenarios. These scenarios, which provide meteorological parameters relevant for snowpack evolution, subsequently feed the CROCUS snow model. In these simulations, various sources of uncertainties are thus considered (several greenhouse gases emission scenarios and RCMs). Results are obtained for different regions of the French Alps at various altitudes. For all scenarios, temperature increase is relatively uniform over the Alps. This regional warming is larger than that generally modeled at the global scale (IPCC, 2007), and particularly strong in summer. Annual precipitation amounts seem to decrease, mainly as a result of decreasing precipitation trends in summer and fall. As a result of these climatic evolutions, there is a general decrease of the mean winter snow depth and seasonal snow duration for all massifs. Winter snow depths are particularly reduced in the Northern Alps. However, the impact on seasonal snow duration is more significant in the Southern and Extreme Southern Alps, since these regions are already characterized by small winter snow depths at low elevations. Reference : IPCC (2007a). Climate change 2007 : The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In : Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA. This work is performed in the framework of the SCAMPEI ANR (French research project).

  5. GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buchta, K., Coly, A., Sall, F., Ndour, N. M., Oudraogo, Y., Samari, B. S., Sankara, B. T., Feumba, R. A., Ngapgue, J. N., Ngoumo, M. T., Tsalefac, M., Tonye, E. (2012) Green infrastructure maps for selected case studies and a report with an urban green infrastructure mapping methodology adapted to African cities CLUVA project deliverable D2.7. Available at http://www.cluva.eu/deliverables/CLUVA_D2.7.pdf. Date last accessed, Dec. 18th 2012

  6. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry derived structural geometry for stress fracture prediction in male U.S. Marine Corps recruits.

    PubMed

    Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Mourtada, F A; Shaffer, R A; Maxwell-Williams, K; Kao, G L; Sartoris, D J; Brodine, S

    1996-05-01

    A total of 626 U.S. male Marine Corps recruits underwent anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the femoral midshaft and the distal third of the tibia prior to a 12 week physical training program. Conventionally obtained frontal plane DXA scan data were used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to derive the cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus, and bone width in the femur, tibia, and fibula. During training, 23 recruits (3.7%) presented with a total of 27 radiologically confirmed stress fractures in various locations in the lower extremity. After excluding 16 cases of shin splints, periostitis, and other stress reactions that did not meet fracture definition criteria, we compared anthropometric and bone structural geometry measurements between fracture cases and the remaining 587 normals. There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.8), femur length (p = 0.2), pelvic width (p = 0.08), and knee width at the femoral condyles (p = 0.06), but fracture cases were shorter (p = 0.01), lighter (p = 0.0006), and smaller in most anthropometric girth dimensions (p < 0.04). Fracture case bone cross-sectional areas (p < 0.001), moments of inertia (p < 0.001), section moduli (p < 0.001), and widths (p < 0.001) as well as BMD (p < 0.03) were significantly smaller in the tibia and femur. After correcting for body weight differences, the tibia cross-sectional area (p = 0.03), section modulus (p = 0.05), and width (p = 0.03) remained significantly smaller in fracture subjects. We conclude that both small body weight and small diaphyseal dimensions relative to body weight are factors predisposing to the development of stress fractures in this population. These results suggest that bone structural geometry measurements derived from DXA data may provide a simple noninvasive methodology for assessing the risk of stress fracture. PMID:9157779

  7. Environmental Lead Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Domains in a Community Sample of South Korean School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Im, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Bhang, Soo-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-level environmental exposure to lead has been associated with both reduced intelligence and symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have estimated the association of lead and intelligence independent of ADHD, and it is not clear from previous studies whether lead is associated with both inattention and impulsivity ADHD symptoms. Objectives We estimated mutually adjusted associations of environmental lead exposure with both intelligence and ADHD symptoms, and associations between lead and specific ADHD-related domains. Methods Blood lead concentrations were measured in a general population of 1,001 children 8–11 years of age. We used multivariable linear regression models to estimate associations of blood lead concentrations with IQ scores, teacher and parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, and measures of inattention and impulsivity. Models were adjusted for demographic variables and other environmental exposures (blood levels of mercury and manganese, urinary concentrations of cotinine, phthalate metabolites, and bisphenol A). Results Associations of blood lead with lower IQ and higher impulsivity were robust to adjustment for a variety of covariates. When adjusted for demographic characteristics, other environmental exposures, and ADHD symptoms or IQ, a 10-fold increase in blood lead concentration was associated with lower Full-Scale IQ (–7.23; 95% CI: –13.39, –1.07) and higher parent- and teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity scores (ADHD Rating Scale, 1.99; 95% CI: 0.17, 3.81 and 3.66; 95% CI: 1.18, 6.13, respectively) and commission errors (Continuous Performance Test, 12.27; 95% CI: –0.08, 24.62). Blood lead was not significantly associated with inattention in adjusted models. Conclusions Low-level lead exposure was adversely associated with intelligence in school-age children independent of ADHD, and environmental lead exposure was selectively associated with impulsivity among the clinical features of ADHD. Citation Hong SB, Im MH, Kim JW, Park EJ, Shin MS, Kim BN, Yoo HJ, Cho IH, Bhang SY, Hong YC, Cho SC. 2015. Environmental lead exposure and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom domains in a community sample of South Korean school-age children. Environ Health Perspect 123:271–276; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307420 PMID:25280233

  8. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009), Stereo workstation for Mars rover image analysis, in EPSC (Europlanets), Potsdam, Germany, EPSC2009-390

  9. Precipitation response to the current ENSO variability in a warming world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Marvel, K.; Leung, L.

    2013-12-01

    The major triggers of past and recent droughts include large modes of variability, such as ENSO, as well as specific and persistent patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs; Hoerling and Kumar, 2003, Shin et al. 2010, Schubert et al. 2009). However, alternative drought initiators are also anticipated in response to increasing greenhouse gases, potentially changing the relative contribution of ocean variability as drought initiator. They include the intensification of the current zonal wet-dry patterns (the thermodynamic mechanism, Held and Soden, 2006), a latitudinal redistribution of global precipitation (the dynamical mechanism, Seager et al. 2007, Seidel et al. 2008, Scheff and Frierson 2008) and a reduction of local soil moisture and precipitation recycling (the land-atmosphere argument). Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether the relative contribution of those mechanisms change over time in response to global warming. In this study, we first perform an EOF analysis of the 1900-1999 time series of observed global SST field and identify a simple ENSO-like (ENSOL) mode of SST variability. We show that this mode is well spatially and temporally correlated with observed worldwide regional precipitation and drought variability. We then develop concise metrics to examine the fidelity with which the CMIP5 coupled global climate models (CGCMs) capture this particular ENSO-like mode in the current climate, and their ability to replicate the observed teleconnections with precipitation. Based on the CMIP5 model projections of future climate change, we finally analyze the potential temporal variations in ENSOL to be anticipated under further global warming, as well as their associated teleconnections with precipitation (pattern, amplitude, and total response). Overall, our approach allows us to determine what will be the effect of the current ENSO-like variability (i.e., as measured with instrumental observations) on precipitation in a warming world. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and is supported, among others, by C.B. Early Career Research Program award.

  10. Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation, and Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis," Edited by K.-K. Liu, L. Atkinson, R. Quinones, L. Talaue-McManus, Springer-Verlag, 291-303. Semiletov, I., O. Dudarev, V. Luchin, K.-H. Shin, and N. Tanaka, 2005, The East-Siberian Sea as a transition zone between Pacific-derived waters and Artic shelf waters, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L10614/2005GL022490

  11. Pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave investigation of the large-amplitude motions in HBr-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. K.; Lovas, F. J.; Fraser, G. T.; Suenram, R. D.

    1995-09-01

    Microwave spectra of H79Br-CO2 and H81Br-CO2 and their D and 18O isotopomers have been measured using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. The spectra are consistent with a T-shaped Br-CO2 geometry, as concluded previously by Zeng et al. [Y. P. Zeng, S. W. Sharpe, S. K. Shin, C. Wittig, and R. A. Beaudet, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 5392 (1992)] from an investigation of the rotationally resolved infrared spectrum of the asymmetric C=O stretching vibration of the complex. Only b-type Ka=1←0 transitions are observed, with the symmetry-allowed a-type ΔKa=0 transitions being too weak to be detected. The absence of a strong a-type spectrum implies that the HBr axis is nearly parallel to the b-inertial axis of the complex, which itself is parallel to the C∞ axis of the CO2. The Ka=1←0 energy level spacing is approximately 1.2 GHz larger than that predicted from the infrared rotational constants due to an additional contribution to the splitting arising from the hindered-rotation tunneling of the HBr through a Cs or C2v transition state. Because the Bose-Einstein statistics of the spin-zero oxygen nuclei allow only symmetric tunneling states for Ka even and antisymmetric tunneling states for Ka odd, no doubling of the lines is observed. No evidence was obtained for this tunneling motion in the infrared spectrum of Zeng et al., since the tunneling state selection rules are symmetric↔symmetric and antisymmetric↔antisymmetric for the band studied. A dynamical modeling of the 79Br and 81Br nuclear quadrupole coupling constants gives an equilibrium ∠CBrH angle of ˜103° and an HBr zero-point bending amplitude of ˜24°. The implication of this study on the interpretation of experiments on the photoinitiated reaction of H atoms with CO2 using an HBr-CO2 precursor are discussed.

  12. Association of Restless Legs Syndrome Variants in Korean Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Yong Won; Shin, Won Chul; Cho, Jae Wook; Shon, Young Min; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Caucasians identified several allelic variants associated with increased risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of RLS are not entirely understood, it is becoming increasingly evident that many diseases such as RLS can be attributed to an epistasis. The study objectives were to evaluate whether the associations of RLS with all loci determined in previous GWAS for Caucasians can be replicated significantly for the Korean population and to elucidate whether an epistasis plays a role in the pathogenesis of RLS. Design, Setting, and Participants: DNA from 320 patients with RLS and 320 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for variants in the RLS loci. Measurements and Results: A significant association was found for rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively); the odds ratio (OR) for rs3923809 was 1.61 (P < 0.0001) to 1.88 (P < 0.0001) and the OR for rs9296249 was 1.44 (P = 0.001) to 1.73 (P = 0.002), according to the model of inheritance. The OR for the interaction between rs3923809 in BTBD9 and rs4626664 in PTPRD was 2.05 (P < 0.0001) in the additive model, 1.80 (P = 0.002) in the dominant model and 2.47 (P = 0.004) in the recessive model. There was no significant association between genotypes of all tested single nucleotide polymorphisms and the mean value of serum iron parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the role of BTBD9 in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome is more universal across populations than previously reported and more efforts should be focused on the role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of restless legs syndrome. Citation: Kim MK; Cho YW; Shin WC; Cho JW; Shon YM; Kim JH; Yang KI; Earley CJ; Allen RP. Association of restless legs syndrome variants in Korean patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1787-1791. PMID:24293752

  13. Experiments in spin-polarized Fermi gases-- pairing without superfluidity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Fermionic superfluidity requires pairing of fermions. The nature of fermionic pairing in the strongly interacting regime both in the superfluid and possibly in the normal phase is of interest to condensed matter, nuclear and high energy physics. The experimental realization of high temperature superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases opens a new approach to explore strongly interacting fermions both in the superfluid and normal phases. One question of relevance for example to superfluidity of quarks in cold baryonic matter as well as superconductivity has been the stability of the superfluid against an imbalance between the two strongly interacting fermionic components. An imbalance can be caused by different masses of the fermions or an externally applied magnetic field to a superconductor. In our experiments a density imbalance between two fermionic spin components is introduced. We will present the phase diagram of a spin-polarized Fermi gas of 6Li atoms at unitarity, mapping out the superfluid phase versus temperature and density imbalance. The nature of the phase transition changes from first-order to second-order at a tricritical point. At zero temperature, there is a quantum phase transition from a fully-paired superfluid to a partially-polarized normal gas at a critical spin polarization, known the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit of superfluidity. These observations together with the implementation of an in situ ideal gas thermometer provide quantitative tests of theoretical calculations on the stability of resonant superfluidity. Pairing correlations in the superfluid and normal phases were explored in radio-frequency spectroscopy experiments. We studied how pairing correlations evolve across the superfluid to normal phase transition both as a function of temperature and spin imbalance. Even at spin imbalances above the Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit a gap in the single-particle excitation spectrum is observed. This indicates that the system is in a correlated state and the minority component is paired. The influence of final state interactions on the rf spectra will be discussed. Using a new superfluid 6Li spin mixture we demonstrate that pair dissociation spectra in the BEC-BCS crossover resemble asymmetric molecular dissociation spectra. Work done in collaboration with Y. Shin, A. Schirotzek and W. Ketterle, Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, and Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139.

  14. Estimation of seismic source parameters for earthquakes in the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H.; Sheen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent seismicity in the Korean Peninsula is shown to be low but there is the potential for more severe seismic activity. Historical records show that there were many damaging earthquakes around the Peninsula. Absence of instrumental records of damaging earthquakes hinders our efforts to understand seismotectonic characteristics in the Peninsula and predict seismic hazards. Therefore it is important to analyze instrumental records precisely to help improve our knowledge of seismicity in this region. Several studies on seismic source parameters in the Korean Peninsula were performed to find source parameters for a single event (Kim, 2001; Jo and Baag, 2007; Choi, 2009; Choi and Shim, 2009; Choi, 2010; Choi and Noh, 2010; Kim et al., 2010), to find relationships between source parameters (Kim and Kim, 2008; Shin and Kang, 2008) or to determine the input parameters for the stochastic strong ground motion simulation (Jo and Baag, 2001; Junn et al., 2002). In all previous studies, however, the source parameters were estimated only from small numbers of large earthquakes in this region. To understand the seismotectonic environment in low seismicity region, it will be better that a study on the source parameters is performed by using as many data as we can. In this study, therefore, we estimated seismic source parameters, such as the corner frequency, Brune stress drop and moment magnitude, from 503 events with ML≥1.6 that occurred in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2012. The data set consist of 2,834 S-wave trains on three-component seismograms recorded at broadband seismograph stations which have been operating by the Korea Meteorological Administration and the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. To calculate the seismic source parameters, we used the iterative method of Jo and Baag (2001) based on the methods of Snoke (1987) and Andrews (1986). In this method, the source parameters are estimated by using the integration of square of the ground velocity (J) and the integration of the cumulative squared displacement (K). For the stable determination of source parameters, the zero-frequency level is estimated iteratively by matching J and K. After iteration, the zero-frequency level is determined and then the corner frequency, stress drop, and moment magnitude are estimated.

  15. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden F, Prüss-Ustün A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen A. 2014. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:397–403; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049 PMID:24518036

  16. An Alternative Realization of Gauss-Newton for Frequency-Domain Acoustic Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chi, B.; Dong, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since FWI was studied under the least-square misfit optimization proposed by Tarantola (1984) in time domain, it has been greatly improved by many researchers. Pratt (1998) developed FWI in frequency domain using a Gauss-Newton optimization. In recent years, FWI has been widely studied under the framework of adjoint-state methods, as summarized by Plessix (2006). Preconditioning and high order gradients are important for FWI. Many researches have focused on the Newton optimization, in which the calculation of inverse Hessian is the key problem. Pseudo Hessian such as the diagonal Hessian was firstly used to approximate inverse Hessian (Choi & Shin, 2007). Then Gauss-Newton or l-BFGS method was widely studied to iteratively calculate the inverse approximate Hessian Haor full Hessian (Sheen et al., 2006). Full Hessian is the base of the exact Newton optimization. Fichtner and Trampert (2011) presented an extension of the adjoint-state method to directly compute the full Hessian; Métivier et al. (2012) proposed a general second-order adjoint-state formula for Hessian-vector product to tackle Gauss-Newton and exact Newton. Liu et al. (2014) proposed a matrix-decomposition FWI (MDFWI) based on Born kernel. They used the Born Fréchet kernel to explicitly calculate the gradient of the objective function through matrix decomposition, no full Fréchet kernel being stored in memory beforehand. However, they didn't give a method to calculate the Gauss-Newton. In this paper, We propose a method based on Born Fréchet kernel to calculate the Gauss-Newton for acoustic full waveform inversion (FWI). The Gauss-Newton is iteratively constructed without needing to store the huge approximate Hessian (Ha) or Fréchet kernel beforehand, and the inverse of Ha is not need to be calculated either. This procedure can be efficiently accomplished through matrix decomposition. More resolved result and faster convergence are obtained when this Gauss-Newton is applied in FWI based on the Born Fréchet kernel in 2D numerical experiments. This Gauss-Newton FWI need much less computation than adjoint-state FWI when source-station number is more than only a few percent of the receiver-station number. Such condition is common in controlled source exploration, OBS exploration, natural seismology, and even some certain seismic exploration.

  17. Associations of Sleep Apnea, NRG1 Polymorphisms, Alcohol Consumption, and Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities: Analysis with Genome-Wide Association Data

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Inkyung; Seo, Hyung Suk; Yoon, Daewui; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: There are few studies on gene-environment interactions with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our study aimed to explore genetic polymorphisms associated with OSA using genome-wide association (GWA) data and evaluate the effects of relevant polymorphisms on the association between risk factors, including obesity and alcohol consumption, and OSA. We also investigated on these associations in relation to cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance images. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: A polysomnography study embedded in a population-based cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study was conducted in 2011–2013. Participants: 1,763 participants aged 48–78 years. Results: 251 individuals were identified to have OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. A common polymorphism of neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1), rs10097555, was selected as the most suggestive locus associated with OSA (P value < 10−5) based on the results of GWA analysis in a matched case-control subsample (n = 470). Among 1,763 participants, we found that the presence of the NRG1 polymorphism is inversely associated with OSA (P value < 0.01) even after taking into account potential risk factors; the multivariate odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for the mutant alleles was 0.57 (0.39–0.82) compared with the wild-type. We observed that this association is modified by alcohol consumption (P < 0.05), not by obesity. We also observed that WMH are positively associated with OSA independent of the NRG1 polymorphism and alcohol consumption (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggest that the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1) may be involved in the etiological mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and that carriers of a particular NRG1 mutation may be less likely to have OSA if they do not drink alcoholic beverages. Citation: Baik I, Seo HS, Yoon D, Kim SH, Shin C. Associations of sleep apnea, NRG1 polymorphisms, alcohol consumption, and cerebral white matter hyperintensities: analysis with genome-wide association data. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1137–1143. PMID:25325441

  18. Concentration Field of Reactants and Products Species in a Reacting Vortex Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Silver, Joel A.; Tryggvason, Gretar; Brooker, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The proposed paper will present experimental and numerical results on the concentration fields of both reactants and products species in a reacting vortex ring that is generated from the interaction between a diffusion flame and a laminar vortex ring. Flame-vortex interactions are canonical configurations used to study the underlying processes occurring in complicated turbulent reacting flows. This type of configuration contains many of the fundamental aspects of the coupling between fluid dynamics and combustion that could be investigated with more controllable conditions than are possible under direct investigations of turbulent flames. The current configuration has been studied experimentally by Chen and Dahm and Chen et al. under microgravity conditions, and by Park and Shin, and You et al. under normal gravity conditions. This configuration is similar to that used in the analyses of Karagozian and Manda of their 2-D vortex pair in which both fuel and entrained oxidizer are present. The vortex ring used in this study is generated by issuing methane into an air environment through the exit of an axisymmetric nozzle. The experiments were conducted under microgravity conditions in order to remove the undesirable effects of buoyancy that can affect both the flame structure and ring dynamics resulting in possibly asymmetric and nonrepeatable interactions. The experimental technique of diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to measure concentration fields of reactants, CH4 and O2, products, H2O, CO2, OH, and temperature fields which can be inferred from either line pairs of O2 or OH lines. This technique has been investigated previously by Silver and Bomse et al. This is the first time that the technique has been applied to reacting vortex rings under microgravity conditions. The effect of ring circulation and fuel volume on the species concentration fields will be investigated. The experimental results will be compared to the current numerical results, and used to validate the numerical studies. In addition, the existence of burned cores during the interactions will be determined, and the increase in reactant consumption with increased ring circulation will be examined. Numerical studies were also conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes and mixture fraction equations with the assumptions of unity Lewis and Schmidt numbers. Equilibrium chemistry and flamelet libraries were used to obtain the temperature and species mass fraction fields. The numerical results will serve as guidelines in conducting the experimental studies. Ring circulation and fuel volume effects on the interactions and species concentration fields will be investigated and compared to experimental results.

  19. Lysyl Oxidase as a Serum Biomarker of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Severe Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Mesarwi, Omar A.; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Drager, Luciano F.; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C.; Putcha, Nirupama; Torbenson, Michael S.; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Steele, Kimberley E.; Schweitzer, Michael A.; Magnuson, Thomas H.; Lidor, Anne O.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that the hypoxia of OSA increases hepatic production of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and that LOX may serve as a biomarker of hepatic fibrosis. Design: Thirty-five patients with severe obesity underwent liver biopsy, polysomnography, and serum LOX testing. A separate group with severe OSA had serum LOX measured before and after 3 mo of CPAP or no therapy, as did age-matched controls. LOX expression and secretion were measured in mouse hepatocytes following exposure to hypoxia. Setting: The Johns Hopkins Bayview Sleep Disorders Center, and the Hypertension Unit of the Heart Institute at the University of São Paulo Medical School. Measurements and Results: In the bariatric cohort, the apnea-hypopnea index was higher in patients with hepatic fibrosis than in those without fibrosis (42.7 ± 30.2 events/h, versus 16.2 ± 15.5 events/h; P = 0.002), as was serum LOX (84.64 ± 29.71 ng/mL, versus 45.46 ± 17.16 ng/mL; P < 0.001). In the sleep clinic sample, patients with severe OSA had higher baseline LOX than healthy controls (70.75 ng/mL versus 52.36 ng/mL, P = 0.046), and serum LOX decreased in patients with OSA on CPAP (mean decrease 20.49 ng/mL) but not in untreated patients (mean decrease 0.19 ng/mL). Hypoxic mouse hepatocytes demonstrated 5.9-fold increased LOX transcription (P = 0.046), and enhanced LOX protein secretion. Conclusions: The hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea may increase circulating lysyl oxidase (LOX) levels. LOX may serve as a biomarker of liver fibrosis in patients with severe obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Citation: Mesarwi OA, Shin MK, Drager LF, Bevans-Fonti S, Jun JC, Putcha N, Torbenson MS, Pedrosa RP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Steele KE, Schweitzer MA, Magnuson TH, Lidor AO, Schwartz AR, Polotsky VY. Lysyl oxidase as a serum biomarker of liver fibrosis in patients with severe obesity and obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1583–1591. PMID:26085300

  20. Comparison of misfit functions for phase-only inversion in the frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G.; Jeong, W.; Min, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full waveform inversion suffers from non-uniqueness and non-linearity problems. By using kinematic property of wavefield rather than dynamic property, we can mitigate such problems because the phase is linear and robust (Kamei et al. 2013). For the phase-only inversion, several misfit functions were suggested. Bednar et al. (2007) compared the logarithmic phase-only inversion proposed by Shin and Min (2006) with the conventional phase-only inversion. On the other hand, Kamei et al. (2014) introduced another method that uses the exponential of phase by normalizing the wavefield with respect to the amplitude. In this study, we compare the aforementioned three phase-only inversion methods in the frequency domain: i) the logarithmic phase-only inversion, ii) the conventional phase-only inversion I (briefly conventional I method) that normalizes wavefield with respect to the amplitude variation, and iii) the conventional phase-only inversion II (briefly conventional II method) that replaces the amplitude of the modeled data with that of field data. In the cases of the logarithmic and conventional I methods, if the modeled signal function is close to 0 or becomes large, the gradients of the misfit function diverge to infinity or converge to 0, respectively. In contrast, the conventional II method does not suffer from these problems. For fair comparison, we removed extremely small or large values with Gaussian filtering to avoid the instability problem in the logarithmic and conventional I methods. In addition, we assumed that the phase of the field data is unwrapped to the same degree as the phase of the modeled data in all the cases. On the other hand, the logarithmic and conventional II methods require the additional assumption that amplitudes of the field data are the same as those of the modeled data. However, the conventional I method does not require such an assumption. Our numerical examples show that the conventional I method yields more robust and accurate results than the logarithmic and conventional II methods. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Human Resources Development program (No. 20134010200510) of the KETEP grant funded by the Korean government MOTIE and by the "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" grant funded by the MOF of Korea.

  1. Topological Kondo Insulator (TKI) and related candidate materials: High-resolution ARPES studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, I plan to present ARPES (synchrotron and laser-based) studies of several mix valence and Kondo insulator phenomena in some of the rare earth heavy fermion compounds in connection to their non-trivial topology of band structures. Focus will be on SmB6 which has been predicted to be a TKI recently. By combining low-temperature and high energy-momentum resolution of the laser-based ARPES technique, for the first time, we accessed the surface electronic structure of the anomalous conductivity regime. At low T, we observe in-gap states within a 4 meV energy window of the Fermi level, which lie clearly within the bulk insulating gap. The in-gap states are found to be suppressed and eventually disappear, as the temperature is raised in approaching the coherent Kondo lattice hybridization (30 K), which proves that the in-gap states strongly depend on the existence of Kondo lattice hybridization and the effective Kondo gap, in agreement with their theoretical predicted origin of topological surface states within the Kondo insulating gap . Our Fermi mapping at the energy corresponding to these in-gap states shows distinct Fermi pockets that enclose the three Kramers' points the surface Brillouin zone, which are remarkably consistent with the theoretically predicted topological surface Fermi surface in the topological Kondo insulating phase within the level of energy resolution. The observed Fermi surface topology of the in-gap states, their temperature dependence across the transport anomaly and Kondo lattice hybridization temperatures, as well as their robustness against repeated thermal recycling, collectively not only provide a unique insight illuminating the nature of the residual conductivity anomaly but also serve as a strong experimental evidence to the predicted topological Kondo insulator phase. I also plan to present results on YbB6 and YbB12 both of which are mix valence compounds. This work is in collaboration with Madhab Neupane, N. Alidoust, S.-Y. Xu, T. Kondo, Y. Ishida, D.-J. Kim, Chang Liu, I. Belopolski, T.-R. Chang, H.-T. Jeng, T. Durakiewicz, L. Balicas, H. Lin, A. Bansil, S. Shin and Z. Fisk and primarily supported by U.S. DOE and Princeton University.

  2. Injuries in Australian Army recruits. Part II: Location and cause of injuries seen in recruits.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, S J

    1997-07-01

    Three hundred fifty male recruits were randomly allocated to either the standard recruit training program (N = 180) or substituted a weighted-march activity for all formal run periods (N = 170) in the physical training program. All injuries were seen at a single medical facility, and the cause, location, and severity of injury were recorded in the medical documents. Lower-limb injuries constituted 79.8% of all Run injuries and 61.1% of all Walk injuries. Foot (18.9%), knee (16.7%), ankle (13.3%), and shoulder (8.9%) were the most common sites of injury in the Walk group. In the Run group, the most common sites were knee (32.1%), ankle (18.3%), foot (11.9%), and shin (7.3%). There were two stress fractures (tibial) in the Run group and none in the Walk group, giving the Run group an incidence of 1.1%. There were 10 medical discharges in the Walk group and 16 in the Run group. Ten (62.5%) of the Run and 2 (20%) of the Walk discharges were due to lower-limb causes. Of these, only 1 (10%) of the Walk and 4 (25%) of the Run injuries were not considered to be pre-existing conditions. Marching (30.0%), physical training (25.5%), and the obstacle course (11.1%) were the most frequent causes of injury in the Walk group. In the Run group, the leading causes were running (36.6%), physical training (19.2%), and the obstacle course (14.6%). Running was the major cause of knee injury in the Run group (17/35), whereas physical training was the major cause of knee injury in the Walk group (5/15). Running was also the major cause of other lower-limb injuries in the Run group (19/58), whereas marching was the major cause in the Walk group (19/50). Lower-limb injuries were more frequent in the Run group, with running cited as the major cause of these injuries. PMID:9232977

  3. Overview of injuries in the young athlete.

    PubMed

    Adirim, Terry A; Cheng, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 million children in the US participate in organised sports programmes. As more and more children participate in sports and recreational activities, there has been an increase in acute and overuse injuries. Emergency department visits are highest among the school-age to young adult population. Over one-third of school-age children will sustain an injury severe enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse. The yearly costs have been estimated to be as high as 1.8 billion US dollars. There are physical and physiological differences between children and adults that may cause children to be more vulnerable to injury. Factors that contribute to this difference in vulnerability include: children have a larger surface area to mass ratio, children have larger heads proportionately, children may be too small for protective equipment, growing cartilage may be more vulnerable to stresses and children may not have the complex motor skills needed for certain sports until after puberty. The most commonly injured areas of the body include the ankle and knee followed by the hand, wrist, elbow, shin and calf, head, neck and clavicle. Contusions and strains are the most common injuries sustained by young athletes. In early adolescence, apophysitis or strains at the apophyses are common. The most common sites are at the knee (Osgood-Schlatter disease), at the heel (Sever's disease) and at the elbow (Little League Elbow). Non-traumatic knee pain is one of the most common complaints in the young athlete. Patellar Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) has a constellation of causes that include overuse, poor tracking of the patellar, malalignment problems of the legs and foot problems, such as pes planus. In the child, hip pathology can present as knee pain so a careful hip exam is important in the child presenting with an insidious onset of knee pain. Other common injuries in young athletes discussed include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, ankle sprains and ankle fractures. Prevention of sports and recreation-related injuries is the ideal. There are six potential ways to prevent injuries in general: (i) the pre-season physical examination; (ii) medical coverage at sporting events; (iii) proper coaching; (iv) adequate hydration; (v) proper officiating; and (vi) proper equipment and field/surface playing conditions. PMID:12477379

  4. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

  5. Guinea pig liver Mu-class glutathione S-transferase M1-2 cross-reacts with antibodies to both rat Mu- and theta-class glutathione S-transferases.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, A; Ogura, K; Fujioka, H; Sakamoto, Y; Okuda, H; Wada, K; Tanaka, T; Nishiyama, T; Watabe, T

    1998-06-01

    Two novel major heterodimeric Mu-class glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs), designated M1-2 and M1-3*, were isolated from guinea pig (gp) liver cytosol and purified to homogeneity together with a known major homodimeric Mu-class gpGSTM1-1 (reported as GST b by R. Oshino, K. Kamei, M. Nishioka, and M. Shin, 1990, J. Biochem. 107, 105-110). These three gpGSTs were quantitatively retained on an S-hexyl-GSH affinity column and separated as homogeneous proteins by chromatofocusing. Subunits of the heterodimers were inseparable on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but could be completely separated by reverse-phase partition high-performance liquid chromatography. A molecular cloning study demonstrated that the gpGST subunit M2 consisted of 217 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 25,562 and shared 84% identity in overall amino acid sequence with gpGSTM1-1. N-terminal amino acid sequences of peptides from the gpGST subunit M3* with a blocked N-terminus strongly suggested that it should belong to the Mu class. Western blot analysis using antisera raised against purified rat (r) GSTsA1-2 (Alpha), M1-1, P1-1 (Pi), and T2-2 (Theta) indicated that gpGSTsM1-1 and M1-3* cross-reacted only with anti-rGSTM1 antibody. However, gpGSTM1-2 cross-reacted intensely to almost the same extent with antibodies to both rGSTsM1-1 and T2-2. A homodimeric gpGSTM2-2, artificially constructed from native gpGSTM1-2 by treatment with guanidine hydrochloride followed by dialysis, intensely cross-reacted with antibodies to both the rat Mu- and Theta-class GSTs. Thus, the gpGST subunit M2 provided the first evidence for the double immuno-cross-reaction of a GST with polyclonal antibodies to two different classes of GSTs. PMID:9633615

  6. - and Mesoscopic Patterns on Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2002-03-01

    A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs d -doped heterostructures [4]. These structures can be considered as regular arrays of mesoscopic cells or 2-D photonic band gap crystals. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets, Magnetotransport in mesoscopic carbon networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.319-323, 2001. 2. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, L.V. Govor, V.K. Ksenevich, I.A. Bashmakov, I.M. Grigorieva, L.V. Solovjova, Fabrication of regular mesoscopic networks of GaAs wires, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.127-130, 1999. 3. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, V.K. Ksenevich, G. Kiss, G. Remenyi, Observation of transport in mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped networks, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.197-202, 1999 4. J. Galibert, V.A. Samuilov, V.K. Ksenevich, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, Magnetoresistance of low dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shape GaAs networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.314-318, 2001. 5. S. Zhu, R.J. Gambino, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, S.A. Schwarz, and R.D. Gomez, "Microscopic Magnetic Characterization of Submicron Cobalt Islands Prepared Using Self-Assembled Polymer Masking Technique," IEEE Trans. Magn., 33, 3022, 1997. 6. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85, p.p.5651-5654, 2000.

  7. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    Topological matter can host Dirac, Majorana and Weyl fermions as quasiparticle modes on their boundaries. First, I briefly mention the basic theoretical concepts defining insulators and superconductors where topological surface state modes are robust only in the presence of a gap (Hasan & Kane; Rev. of Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010)). In these systems topological protection is lost once the gap is closed turning the system into a trivial metal. A Weyl semimetal is the rare exception in this scheme which is a topologically robust metal (semimetal) whose low energy emergent excitations are Weyl fermions. In a Weyl fermion semimetal, the chiralities associated with the Weyl nodes can be understood as topological charges, leading to split monopoles and anti-monopoles of Berry curvature in momentum space. This gives a measure of the topological strength of the system. Due to this topology a Weyl semimetal is expected to exhibit 2D Fermi arc quasiparticles on its surface (Wan et.al., 2011). These arcs (``fractional'' Fermi surfaces) are discontinuous or disjoint segments of a two dimensional Fermi contour, which are terminated onto the projections of the Weyl fermion nodes on the surface we have observed experimentally in TaAs, NbAs, NbP class of materials (Xu, Belopolski et.al., Science 349, 613 (2015); Xu, Alidoust et.al., Nature Phys. (2015); Xu, Belopolski et.al., Science Adv. (2015), Belopolski, Xu et.al., arXiv (2015)) following our theoretical predictions (Huang, Xu, Belopolski et.al., Nature Commun. 6:7373 (2015), submitted in November 2014). Our theoretical predictions (Nature Commun. 2015) and experimental demonstrations (Science 2015, Nature Physics 2015, Science Advances 2015) reveal that these Fermi arc quasiparticles can only live on the boundary of a 3D crystal which collectively represents the realization of a new state of quantum matter beyond our earlier work on Fermi arcs in topological materials (Xu, Liu, Kushwaha et.al., Science 347, 294 (2015), adv.online (2014)). This work is in collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, Ilya Belopolski, Nasser Alidoust, Madhab Neupane, Chenglong Zhang, Raman Sankar, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Guoqing Chang, BaoKai Wang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Daniel S. Sanchez, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Titus Neupert. This work is supported by GBMF and U.S. DOE. In collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, I. Belopolski, N. Alidoust, M. Neupane, C. Zhang, R. Sankar, S.-M. Huang, C.-C. Lee, G. Chang, B. Wang, G. Bian, H. Zheng, D. Sanchez, F.-C. Chou, T. Neupert, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia. Work supported by GBMF(Moore) & DOE.

  8. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined effect on the CKD was modified by the hypertension and diabetes status.

  9. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[-20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[-344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96-2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[-20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05-0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A+A/C for AGT(A[-20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[-344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. PMID:24907556

  10. Control of carbohydrate processing: increased beta-1,6 branching in N-linked carbohydrates of Lec9 CHO mutants appears to arise from a defect in oligosaccharide-dolichol biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, A G; Stanley, P; Krag, S S

    1989-01-01

    A correlation between increased beta-1,6 branching of N-linked carbohydrates and the ability of a cell to metastasize or to form a tumor has been observed in several experimental models. Lec9 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutants exhibit a drastic reduction in tumorigenicity in nude mice, and this phenotype directly correlates with their ability to attach an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates to the G glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (J. Ripka, S. Shin, and P. Stanley, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:1268-1275, 1986). In this paper we provide evidence that cellular carbohydrates from Lec9 cells also contain an increased proportion of beta-1,6-branched carbohydrates, although they do not possess significantly increased activity of the beta-1,6 branching enzyme (GlcNAc-transferase V). Biosynthetic labeling experiments show that a substantial degree of underglycosylation occurs in Lec9 cells and that this affects several classes of glycoproteins. Lec9 cells synthesize ca. 40-fold less Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid and ca. 2-fold less Man5GlcNAc2-P-P-lipid than parental cells do. In addition, Lec9 cells possess ca. fivefold less protein-bound oligosaccharide intermediates, and one major species is resistant to release by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (endo H). Membranes of Lec9 cells exhibit normal mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase, and N-acetylglucosaminylphosphate transferase activities in the presence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate. However, in the absence of exogenous dolichyl phosphate, mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase and glucosylphosphoryldolichol synthase activities are reduced in membranes of Lec9 cells, indicating that membranes of Lec9 cells are deficient in lipid phosphate. This was confirmed by analysis of lipids labeled by [3H]mevalonate, which showed that Lec9 cells have less lipid phosphate than parental CHO cells. Mechanisms by which a defect in the synthesis of dolichol-oligosaccharides might alter the degree of beta-1,6 branching in N-linked carbohydrates are discussed. Images PMID:2725506

  11. Leucobacter musarum subsp. musarum sp. nov., subsp. nov., Leucobacter musarum subsp. japonicus subsp. nov., and Leucobacter celer subsp. astrifaciens subsp. nov., three nematopathogenic bacteria isolated from Caenorhabditis, with an emended description of Leucobacter celer

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Three Gram-stain-positive, irregular-rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from nematodes collected from Santa Antao, Cabo Verde (CBX151T, CBX152T) and Kakegawa, Japan (CBX130T). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains CBX130T, CBX151T and CBX152T were shown to belong to the genus Leucobacter. This affiliation was supported by chemotaxonomic data (2,4-diaminobutyric acid in the cell wall; major respiratory quinones MK-10 and MK-11; major polar lipids phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; major fatty acids anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0). Strains CBX130T and CBX152T were found to share salient characteristics. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical analysis, strain CBX152T represents a novel species of the genus Leucobacter, for which the name Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. (type strain CBX152T = DSM 27160T = CIP 110721T) is proposed. Two subspecies of Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. are proposed: Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. subsp. musarum subsp. nov. (type strain CBX152T = DSM 27160T = CIP 110721T) and Leucobacter musarum sp. nov. subsp. japonicus subsp. nov. (type strain CBX130T = DSM 27158T = CIP 110719T). The third novel strain, CBX151T, showed genetic similarities with Leucobacter celer NAL101T indicating that these strains belong to the same species. Based on morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and biochemical differences it is proposed to split the species Leucobacter celer into two novel subspecies, Leucobacter celer subsp. celer subsp. nov. (type strain NAL101T = KACC 14220T = JCM 16465T) and Leucobacter celer subsp. astrifaciens subsp. nov. (type strain CBX151T = DSM 27159T = CIP 110720T), and to emend the description of Leucobacter celer Shin et al. 2011. PMID:26275616

  12. Methane-related microbial processes and metabolic stratification in a terrestrial mud volcano, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.; Chu, P.; Wu, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are distinct geological features with fluid, sediment and hydrocarbon-enriched gas mixtures emitted from deep sedimentary environments. Without microbial attenuation in the water column, methane emission to atmosphere from terrestrial mud volcanoes constitutes a significant proportion to the global methane inventory. Microorganisms mediating methane transformation would be particularly enriched in such environments. Their activity, distribution, and diversity involved remain not well-constrained. At Shin-Yan-Ny-Hu Mud Volcanoes (SYNHMV) of southwestern Taiwan, we performed series of measurements and analyses on the pore water and eruptive water samples using geochemical and molecular approaches, in order to determine microbial processes and community assemblages responsible for methane transformation. Geochemical measurements indicated that sulfate depletion was companied with methane increase as the depth increased. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) more depleted in 13C was observed at the depth of sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT, at ~12cm depth) than at other depth intervals. These characteristics of methane, sulfate, and DIC isotope profiles and the presence of ANME-1 sequences showed a high similarity with those of marine sediments, indicating the existence of active anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). From bottom to top, the increasing δ13C values of methane with the greatest value occurring in the eruptive surface water suggests methanogenesis and/or methane oxidation over the entire depth range. The contribution of microbial methane could be supported by molecular data of which methanogen-related archaea distributed throughout the entire depths, and the community structures were characterized by Methanosarcinales dominating at shallow depths and Methanomicrobiales dominating in deep sediments. The affinities and activities to substrate addition for methanogenesis appeared to be depth-dependent. Bacterial sequences affiliated with methane-oxidizing gamma-proteobacteria members were mainly observed in the uppermost sediment samples. Delta-proteobacteria 16S sequences including Desulfuromonadales, Syntrophus, and Desulfomonales constituted significant proportions along the entire depth range. These findings concluded that methanogens were ubiquitously dispersed and actively expressed in the near-surface sediment of the terrestrial mud volcano while aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted for the methane consumption above SMT. Methane ascending from deep-reservoir would be altered substantially by microbial processes in both isotope compositions and abundances.

  13. Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

  14. Improving understanding of controls on spatial variability in methane fluxes in Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Scott J.; Sloan, Victoria; Phoenix, Gareth; Wagner, Robert; Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change relative to the rest of the globe, and this increase in temperature has feedback effects across hydrological and thermal regimes, plant community distribution and carbon stocks within tundra soils. Arctic wetlands account for a significant amount of methane emissions from natural ecosystems to the atmosphere and with further permafrost degradation under a warming climate, these emissions are expected to increase. Methane (CH4) is an extremely important component of the global carbon cycle with a global warming potential 28.5 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100 year time scale (IPCC, 2013). In order to validate carbon cycle models, modelling methane at broader landscape scales is needed. To date direct measurements of methane have been sporadic in time and space which, while capturing some key controls on the spatial heterogeneity, make it difficult to accurately upscale methane emissions to the landscape and regional scales. This study investigates what is controlling the spatial heterogeneity of methane fluxes across Arctic tundra. We combined over 300 portable chamber observations from 13 micro-topographic positions (with multiple vegetation types) across three locations spanning a 300km latitudinal gradient in Northern Alaska from Barrow to Ivotuk with synchronous measurements of environmental (soil temperature, soil moisture, water table, active layer thaw depth, pH) and vegetation (plant community composition, height, sedge tiller counts) variables to evaluate key controls on methane fluxes. To assess the diurnal variation in CH4 fluxes, we also performed automated chamber measurements in one study site (Barrow) location. Multiple statistical approaches (regression tree and multiple linear regression) were used to identify key controlling variables and their interactions. Methane emissions across all sites ranged from -0.08 to 15.3 mg C-CH4 m-2 hr-1. As expected, soil moisture was the main control determining the direction and magnitude of methane flux, with methane emissions occurring in saturated micro-topographic locations and drier sites showing low rates of uptake. An interesting exception was in tussock sedge vegetation, which had a deep water table (approximately 20cm - 40cm below the soil surface) but which emitted methane in comparable quantities to saturated communities late in the growing season. This highlights the importance of plant transport and of understanding temporal variation in fluxes. Automated chamber measurements from peak and late growing season showed minimal diurnal trends in methane fluxes, indicating that short-term chamber measurements are representative of average diurnal CH4 fluxes. The breadth of environmental and vegetation variables measured across a wide spatial extent of arctic tundra vegetation communities within this study highlights the overriding controls on methane emissions and will significantly help with upscaling methane emissions from the plot scale to the landscape scale. Reference: IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp, doi:10.1017/CBO97811074153

  15. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the doubly reflected rays define the leading term in the angular region around the boresight direction. The validity of the approach is well assessed by comparisons with experimental results, and its formulation is computer time inexpensive since in closed form. Moreover it is preferable to the model using near-field PO integrations for describing the interactions between the internal TCR's faces since this last requires the evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals, i.e., the expression of the final incident field contains a two-dimensional integral for each previous interaction. [1] Y. Qin, D. Perissin, and L. Lei, "The Design and Experiments on Corner Reflectors for Urban Ground Deformation Monitoring in Hong Kong," Int. J. Antennas Propagat., vol. 2013, pp. 1-8. [2] T. A. Stabile, A. Perrone, M. R. Gallipoli, R. Ditommaso, and F. C. Ponzo, "Dynamic Survey of the Musmeci Bridge by Joint Application of Ground-Based Microwave Radar Interferometry and Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio Techniques," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 870-874, 2013.

  16. Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

  17. Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

    2012-04-01

    Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

  18. Real-time analysis of ambient organic aerosols using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Karu, Einar; Stelzer, Torsten; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol accounts for a major fraction of atmospheric aerosols and has implications on the earth's climate and human health. However, due to the chemical complexity its measurement remains a major challenge for analytical instrumentation.1 Here, we present the development, characterization and application of a new soft ionization technique that allows mass spectrometric real-time detection of organic compounds in ambient aerosols. The aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (AeroFAPA) ion source utilizes a helium glow discharge plasma to produce excited helium species and primary reagent ions. Ionization of the analytes occurs in the afterglow region after thermal desorption and results mainly in intact molecular ions, facilitating the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra. In the past, similar approaches were used to detect pesticides, explosives or illicit drugs on a variety of surfaces.2,3 In contrast, the AeroFAPA source operates 'online' and allows the detection of organic compounds in aerosols without a prior precipitation or sampling step. To our knowledge, this is the first application of an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge ionization technique to ambient aerosol samples. We illustrate that changes in aerosol composition and concentration are detected on the time scale of seconds and in the ng-m-3 range. Additionally, the successful application of AeroFAPA-MS during a field study in a mixed forest region in Central Europe is presented. Several oxidation products of monoterpenes were clearly identified using the possibility to perform tandem MS experiments. The acquired data are in agreement with previous studies and demonstrate that AeroFAPA-MS is a suitable tool for organic aerosol analysis. Furthermore, these results reveal the potential of this technique to enable new insights into aerosol formation, growth and transformation in the atmosphere. References: 1) IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. 2) Shelley, J. T.; Wiley, J. S.; Hieftje, G. M. Ultrasensitive Ambient Mass Spectrometric Analysis with a Pin-to-Capillary Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Source. Anal. Chem. 2011, 83(14), 5741-5748; DOI 10.1021/Ac201053q. 3) Albert, A.; Shelley, J.; Engelhard, C. Plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: state-of-the-art in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem 2014, 406(25), 6111-6127; DOI 10.1007/s00216-014-7989-z.

  19. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of observations from isolated sites and using a common regression model based on climatological/geographical covariates. The behaviour of the fitted spatial GEV-distribution is heavy-tailed with γ ≡ 0.3 over Belgium. A comparison between the RL-maps using GEV model and the ones obtained from Universal Kriging (UK) confirms the reliability of the spatial GEV model in explaining atmospheric drought in Belgium. References [1] Beniston, M., Stephenson, D. B., Christensen, O. B., Ferro, C. A. T., Frei, C., Goyette, S., Halsnaes, K., Holt, T., Jylhü, K., Koffi, B., Palutikoff, J., Schöll, R., Semmler, T., and Woth, K. (2007), Future extreme events in European climate; an exploration of Regional Climate Model projections. Climatic Change, 81, 71-95. [2] Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K