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1

QIN 2013 meeting agenda  

Cancer.gov

i Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) Annual Meeting March 4 – 5, 2013 Monday March 4, 2013 7:30 Gathering and loading of slides 8:00 Challenges for the Meeting Robert Nordstrom, Lead Program Director Welcome from Paula Jacobs,

2

QIN Newsletter 1  

Cancer.gov

MR techniques in the Quantita- tive Imaging Network. Dr. Nordstrom, pro- gram director at NCI for the QIN, has briefed Dr. Fennessy on the structure of the network and the need to begin selecting individuals to serve on the five working groups.

3

Shin Splints  

MedlinePLUS

... tilted surface Running in worn-out footwear Engaging in sports with frequent starts and stops, such as basketball ... stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 2004;23:55. Stretanski MF. Shin splints. ...

4

Microelement analysis of source of raw materials of terracotta warriors and horses of Qin’s Mausoleum in pits No. 1 and No. 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to search for sources of the raw material of the Qin’s terracotta warriors and horses, we selected 20 samples of\\u000a pottery warriors and pottery horses of the Qin’s Mausoleum from pit No. 1, 19 samples of pottery warriors and brick from pit\\u000a No. 2, 20 samples of clays near the Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain

Weijuan Zhao; Aijun Xu; Rongwu Li; Zhengyao Gao; Guoxia Li; Jianzhong Xie; Guohe Han; Songlin Feng; Dongyu Fan; Ying Zhang; Zhifang Cai; Zhongli Zhang; Junxiao Zhu

2002-01-01

5

Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have…

Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

2011-01-01

6

The pathology of shin splints.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121. PMID:18796881

Kues, J M

1990-01-01

7

The human homologue of the retroviral oncogene qin maps to chromosome 14q13  

SciTech Connect

Chromosomal mapping of the human QIN gene (renamed FKH2 by the Human Genome Organization Nomenclature Committee) was initially accomplished by correlation of the presence of the QIN locus with specific chromosome regions in a rodent-human hybrid panel. This analysis revealed that the human QIN gene maps to chromosome region 14q11.2{yields}14q32, between the TCR and IGH loci. Further analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques with a human QIN genomic clone refined the human QIN gene localization to 14q13. 20 refs., 4 figs.

Kastury, K.; Druck, T.; Croce, C.M.; Huebner, K. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, Jian; Vogt, P.K. [Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Su, Heyun [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1994-04-26

8

Precipitation variability during the past 400 years in the Xiaolong Mountain (central China) inferred from tree rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed the first tree-ring chronology, based on 73 cores from 29 Pinus tabulaeformis trees, for the Xiaolong Mountain area of central China, a region at the boundary of the Asian summer monsoon. This chronology exhibits significant (at 0.01 level) positive correlations with precipitation in May and June, and negative correlations with temperature in May, June and July. Highest linear correlation is observed between tree growth and the seasonalized (April-July) precipitation, suggesting that tree rings tend to integrate the monthly precipitation signals. Accordingly, the April-July total precipitation was reconstructed back to 1629 using these tree rings, explaining 44.7 % of the instrumental variance. A severe drought occurred in the area during the 1630s-1640s, which may be related to the weakened Asian summer monsoon caused by a low land-sea thermal gradient. The dry epoch during the 1920s-1930s and since the late 1970s may be explained by the strengthened Hadley circulation in a warmer climate. The dry (wet) epochs of the 1920s-1930s (the 1750s and 1950s) occurred during the warm (cold) phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation that are often associated with weakened (strengthened) East Asian summer monsoon. These relationships indicate significant teleconnections operating over the past centuries in central China related to large-scale synoptic features.

Fang, Keyan; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Frank, David; Liu, Changzhi; Li, Jinbao; Kazmer, Miklos

2012-10-01

9

Shin splints. Diagnosis, management, prevention.  

PubMed

Our knowledge of the etiology of shin splints is incomplete. Biomechanical abnormalities are likely to be major factors in predisposing certain persons to such injury. Also, training errors are major etiologic factors. Because shin splints result from mechanical overload of various elements of the musculoskeletal system of the leg that exceed their adaptive remodeling capacity, rest and recovery should be emphasized as an important aspect of sports training. Accurate and prompt diagnosis reduces the severity and duration of the injury. Management should consist of measures to reduce inflammation and pain and to identify possible biomechanical factors that may be correctable by strengthening and flexibility exercises or by the use of an orthotic device. PMID:3336603

Moore, M P

1988-01-01

10

The binding media of the polychromy of Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Terracotta Army” is a worldwide known archaeological finding in China. It is a part of the burial complex of the emperor Qin Shihuangdi (259–210 BC), which is still under excavation and study. The fact that the sculptures, chariots and weapons of the First Chinese Emperor's Terracotta Army were originally all painted in bright colours is still not widely known.

Ilaria Bonaduce; Catharina Blaensdorf; Patrick Dietemann; Maria Perla Colombini

2008-01-01

11

Soccer shin guard reactions: allergic and irritant reactions.  

PubMed

In spite of the worldwide popularity of soccer among youth and the common requirement of the use of protective shin guards, reports of allergy to shin guards is sparse. This is surprising in light of the fact that this equipment is often made of materials that are reported to cause allergies, and that friction and moisture from the use of these shin guards during the sport would seem to predispose soccer players to the development of an allergic response. We present eight patients that presented for evaluation of dermatitis under their shin guards--some of which had allergy to their shin guards and some of which were diagnosed as having an irritant reaction. PMID:20487661

Powell, Douglas; Ahmed, Sartaj

12

Haiying Qin  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Referrals For Patients For Physicians For Prospective Trainees For Scientists News Quick Links Home Referring a Patient Patients and Families Scientific Programs - Blood & Marrow

13

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0–0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration

R. M. Burke; F. J. Monahan

2003-01-01

14

Magnetic resonance imaging in stress fractures and shin splints.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether stress fractures and shin splints could be discriminated with MRI in the early phase. Twenty-two athletes, who had pain in the middle or distal part of their leg during or after sports activity, were evaluated with radiographs and MRI scans. Stress fractures were diagnosed when consecutive radiographs showed local periosteal reaction or a fracture line, and shin splints were diagnosed in all the other cases. In all eight patients with stress fractures, an abnormally wide high signal in the localized bone marrow was the most detectable in the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scan. In 11 patients with shin splints, the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial posterior surface of the tibia, and in seven patients with shin splints, the MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial bone marrow. No MRI scans of shin splints showed an abnormally wide high signal in the bone marrow as observed on MRI scans of stress fractures. This study showed that fat-suppressed MRI is useful for discrimination between stress fracture and shin splints before radiographs show a detectable periosteal reaction in the tibia. PMID:15123957

Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tohyama, Harukazu; Ito, Hirokazu; Minami, Akio

2004-04-01

15

Comparison of soccer shin guards in preventing tibia fracture.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of shin guards in protecting against tibia fracture in soccer players. A secondary purpose was to determine the relationship between the material and structural differences in shin guard design and the protection provided. Twenty-three commercially available shin guards were tested on a model leg containing a synthetic tibia that had been calibrated against human cadaver specimens. Each guard was categorized into one of four material types: plastic (N = 9), fiberglass (N = 6), compressed air (N = 4), and Kevlar (N = 4). The maximum combined force at the ends of the tibia, the principal strain on the posterior side of the tibia, and the contact time of the impact were measured using a drop track impact simulation. Shin guards provided significant protection from tibia fracture at all drop heights. The average guard reduced force by 11% to 17% and strain by 45% to 51% compared with the unguarded leg. At the higher drop heights, material composition and structural characteristics of the shin guards showed significant differences in protective abilities. These findings indicate that all shin guards provide some measure of protection against tibia fracture, although the level of protection may vary significantly among the different guards. PMID:10751000

Francisco, A C; Nightingale, R W; Guilak, F; Glisson, R R; Garrett, W E

16

Variation of airborne bacteria and fungi at Emperor Qin's Terra-Cotta Museum, Xi'an, China, during the “Oct. 1” Gold Week Period of 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  To stimulate the national economy, a so-called “gold week” comprising May Day and National Day has been put in force by the\\u000a government, and the first golden-week holiday began on October 1, 1999. Statistical data show that about 15,000 visitors were\\u000a received each day by Emperor Qin’s Terra-Cotta Museum during just such a gold week period. To

Yi-Ping Chen; Ying Cui; Jun-Gang Dong

2010-01-01

17

Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.  

PubMed

Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention. PMID:20086529

Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

2002-06-01

18

Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

2002-01-01

19

Shin splints: painful to have and to treat.  

PubMed

When people overuse their legs they develop an uncomfortable awareness of these limbs manifested as a dull burning or aching. The cause is often clear to the person with the problem as a result of the often obvious relationship to overdoing an exercise or activity and the pain. "Shin splints" is the lay term; physicians use the term medial tibial stress syndrome. The pathophysiology that leads to this pain is unclear, although there are a number of competing theories. Differential diagnosis includes stress fractures and compartment syndromes. Bone tumors or lipomas can also cause similar pain to shin splints. Diagnosis can be made by history alone in a majority of cases, but if the diagnosis is unclear, an X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Treatment is still mostly supportive and symptom related. Rest is the most important aspect of treatment. Locally applied cold and anti-inflammatory medication have also been felt to be beneficial. PMID:17435274

Story, Julie; Cymet, Tyler Childs

2006-01-01

20

Shin splints and forefoot contact running: a case report.  

PubMed

Many athletes develop shin splints after athletic activity. The purpose of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with posteromedial tibial pain (shin splints) who habitually ran with a forefoot contact running style. The 20-year-old male patient, who played volleyball and basketball about 7 hours a week, complained of pain in the middle one-third of the posteromedial tibia after an acute but prolonged episode of running. Routine observational analysis and in-shoe pressure analysis of the patient's running style showed that he habitually ran on his toes with an absence of heelstrike (forefoot contact running). After instructing the patient on heel-toe running, he no longer complained of posteromedial tibial bone pain. Several possible reasons are proposed for the reduction of leg pain following cessation of forefoot contact running. This case report proposes forefoot contact running as a possible contributor to posteromedial shin splints and that a change in running style may be the optimal treatment for some patients. PMID:7920607

Cibulka, M T; Sinacore, D R; Mueller, M J

1994-08-01

21

Opposites Attract: The Fusion of Confucianism and the Qin Dynasty’s Legalism in the People’s Republic of China Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research is to examine the seemingly opposite Legalist outlook of the Qin dynasty against the philosophy of Confucianism, and determine the extent to which they have impacted the government and society of the People’s Republic of China today. It is common in Eastern cultures to blend two seemingly opposite ideas, which is partially how this mixture

Elyse Tompkins

2011-01-01

22

Comments on `Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity' by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents some comments concerning the paper entitled `Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity' by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding which was published in Nanoscale Research Letters in 2011. The comments are related to the numerical parameters and the computed results of average Nusselt number.

Sidik, Nor Azwadi Che; Safdari, Arman

2012-11-01

23

[Studies on developmental features of theories of syndrome differentiation of zang-fu viscera in Qin and Han Dynasties].  

PubMed

The formation of the theories of visceral manifestations as well as channels and collaterals in the books Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon of Huangdi) and Nan Jing (Classic of Questioning) laid down the theoretical foundation for the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera. From the early occurrence of syndrome classification to that of the disease manifestations of zang and fu viscera, the theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera were basically not put into practice until Shanghan Zabing Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Diseases) appeared. The theories of syndrome differentiation of zang--fu viscera in the Qin and Han Dynasties were not systematic and were scattered, indicating that it was a period of gestation for the theories. PMID:17278438

Yang, Xue-mei; Wang, Gui-lan; Li, De-xing

2006-07-01

24

A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

Background Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. Results In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ?perR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ?perR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ?perR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (?dpr and ?dpr?perR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ?perR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoter–EGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. Conclusions These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis.

2012-01-01

25

Overuse injuries of the lower extremity: shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes.  

PubMed

The authors' discussion of overuse injuries of the lower extremity encompasses shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are considered for each disorder. PMID:3319204

Jones, D C; James, S L

1987-04-01

26

Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.  

PubMed

Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints. PMID:15062584

Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

2004-01-01

27

A randomized controlled trial of a leg orthosis versus traditional treatment for soldiers with shin splints: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Diagnosis and management strategies for shin splints in active duty military populations closely resemble those in civilian athletic populations. There is a paucity of evidence supporting the use of many of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to present data on the Shin Saver orthosis as a treatment for shin splints in an active duty military population and to review current condition management. Twenty-five subjects diagnosed with shin splints by a U.S. Army physical therapist were randomly assigned to a shin orthosis treatment group or a control group. There was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in days to finish a 0.5-mile run pain free. Visual analog scales for pain at intake versus after 1 week of relative rest revealed no significant improvement in symptoms in either group. Current best-practice guidelines support a treatment program of rest, cryotherapy, and a graduated walk-to-run program. PMID:16532872

Johnston, Ember; Flynn, Timothy; Bean, Michael; Breton, Matthew; Scherer, Matthew; Dreitzler, Gail; Thomas, Dennis

2006-01-01

28

Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

2009-07-01

29

A Christian Apologetic to the Doctrine of Grace in Shin Buddhism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis offers an apologetic defense on why grace in Shin Buddhism is not comparable to that of Christianity. This is to defend the faith against those that would propagate pluralism and to defend the uniqueness of Christ himself and his superiority to that of bodhisattvas, ultimately claiming the superiority of Christianity as the truth in light of various world

Jeremy Scott Roseman

2010-01-01

30

Social-psychological factors affecting language maintenance: Interviews with Shin Nisei university students in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines social-psychological factors affecting language maintenance by analyzing a group of second-generation heritage language learners' reflections on their networks of language contacts in childhood and adolescence. The focused group is American Shin Nisei (new second generation Japanese) university students in Hawaii. The data were collected through intensive interviews with six bilingual and semibilingual focal students and through extensive

Kimi Kondo

1997-01-01

31

The specific scintigraphic pattern of "shin splints in the lower leg": concise communication.  

PubMed

The clinical entity, "shin splints," is now being recognized, and more specifically characterized by the findings of exercise-induced pain and tenderness to palpation along the posterior medial border of the tibia. In this prospective study, ten patients with this syndrome were evaluated using three-phase bone scintigrams, and a specific scintigraphic pattern was determined. Radionuclide angiograms and blood-pool images were all normal. On delayed images, tibial lesions involved the posterior cortex, were longitudinally oriented, were long, involving one third of the length of the bone, and often showed varying tracer uptake along that length. Obtaining both lateral and medial views was crucial. The location of activity suggested that this entity is related to the soleus muscle. These scintigraphic findings can be used to differentiate shin splints from stress fractures or other conditions causing pain in the lower leg in athletes. PMID:6235330

Holder, L E; Michael, R H

1984-08-01

32

Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect  

PubMed Central

Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap.

Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

2012-01-01

33

[A study on the Shin Man's life and idea of medicine in Juchonsinbang].  

PubMed

For the purpose of understanding the feature of medicine in the late Chosun Dynasty, I investigated Shin Man (1620-1669)'s life and his idea of medicine in Juchonsinbang. Shin Man was a scholar who lived in the middle of the Chosun dynasty. He was famous for his resistance against Ching dynasty in Byeongjahoran, and for his chivalrous spirit. He was daring, inflexible and unrestricted by nature. And his character was reflected in his medical ideas. He studied along Song Si-yeol and started his official career together. Both worked for King Hyojong who strongly wanted to send an expedition to conquer the North. But after the sudden death of King Hyojong, the project to conquer the North had went for nothing. And Shin Man went back to the rural life in Juchon, Jinjam. On the one hand, he lived the life of pursuit of learning Seong Confucianism in Juchon, and on the other hand, he wrote the original form of Juchonsinbang. Shin Man wanted to establish and spread the universal and popularized medicine. So he set a goal to publish a simple and plain prescription book, which corresponds to his idea of medicine which deals with curing people. The currently remaining editions of Juchonsinbang are 3 types. One is the lead printed edition. The others are the dissimilar 2 transcribed editions. There are considerable differences between the lead printed edition and the transcribed editions. The lead printed edition focused on the human being, and divided the category of human being as 3 parts, which are infant, womenkind and adult. Whereas the transcribed editions focused on disorders and aimed at universalization and simplification of medicine. Thus the main viewpoint of medicine changed from disorders to human being. By the way, there are many occult prescriptions in Juchonsinbang. And they aren't distorted with the standpoint of those days. While the time of writing Juchonsinbang has many questionable problems. And there is no historical material which shows the exact time of writing. PMID:18548970

Kim, Do-Hoon

2007-12-01

34

Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. (National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-02-01

35

[The life and works of Han Shin Gwang: a midwife and nurse of Korean modern times].  

PubMed

Han Shin Gwang, born in an early Christian family in Korea in 1902, could get western education different from the ordinary Korean girls in that period. She participated in the 1919 Samil Independence Movement in her teens, and got nursing and midwifery education in a missionary hospital. She got a midwife license and worked as a member in an early mother-and-child health center. She organized 'Korean Nurses' Association (see text)' in 1924 and focused on public health movement as the chairwoman. She actively participated in women's movement organizations, and Gwangjoo Student's Movement. She was known to be a representative of leading working women, and wrote articles on woman's right, the needs and works of nurses and midwives. From late Japanese colonial period, she opened her own clinic and devoted herself to midwifery. After the Korean Liberation in 1945, she began political movement and went in for a senate election. During the Korean War, she founded a shelter for mothers and children in help. After the War, she reopened a midwifery clinic and devoted to the works of Korean Midwives' Association. Han Shin Gwang's life and works belong to the first generation of Korean working women in modern times. She actively participated in women's movement, nurses' and midwives professional movement, Korea liberation movement, and mother-and-child health movement for 60 years. Her life is truly exemplary as one of the first generation of working women in modern Korea, distinguished of devotion and calling. PMID:17214427

Yi, Ggodme

2006-06-01

36

The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints).  

PubMed

Radionuclide bone scans have demonstrated linear uptake along the posterior medial border of the tibia in patients with shin splints. This area was investigated by anatomical dissection (14 human cadavers), electromyographic (EMG) and muscle stimulation studies (10 patients), and open biopsy (1 patient). Histologically, the increased metabolic activity manifested on the radionuclide scan is due to a periostitis with new bone formation. The soleus muscle and its investing fascia are anatomically and biomechanically implicated in the production of these stress changes, particularly when the heel is in the pronated position. The soleus muscle and fascia form a tough "soleus bridge" over the deep compartment which is thought to be important in patients requiring surgical decompression. PMID:3985265

Michael, R H; Holder, L E

37

Assessing migration patterns of sharp-shinned hawks Accipiter striatus using stable-isotope and band encounter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific migration patterns in birds have both spatial and temporal components. Two commonly reported spatial patterns are leap-frog and chain migration. Tempo- ral migration patterns refer to the timing of migration of populations from different breeding latitudes. We investigated the spatial and temporal migration patterns of hatching-year (HY) sharp-shinned hawks Accipiter striatus of interior North America using stable-hydrogen isotope and

Ruth B. Smith; Timothy D. Meehan; Blair O. Wolf

2003-01-01

38

A new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus (Aves: Accipitriformes).  

PubMed

An injured juvenile sharp-shinned hawk, Accipiter striatus Vieillot, 1807 (Aves: Accipitriformes), housed and treated at the College of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA, was found to be passing oocysts of an undescribed species of Caryospora in its feces. Sporulated oocysts of Caryospora petersoni n. sp. were subspherical, with a bilayered wall, and they measured 43.1 × 39.8 ?m; micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were subspherical to spherical, 23.4 × 23.3 ?m; Stieda, substieda, and parastieda bodies were absent, but a spherical sporocyst residuum was present as a compact mass, ~15.1 ?m wide, composed of many homogeneous globules. The new species represents the first caryosporan documented from this species of hawk. PMID:23098064

McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

2012-10-25

39

ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE SPINAL REFLEXES AFTER LOCAL IRRADIATIONS. II. LOCAL IRRADIATION OF THE SPINAL CORD AND THE SHIN OF RABBITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local irradiation tests were carried out on the spinal cord and the shin ; of rabbits for the purpose of obtaining more information on the direct and reflex ; action of radiation on the hypothalamic region. Of the 25 animals, 5 were used ; for control and each of the 2 groups of 10 animals was used for irradiating ;

Gvozdikova

1962-01-01

40

Laser recovery of the Qin dynasty treasure trove polychrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When created in 210 BC, the 6,000 terra cotta warriors of the Mount Li tomb near the ancient imperial Chinese capital city of Xi'an were emblazoned with beautiful colors. Previously, it had been thought that this polychrome glaze had been entirely consumed in an inferno that swept the tomb shortly after its completion. Precise laser divestment of the statues during the archaeological excavation and conservation of the site has revealed faint charred vestiges of the original polychromatic glaze. Research has begun on a new technique for restroing the initial color through in-situ chemical reduction using pulsed laser irradiation under cover fluids such as forming gas or methane.

Asmus, John F.

41

Shin Clearance in the Hawk Mk115.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2006, the Canadian Forces (CF) transitioned to a new anthropometric selection standard for pilots. The new standard bases acceptance and rejection on whether individuals are physically compatible with the cockpits of all current aircraft; the previous ...

P. Meunier

2008-01-01

42

IPN localizations of Konus short GRBs (Pal'shin+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, ~18/yr, exceeds that of many individual experiments. (3 data files).

Pal'Shin, V. D.; Hurley, K.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V.; Cline, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.; Gold, R.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Savchenko, V.; Smith, D. M.; Hajdas, W.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Palmer, D.; Yamaoka, K.; Ohno, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hanabata, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tashiro, M.; Terada, Y.; Murakami, T.; Makishima, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Fishman, G.; Connaughton, V.; Boer, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E.; Rossi, F.; Feroci, M.; Amati, L.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.; Del, Monte E.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Vanderspek, R.; Ricker, G.

2013-09-01

43

Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.  

PubMed

Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome. PMID:3728786

Meier, J L; Mollet, E

44

Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.  

PubMed

A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity. PMID:3787005

Detmer, D E

45

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu. (Data on development of new energy technologies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper compiles data on the trend of development of new energy technologies into a book. In category, renewable energy is solar energy, wind power generation, geothermal power generation, ocean energy, biomass. As a category of fuel form conversion, ci...

1994-01-01

46

Shin energy no tenbo. Chikyu ondanka hen (1988). (Prospect of new energy. Global warming (1988)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New energy has been developed mainly as substitutes for oil. The issue on global warming by carbon dioxide is considered as one of new energy development strategy. Carbon ranges over the atmosphere, the ocean, and woodlands, and there is the great global-...

1988-01-01

47

Rampo's repetitions: the doppelganger in Edogawa Rampo and Tsukamoto Shin'ya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychoanalytical discourse has been instrumental in forming the figure of the doppelganger as a coherent concept and genre of film and fiction, typically linking it with notions of ‘the uncanny’ and ‘repetition compulsion’. In this paper, I explore the functions of the figure of the doppelganger in a text that repeats across (and in effect foregrounds the relations between) two

Baryon Tensor Posadas

2010-01-01

48

Shin energy kanren shinki project hakkutsu chosa. (Survey to find new projects related to new energy).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the purpose of contributing to diversified developmental strategies of new energy, the paper examined and studied a possibility of the related new projects. Nine themes were selected as promising technology. Concerning turbines, cited were chemical ga...

1996-01-01

49

[The place of bundle nailing in the surgical treatment of fractures of the shin bones].  

PubMed

Authors report about their good experiences with the tibia bundle-nailing during 23 years' patient-material on the Traumatological Department of the Hospital in Eger/Hungary comparing to other osteosynthesis methods. They report about their operative technic, the indications, post-operative treatment and analyse their results. In connection with operative treatment of 251 patients with this method they emphasize that the bundle-nailing of Hackethal is by correct indication a method of tried integrity in these days, too. PMID:1877099

Kovalkovits, I; Habis, G

1991-06-01

50

Shin energy no tenbo. Niji denchi hen. (Outlook for new energies. Secondary batteries).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New energies are defined as all kinds of energies which can be expected to be put to practical use as the result of future technological development. Among new energies, secondary batteries are very much desired to be developed for use with electric vehic...

1989-01-01

51

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu shizu chosa. (Research on sources for energetic technological development).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical sources were investigated and picked out about the energy conservation technology contributing toward alleviating groval warming, which in particular becomes to the focus of public attention in the groval atmospheric reserve problems, and the re...

1989-01-01

52

A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project “Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School” offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following are included in the project goals:

Jon-Chao Hong; Ming-Yueh Hwang; Hwey-Wen Liang; Hsin-Wu Chang

2008-01-01

53

A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following…

Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

2008-01-01

54

Pretibial linear vertical creases or indentations (shin dimples) associated with arthrogryposis.  

PubMed

Among 2,500 cases of arthrogryposis, 14 families and 17 individuals were identified that had a linear vertical crease (indentation/dimple) along the anterior tibia, usually bilaterally. Approximately half had developmental delay/intellectual disability and the others had normal intellectual development. There are generalized flexion contractures with the legs more severely affected than the arms. The ankles are flexed at birth suggesting a relationship of contraction of the anterior tibial compartment to the in utero development of the anterior tibial crease. Dislocated hips are seen in 60%. Hands open with physical therapy and become quite functional. Those with normal intelligence are ambulatory, often with a crouching stance. Three families had recurrence suggesting a recessive pattern of inheritance. All parents were normal. No affected individuals have had offspring. Several have had CGH arrays, which were normal. The presence of this crease in cases of arthrogryposis appears to be a helpful clinical observation and may even be pathognomonic. PMID:23444103

Hall, Judith G

2013-02-26

55

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (furyoku hatsuden). (New energy technology development related database construction survey (wind power generation)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To arrange systematic data relating to new energy, the latest published data relating to the wind energy conversion systems have been collected and arranged. For the overview of wind energy conversion system, wind turbines with horizontal axis and vertica...

1997-01-01

56

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (taiyoko hatsuden). (Survey for making a data book related to new energy technical development (Examples of solar cells)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper aggregately collects, systematizes data on the photovoltaic power generation system and prepares a data book related to the photovoltaic power generation. Fields and subjects for data collection include: a listing of photovoltaic power generatio...

1995-01-01

57

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (taiyoko hatsuden). (Survey for making a data book on the new energy technological development (photovoltaic power generation)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on the photovoltaic power generation are synthetically collected, systematized, and summarized as a data book on the photovoltaic power system. Main details are as follows: photovoltaic power systems were listed by usage, by size of power generation,...

1996-01-01

58

Shin energy kanren no kyoryoku no genjo to kongo no hoko ni tsuite (Doitsu). (Present situation in new energy related cooperation and its future direction (Germany)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With an objective of promoting effectively and efficiently the development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies in Japan, this paper describes results of the investigations on situations around the energy policies and new energies, trends i...

1992-01-01

59

Quality Requirements for Motor Vehicle Tires and Technological Effectiveness in Tire Design (Trebovaniya k Kachestvu Automobilnykh Shin i Technologichnost ikh Konstruktsil).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased dependence on automotive transport has necessitated the manufacture of improved tires for trucks and buses. Improvement is necessary for load-carrying capacity, maximum speed permissible, lower rate of wear, lighter weight, and improved balance....

L. V. Desidlei

1972-01-01

60

Shin energy no local energy to shite no tekio kanosei chosa. 2. (Feasibility study on applicability of new energy as local energy. 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on importance of energy supply-demand environment and development of alternative energy, an proposal is made on construction of the system enhancing the feasibility of local energy, grasping the outline of a local energy related plan in Japan. Cited...

1991-01-01

61

[Medial stress syndrome in military conscripts].  

PubMed

Thirty-two Danish recruits had signs and symptoms compatible with shin splints. 65% of the cases noticed symptoms during the first four weeks of conscription. 78% were free from symptoms after 30 days exemption from physical exercise. The patients were examined together with a group without shin splints. The passive subtalar joint mobility was identical in the two groups. When examining the subtalar joint position in the standing position, increased eversion was found in the group with shin splints. PMID:2773133

Hald, N; Pedersen, O B; Hau, C; Hansen, B R

1989-08-14

62

Outreach Working Group  

Cancer.gov

Outreach: External/Industrial Relations Working Group The mission of the External/Industrial Relations Working Group (EIRWG) is to communicate the activities and promote the results of the QIN to organizations involved in, or who may be interested

63

Quantitative Imaging Network Working Groups  

Cancer.gov

The QIN is linked at several levels. A Steering Committee has governance oversight of the network. While this provides the administrative coordination and communication points of contact between program staff and the individual centers, the Steering Committee

64

[A brief account of population theories, problems, and policies in Chinese history].  

PubMed

A review of historical documents dealing with population theory and problems in China from the Qin to Qing dynasties is presented. Topics covered include overpopulation, underpopulation, and the maintenance of secrecy concerning population data. PMID:12178295

Xie, Z

1980-03-01

65

Reexamining the security of the improved quantum secret sharing scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that, in the improvement [S.J. Qin et al., Phys. Lett. A 357 (2006) 101] of the multiparty quantum secret sharing [Z.J. Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 044301], Charlie can solely obtain Alice’s secret messages without Bob’s helps. In other words, the improved secret sharing scheme is still insecure. In the end, we further modify Qin et al. improved three-party quantum secret sharing scheme and make it really secure.

Gao, Gan

2009-11-01

66

Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

Pavela, Gary

2005-01-01

67

A new method to measure necrotic core and calcium content in coronary plaques using intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency-based analysis  

PubMed Central

Although previous intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency-based analysis data showed acceptable reproducibility for plaque composition, measurements are not easily obtained, particularly that of lumen contour, because of the limited IVUS resolution. The purpose of this study was to compare a new measurement method (Shin’s method) and the conventional measurement method for necrotic core and calcium content in atherosclerotic lesions using Virtual Histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Fifty-seven patients with unstable angina who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Shin’s method focuses on catheter contour, instead of lumen contour, and vessel contour. Patients ages ranged from 46 to 88 years, and 34 were men. A total of 1,401 frames from 59 culprit lesions were assessed. There were no significant differences in the mean area and volume of necrotic core and dense calcium between the two methods. Correlation coefficients (R) were ?0.99 for all above mentioned parameters (P < 0.001). Between methods, the absolute differences in mean area and volume of necrotic core were 0.02 ± 0.02 mm² and 0.34 ± 0.29 mm³, respectively, while for mean area and volume of dense calcium, the absolute differences were 0.04 ± 0.07 mm² and 0.36 ± 0.52 mm³, respectively. The reproducibility of Shin’s method was excellent. For area of the necrotic core and dense calcium, the means of the differences between the two measurements were nearly zero, and the reproducibility coefficients were within 1% of the means of the two measurements. Mean analysis time for both measurements was 26.8 ± 6.7 min/segment in the conventional method and 3.3 ± 0.6 min/segment in Shin’s method. Shin’s method for measurement of necrotic core and dense calcium using VH-IVUS demonstrated a good correlation with the conventional method and excellent reproducibility. Also, Shin’s method required a significantly shorter analysis time than the conventional method. Therefore, Shin’s method could replace the conventional method for necrotic core and calcium measurement in atherosclerotic lesions, and it might be useful in the catheterization laboratory for online clinical decision.

Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Serruys, Patrick W.

2010-01-01

68

True reason for Zipf's law in language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

2005-12-01

69

Integration of bacteriophage. lambda. into the cryptic lambdoid prophages of Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Bacteriophage lambda missing its chromosomal attachment site will integrate into recA{sup +} Escherichia coli K-12 and C at the site of cryptic prophages. The specific regions in which these recombination events occur were identified in both lambda and the bacterial chromosomes. A NotI restriction site on the prophage allowed its physical mapping. This allowed them to identify the locations of Rac, Qin, and Qsr{prime} cryptic prophages on the NotI map of E. coli K-12 and, by analogy, to identify the cryptic prophage in E. coli C as Qin. No new cryptic prophages were detected in E. coli K-12.

Lichens-Park, A. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Smith, C.L. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Syvanen, M. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-05-01

70

We describe a patient with a history of asthma and remote use of steroids the development of necrotizing fascitis due to Vibrio alginolyticus after an injury from a coral reef during bathing in the Caribbean Sea off Colombia. The patient recovered with aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE REPORT A 48-year-old female nurse suffered a blunt and penetrating trauma to the lower shin after contact with a coral reef while bathing in the Colombian coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea. A \\

Juan M. Gomez; Roosevelt Fajardo; Jose F. Patino; Cesar A. Arias

2003-01-01

71

Lateral collateral ligament (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

72

Ishikawajima-Harima Engineering Review, Vol. 27, No. 4, July 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: COVER large & high grade passenger-car-ferry 'NEW HAMANASU' for Shin Nihonkai Ferry Co., Ltd.; TECHNICAL PAPERS production of valuable products by different roll speed rolling (rolling mill engineering department, development department...

1987-01-01

73

Soccer Injury Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... wide range of injuries, including cuts, bruises, and concussions. Overuse injuries, such as Achilles tendinitis and shin ... for help with more significant injuries such as concussions, dislocations, contusions, sprains, abrasions, and fractures. Top of ...

74

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...taxpayer maintains a written training record on all horses he keeps in training status...taxpayer culled these four horses because the training log which the taxpayer maintains...developed shin splints during training. Horses B and C were culled...

2009-04-01

75

26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...taxpayer maintains a written training record on all horses he keeps in training status...taxpayer culled these four horses because the training log which the taxpayer maintains...developed shin splints during training. Horses B and C were culled...

2010-04-01

76

Bruise  

MedlinePLUS

... bruised (thigh pads, hip guards, and elbow pads in football and hockey; shin guards and knee pads in soccer and basketball). ... to Musculoskeletal Structures: 1. Muscle and Tendon Injury. In: ... Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ...

77

76 FR 18246 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Foxconn Precision Component (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd. of Guandong, China; Foxconn International Holdings Ltd. of Cheung Sha Wan Kowloon, Hong Kong; and Inventec Corporation of Shin-Lin District, Taiwan. The complainant, proposed respondents,...

2011-04-01

78

76 FR 22918 - In the Matter of Certain Handheld Electronic Computing Devices, Related Software, and Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Shenzhen, Guandong 518109, China. Foxconn International Holdings Ltd., 8F Peninsula Tower, 538 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan Kowloon, New Territories, Hong Kong. Inventec Corporation, Inventec Building, No. 66 Hou-Kang Street, Shin- Lin...

2011-04-25

79

Accipiter Use of Pinyon-Juniper Habitats for Nesting in Northwestern Colorado. BLM Technical Note 435.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three accipiter species breed in North America, the Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), Coopers Hawk (A. cooperii), and Northern Goshawk (A. gentilis). Accipiters are known to use a variety of habitats for nesting throughout the United States, but in...

J. P. Smith S. J. Slater

2007-01-01

80

Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 1, Edition 3, Fall 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: BLS and ACLS changes, Dry Fibrin Dressing, U.S. Army Special Forces Diving Medical Technician Training, Biomedical research and Development Update, Relieving Painful 'Shin Splints', Primer on Army SOF Deployment Medical Surveillance, Uni...

D. L. Hammer D. S. Heintz M. D. DuGuay S. E. Anderson W. J. Anderson

2001-01-01

81

Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum  

MedlinePLUS

... by: Adam Stoltman Click here to learn more! Health Care Reform is Important to Me “Health care reform is ... Kijoong Shin Click here to read Kijoong’s story. Health Care Reform is Important to Me “Health care reform is ...

82

How Do You Treat Myxedema?  

MedlinePLUS

... that causes the thyroid gland to be overactive (hyperthyroidism). In pretibial myxedema, there are patches of thick, ... the shins. It is treated by controlling the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease. 4581, 8490, thyroid,graves' disease, ...

83

Inverse spectral problems for Sturm-Liouville operators with singular potentials, II. Reconstruction by two spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve the inverse spectral problem of recovering the singular potentials $q\\\\in W^{-1}_{2}(0,1)$ of Sturm-Liouville operators by two spectra. The reconstruction algorithm is presented and necessary and sufficient conditions on two sequences to be spectral data for Sturm-Liouville operators under consideration are given.

YAROSLAV V. MYKYTYUK

2003-01-01

84

China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

85

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

86

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of

Qing-Jun Yuan; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Juan Hu; Lan-Ping Guo; Ai-Juan Shao; Lu-Qi Huang

2010-01-01

87

Processing Instruction and Dictogloss: A Study on Object Pronouns and Word Order in Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the current study, we present the findings of an experiment with 108 participants of Spanish as a second language in which we compared the effects of dictogloss (DG) and processing instruction (PI) and compared both sets of effects to a control group. Our findings do not support the results of a recent study, Qin (2008). In that study, DG and…

VanPatten, Bill; Inclezan, Daniela; Salazar, Hilda; Farley, Andrew P.

2009-01-01

88

Advances in hydrocarbon generation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, great achievements have been made in exploring oil and gas from Jurassic coal measures in China. Plentiful oil and gas have been discovered in some coal basins of the Northwest of China. The exploration, development and studies of the oils from the coal greatly developed non-marine oil generation theory. In this paper, a new method by Qin

Difan Huang

1999-01-01

89

Study of ion emission from a germanium crystal surface under impact of fast Pb ions in channeling conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thin germanium crystal has been irradiated at GANIL by Pb beams of 29 MeV/A (charge state Qin = 56 and 72) and of 5.6 MeV/A (Qin = 28). The induced ion emission from the sample entrance surface was studied, impact per impact, as a function of Qin, velocity vin and energy loss ?E in the crystal. The Pb ions transmitted through the crystal were analyzed in charge (Qout) and energy using the SPEG spectrometer. The emitted ionized species were detected and analyzed in mass by a time-Of-flight multianode detector (LAG). Channeling was used to select peculiar ?E values in Ge and hence peculiar Pb ion trajectories close to the emitting entrance surface. The experiment was performed in standard vacuum. No Ge emission was found. The dominating emitted species are H+ and hydrocarbon ions originating from the contamination layer on top of the crystal. The mean value of the number of detected species per incoming Pb ion (multiplicity) varies as (Qin/vin)p, with p values in agreement with previous results. We have clearly observed an influence of the energy deposition ?E in Ge on the emission from the top contamination layer. When selecting increasing values of ?E, we observed a rather slow increase of . On the contrary, the probabilities of high multiplicity values, which are essentially connected to fragmentation after emission, strongly increase with ?E.

L'Hoir, A.; Koumeir, C.; Della Negra, S.; Boduch, P.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Cassimi, A.; Chevallier, M.; Cohen, C.; Dauvergne, D.; Fallavier, M.; Jacquet, D.; Manil, B.; Poizat, J.-C.; Ray, C.; Rothard, H.; Schmaus, D.; Toulemonde, M.

2009-03-01

90

DCTD — Cancer Imaging Program (CIP)  

Cancer.gov

The Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies initiative has as a major component the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN). The network is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods for the measurement of tumor response to therapies in clinical trial settings, with the overall goal of facilitating clinical decision making.

91

Biomedical engineering in China. A look at the growth of the BME Society, and advanced education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978 the Chinese Institute of Electronics asked Dr Qin to organise the Chinese Biomedical Engineering Society. Looking back on 14 years of the Society's history, 13 conferences have been held, and more than 600 technical papers presented. Student paper competitions stimulated students and young investigators to attend the conference and join the Society. The authors also discuss formal BME

Erxin Zheng; Ming-Jin Chen

1994-01-01

92

10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on-time to average burner on-time yP =ratio of power burner combustion blower...103-1993 A=100,000 / [341,300(yP PE+yIG PEIG +yBE)+(QIN -QP...indoors =100,000 / [341,300(yP PE Effmotor +yIG PEIG +y...

2010-01-01

93

10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on-time to average burner on-time yP =ratio of power burner combustion blower...103-1993 A=100,000 / [341,300(yP PE+yIG PEIG +yBE)+(QIN -QP...indoors =100,000 / [341,300(yP PE Effmotor +yIG PEIG +y...

2009-01-01

94

Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

Anderson, John R.

2005-01-01

95

ACL and differentiability of a generalization of quasi-conformal maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is established that Q-homeomorphisms (in the sense of O. Martio) defined in \\mathbb{R}^n, n\\geq2, are absolutely continuous on lines. Furthermore, they belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1} and are differentiable almost everywhere for Q\\in L^{1}_{\\mathrm{loc}}.

Salimov, R. R.

2008-10-01

96

Gauge properties of the guiding center variational symplectic integrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variational symplectic algorithms have recently been developed for carrying out long-time simulation of charged particles in magnetic fields [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008); H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. Tang, Phys. Plasmas (2009); J. Li, H. Qin, Z. Pu, L. Xie, and S. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052902 (2011)]. As a direct consequence of their derivation from a discrete variational principle, these algorithms have very good long-time energy conservation, as well as exactly preserving discrete momenta. We present stability results for these algorithms, focusing on understanding how explicit variational integrators can be designed for this type of system. It is found that for explicit algorithms, an instability arises because the discrete symplectic structure does not become the continuous structure in the t-->0 limit. We examine how a generalized gauge transformation can be used to put the Lagrangian in the ``antisymmetric discretization gauge,'' in which the discrete symplectic structure has the correct form, thus eliminating the numerical instability. Finally, it is noted that the variational guiding center algorithms are not electromagnetically gauge invariant. By designing a model discrete Lagrangian, we show that the algorithms are approximately gauge invariant as long as A and J are relatively smooth. A gauge invariant discrete Lagrangian is very important in a variational particle-in-cell algorithm where it ensures current continuity and preservation of Gauss's law [J. Squire, H. Qin, and W. Tang (to be published)].

Squire, J.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

2012-05-01

97

Modelling a Tourism Response to Climate Change Using a Four Stage Problem Definition and Response Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change has become a hot topic for research, but the response of national governments has been relatively cool, particularly in their support for effective mitigation measures to combat the problem. A review of the scientific literature (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]. (2007). Summary for policy makers. In S. Solomon, M. Qin, Z. Manning, M. Chen, K. Marquia, M.

Bruce Prideaux; Bob McKercher; Karen Elizabeth McNamara

2012-01-01

98

Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora  

PubMed Central

Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1?, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E.S. Salmon & Wormald) Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora hakeae (U. Braun & Cr

Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

2013-01-01

99

Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

1997-01-01

100

Anterior tibial striations.  

PubMed

Radiolucent horizontal striations of the anterior cortex of the tibia were seen in 10 athletes who were evaluated for "shin-splints." There were seven basketball players, two professional dancers, and one hurdler. Each patient's history included vigorous leaping in performance of athletic feats. All the lesions were similar in location and appearance and were accompanied by thickening of the anterior tibial cortex. These striations are considered stress fractures and were not observed in a group of runners who were evaluated for shin-splints. PMID:6331753

Daffner, R H

1984-09-01

101

Ultrasound catheter placement for deep posterior compartment pressure measurements in chronic compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Medial shin pain, often referred to as shin splints, is a common but difficult to diagnose entity in many athletes. Chronic deep posterior compartment syndrome as a cause of medial leg pain is still controversial. The problems of deep posterior compartment pressure measurement contribute to this controversy. These problems include safety of catheter insertion and the possibility that the patient has more than one deep posterior compartment. In this paper, we present a new technique for catheter placement in which continuous ultrasound guidance is used. This technique allows for the safe placement of the catheter into the deep posterior compartment and for documentation of catheter tip location. PMID:2405723

Wiley, J P; Short, W B; Wiseman, D A; Miller, S D

102

Relative Stability of Adatom Pairs and Ad-dimers on Si/Si(100 Via a Local Analysis of Electronic Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total energy and local analysis of electronic properties of chain-like structures of Si adatoms on Si(100) are performed using the order(N) non-orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics. These chain-like structures have been observed in the STM studies of Si/Si(100) (J. van Wingerden, et al, Phys. Rev. B,55), 4723 (1997). and Ge/Si(100) ( X.R.Qin and M.G.Lagally, Science, 278), 1444 (1997)., and have recently been interpreted by Qin and Lagally as composed of adatom pairs rather than ad-dimers. To make a direct comparison with these experiments, we calculate the local electronic densities of adatom pairs and ad-dimers, especially the charge distribution between the two adatoms. This work will further our understanding of the early stage of epitaxial growth for these systems.

Jayanthi, Chakram S.; Liu, Shudun; John, George C.; Wu, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Lagally, Max G.

1998-03-01

103

Berry Curvature and Phonon Hall Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish the general phonon dynamics of magnetic solids by incorporating the Mead-Truhlar correction in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The effective magnetic-field acting on the phonons naturally emerges, giving rise to the phonon Hall effect. A general formula of the intrinsic phonon Hall conductivity is obtained by using the corrected Kubo formula with the energy magnetization contribution properly incorporated. The resulting phonon Hall conductivity is fully determined by the phonon Berry curvature and the dispersions. Based on the formula, the topological phonon system could be rigorously defined. In the low temperature regime, we predict that the phonon Hall conductivity is proportional to T^3 for the ordinary phonon systems, while that for the topological phonon systems has the linear T dependence with the quantized temperature coefficient. [4pt] [1] Tao Qin and Junren Shi, arXiv:1111.1322 (2011) [0pt] [2] Tao Qin, Qian Niu and Junren Shi, Phys. Rev. Lett., Accepted, (2011).

Qin, Tao; Shi, Junren

2012-02-01

104

RETRACTED: The Effect of Coenzyme A Capsule on Serum Triglyceride Concentration inPatients With Hypertriglyceridemia: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial.  

PubMed

Retraction notice for "The Effect of Coenzyme A Capsule on Serum Triglyceride Concentration in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial" by Tianming Xuan, Bifeng Wu, Yunpeng Shang, Jiangtao Lai, Xiaosheng Hu, Zhong Liu, and Junzhu Chen The article has been retracted due to its earlier publication in substantially similar form as follows: Effect and Safety of coenzyme A on Hyperlipidemia by Zhao Shu-ping, Chen Ya-qin, Chen Jun-zhu, Lai Jiang-tao, published in the Chinese Journal of New Drugs and Clinical Remedies; 2012:242-245. The Effects of Coenzyme A on Serum Lipids in Patients With Hyperlipidemia: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial by Ya-qin Chen, Shui-ping Zhao, Jun-zhu Chen and Jiangtao Lai, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism on January 4, 2013 jc.2012-2702. DOI:10.1210/jc.2012-2702. PMID:23426377

2013-02-19

105

[Huanglian places of origin distribution and change from herbal-works].  

PubMed

The herbal-works recorded that the origin production places of Huanglian had gone through dynamic condition of distribution and change. During Pre-Qin and Qin-Han Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were small and limited. During Weijin-Nanbei Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian grew in number gradually. During Sui-Tang and Song-Yuan Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were enlarged quickly. During Ming and Qing Dynasty, the origin production places of Huanglian were expended small-size. The origin production places of Huanglian were enlarged because its functions and demands added and planting-technology skills developed. The records of the herbal-works were not complete, we should pay attention to the other works, so as to ascertain the realorigin production places of Huanglian exactly and scientifically. PMID:22121823

Hu, Anhui

2011-09-01

106

Response to 'Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field''[Phys. Plasmas 19, 094701 (2012)  

SciTech Connect

The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

Liu Jian [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin Hong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2012-09-15

107

Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field'[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)  

SciTech Connect

The geometric analysis of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field by Liu and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] is reformulated in terms of the spatial angles that represent the instantaneous orientation of the magnetic field. This new formulation, which includes the equation of motion for the pitch angle, clarifies the decomposition of the gyroangle-averaged equation of motion for the gyrophase into its dynamic and geometric contributions.

Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Guillebon, Loiec de [Centre de Physique Theorique Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS (UMR 7332), 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2012-09-15

108

Reproduction, familiarity, love, and humaneness: How did confucius reveal “humaneness”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws out the subtle connections among the various sorts of categories—“sheng ? (reproduction),” “qin ? (familiarity),” “ai ? (love),” and “ren ? (humaneness)”—focusing on the following: Confucius found the original significance of “reproduction” to be sympathy between\\u000a males and females, and upon further study he found it extended to the.affinity of blood relations, namely “familiarity.” From\\u000a “familiarity” he

Hongxing Chen

2010-01-01

109

Response to Comment on "Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

Jian Liu and Hong Qin

2012-08-22

110

Combined inertial and gravitational deposition of microparticles in small model airways of a human respiratory system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on relatively small airways in terms of the medium-size bronchial generations G6–G9, the interplay of impaction and sedimentation on micron particle transport and deposition has been simulated. A commercial finite-volume code, enhanced with user-supplied programs, has been employed. Although impaction is still a dominant deposition mechanism for microparticle in medium-size airways under normal breathing conditions (say, Qin=15–30L\\/min), sedimentation may

Clement Kleinstreuer; Zhe Zhang; Chong S. Kim

2007-01-01

111

Clinical observations on the treatment of 90 chronic gastritis patients by combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of combined acupuncture and herbal medicine based on Prof. QIN Liang-fu's experience\\u000a in treating chronic gastritis.Methods: Ninety chronic gastritis patients were randomly divided into acupuncture, herbal medicine and acupuncture plus herbal medicine\\u000a groups. The clinical effects were evaluated after 6 months.Results: After 6 months, the clinical effect was better in the acupuncture plus herbal

Hong Yu-fang; Li Hong-hong; Qin Liang-fu

2006-01-01

112

Entropy production in the cyclic lattice Lotka-Volterra model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic Lotka-Volterra model in a D-dimensional regular lattice is considered. Entropy production of its “nucleus growth” mode is investigated by analyzing the time evolution of the family of entropies $S_q = (1-\\\\sum_i p_i^q)\\/(q-1)$ , with $q\\\\in \\\\mathbb{R}$ . This family contains as particular case ( q = 1) the usual entropic form $S_1 = -\\\\sum_i p_i\\\\ln p_i$ . The

Celia Anteneodo; Xavier Sigaud

2004-01-01

113

A Method to Detect only Live Bacteria during PCR Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) is a DNA cross-linking agent and eukaryotic topoisomerase II poison. We previously reported that the treatment of EMA with visible light irradiation (EMA Light) directly cleaved chromosomal DNA of Escherichia coli (T. Soejima, K. Iida, T. Qin, H. Taniai, M. Seki, A. Takade, and S. Yoshida, Microbiol. Immunol. 51:763-775, 2007). Herein, we report that EMA Light randomly

Takashi Soejima; Ken-ichiro Iida; Tian Qin; Hiroaki Taniai; Masanori Seki; Shin-ichi Yoshida

2008-01-01

114

Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics

Hong Qin

2003-01-01

115

Analytical theory and nonlinearf perturbative simulations of temperature anisotropy instability in intense charged particle beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functionsTkb=T?b ? 1? a Harris-like collective instability may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Such anisotropies develop naturally in accelerators and may lead to a deterioration of beam quality. This paper extends previous numerical studies (E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

2003-01-01

116

Analytical theory and nonlinear deltaf perturbative simulations of temperature anisotropy instability in intense charged particle beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions (T||b\\/T?b≪1) a Harris-like collective instability may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Such anisotropies develop naturally in accelerators and may lead to a deterioration of beam quality. This paper extends previous numerical studies [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 9,

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

2003-01-01

117

Nonlinear delta f simulations of collective effects in intense charged particle beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear deltaf particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R. C. Davidson, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Rev. ST

Hong Qin

2003-01-01

118

The Structure Models for Futures Options Pricing and Related Researches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the structure model of option pricing (Dai and Qin, 2005) and partial distribution (Dai, 2001), this paper designs a new kind of expression of futures price. It presents the structure pricing model for American futures options on underlying non-dividend-paying stocks, and provides three put-call parities between American call and put option on spots, call and put option on

Feng Dai; Yajun Sun; Songtao Wu

2008-01-01

119

Neonatal Jaundice — Traditional Chinese Medicine Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal treatment of neonatal jaundice (NNJ) has been practiced in China for a long time. Even to-date, a variety of herbal items, including “Yin-chin” (Artemisia), “Huang-qin” (Scutellaria), “Da-huang” (Rheum officinale), “Gan-cao” (Glycyrrhiza), and “Huang-lin” (Coptis chinesis), are still being prescribed to jaundiced infants, often in combination with modern treatment such as phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Their efficacy has, however, not

Tai Fai Fok

2001-01-01

120

A semiparametric Wald statistic for testing logistic regression models based on case-control data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a semiparametric Wald statistic to test the validity of logistic regression models based on case-control data.\\u000a The test statistic is constructed using a semiparametric ROC curve estimator and a nonparametric ROC curve estimator. The\\u000a statistic has an asymptotic chisquared distribution and is an alternative to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-type statistic proposed\\u000a by Qin and Zhang in 1997, the chi-squared-type statistic

Shuwen Wan

2008-01-01

121

A probabilistic methodology to estimate future coastal flood risk due to sea level rise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a methodology to estimate the probability of future coastal flooding given uncertainty over possible sea level rise. We take as an example the range of sea level rise magnitudes for 2100 contained in the IPCC Third Assessment Report [Church, J.A., Gregory, J.M., Huybrechts, P., Kuhn, M., Lambeck, K., Nhuan, M.T., Qin, D., Woodworth, P.L., Anisimov,

Matthew J. Purvis; Paul D. Bates; Christopher M. Hayes

2008-01-01

122

A Variational Approximation Scheme for¶Three-Dimensional Elastodynamics¶with Polyconvex Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We construct a variational approximation scheme for the equations of three-dimensional elastodynamics with polyconvex stored\\u000a energy. The scheme is motivated by some recently discovered geometric identities (Qin [18]) for the null Lagrangians (the determinant and cofactor matrix), and by an associated embedding of the equations of\\u000a elastodynamics into an enlarged system which is endowed with a convex entropy. The

Sophia Demoulini; David M. A. Stuart; Athanasios E. Tzavaras

2001-01-01

123

Increased MCP-1 and microglia in various regions of the human alcoholic brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines and microglia have been implicated in anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration as well as the regulation of alcohol drinking and other consumatory behaviors, all of which are associated with alcoholism. Studies using animal models of alcoholism suggest that microglia and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to alcoholic pathologies [Crews, F.T., Bechara, R., Brown, L.A., Guidot, D.M., Mandrekar, P., Oak, S., Qin, L., Szabo,

Jun He; Fulton T. Crews

2008-01-01

124

A case study of the tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) using a geostationary meteorological satellite and the TAO\\/TRITON mooring array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qin et al. have found Hot Events (HE), which are short-term (about 20 days) large-scale (about 15,000,000 km2) regions with very high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST > 30°C). Following their definition, an HE was identified in the tropical western Pacific in November 2006, which is named HE0611. A case study of HE is conducted by using the advanced satellite products

Huiling Qin; Hiroshi Kawamura; Futoki Sakaida; Kentaro Ando

2008-01-01

125

Nonlinear Delta-f Particle Simulations of Collective Effects in High Intensity Charged Particle Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of collective effects in high intensity charged particle beams have been numerically studied using the nonlinear delta-f particle simulation method implemented in the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport (BEST) code. For the electron-ion two-stream instability in high intensity accelerators and storage rings, the secondary electron yield effects are self-consistently studied by coupling the secondary electron yield library CMEE with the instability simulations. Progress has also been made in applying the delta-f particle simulation method to bunched beams, and a three-dimensional equilibrium solver has been implemented. With the help of recently developed parallel diagnostic techniques, we are able to characterize the chaotic particle dynamics under the influences of collective instabilities as well as three-dimensional equilibrium fields. To further extend the application areas of the delta-f particle simulation method, 2D domain decomposition is being developed using the Message Passing Interface, and three-dimensional equilibria with anisotropic temperature in the transverse and longitudinal directions are being investigated. References: [1] R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, An Introduction to the Physics of Intense Charged Particle Beams in High Energy Accelerators, World Scientific (2001). [2] H. Qin, Physics of Plasmas 10, 2078 (2003). [3] H. Qin, E. A. Startsev, and R. C. Davidson, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 6, 014401 (2003).

Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

2004-11-01

126

Reply to “Comment on ‘Mechanics of tidally driven fractures in Europa's ice shell’?”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Lee et al. and Qin et al. consider propagation of a surface initiated tensile crack oriented vertically in an ice sheet of finite thickness with gravitational overburden. Lee et al. assume the crack walls are always in contact and bear normal stress from overburden. In this closed crack scenario, overburden stress increases linearly with depth just as in an ice half-space. Crack walls cannot sustain tension, so the effect of far field tension is concentrated in the material below the crack walls. This leads to the deep crack penetrations of Lee et al. Qin et al., however, assume an open crack scenario. They inappropriately apply normal stress to open crack walls which are exposed to vacuum and so physically cannot sustain a normal stress [Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N., 1970. Theory of Elasticity, third ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 191]. Since this inappropriate normal stress is horizontally oriented it has the effect of artificially concentrating compressive stress in the material below the open crack. The severely limited crack propagation depths of Qin et al. result from this inappropriate boundary condition on an open crack wall.

Lee, Sunwoong; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Makris, Nicholas C.

2007-08-01

127

Gyrokinetic Models for Edge Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize a gyrokinetic model for charged-particle species in MFE edge plasmas and address several important issues. 1) The gyrokinetic Vlasov equations should be in conservation form to facilitate a conservative discretization. 2) The differences between the orderings used and results obtained by Qin et. al. [electromagnetic, and targeted to edge plasmas; Phys. Plasmas 14, 056110 (2007)] and Hahm et al. [electrostatic and targeted to core transport barriers; Phys. Plasmas 3, 4658 (1996)] are examined. Both assume that the electric potential is split into a large long-wavelength part and a small-amplitude perturbed part. Qin asserts that his particular form of the second-order potential is needed for energy conservation. 3) We examine practical forms of the gyrokinetic Poisson-Maxwell equations for the case when the perturbations are neither small-amplitude nor long-wavelength. 4) We build on the theoretical formulations of large-amplitude Gyrokinetic Coulomb collision operators (when linearization does not apply; e.g., by Brizard and by Qin et. al.) to develop an operator suitable for numerical implementation.

Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, R. H.; Xu, X. Q.

2007-11-01

128

Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 01/27/12 Emory University Head & Neck SPORE Dong M. Shin, MD, F.A.C.P. [Click Here] Professor of Hematology/Oncology and Otolaryngology Director,

129

A review of lower limb overuse injuries during basic military training. Part 1: Types of overuse injuries.  

PubMed

Lower limb injuries present the greatest source of medical problems during basic military training. These main overuse lower limb injuries, anterior compartment syndrome, stress fractures, Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, shin splints, and chondromalacia patellae, are reviewed with respect to current knowledge of rates, diagnosis, and treatment. Part 2 shall review possible etiological factors involved in the causation of these injuries. PMID:8361601

Ross, J

1993-06-01

130

Speculative Attack and Optimal Interest Rate Defense under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the eect of an interest rate defense in a model of currency crisis with self-fulfilling expectations and noisy private in- formation for both speculators and the central bank. In Morris and Shin (1998), the interest rate - or transaction cost - plays a crucial role in determining the outcome of the attack, as raising the interest rate

Brieuc Monfort

2004-01-01

131

Saltwater nectotizing fasciitis following coral reef laceration possibly exacerbated by a long-haul flight: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Necrotising fasciits is a rapidly progressive disease characterised by extensive necrosis of the fascia, skin, and subcutaneous tissue, with relative sparing of the underlying muscle. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 24-year old Irish male student who sustained a laceration to his right shin from contact with a coral reef while swimming in the Phuket region, off

Ann-Maria Byrne; Paul Sullivan; Peter Keogh

2009-01-01

132

Psychosocial Outcomes as Motivations for Visiting Nearby Urban Green Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density urban living means that urban green spaces are important nodes of contact with nature. This study examines expected outcomes that motivate people to seek green spaces in urban settings. A sample of Swiss residents were presented with Shin, Kwon, Hammitt, and Kim's (2005) psychosocial outcomes scale and asked which activities they choose to undertake in nearby natural areas. The

Robert Home; Marcel Hunziker; Nicole Bauer

2012-01-01

133

Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyosun Kim, Sangho Shin, Member, IEEE, and Sung-Mo Kang, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—Recently, researchers have demonstrated that mem- ristive switches can be used to implement logic and latches as well as memory and programmable interconnects. In this paper, we propose a novel stateful logic pipeline architecture based on memristive switches. The proposed architecture mapped to the field programmable nanowire interconnect fabric

Kyosun Kim; Sangho Shin; Sung-Mo Kang

2011-01-01

134

A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

135

Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

Glass, Gene V., Ed.

2002-01-01

136

In‡ation Targets as Focal Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world characterised by noisy information and con‡icting signals, no Central Bank is always able to aect private sector expectations. Based on Morris and Shin's model, monetary policy then becomes an information game in which individuals form their expectations based on all the infor- mation that is available to them (public and private). However, individual agents also know that

Maria Demertzisy

137

Robustness of Level-k Reasoning in Modifled Beauty Contest Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how the predictive power of level-k models varies as we perturb the standard setting of beauty contest along two dimensions: the strength of the coordination motive and the information symmetry. We use Morris and Shin (2002) model as the unifled framework for our study, and show that the predictive power of the level-k models varies considerably along

Dmitry Shapiro; Xianwen Shi; Artie Zillante

138

1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus

D. T. Sinton; P. L. Kennedy

1995-01-01

139

Athletes' leg pains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes,

S. Orava; J. Puranen

1979-01-01

140

The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)|

Bogdan, Richard

141

Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

1985-01-01

142

Flexibility and musculoskeletal symptomatology in female gymnasts and age-matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty competitive female gymnasts and 35 age- matched nonathletic controls were interviewed for musculoskeletal symptoms and examined for flexibil ity. A significantly greater number of gymnasts (P < 0.01) had musculoskeletal symptoms in the wrist, low back, hip, shin, and foot regions than did the controls. The average number of symptomatic regions per sub ject was significantly greater (P <

R. L. Kirby; F. C. Simms; V. J. Symington; J. B. Garner

1981-01-01

143

The effectiveness of silicone gels for corrosion prevention of silicon circuits: the final report of the IEEE Computer Society Computer Packaging Committee Special Task Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a three-year task force effort to determine if silicone gels can provide sufficient reliability protection to justify their use in commercial and military electronics packaging applications are presented. The types of gels tested included a gel from Shin-Etsu, an Amicon gel, several Petrarch gel formulations, and a Dow Corning gel. The results indicate that the performance might

John W. Balde

1991-01-01

144

Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they…

Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

2012-01-01

145

Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis.

Hwain Shin; Manuela Mally; Salome Meyer; Chantal Fiechter; C. Paroz; U. Zaehringer; G. R. Cornelis

2009-01-01

146

Instructional Design Issues Facing E-Learning: East Meets West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The rapid emergence of e-learning in business and industry has been accompanied by a number of problems when instructional design concerns are incorporated into the overall curriculum development. This paper examines two companies in two distinct geographical extremes of Shin-Ju, Taiwan and Central Florida to see if, when comparisons are made,…

Tsai, Ping-Yeh; Rendon, Betty; Cornell, Richard

147

Insider Trading, Herding Behaviour and Market Plungers in the British Horse–race Betting Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crafts (1985) suggested that a pronounced shortening of bookmaker odds in horse-race betting markets could indicate the presence of insider traders. This paper uses the Shin (1993) measure of the incidence of insider trading at the beginning of the betting period (opening prices) and at the end of it (starting prices) to distinguish the shortening of odds caused by insider

David Law; David A

2002-01-01

148

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND FOOD HABITS IN THREE  

Microsoft Academic Search

studies on weight, wing area, and skeletal proportions of these three species (Storer, 1955), it became apparent that although the females of all three species average larger than the males, the sexual difference in size was greatest in the smallest species, the Sharp-shinned Hawk, and least in the largest species, the Goshawk. To determine more precisely the degree of sexual

149

Feasibility of Implementing Mode Switching Rules to Improve Survey Estimates for Language Households.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shin and Kominski (2010) document the growth in the number of people speaking a language other than English at home from 23.1 million in 1980 to 55.4 million in 2007. They found that in 2007 about 1-in-5 households spoke a language other than English at h...

D. Griffin S. Fish

2013-01-01

150

Investigating the Presence of Regional Economic Growth Convergence in the Philippines using Kalman Filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the presence of stochastic and dynamic convergence of the 14 regional economies in the Philippines in terms of per capita Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) using regional panel data from 1988 to 2007. Stochastic convergence, which indicates convergence of regions in the long-run, is tested using Levin, Lin & Chu (LLC) and Im, Pesaran & Shin (IPS)

Dennis S. Mapa; Monica Flerida; B. Sandoval; David Joseph; Emmanuel B. Yap II

151

SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will

Shinichi Sobue; Iku Shinohara; Yukio Yamamoto; Tatsuaki Okada; Hayato Okumura

2008-01-01

152

Interest - Rate Price Nexus in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the long-run relationship between nominal interest rate and expected inflation in India by using three interest rates and inflation rates, based on both CPI and WPI, with the help of monthly data from April 1990 to December 2001. By using the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing procedure by Peasaran, Shin and Smith (2001), the study finds

N R Bhanumurthy; Shashi Agarwal

2003-01-01

153

Bank runs and noisy signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the conditions under which multiple equilibria due to coordination failure can be ruled out when individual agents have noisy signals about the fundamentals of an economy. Morris and Shin (1998) study a model of currency crisis where, with common knowledge of fundamentals, self-fulfilling currency attacks lead to multiple equilibria. They show that even a small amount of noise

J. Boonprakaikawe; S. Ghosal

154

Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

2001-01-01

155

Geography in Ominous Intersection with Interrogation and Torture: reflections on detention in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and reflects on the author's detention as a prominent Palestinian geographer in an Israeli prison for 23 days by the Israeli Security Police (Shin Bet) in July 2006, and the nightmare of abuse, debasement and physical coercion, amounting to torture, he was subjected to during this ordeal. The author argues that the detention was political, punishment for

Ghazi-Walid Falah

2008-01-01

156

Keynesian Beauty Contest, Accounting Disclosure, and Market Eciency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the market eciency,consequences of accounting disclosure in the con- text of stock markets as a Keynesian beauty contest, an influential metaphor originally proposed by Keynes (1936) and recently formalized by Allen, Morris, and Shin (2006). In such markets, public information plays an additional commonality role, biasing stock prices away from the consensus fundamental value toward public

Pingyang Gao

2007-01-01

157

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This

DAVID R. BRILL

1983-01-01

158

Public Information, Private Information and the Multiplicity of Equilibrium in Coordination of Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

I study an example of a coordination game, and examine the robustness of equilibrium predictions with respect to changes in the information structure. I find two main results: First, the critique of Morris and Shin (1998) is not robust in the sense that if perfect common knowledge is viewed as the limit of imperfect information structures, multiple equilibria are maintained,

Christian Hellwig

2000-01-01

159

A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

2012-01-01

160

Long-run determinants of real exchange rate : New evidence based on panel data unit root and cointegration tests for MENA countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the main determinants of real exchange rate in the Mena (Middle East and North Africa) countries. We apply new panel data unit-root tests proposed by Inn, Pesaran and Shin (1997) and new panel data cointegration techniques suggested by Pe- droni (1999) by estimating the long-run determinants of real exchange rate and we compare the results with those

Imed DRINE; Christophe RAULT

2003-01-01

161

[Massive pulmonary artery thromboembolism after removal of sphenoid wing meningioma (clinical case with good outcome)].  

PubMed

The paper describes a clinical case of the severe potentially fatal postoperative complication--massive pulmonary thromboembolism--in a patient after uncomplicated removal of meningioma of the wing of os basilare. It also describes the problems in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention of perioperative deep venous thrombosis of the shin and subsequent pulmonary thromboembolism in neurosurgery patients. PMID:15055010

Lubnin, A Iu; Konovalov, A N; Markina, M S; Goriachev, A S

162

Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin

National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

163

Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment Youting Song*, Wanchun Chen, Xiaolong Chen Institute of Physics and Beijing National Lab-oratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing, 100080 P. R. China ytsong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn The progress in ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under micro-gravity environment was reported. (a) A new apparatus used for growth of large size of LiIO3 crystals by the evaporation method has been developed, in which the hydrophobic poly-terafluorothytene micro-filtration (PEFT) film was used to resist the leakage of LiIO3 solution and control the growth rate of LiIO3 crystals along with CaCl2 adsorbent. The pore diameters of PEFT film should be between 0.1-1.0m, and the optimal weight of the adsorbent should be as three times as that of the solvent H2O evaporated. During crystal growth, the solution is re-plenished by a creeping pump to avoid separating the growing crystal from the solution. Using this technique we have obtained good quality LiIO3 crystals in the ground-based experiments. (b) The nucleating experiment of NaClO3 seed-induction was carried out in a ground-based en-vironment, and experimental results showed that seed-induction of NaClO3 played certainly a role of increasing crystal chiral enantiomer excess (cee), which will become the basis of contrast experiment under microgravity environment.

Song, Youting

164

3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer.

Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

2012-01-01

165

[Passive SLF spectrum analysis for tracing the mining dynamic of CBM].  

PubMed

Exploration and development of the coal-bed methane (CBM) is very important to economics, environment and society. It is a key factor to trace and assess the process of the coal-bed gas mining dynamically for its efficient development. In the present article, based on the theory of natural resources super low frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detecting, the method that uses the SLF to trace the coal-bed gas mining dynamic is introduced. The field tests in 2007 and 2010 in the Qin-Shui basin, Shanxi province of China indicate that this method is efficient for the dynamic of the coal-bed gas mining. PMID:21942047

Jiang, Hong-bo; Qin, Qi-ming; Li, Bai-shou

2011-07-01

166

Nonlinear d--ta-f Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401] is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense nonneutral charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b} >> T{sub {parallel}b}). The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigen frequencies, radial mode structure, and nonlinear dynamics are determined for axisymmetric perturbations with {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative}{theta} = 0.

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson; Hong Qin

2002-05-07

167

Sphingosine and the transient receptor potential channel kinase(s).  

PubMed

Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a multifunctional ion channel playing crucial roles during development. TRPM7 is a member of the highly diverse TRP ion channel family. Most TRP channels are regulated by membrane phospholipids, especially phosphoinositides. In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Qin et al. describes the regulation of TRPM7 and its close homologue TRPM6 by a different kind of membrane lipid: sphingosine. The study finds that sphingosine is a potent and specific inhibitor of TRPM7 and TRPM6 channels. This commentary briefly summarizes the findings of the study, their potential significance and discusses open question and future directions. PMID:23186176

Rohacs, Tibor

2013-03-01

168

[Low-energy laser therapy in medial tibial stress syndrome].  

PubMed

The effect of low-energy laser therapy on shin splints was examined in a randomized study with an unblinded design. Constripts from the Jutland Dragoon regiment with shin splints were given either active laser treatment (40 mW in 60 sec per cm tender tibia edge) or placebo laser. All patients were exempted from normal duty concerning activities like running and march. Forty-nine patients participated in the study, 23 in the laser group and 26 in the control group. From the start the study was designed to be double-blind, but by accident the code was broken towards the end of the study. We found no significant differences between the groups regarding pain visual analog score and readiness to return to active duty after 14 days. PMID:7801390

Nissen, L R; Astvad, K; Madsen, L

1994-12-01

169

Lumps and bumps  

PubMed Central

Over the course of 6 months, an 8-year-old boy presented with cutaneous lumps: a postauricular lump, a fluctuant scalp lump, a lump adjacent to his shin, and a firm chest wall lump. Although he was born in the UK, his family were from Kenya and had visited there after the symptoms started. After multiple courses of antibiotics and antifungals with no improvement, he underwent ultrasound scanning that showed erosion of bone under the lumps and computed tomographic (CT) scanning which showed tibial osteomyelitis. A biopsy of the chest wall lump showed granulomatous inflammation, and pus was extracted from the shin lump that was negative on Ziehl–Neilsen and Gram staining. A tuberculin skin test was equivocal, Quantiferon test positive and 12 days later Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the pus. The patient was started on quadruple antituberculous therapy and his skin lumps have improved. The long term outcome of the osteomyelitis remains to be seen.

Bryant, Penelope Ann; Shingadia, Delane V

2009-01-01

170

The Development of the KSNP{sup +}, Areas of Improvements and Effects  

SciTech Connect

The Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) Improvement Program was launched in January 1998. The program formulated with three distinct phases to develop a new model of the KSNP{sup +} is a comprehensive program aiming at more economically competitive than its predecessors while the overall plant safety goal is not to be challenged. The first two phases have been carried out over four year period and the program now entered in its third phase of construction of commercial nuclear power plants of Shin-Kori 1 and 2 and Shin-Wolsong 1 and 2. In this paper, the description of the program focusing on the areas of improvement and effects earned in terms of economic benefits are presented and major design improvements are introduced. (authors)

Yang, J.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Yoon, K.S.; Choi, B.N. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., 167 Samseong-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

171

Diagnostic approach to chronic exercise-induced leg pain. A review.  

PubMed

The patient presenting with complaints of chronic exercise-induced lower leg pain can be a diagnostic challenge. Although myriad specialized diagnostic studies and modalities are at one's disposal, emphasis on a logical history and physical usually can identify the underlying cause without exposing the patient to any unnecessary testing. A well-directed history and physical, coupled with an understanding of the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and pathomechanics of shin splints, helps meet this challenge effectively. PMID:11417156

Hester, J T

2001-04-01

172

The medial tibial syndrome. The role of surgery.  

PubMed

Among authors over the past 35 years, medial tibial syndrome, or "shin splints," has been interpreted to mean many different things. We present a review of the literature to attempt to ascribe one definition to this clinical entity, and to clearly define its symptoms, signs, pathophysiology, biomechanics, and treatment. In addition, we describe our results with five patients whose seven affected limbs eventually required surgery for this condition, and we compare them to the results in the literature. PMID:7854840

Abramowitz, A J; Schepsis, A; McArthur, C

1994-11-01

173

Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards  

SciTech Connect

Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Bhat, M.R.

1980-01-01

174

Erythema elevatum diutinum in systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare chronic form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis with unknown etiology. EED has been\\u000a described in association with hematological malignancies, infections and a number of rheumatological diseases. We report a\\u000a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with intermittent attacks of tender nodules and plaques on the\\u000a shins and ankles for 6 months. Skin biopsy confirmed

Yung Chan; Chi Chiu Mok; William Yuk Ming Tang

2011-01-01

175

Neutrons from spontaneous fission of long-lived super- heavy nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigations of spontaneous fission of 268Db (Z = 105) have been performed. 268Db is the heaviest nuclide for which the average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission ? = 4.2+/-1.0 was measured. The search for long-lived isotopes of super-heavy elements in nature is reconsidered. Presently the experiment SHIN in the underground low radioactivity laboratory in Modane (LSM) is going with high efficiency neutron detector to detect rare spontaneous fission events.

Svirikhin, A.; Briançon, Ch.; Dmitriev, S.; Oganessian, Yu.; Sokol, E.; Testov, D.; Yeremin, A.

2009-10-01

176

Severe acute respiratory syndrome in Taiwan: analysis of epidemiological characteristics in 29 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Methods. Between March 28 and June 30 '2003, 29 patients with probable SARS seen at Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, were analysed.Results. Presenting symptoms included fever (100%), cough (69.0%), chills or rigor (62.1%), and shortness of breath (41.4%). Mean days to defervescence were

T.-N Jang; D. Y Yeh; S.-H Shen; C.-H Huang; J.-S Jiang; S.-J Kao

2004-01-01

177

Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance

Andrew Chu; Paul Braatz

2002-01-01

178

La paridad de poder de compra en México (1930-1960)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a previously unexploited data set to calculate the real exchange rate with respect to the U.S. dollar for Mexico for 1930.01-1960.12, and to test for purchasing power parity (PPP). The initial results from the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test show weak support for the PPP hypothesis. The Kapetanios, Shin, and Snell test, for a unit root null with an

Luis Fernando Cabrera Castellanos; Frederick H. Wallace; Gary L. Shelley

2011-01-01

179

CELL BIOLOGY: Caveolae--Not Just Craters in the Cellular Landscape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Caveolae are small invaginations in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells that seem to be important for signal transduction and uptake of macromolecules. According to Shin and Abraham in their Perspective, recent work reveals that these cellular craters have been commandeered by pathogens and bacterial toxins, enabling them to gain entry to host cells while avoiding the perils of classic endocytosis and the lysosomal degradation pathway.

Jeoung-Sook Shin (Duke University Medical Center;Departments of Pathology and Microbiology); Soman N. Abraham (Duke University Medical Center;Departments of Pathology and Microbiology)

2001-08-24

180

Target spatial frequency determines the response to conflicting defocus and convergence-driven accommodative stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthenopia, or visual fatigue, is a frequent complaint from observers of stereoscopic three-dimensional displays. It has been proposed that asthenopia is a consequence of anomalous oculomotor responses generated by conflict between accommodative and convergence stimuli. The hypothesis was examined by measuring accommodation and convergence continuously with a Shin-Nippon SRW5000 infrared autorefractor and a limbus tracking device. Subjects viewed a high

Yuuki Okada; Kazuhiko Ukai; James S. Wolffsohn; Bernard Gilmartin; Atsuhiko Iijima; Takehiko Bando

2006-01-01

181

Study of coal pyrolysis by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and concentration measurements of the evolved species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass losses of coal and the mole fractions of evolved species were measured during coal pyrolysis using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer and a real-time gas analyzer, respectively. Coal samples from Shin-Wha, China were pyrolyzed using a lab-scale furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 30°C\\/min until the furnace wall temperature reached 900°C.

Dong Kyun Seo; Sang Shin Park; Yong Tack Kim; Jungho Hwang; Tae-U Yu

2011-01-01

182

Revisiting purchasing power parity for African countries: with nonlinear panel unit-root tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies Panel Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR) Kapetanios et al. (Kapetanios–Shin–Snell (KSS), SURKSS) tests, proposed by Wu and Lee (2009), to investigate the properties of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in 15 African countries. The empirical results from the univariate unit root and panel based unit root tests indicate that PPP does not hold for these 15 countries under study.

Chi-Wei Su; Tsangyao Chang; Yu-Shao Liu

2012-01-01

183

Revisiting purchasing power parity for African countries: with nonlinear panel unit-root tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies Panel Seemingly Unrelated Regressions (SUR) Kapetanios et al. (Kapetanios–Shin–Snell (KSS), SURKSS) tests, proposed by Wu and Lee (2009), to investigate the properties of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in 15 African countries. The empirical results from the univariate unit root and panel based unit root tests indicate that PPP does not hold for these 15 countries under study.

Chi-Wei Su; Tsangyao Chang; Yu-Shao Liu

2011-01-01

184

Government expenditure and economic growth in the EU: long-run tendencies and short-term adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses both the long and the short-run relation between government expenditure and potential output in EU countries by means of pooled mean group estimation (Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (1999)). Results show that, over a sample comprising EU-15 countries over the 1970-2003 period, it cannot be rejected the hypothesis of a common long-term elasticity between cyclically-adjusted primary expenditure and

Alfonso Arpaia; Alessandro Turrini

2008-01-01

185

Transient, three-dimensional heat transfer model for the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride: II. Assessment of parametric effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a companion paper (J.C. Rozzi, F.E. Pfefferkorn, F.P. Incropera, Y.C. Shin, Transient, three-dimensional heat transfer model for the laser assisted machining of silicon nitride: I. Comparison of predictions with measured surface temperature histories, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (2000) 1409–1424), experimental validation was provided for a transient, three-dimensional heat transfer model of the LAM of a

Jay C. Rozzi; Frank P. Incropera; Yung C. Shin

2000-01-01

186

A pilot study on the differences in wavefront aberrations between two ethnic groups of young generally myopic subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative population-based cross-sectional study design was used to examine the prevalence of wavefront patterns in two different ethnic groups, and the relationship of these patterns with ocular biometrics and gender. The Shin-Nippon SRW5000 open field autorefractor, the Wavefront Analysis Supported Customized Ablation (WASCA) wavefront analyser and the IOLMaster were used to determine wavefront aberrations, mean spherical equivalent (SE) refractive

Alejandro Cervino; Sarah L. Hosking; Teresa Ferrer-Blasco

187

Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate the effects of carbon dioxide discharged from a boiler in a power plant, CO2 fixation by microalgae photosynthesis was studied. For the algae cultivation, actual flue gas from a boiler was used in two\\u000a sets of small-sized raceway-type cultivators installed at Tohoku Electric Power Company's Shin-Sendai power station. UsingNannochloropsis sp. NANNP-2 andPhaeodactylum sp. PHAEO-2 strains from the SERI

Masaaki Negoro; Akihiro Hamasaki; Yoshiaki Ikuta; Takenori Makita; Kohei Hirayama; Shinji Suzuki

1993-01-01

188

[The identification of the optimal frequency characteristics for pulsed infrared laser exposures in atherosclerotic lesions of the leg arteries].  

PubMed

Based on clinical notes of 40 outpatients with lower extremity vascular atherosclerosis, a positive dynamics of rheographic parameters of peripheral circulation was found from rheovasculography of the shins, muscle blood flow, thermography, to provide the optimal frequency responses of pulse laser radiation for the treatment of the disease. The studies established the optimal frequency of pulse running for infrared laser radiation of 80 Hz. PMID:7709606

Minenkov, A A; Kniazeva, T A; Kul'chitskaia, D B; Konchugova, T V

189

Compression moulding of glass and polypropylene composites for optimised macro- and micro-mechanical properties. 4: Technology demonstrator — a door cassette structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic study of the effects of charge composition and process parameters is presented for a prototype automotive part (a door cassette) produced by compression moulding from glass fibre and polypropylene composites. This follows previous studies (Parts I–III) of the process-property relations for commingled glass and polypropylene fabrics, glass-mat thermoplastics (GMTs) and sandwiched structures of commingled fabric shins with a

M. D. Wakeman; C. D. Rudd; T. A. Cain; R. Brooks; A. C. Long

2000-01-01

190

INTERNATIONAL RESERVES, CURRENT ACCOUNT IMBALANCE AND EXTERNAL DEBT: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to analyze both the short-run and long-run demand for international reserves in Malaysia for the period 1970-2004. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach proposed by Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (2001) is used to test for the existence of cointegration relationship between the demand for international reserves and its determinants. The empirical results

Eliza Nor; M. Azali; Siong-Hook Law

2008-01-01

191

Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N\\/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide

Hideki Namba; Okihiro Tokunaga; Shoji Hashimoto; Tadashi Tanaka; Yoshimi Ogura; Yoshitaka Doi; Shinji Aoki; Masahiro Izutsu

1995-01-01

192

A Re-examination of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis Using Recent Panel Data Unit-Root and Cointegration Tests: Evidence from MENA Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests empirically the Balassa-Samuelson (BS) hypothe- sis (i.e. rapid economic growth is accompanied by real exchange rate appreciation because of differential productivity growth between trad- able and non-tradable sectors) using annual data for 16 MENA (Middle East and North African) countries. We apply new panel data unit-root tests proposed by Inn, Pesaran and Shin (1997) and new panel

Imed Drine; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

193

l Ephedrine is a major constituent of Mao-Bushi-Saishin-To , one of the formulas of Chinese medicine, which shows immediate inhibition after oral administration of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Design: Whether Mao-Bushi-Sai- shin-To (MBST), one of the formulas of classical Chinese medicine, is effective on 48-h passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and which substance in the formula is respon- sible for its inhibitory action were examined. Treatment: In the studies on PCA, MBST (hot water extract of the whole herbal formula), extracts of Ephedra herb (Mao),

H. Shibata; T. Nabe; H. Yamamura; S. Kohno

2000-01-01

194

Empirical determinants of emerging market economies' sovereign bond spreads  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the empirical determinants of emerging market sovereign bond spreads are estimated, using a ragged-edge panel of JP Morgan EMBI and EMBI Global secondary market spreads and a set of common macro-prudential indicators. The panel is estimated using the pooled mean group technique of Pesaran, Shin and Smith. This is essentially a dynamic error correction model where cross-sectional

Gianluigi Ferrucci

2003-01-01

195

Resonances in the cumulative reaction probability for a model electronically nonadiabatic reaction  

SciTech Connect

The cumulative reaction probability, flux{endash}flux correlation function, and rate constant are calculated for a model, two-state, electronically nonadiabatic reaction, given by Shin and Light [S. Shin and J. C. Light, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 101}, 2836 (1994)]. We apply straightforward generalizations of the flux matrix/absorbing boundary condition approach of Miller and co-workers to obtain these quantities. The upper adiabatic electronic potential supports bound states, and these manifest themselves as {open_quote}{open_quote}recrossing{close_quote}{close_quote} resonances in the cumulative reaction probability, at total energies above the barrier to reaction on the lower adiabatic potential. At energies below the barrier, the cumulative reaction probability for the coupled system is shifted to higher energies relative to the one obtained for the ground state potential. This is due to the effect of an additional effective barrier caused by the nuclear kinetic operator acting on the ground state, adiabatic electronic wave function, as discussed earlier by Shin and Light. Calculations are reported for five sets of electronically nonadiabatic coupling parameters. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Qi, J.; Bowman, J.M. [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Science Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

1996-05-01

196

Chlorinated hydrocarbons and shell thinning in eggs of (Accipiter) hawks in Ontario, 1986-1989.  

PubMed

Eggs of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii), and northern goshawks (A. gentilis) were collected from nests in south-central Ontario from 1986 to 1989. Detectable levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons DDE, DDT, DDD, mirex, photomirex, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor expoxide, HCB and PCB were present in all the eggs analyzed. Mean contaminant levels were highest in sharp-shinned hawks, slightly lower in Cooper's hawks, and significantly lower in goshawks; for example, mean DDE values were 7.23, 4.48 and 0.90 mg kg(-1) (wet weight), respectively. Total PCB levels were generally less than 1.5 mg kg(-1), lower than those associated with reproductive effects in field and laboratory studies with other species. Mean shell thicknesses of sharp-shinned and Cooper's hawk eggs were significantly less than mean pre-DDT era thicknesses (-10 and -8%, respectively), reductions that were probably not relevant to reproductive success. Goshawk eggs exhibited no significant reduction in shell thickness. Contaminant levels among the three species probably reflect differing food habits and migratory patterns. PMID:15091636

Elliott, J E; Martin, P A

1994-01-01

197

Surface analysis using shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful fingerprint vibrational spectroscopy with a single-molecule detection limit, but its applications are generally restricted to 'free-electron-like' metal substrates such as Au, Ag and Cu nanostructures. We have invented a shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique, using Au-core silica-shell nanoparticles (Au@SiO(2) NPs), which makes SERS universally applicable to surfaces with any composition and any morphology. This protocol describes how to prepare shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs) with different well-controlled core sizes (55 and 120 nm), shapes (nanospheres, nanorods and nanocubes) and shell thicknesses (1-20 nm). It then describes how to apply SHINs to Pt and Au single-crystal surfaces with different facets in an electrochemical environment, on Si wafer surfaces adsorbed with hydrogen, on ZnO nanorods, and on living bacteria and fruit. With this method, SHINs can be prepared for use in ~3 h, and each subsequent procedure for SHINERS measurement requires 1-2 h. PMID:23237829

Li, Jian Feng; Tian, Xiang Dong; Li, Song Bo; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi Lin; Ding, Yong; Wu, Yuan Fei; Zeng, Yong Ming; Chen, Qi Zhen; Ren, Bin; Wang, Zhong Lin; Tian, Zhong Qun

2012-12-13

198

Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Heifei 230026 (China)

2011-05-15

199

Investigation of detailed kinetic scheme performance on modelling of turbulent non-premixed sooting flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of an application of a first-order conditional moment closure (CMC) approach coupled with a semi-empirical soot model to investigate the effect of various detailed combustion chemistry schemes on soot formation and destruction in turbulent non-premixed flames. A two-equation soot model representing soot particle nucleation, growth, coagulation and oxidation, was incorporated into the CMC model. The turbulent flow-field of both flames is described using the Favre-averaged fluid-flow equations, applying a standard k-? turbulence model. A number of five reaction kinetic mechanisms having 50-100 species and 200-1000 elementary reactions called ABF, Miller-Bowman, GRI-Mech3.0, Warnatz, and Qin were employed to study the effect of combustion chemistry schemes on soot predictions. The results showed that of various kinetic schemes being studied, each yields similar accuracy in temperature prediction when compared with experimental data. With respect to soot prediction, the kinetic scheme containing benzene elementary reactions tends to result in a better prediction on soot concentrations in comparison to those contain no benzene elementary reactions. Among five kinetic mechanisms being studied, the Qin combustion scheme mechanism turned to yield the best prediction on both flame temperature and soot levels.

Yunardi, Y.; Darmadi, D.; Hisbullah, H.; Fairweather, M.

2011-12-01

200

Dynamics and Energetics of Si Adatoms on Si(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent STM study of Ge on Si(100), Qin and Lagally ( X.R.Qin and M.G.Lagally, Science, 278), 1444 (1997). demonstrated that Ge adatoms form chain-like structures consisting of paired adatoms, rather than dimers. They conclude that the same is true for Si/Si(100) (J. van Wingerden, et al, Phys. Rev. B,55), 4723 (1997). and Si/Ge(100) (W. Wulfhekel, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 79),2494 (1997). , and suggest that such pairing structures play a key role in the initial stage of epitaxial growth. In this theoretical study, we provide direct evidence that M-M pairs are the easiest to form among all structures consisting of two adatoms. We will also discuss dynamics and energetics of larger adatom clusters and give a complete picture of the early stage of epitaxial growth from monomer adsorption to the formation of dense dimer rows. This study is based on total energy calculations using the recently developed techinique of Order(N) Non-Orthogonal Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics (C.S. Jayanthi, et al, Phys. Rev. B, in press).

Liu, Shudun; Jayanthi, Chakram; John, George C.; Wu, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Lagally, Max G.

1998-03-01

201

Fatigue propagation behaviour of short cracks (1-2 mm) in steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESDU 93033 presents data that compare the behavior of long and short cracks which are longer than the typical microstructural dimension but are not substantially larger than the radius of the plastic zone at the crack tip. Experimental data extracted from the literature for crack growth rate under constant amplitude loading are presented graphically against stress intensity factor range for both long and short cracks at various stress ratios in air for AISI 4340, HY 130, AISI 1045, SAE 0030 (UNS J 03010), and AISI 1020. In addition, there are data obtained in vacuum for E460, and in salt solution and sea water for HY 130. Data in air for E460, A508, QIN, and 304 are for only one stress ratio (but include the effect of sea water for QIN). Data for AISI 316 are for short cracks only in air at two stress ratios and for EN5 are for short and long cracks in sea water and one stress ratio only. No consistent relationship between yield strength and either short or long crack growth behavior was found, but where a short crack effect was evident the threshold value of stress intensity factor range was lower than for long cracks, and the crack growth rate at low values of stress intensity factor range was greater.

1993-12-01

202

Sizing up Septoria  

PubMed Central

Septoria represents a genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a wide geographic distribution, commonly associated with leaf spots and stem cankers of a broad range of plant hosts. A major aim of this study was to resolve the phylogenetic generic limits of Septoria, Stagonospora, and other related genera such as Sphaerulina, Phaeosphaeria and Phaeoseptoria using sequences of the the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA and RPB2 genes of a large set of isolates. Based on these results Septoria is shown to be a distinct genus in the Mycosphaerellaceae, which has mycosphaerella-like sexual morphs. Several septoria-like species are now accommodated in Sphaerulina, a genus previously linked to this complex. Phaeosphaeria (based on P. oryzae) is shown to be congeneric with Phaeoseptoria (based on P. papayae), which is reduced to synonymy under the former. Depazea nodorum (causal agent of nodorum blotch of cereals) and Septoria avenae (causal agent of avenae blotch of barley and rye) are placed in a new genus, Parastagonospora, which is shown to be distinct from Stagonospora (based on S. paludosa) and Phaeosphaeria. Partial nucleotide sequence data for five gene loci, ITS, LSU, EF-1?, RPB2 and Btub were generated for all of these isolates. A total of 47 clades or genera were resolved, leading to the introduction of 14 new genera, 36 new species, and 19 new combinations. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Acicuseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Ruptoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septorioides Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Setoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stromatoseptoria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia Quaedvlieg, W.J. Swart, Verkley & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola Quaedvlieg, Verkley, W.J. Swart & Crous, Xenobotryosphaeria calamagrostidis Quaedvlieg, Verk

Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

203

PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the invited speakers, all the participants and organizing committee of the ICC3. I am pleased to publish the Proceedings of the Symposium 1 of ICC3. I hope that the papers contained in these Proceedings will prove helpful to Professors, researchers and students in improving the fields of Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials. Masatomo Yashima April 2011 Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

Yashima, Masatomo

2011-05-01

204

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, 167 Samseong-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R. [GeoSystem Research Corporation, 306 Hanlim Human Town, 1-40 Geumjeong-Dong, Gunpo-City, Gyeonggi-Do 435-050 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

205

Atlas of computerized blood flow analysis in bone disease.  

PubMed

The role of computerized blood flow analysis in routine bone scanning is reviewed. Cases illustrating the technique include proven diagnoses of toxic synovitis, Legg-Perthes disease, arthritis, avascular necrosis of the hip, fractures, benign and malignant tumors, Paget's disease, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and shin splints. Several examples also show the use of the technique in monitoring treatment. The use of quantitative data from the blood flow, bone uptake phase, and static images suggests specific diagnostic patterns for each of the diseases presented in this atlas. Thus, this technique enables increased accuracy in the interpretation of the radionuclide bone scan. PMID:6653012

Gandsman, E J; Deutsch, S D; Tyson, I B

1983-11-01

206

Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.  

PubMed

Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

Reinking, Mark F

2007-08-01

207

Bone scintigraphy in skeletal trauma.  

PubMed

This article emphasizes the usefulness of radionuclide bone imaging (RNBI) throughout the clinical spectrum of osseous trauma and relates RNBI to the other imaging modalities available. Acute, stress, insufficiency, avulsion, and occult fracture detection are discussed and illustrated. Other traumatic lesions including the bone bruise, shin splints, tendinitis and epiphyseal injuries are included. Biomechanical lesions, the result of more chronic low level repetitive stress are discussed in detail, as is the use of RNBI in the detection of post-traumatic sequela such as the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Technical aspects of RNBI are considered in the context of producing the quality of diagnostic images necessary for clinically complete consultative reporting. PMID:8337366

Holder, L E

1993-07-01

208

Acute injuries and specific problems in adult athletes.  

PubMed

Special considerations need to be given to specific groups of adult athletes. The most common problems and needs of female and older athletes are discussed in the first section of this article. The second section reviews the diagnosis and management of certain acute injuries most frequently encountered in adult athletes. The last section discusses the differentiation between tarsal tunnel syndrome and plantar fasciitis, chronic compartmental pressure syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome ("shin splints"), and pelvic stress fractures and osteitis pubis, some commonly encountered difficult diagnoses. PMID:8844912

Barry, N N; McGuire, J L

1996-08-01

209

[Injuries and damage caused by excessive stress in classical ballet].  

PubMed

Typical injuries of highly professional classical ballet dancers were evaluated in 108 members of German opera companies. We demonstrated the predominance of overuse-syndromes to acute injuries related to the excessive training-extends. Disorders of the feet, particularly tendinitis followed by low-back pain, chondromalacia patellae, jumpers knee, shin splints and muscle strains are most frequent. Considerable time often elapsed before diagnosing was made because complaints were ignored by dancers. Our inquiry includes range of motion of the spine and the extremities, serial x-rays and a systematic review of ballet-related injuries, training-programs and techniques. PMID:2566215

Goertzen, M; Ringelband, R; Schulitz, K P

210

Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.  

PubMed

Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described. PMID:15039267

Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

2004-04-01

211

Literary reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diminutive epicThe Remains of the Day Kazuo Ishiguro London: Faber & Faber. 1989. 245pp. £10.99hbThe Floating World Cynthia Kadohata London: Secker & Warburg. 1989. 196pp. £11.95hbIn the shadow of warThe Shaman Sorceress Kim Dong?ni Translated from the Korean by Hyun Song Shin and Eugene Chung London\\/New York: Kegan Paul International. 1989. 156pp. £12.95hbThe Book of Masks Hwang Sun?won Edited

Fred Daguiar; Agnita Tennant; Aamer Hussein; David Dabydeen; Victor J Ramraj

1990-01-01

212

Expression of the smg p25A (a ras p21-like GTP-binding Protein) Gene in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines and Tumor Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined expression of the smg p25A (a ras p21-like GTP- binding protein) gene in neural crest-derived tumor cell lines and neuro blastoma tissues. The human neuroblastoma cell lines GOTO, IMR-32, NB-1, and SK-N-SH expressed the 1.6-kilobase smg-25\\\\ mRNA. SH- SV5Y and SH-IN, variant cell lines with a neuronal phenotype derived from SK-N-SH, expressed much more smg-25\\\\ mRNA than

Kimihiko Sano; Hajime Nakamura; Satoshi Mabuchi; Takeo Tanaka; Akira Nakagawara; Yoshimi Takai

213

Lichen Amyloidosis: Novel Treatment with Fractional Ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser Treatment.  

PubMed

Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is a type of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis clinically characterized by persistent pruritic, hyperkeratotic papules commonly distributed on the shins and histopathologically characterized by amyloid deposits in the papillary dermis. The condition is difficult to treat though various treatment modalities have been tried. We report a case of LA treated successfully with Fractional ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of the successful use of fractional ablative laser in the treatment of LA. PMID:23060710

Anitha, B; Mysore, Venkataram

2012-04-01

214

Lichen Amyloidosis: Novel Treatment with Fractional Ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser Treatment  

PubMed Central

Lichen amyloidosis (LA) is a type of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis clinically characterized by persistent pruritic, hyperkeratotic papules commonly distributed on the shins and histopathologically characterized by amyloid deposits in the papillary dermis. The condition is difficult to treat though various treatment modalities have been tried. We report a case of LA treated successfully with Fractional ablative 2,940 nm Erbium: YAG Laser treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of the successful use of fractional ablative laser in the treatment of LA.

Anitha, B; Mysore, Venkataram

2012-01-01

215

Knuckle pads from boxing.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old man developed painful hyperkeratotic, fissured, callosities on his knuckles ("knuckle pads") after having boxed for five evenings a week for six months. Boxer's knuckle pads are one type of traumatic skin injury regularly found in athletes, such as "jogger's toe", "athelete's nodule", "jog-ger's nipple", "runner's rump", "runner's bump", "rower's rump", "tennis toe", "skier 's shin", "surfer's nodule" "black heel", "black palm", "jazz ballet bottom" and "stria distensae". These types of traumatic skin injuries are briefly reviewed here. PMID:9683870

Kanerva, L

216

Erythema a computatro.  

PubMed

Historically, erythema ab igne (EAI) was commonly seen on the shins of individuals working in front of coal stoves or sitting close to a fireplace. In the more recent past, this condition has been primarily observed after repeated application of heating pads. Today, unintentional and unperceived exposure to heat from laptop computers needs to be considered as a potential trigger. A rising number of laptop-induced cases of EAI have been reported recently. For this modern-age version of classic EAI, we propose thus the more accurate neo-Latin term erythema a computatro. PMID:23626550

Gauglitz, G G; Ruzicka, T; Herzinger, T

2013-03-29

217

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

218

Inverse scattering for Schrödinger operators with Miura potentials: I. Unique Riccati representatives and ZS-AKNS systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first in a series of papers on scattering theory for one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with highly singular potentials q\\in H_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{-1}(\\mathbb {R}). In this paper, we study Miura potentials q associated with positive Schrödinger operators that admit a Riccati representation q = u' + u2 for a unique u\\in L^{1}(\\mathbb {R})\\cap L^{2}(\\mathbb {R}). Such potentials have a well-defined reflection coefficient r(k) that satisfies |r(k)| < 1 and determines u uniquely. We show that the scattering map \\mathcal {S}\\,:\\, u\\mapsto r is real analytic with real-analytic inverse. To do so, we exploit a natural complexification of the scattering map associated with the ZS-AKNS system. In subsequent papers, we will consider larger classes of potentials including singular potentials with bound states.

Frayer, C.; Hryniv, R. O.; Mykytyuk, Ya V.; Perry, P. A.

2009-11-01

219

PACIAE 2.1: An updated issue of the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have updated the parton and hadron cascade model PACIAE 2.0 (cf. Ben-Hao Sa, Dai-Mei Zhou, Yu-Liang Yan, Xiao-Mei Li, Sheng-Qin Feng, Bao-Guo Dong, Xu Cai, Comput. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 333.) to the new issue of PACIAE 2.1. The PACIAE model is based on PYTHIA. In the PYTHIA model, once the hadron transverse momentum pT is randomly sampled in the string fragmentation, the px and py components are originally put on the circle with radius pT randomly. Now it is put on the circumference of ellipse with half major and minor axes of pT(1+?p) and pT(1-?p), respectively, in order to better investigate the final state transverse momentum anisotropy.

Sa, Ben-Hao; Zhou, Dai-Mei; Yan, Yu-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Cai, Xu

2013-05-01

220

Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional limit is studied on ultra-thin lead (Pb) films down to two atomic layers, where only a single channel of quantum well states exist. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals that local superconducting order remains robust until two atomic layers, where the transition temperature abruptly plunges to lower values depending sensitively on the exact atomic structure of the film. Our result shows that Cooper pairs can still form in the last two dimensional channel of electron states, although their binding are strongly affected by the substrate [1]. In this presentation, I will also discuss this new result in comparison with several recent experimental results on ultra-thin metallic films performed using local STS probes and macroscopic transport measurements.[4pt] [1] ``Superconductivity at the Two-dimensional Limit,'' Shengyong Qin, Jungdae Kim, Qian Niu and Chih-Kang Shih, Science 324, 1314 (2009).

Shih, Chih-Kang

2010-03-01

221

Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distributions collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138, 2002] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy. The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned, and free energy is available to drive a transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate the detailed properties of the Weibel instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r_w. The stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation.

Davidson, R. C.; Startsev, E. A.; Lee, W. W.

2003-10-01

222

LANDSAT monitoring of Lake Erie for phycocyanin content in cyanobacteria blooms from 06/2006-10/2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for mapping phycocyanin content (PC) in lake water from LANDSAT TM satellite data was derived in the past from Western Lake Erie data for July 1, 2000, and found to be robust when applied to a withheld LANDSAT TM and in situ water data set for September 27, 2000 (Vincent et al, 2004). This same algorithm was applied to LANDSAT 5 data of Path 20 Row 31 (Toledo Frame) and Path 19 Row 31 (Cleveland Frame) in Western Lake Erie on overpass dates with less than 30 This work was funded by NOAA Contract Award NA06OAR4600197. Reference Vincent, R.K., X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J.Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, Phycocyanin Detection from LANDSAT TM Data for Mapping Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp 381-392, 2004.

Vincent, Robert

223

Thermodynamic exploration of an unconventional heat-engine cycle: the circular cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper applies both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics to the determination of the characteristics of an ideal diatomic gas heat engine that operates via a closed-loop circular cycle (viz of circular appearance in a P-V diagram when the pressure and volume units are appropriately scaled). The second law of thermodynamics reveals that an ideal gas undergoing an irreversible thermodynamic process P = P(V) with negative slope can reach a terminal point at d(PV?)/dV = 0 without ever going to equilibrium with its environment. Furthermore, heat flows into the gas when d(PV?)/dV>0 and out of the gas when d(PV?)/dV<0. These conditions are then used to determine where Q = Qin and where Q = Qout for a circular work cycle. For a specimen engine, the efficiency is then obtained from the first law of thermodynamics.

Marcella, Thomas V.; Sheldon, Eric

2000-10-01

224

Space based remote sensing applications for archaeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is the science of gathering information about objects from measurements, made at a distance, without coming into physical contact with the objects under study. Remote sensing whether from ground, aerial and space platform has indeed brought a whole new persepective to archaeological research. They have made possible to "see" the evidences that are not observable otherwise. Usage and interpretations of imagery taken from aerial or space platform for archaeological purposes have been explored in many parts of the world. This paper explores applications of space based stereo imaging for archaeological prospection with three case studies: Badami and Mahabalipuram in India and Qin's Mausolium in china. 3D visualization and virtual reconstructions of landscape is a valuable tool for archaeological study. This papers also explores how 3D models can be further extended to study visibility in a landscape and also analyse topography and flooding dynamics.

Rajani, M. B.

2009-12-01

225

Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome  

PubMed Central

Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness.

Krenner, Bernard John

2002-01-01

226

Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome.  

PubMed

Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and "weekend warrior" athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of "shin splints," one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. "Active" rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

Krenner, Bernard John

2002-01-01

227

Self-consistent definition for the variable depth of unsteady, turbulent gravity currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the data from two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of Boussinesq gravity currents to define a self-consistent depth, h, and reduced gravity, g'=g?0(?-?0), for the current in terms of moments of the current density field. We demonstrate that using these definitions to calculate the Froude number, Fr=u/?g'h, gives a constant Froude number in constant-velocity and self-similar regime. At sufficiently high Reynolds number, our results are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical models (Shin et al. 2004, Nokes et al. 2008). We also develop a simple model to quantify the loss of mass from the gravity current head due to shear-induced vortices which propagate away from and behind the head. [4pt] Shin, J. O., Dalziel, S. B., Linden, P. F. (2004). Gravity currents produced by lock exchange. J. Fluid Mech. 521,1-34. [0pt] Nokes, R.I., Davidson, M.J., Stepien, C.A., Veale, W. B., Oliver, R.L. (2008). The front condition for intrusive gravity currents. J. Hydraul. Res. 46 (6) 788-801.

Junaid Anjum, Hafiz; McElwaine, Jim; Caulfield, C. P.

2011-11-01

228

Screening for genetic abnormalities involved in ovarian carcinogenesis using retroviral expression libraries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to screen for genes involved in ovarian carcinogenesis in an attempt to develop an effective molecular-targeted therapy for ovarian cancer. We constructed retroviral expression libraries for the human ovarian cancer cell lines SHIN-3 and TYK-CPr, and performed a focus formation assay with 3T3 cells. As a result, proteasome subunit beta-type 2 (PSMB2), ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14), and keratin 8 (KRT8) were identified from SHIN-3, and polymerase II RNA subunit (POLR2E), chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide 1 subunit 4 (CCT4), glia maturation factor beta (GMFB), and neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) from TYK-CPr. NRAS gene analysis revealed a CAA --> AAA substitution at codon 61, resulting in a Glu --> Lys change at position 61. When the mutant NRAS was introduced into fibroblasts for its expression, many transformed foci were generated, confirming the transforming ability of the mutant NRAS. PMID:19787249

Wada, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Saga, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kayoko; Koinuma, Koji; Choi, Young Lim; Kaneda, Ruri; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Soda, Manabu; Watanabe, Hideki; Kurashina, Kentaro; Hatanaka, Hisashi; Enomoto, Munehiro; Takada, Shuji; Mano, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

2009-11-01

229

The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies  

PubMed Central

AIM—To obtain a prevalence rate and determine the distribution of accidental bruising in babies.?METHODS—177 babies aged 6-12 months were examined naked to look for bruises. They were seen in health visitor hearing test clinics and child health surveillance clinics. The site, size, shape, and colour of bruises were recorded on a skin map, and the parent's explanation noted. Any other injury was recorded. Data collection included the baby's age, mobility and weight, demographic details, and health visitor concerns.?RESULTS—Twenty two babies had bruises, giving a prevalence rate of 12%. There was a total of 32 bruises, 15 babies had one bruise. All bruises were found on the front of the body and were located over bony prominences. Twenty five of the bruises were on the face and head, and seven were on the shin. The babies with bruises on the shin were mobile. There was a highly significant increase in bruises with increase in mobility.?CONCLUSIONS—The study has produced a prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies and sets a baseline from which to work when assessing bruises. It also tested out the methodology, which could be used in further research, particularly of younger babies. Clinicians need to assess a baby's level of development when considering whether a bruise is accidental.??

Carpenter, R

1999-01-01

230

Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative imaging of the subsurface objects is essential part of modern geophysical technology important in oil and gas exploration and wide-range engineering applications. A significant advancement in developing a robust, high resolution imaging technology is concerned with using the different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic) sense the subsurface structure. A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data (electromagnetic and seismic) due to their differing physical nature - diffusive and attenuated propagation of electromagnetic energy and nonlinear, multiple scattering wave propagation of seismic energy. Recent progress has been reported in the solution of this problem by reducing the complexity of seismic wave field. Works formed by Shin and Cha (2009 and 2008) suggests that low-pass filtering the seismic trace via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach for obtaining seismic data that has similar spatial resolution to EM data. The effect of Laplace- Fourier transformation on the low-pass filtered trace changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from multi-wave propagation to diffusion. The key benefit of transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets seismic (Shin and Cha, 2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman 2008, Newman et al., 2010). Moreover the different data sets can also be matched for similar and consistent resolution. Finally, the low pass seismic image is also an excellent choice for a starting model when analyzing the entire seismic waveform to recover the high spatial frequency components of the seismic image; its reflectivity (Shin and Cha, 2009). Without a good starting model full waveform seismic imaging and migration can encounter serious difficulties. To produce seismic wave fields consistent for joint imaging in the Laplace-Fourier domain we had developed 3D code for full-wave field simulation in the elastic media which take into account nonlinearity introduced by free-surface effects. Our approach is based on the velocity-stress formulation. In the contrast to conventional formulation we defined the material properties such as density and Lame constants not at nodal points but within cells. This second order finite differences method formulated in the cell-based grid, generate numerical solutions compatible with analytical ones within the range errors determinate by dispersion analysis. Our simulator will be embedded in an inversion scheme for joint seismic- electromagnetic imaging. It also offers possibilities for preconditioning the seismic wave propagation problems in the frequency domain. References. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. (2009), Waveform inversion in the Laplace-Fourier domain, Geophys. J. Int. 177(3), 1067- 1079. Shin, C. & Cha, Y. H. (2008), Waveform inversion in the Laplace domain, Geophys. J. Int. 173(3), 922-931. Commer, M. & Newman, G. (2008), New advances in three-dimensional controlled-source electromagnetic inversion, Geophys. J. Int. 172(2), 513-535. Newman, G. A., Commer, M. & Carazzone, J. J. (2010), Imaging CSEM data in the presence of electrical anisotropy, Geophysics, in press.

Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

2010-12-01

231

[King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].  

PubMed

King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken important as a means of finding the origin of disease, while deploring how doctors then neglected to study. PMID:20098054

Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

2009-12-01

232

Investigation of Diospyros Kaki L.f husk extracts as corrosion inhibitors and bactericide in oil field  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrochloric acid is used in oil-well acidizing commonly for improving the crude oil production of the low-permeable reservoirs, while it is a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification. Developing natural products as oilfield chemicals is a straight way to find less expensive, green and eco-friendly materials. The great plant resources in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shannxi Province enable the investigating of new green oil field chemicals. Diospyros Kaki L.f (persimmon), a famous fruit tree is widely planted in Qin-ling and Ba-shan Mountain Area of Shaanxi Province. It has been found that the crude persimmon extracts are complex mixtures containing vitamins, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, catechin, flavonoids, carotenoids and condensed tannin and so on, which indicates the extracts of persimmon husk suitable to be used as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors. Findings Extracts of persimmon husk were investigated, by using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques, as green and eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors of Q235A steel in 1M HCl. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L. There are some synergistic effects between the extracts and KI, KSCN and HMTA. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that extracts are mixed-type inhibitors. Besides, the extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against oil field microorganisms, and they showed good to moderate activity against SRB, IB and TGB. Conclusions The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varied with extract concentration from 10 to 1,000 mg/L, and the highest reaches to 65.1% with the con concentration of 1,000 mg/L WE. KI, KSCN and HMTA they can enhance the IE of WE effectively to 97.3% at most, but not effective for KI and KSCN to AE. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed the extracts can inhibit SRB, IB and TGB with moderate to highly efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes extracts potential to be used as bifunctional oil field chemicals.

2013-01-01

233

Cover image, volume 34, issue 30.  

PubMed

GalaxyDock2 by Woong-Hee Shin et al. on page 2647 is a protein-ligand docking program that performs conformational space annealing (CSA) global optimization to find the optimal binding pose of a ligand both in the rigid-receptor mode and the flexiblereceptor mode. Compared to the earlier version, GalaxyDock2 is improved by the efficient generation of high-quality initial conformations for CSA using a predocking method based on a betacomplex derived from the Voronoi diagram of receptor atoms. The cover shows that docking in the flexible mode can be effectively performed using the beta-complex and global optimization. GalaxyDock2 is freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html. PMID:24123212

2013-11-15

234

Three-phase bone scan in osteomyelitis and other musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed

The three-phase bone scan is very sensitive and is the study of choice in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis and normal radiographs. If the underlying bone pathology, such as a healing fracture or degenerative disease, is detected on radiographs of the bone, the indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte scan is the most cost-effective second study. When fracture of the long bones is clinically suspected but radiographs are normal and a delay in definitive diagnosis is acceptable, it is practical and economical to take follow-up films in 10 to 14 days. In cases requiring prompt diagnosis or when follow-up radiographic films are not diagnostic, the three-phase bone scan is the most cost-effective study. The three-phase bone scan is also used in the evaluation of occupational and sports injuries, including shin splints, stress and occult fractures, enthesiopathies and reflex sympathetic dystrophy. PMID:8857786

Sutter, C W; Shelton, D K

1996-10-01

235

Hypermobility and injuries in a professional ballet company.  

PubMed

A study was conducted on members of the Cape Performing Arts Board (CAPAB) professional ballet company to determine the prevalence of hypermobility and to document the injuries sustained over a ten year period. If forward flexion, which is acquired through training, is excluded as a parameter the difference in hypermobility between dancers and controls is not statistically significant. Considering the stresses imposed on the musculoskeletal system, the number of injuries was surprisingly low. Ligamentous injuries about the ankle and knee were both common and accounted for the major morbidity. There were minor differences in the nature and severity of injuries in the male and female dancers. Back injuries, fractures and osteoarthrosis were uncommon and shin splints was not recorded in any of the dancers. PMID:6435713

Klemp, P; Learmonth, I D

1984-09-01

236

Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.  

PubMed

In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals. PMID:6661608

Devereaux, M D; Lachmann, S M

1983-12-01

237

Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").  

PubMed

Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity. PMID:3681443

Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

1987-12-01

238

Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans  

PubMed Central

The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

2010-01-01

239

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

240

The importance of challenging your diagnosis even in straightforward cases.  

PubMed

The art of diagnosis consists in the recognition of signs and symptoms and their interpretation under the light of individual circumstances obtained from the patient's history. In medicine we encounter cases that are straightforward and cases that are complex as they are the result of a rare disease or of uncommon presentation of a common disorder. We present in this paper the case of a patient with a non-healing traumatic wound to her shin, which after unsuccessful treatments was biopsied and an unexpected diagnosis of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum was made. This led to the institution of disease-targeted wound care leading to complete resolution in a short period of time. PMID:22847565

Maus, Erik Alberto

2012-07-27

241

Imiquimod for the treatment of Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Topical imiquimod is an immune response modifier FDA approved for the treatment of anogenital warts. Recent studies have reported its effectiveness in the treatment of some types of basal cell carcinomas. There have also been some case reports and case series reporting success treating of squamous cell carcinoma in situ with imiquimod. We report two patients with squamous cell carcinoma in situ and one with invasive squamous cell carcinoma treated with 5% imiquimod cream. Lesions were located on shin, posterior shoulder, and nasal tip. 5% imiquimod cream was applied at night for six weeks. Side effects included erythema and crusting in one patient. Biopsies taken four weeks after treatment revealed no residual squamous cell carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Topical 5% imiquimod cream is becoming established as a promising treatment for squamous cell carcinoma in situ. It also seems to be an alternative treatment for some cases of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:14711149

Nouri, Keyvan; O'Connell, Christopher; Rivas, Maria Patricia

2003-12-01

242

Hawk migration over White Marsh, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The average number of hawks observed per hour in autumn migration between 1951-1954 and 1958-1961 at White Marsh, Maryland, was compared. The counts indicated that the status of the ten species observed may be divided into three categories: (1) relatively stable species (red-tailed hawk), (2) declining species (sparrow hawk, red-shouldered hawk, osprey, marsh hawk, and broad-winged hawk), and (3) rapidly declining species (peregrine falcon, Cooper?s hawk, bald eagle, and sharp-shinned hawk). The findings from this study are in agreement with the available literature and the status of the populations appears to be related to the food habits of the species.

Hackman, C .D.; Henny, C.J.

1971-01-01

243

Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.  

PubMed

The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

2010-03-01

244

Painless Livedoid Vasculopathy in a Patient with G20210A Prothrombin Gene Mutation  

PubMed Central

87 year old Caucasian female with chronic painless non-healing ulcers over malleoli was admitted to the hospital. On a physical examination, there were two bilateral and laterally located malleoli ulcers with no discharge. A thorough work up was done: lower extremities venous and arterial Doppler ultrasound did not show any evidence of venous and arterial disease respectively. Heterozygous G20210A Prothrombin gene mutation was found, and the patient was started on anticoagulation. This case reports highlights a possibility of a painless livedoid vasculopathy presentation in a patient without significant past thrombotic events. Therefore, it is important to consider livedoid vasculopathy in the differential in a patient with painless ulcerative, atrophic and/or nodular skin lesions over the shins and malleoli.

Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Velasquez Kho, Erwin; Ali, Alaa

2012-01-01

245

p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.  

PubMed

: p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical. PMID:22653125

Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

246

Experimental approach on the collapse mechanism of CFRP composite tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is to investigate the energy absorption characteristics of CFRP(Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tubes on static and dynamic tests. Axial static compression tests have been carried out using the static testing machine(Shin-gang buckling testing machine) and dynamic compression tests have been utilized using an vertical crushing testing machine. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex and depends on the interaction between the different mechanisms that could control the crushing process. The collapse characteristics and energy absorption have been examined for various tubes. Energy absorption of the tubes are increased as changes in the lay-up which may increase the modulus of tubes. The results have been varied significantly as a function of ply orientation and interlaminar number. In general, the stacking sequence [0/90] CFRP tubes absorbed more energy than the [15/-15] CFRP tubes. .

Kim, Y. N.; Im, K. H.; Park, J. W.; Yang, I. Y.

2001-04-01

247

Non-familial Acrokeratosis Verruciformis of Hopf  

PubMed Central

Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf is a rare genodermatosis with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. It is a disorder of keratinization, characterized by multiple, flat-topped, skin-colored keratotic lesions resembling plane warts typically observed on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Histopathologically, the lesion shows considerable hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and papillomatosis, mimicking a "church spire", and a thickened granular layer. It arises in early life, often at birth or infancy. Herein, we report on a rare sporadic case of acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf. A 44-year-old Caucasian man presented with multiple, grouped, hyperkeratotic, whitish, flat papules on his shins and feet, which had been present for more than one year. Histopathological examination showed typical findings of acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf. Our case is unique in that the patient had no familial history of similar skin lesions.

Bang, Chul Hwan; Kim, Hei Sung; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok

2011-01-01

248

Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis and CREST syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (PLCNA) is a form of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) that presents as yellowish waxy nodules on the extremities, face, trunk, or genitalia. We report the case of a patient with PLCNA and CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal motility disorders, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia) syndrome. A diagnosis of her extensive PLCNA was made after biopsy specimens from the bilateral shins stained positive for amyloid extending from the superficial papillary dermis to the subcutis. Results of a workup were negative for paraproteinemia or signs of systemic amyloidosis and have remained so after 8 years of follow-up. We present a review of the literature describing the presentation and histopathology of the varying forms of amyloidosis. PMID:18712025

Summers, Erika M; Kendrick, Christina G

2008-07-01

249

Quantum wave-packet dynamics in spin-coupled vibronic states.  

PubMed

Extending the Shin-Metiu two-electron Hamiltonian, we construct a new Hamiltonian with effective singlet-triplet couplings. The Born-Oppenheimer electronic potentials and couplings are obtained for different parameters, and the laser-free dynamics is calculated with the full Hamiltonian and in the adiabatic limit. We compare the dynamics of the system using nuclear wave packets for different numbers of Born-Oppenheimer potentials and vibronic wave packets on a full 3-dimensional (two electron coordinates plus one nuclear coordinate) grid. Using strong fields, we show that it is possible to dynamically lock the spin state of the system by decoupling the singlet-triplet transition via a nonresonant dynamic Stark effect in the adiabatic limit. Although a similar spin-locking mechanism is observed in the dynamics of vibronic wave packets, multiphoton ionization cannot be neglected leading to the breakdown of the control scheme. PMID:22946899

Falge, Mirjam; Engel, Volker; Lein, Manfred; Vindel-Zandbergen, Patricia; Chang, Bo Y; Sola, Ignacio R

2012-09-20

250

Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology  

SciTech Connect

Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

1987-01-01

251

Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on information collected during the 2000 Census, this latest brief from the Census Bureau looks on language use and English-speaking ability across the country. Authored by Hyon B. Shin and Rosalind Bruno, this 11-page report begins with a brief discussion of the questions asked about language use on the 2000 Census reporting form. The initial findings include the fact that approximately 47-million persons in the U.S. (approximately 18 percent of the total population) speak a language other than English at home. Not surprisingly, the number and percentage of people in the U.S. who spoke a language other than English at home increased between 1990 and 2000. Additionally, after English and Spanish, the languages most frequently spoken at home were Chinese, French, German, and Tagalog. The report also includes several helpful maps that detail (at the county level) the percentage of people who spoke a language at home other than English in 2000.

Shin, Hyon B.; Bruno, Rosalind

2003-01-01

252

Borderline mucinous cystic ovarian tumor with mural nodules (carcinosarcoma).  

PubMed

Carcinosarcoma mural nodules arising form a mucinous ovarian neoplasm is very rare and only two published cases have been reported. We report a case of a 29-year-old female patient who suffered from severe lower abdominal pain unrelated to menstruation for 1 year. She came to our (Shin-Kong Hospital) gynecology outpatient department in February 2010. The CT scan revealed a large cystic tumor, measuring approximately 36 cm in greatest dimension and at least 2 solid foci were noted. The patient underwent left salpingo-oophorectomy. A carcinosarcoma mural nodule arising within a mucinous ovarian neoplasm was diagnosed. The patient was treated by further chemotherapy and was free of the disease at time of publication. We reviewed the published studies, and in particular looked at the histology and immunohistochemistry of tumors, in which sarcomatoid carcinoma and carcinosarcoma like nodules were diagnosed. We also discussed the differential diagnosis of the mural nodule in a mucinous cystic neoplasm. PMID:22705615

Chang, Juei-Shan; Chua, Ching-Chuang; Lee, Chin-Cheng

253

Design Issues Affecting Pipings Associated with a New Moisture Separator Reheater  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the piping design effects on a New Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) in Shin-Kori Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (SKN 1 and 2) being under the construction in Korea. This SKN 1 and 2 has the same arrangement of a Turbine-Generator set as one of Korea Standard Nuclear Plant Units ( OPR 1000 ) in commercial operation. The Turbine-Generator Supplier has developed a new Moisture Separator Reheater which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections respectively, at both ends of the shell side of the vessel in comparison to MSR of OPR 1000 which has first and second stage heating steam supply connections at only one end. The different locations of reheaters in MSR cause changes in the associated pipings such as 2. stage reheater heating steam, 2. stage reheater drain, shell drain, drain tank location and tank condensate drainage pipings. (authors)

Hyung-Keun, Kim; Jae-Kyoung, Cho [Plant Design Department, Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., 360-9 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 449-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

254

Imaging of stress fractures in the athlete.  

PubMed

Osseous stress fractures and stress reactions represent the effect of abnormal repetitive stress on normal bone. An accurate and thorough clinical history and sequential radiographs often suffice 40 make the diagnosis especially when the fracture occurs in one of the common locations, such as the tibia, metatarsals, or calcaneus. In cases that are atypical in location or clinical presentation the authors rely more on MR imaging, radionuclide bone scanning, and occasionally CT. MR imaging detects early changes of osseous stress injury and allows precise definition of anatomy and extent of injury, and is the preferred modality for evaluating the continuum of osseous manifestations of stress injury. MR imaging is useful in evaluating shin splints, early osseous stress injuries, and overt stress fracture. In the elite athlete prompt diagnosis and early rehabilitation are the goals. PMID:12118827

Spitz, Damon J; Newberg, Arthur H

2002-03-01

255

Effect of the Tensor Force on Charge-Exchange Spin-Dependent Multipole Excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge-exchange spin-dipole (SD) and spin-quadrupole (SQ) strength functions of 90Zr are calculated with and without the tensor terms of the Skyrme interaction in self-consistent HF+RPA approach. It is found that, in SD and SQ transitions, the RPA correlations associated with the tensor terms shin dramatically the strengths of (Yl?)? = l-1 and (Yl?)? = 1 modes upward and downward, respectively, and also shift the strengths of (Yl?)? = l + 1 modes upward. The coupling between (Yl = ? - 1?)? and (Yl = ? + 1?)? modes arising from the tensor correlation is noticeable. The RPA tensor correlations produce strengths of SD and SQ modes, which are distributed in a much wider energy range, and the (Yl?)? = l - 1 modes dominate the high energy part of the strength functions. These energy shifts and coupling effects of different modes can be understood qualitatively by expressing a finite range tensor force in a separable form.

Bai, Chun-Lin; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Zhang, Xi-Zhen; Xu, Fu-Rong; Sagawa, H.; Colò, G.

2010-10-01

256

Application of the fuzzy ART/MAP and MINMAX/MAP neural network models to radiographic image classification.  

PubMed

This paper concerns the classification analysis of exercise-induced lower leg pain by applying competitive neural network clustering and mapping techniques to type 1 and type 2 fuzzy descriptions of bone scan images of the tibia. The clusters are described and compared with each other and with the experts known classes that would be expected from medical findings. The discovered clusters provide training sets for supervised learning by an ARTMAP and similar neural network. These were used to classify the previously unclassified images and hence improve the classification process. The overall conclusion is that the use of the neural clustering methods has improved the classification process of the shin images despite the paucity of data and its inherent uncertainty. PMID:9413608

Innocent, P R; Barnes, M; John, R

1997-11-01

257

Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

258

Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

Tokura, Yasuhiro

2012-02-01

259

Biomechanical basis of choosing the rational mass and its distribution throughout the lower limb prosthesis segments.  

PubMed

A solution for finding a rational distribution of mass in lower limb prostheses has been considered based on the formal premise favoring the identification of the movements of a prosthetic and an intact leg. For the purpose of simplicity, and analysis has been carried out for only the swing phase, the data about the properties of moving segments being determined without integrating differential equations of motion. At the formation of equations of motion, an assumption that body segments are absolutely rigid and have constant moments of inertia and locations of the center of mass was taken into consideration. Based on independent proportions formed of combinations of the coefficients of equations of motion, a system of three equations has been formulated and solved in relation to the mass values sought: a static radius and a radius of inertia of the prosthesis complex link "shin + foot + footwear." From the six unknowns included in the equations, three values are chosen as mean values determined empirically. The solution of obtained equations results in the following conclusions: the parameters of the mass distribution in a "shin + foot + footwear" complex link depend on the amputation level and the patient's mass. These data, reported in appropriate tables, may be used in prosthetics practice. Recommendations have also been presented with regard to a prosthesic mass relative to the age of the person with amputation and a method of a balancing of prostheses aimed at the achievement of a rational distribution of masses. The analysis of obtained equations has also allowed us to make recommendations about the artificial foot mass. It has been concluded that a reasonable desire to reduce the mass of the prosthetic segments is not an end in itself, but is only the means of a rational distribution by means of balancing. It has been proved that rational prosthetic fitting results in decreased energy costs and overloads are decreased and a normalized gait. PMID:8770797

Farber, B S; Moreinis, I Sh

1995-11-01

260

Subsurface Return Flow and Ground Water Recharge of Terrace Fields in Northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study estimates subsurface return flow and effective ground water recharge in terraced fields in northern Taiwan. Specifically, a three dimensional model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate percolation and lateral seepage in the terraced fields under various conditions. In the terraced paddy fields, percolation mainly moves vertically downward in the central area, while lateral seepage is mainly focused around the bund. Although the simulated lateral seepage rate through the bund exceeded the percolation rate in the central area of the paddy field, annual subsurface return flow at Pei-Chi and Shin-Men was 0.17x106 m3 and 0.37x106 m3, representing only 0.17 percent and 0.21 percent of the total irrigation water required for rice growth at Pei-Chi and Shin-Men, respectively. For upland fields, the effective ground water recharge rate during the second crop period (July to November) exceeded that during the first crop period (January to May) because of the wet season in the second crop period. Terraced paddy fields have the most efficient ground water recharge, with 21.2 to 23.4 percent of irrigation water recharging to ground water, whereas upland fields with a plow layer have the least efficient ground water recharge, with only 4.8 to 6.6 percent of irrigation water recharging to ground water. The simulation results clearly revealed that a substantial amount of irrigation water recharges to ground water in the terraced paddy, while only a small amount of subsurface return flow seeps from the upstream to the downstream terraced paddy. The amounts of subsurface flow and ground water recharge determined in the study are useful for the irrigation water planning and management and provide a scientific basis to reevaluate water resources management in the terrace region under irrigated rice.

Liu, Chen-Wuing; Huang, Han-Chen; Chen, Shih-Kai; Kuo, Yi-Ming

2004-06-01

261

[From Wolff law, Ilizarov technology to natural reconstruction theory].  

PubMed

Wolff law was an adaptable principle of bone, Tension-Stress Principle was equal to Distraction Osteogenesis or Distraction Tissue Regeneration, The Natural Reconstruction theory was a new orthopedic perspective proposed by Prof. QIN after deformity correction using Ilizarov technology. The thought about their relationship originated from a social phenomena, that the crowds and the confusion about export choice in Beijing's subway. Ilizarov technology and Wolff law were one concept related to Mechanics, and the former is completely in line with the latter. In other words, Ilizarov technology is an extension of Wolff law, is a repeated process of micro-trauma and continuous repair of bone trabecular initiated by moden engineering, just trabecular formed along the tension-stress direction. With adjustment of mechanical force,doctor can control the process of fracture healing and bone remolding to a certain extent. Natural Reconstruction theory enlarged the defined range of Wolff law obviously. Not only guided orthopedics clinical and basic research,but also related to the dialectical thinking of the doctor-patient relationship in sociology. There was an inevitable connection among Wolff law, Ilizarov technology and Natural Reconstruction theory. The history of discovery and understanding was a continuous process of thinking,practice and integration. PMID:23844487

Zang, Jian-cheng; Qin, Si-He

2013-04-01

262

A smooth ROC curve estimator based on log-concave density estimates.  

PubMed

We introduce a new smooth estimator of the ROC curve based on log-concave density estimates of the constituent distributions. We show that our estimate is asymptotically equivalent to the empirical ROC curve if the underlying densities are in fact log-concave. In addition, we empirically show that our proposed estimator exhibits an efficiency gain for finite sample sizes with respect to the standard empirical estimate in various scenarios and that it is only slightly less efficient, if at all, compared to the fully parametric binormal estimate in case the underlying distributions are normal. The estimator is also quite robust against modest deviations from the logconcavity assumption. We show that bootstrap confidence intervals for the value of the ROC curve at a fixed false positive fraction based on the new estimate are on average shorter compared to the approach by Zhou and Qin (2005), while maintaining coverage probability. Computation of our proposed estimate uses the R package logcondens that implements univariate log-concave density estimation and can be done very efficiently using only one line of code. These obtained results lead us to advocate our estimate for a wide range of scenarios. PMID:22611590

Rufibach, Kaspar

2012-01-01

263

Renormalized one-loop theory of correlations in disordered diblock copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A renormalized one-loop (ROL) theory developed in previous work [P. Grzywacz, J. Qin, and D. C. Morse, Phys. Rev E. 76, 061802 (2007)] is used to calculate corrections to the random phase approximation (RPA) for the structure factor S(q) in disordered diblock copolymer melts. Predictions are given for the peak intensity S(q*), peak position q*, and single-chain statistics for symmetric and asymmetric copolymers as functions of ?eN, where ?e is an effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and N is the degree of polymerization. The ROL and Fredrickson-Helfand (FH) theories are found to yield asymptotically equivalent results for the dependence of the peak intensity S(q*) upon ?eN for symmetric diblock copolymers in the limit of strong scattering, or large ?eN, but to yield qualitatively different predictions for symmetric copolymers far from the ODT and for asymmetric copolymers. The ROL theory predicts a suppression of S(q*) and a decrease of q* for large values of ?eN, relative to the RPA predictions, but an enhancement of S(q*) and an increase in q* for small ?eN. The decrease in q* near the ODT is shown to be unrelated to any change in single-chain statistics, and to be a result of inter-molecular correlations. Conversely, the predicted increase in q* at small values of ?eN is a direct result of non-Gaussian single-chain statistics.

Qin, Jian; Grzywacz, Piotr; Morse, David C.

2011-08-01

264

Spatial profiles of methane at the Swiss Plateau: A confrontation between measurements and emission inventories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and carbon dioxide are the two most prominent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a detailed knowledge about their sources is essential for climate predictions (Solomon et al., 2007). The knowledge about greenhouse gas fluxes is usually merged, albeit including considerable uncertainties, to emission inventories. To increase the quality of the inventories a comparison with measurements is necessary. We evaluate the values given by a Swiss emission inventory with regard to atmospheric measurements of methane in Switzerland. Spatial profiles of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated at the Swiss Plateau during two consecutive warm and sunny summer days in July 2012. For the mobile methane and carbon dioxide measurements a LGR methane analyser and a LI-COR closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA) were mounted on a car together with an AIRMAR WeatherStation to track geodetic-coordinates and meteorological parameters. First results of the measurements including aerial profiles of the greenhouse gases and bin-averaged elevation profiles of methane and temperature will be presented and a highly-resolved methane emission inventory will be evaluated in comparison with the spatial profiles of atmospheric methane at the Swiss Plateau. References: Solomon, S., Qin D., et al. (Eds.) (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 S. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Buchmann, Nina

2013-04-01

265

Phonon spectra on ultrathin Pb films with scanning tunneling spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After Blatt and Thomson's prediction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 332 (1963)], several groups have reported the quantum size effect on transition temperature(Tc) as a function of thicknesses of atomically flat ultrathin Pb film. In those cases, Tc oscillation related to film thickness was attributed to oscillation of the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. However, the Tc oscillation amplitude is much smaller than that derived from the DOS oscillation. One therefore would ask: What is the role of electron-phonon interaction? Also as reported by Qin, et. al. [Science 324, 1314 (2009)], when the film is only 2ML thick, the pseduomorphically strained film has lower Tc than the unstrained one, suggesting that interfacial phonons may play a role. To answer to above question, we perform layer-dependent scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb films on Si(111) at 2.3 K to observe the phonon related features in the tunneling spectra. Detailed analysis of thickness dependence of photon spectra will be reported.

Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang

2013-03-01

266

The Gradient/Curvature Drift of Cosmic Rays in the Heliospheric Magnetic Fields with Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although various observations of cosmic ray modulation indicate that the effects of gradient/curvature particle drift should be reduced from its full drift in the average Parker heliospheric magnetic field, there is no theory for the calculation of particle drift in a magnetic field with turbulence. We present here a new approach to this problem, using an orbit tracing method for the calculation of drift. The solution is a direct numerical integration of the basic expression for drift as presented in Rossi and Olbert [1970]. The same technique was previously used to calculate the drifts in the Parker field for particles with an isotropic distribution. The drift speed agrees with the first order drift approximation when the particle gyroradius is much less than the scale size of magnetic field gradient. In this case, we include a more complicated magnetic field which contains both slab and 2D components of turbulence [Bieber et al, 1994; Qin et al, 2002]. It is expected that the turbulence will alter the particle trajectory, thus changing the behavior of the particle drift. Its implications to cosmic ray modulation will also be discussed

Ball, B. M.; Zhang, M.; Qin, G.; Rassoul, H.

2004-12-01

267

GHz - THz plasmonic circuits using low dimensional electronic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature offers a broad variety of plasma systems consisting of electrons unbound from atoms, e.g.; astrophysical plasmas in intergalactic, interstellar, and stellar media; the Earth's ionosphere; and solid-state plasma, the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, only to name a few. A key feature of many plasma systems is collective motions of electrons; as the electron density profile is perturbed from equilibrium, Coulomb restoring forces (and sometimes quantum pressure in dense plasma) arise to power these collective motions, usually in the form of bulk electron density oscillations or electron density waves. Solid-state plasmas are particularly interesting, as the fabrication technologies available for solid-state materials allow us to alter the boundaries and interfaces of the plasma media in various ways to engineer the collective motion. A notable example is the surface plasmons, which have been a source of many breakthroughs in photonics. I will talk about a set of our recent developments where the plasmons are brought down to the electronics-regime (GHz˜THz) and manipulated to produce a range of functionalities, while offering unique advantages to electronics over their purely electromagnetic counterparts. (Co-workers) William Andress (Harvard), Hosang Yoon (Harvard), Kitty Yeung (Harvard), Ling Qin (Harvard), Ken West (Princeton), and Loren Pfeiffer (Princeton).

Ham, Donhee

2012-02-01

268

Entropy production in the cyclic lattice Lotka-Volterra model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclic Lotka-Volterra model in a D-dimensional regular lattice is considered. Entropy production of its “nucleus growth” mode is investigated by analyzing the time evolution of the family of entropies S_q = (1-sum_i p_i^q)/(q-1), with qin mathbb{R}. This family contains as particular case ( q = 1) the usual entropic form S_1 = -sum_i p_iln p_i. The rate of growth of the entropy S q , for some qneq 1, is expected to provide non-trivial information about certain complex systems. For the system here considered, it is shown, both numerically and by means of analytical considerations, that a linear increase of entropy with time, meaning finite asymptotic entropy rate, is achieved for the entropic index q c = 1-1/ D, as previously conjectured in the literature. However, although q_cneq 1, this relation can be explained in terms of very simple features not directly connected to the complexity of the dynamics. The relation between the characteristic entropic index and lattice dimensionality is shown to be a consequence of the fact that the system soon approaches a steady regime where the nucleus radius grows linearly with time.

Anteneodo, C.

2004-11-01

269

Spectral control in laser restoration of archaeological treasurers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When created in 210 BC, the 6,000 terra cotta warriors of the Mount Li tomb near the ancient imperial Chinese capital city of Xi'an were emblazoned with dramatic colors. Previously, it had been thought that this polychrome glaze had been entirely consumed in an inferno that swept the tomb shortly after its completion. Careful manual control of laser divestment experiments on the statues during the archaeological excavation of the site has revealed that faint charred vestiges of the original polychromatic glaze still exist. Unfortunately, as a consequence of the long burial, the terra cotta statues with their cooked polychrome glazes are encased in tenacious mineral deposits. Consequently, laser removal of the mineral encrustation requires tedious human implementation in order to avoid damaging the very delicate underlying statue surfaces. A real-time spectral control system for precise automated laser cleaning of archaeological objects is described. It has improved the results, accelerated the process, and relieved the operator tedium in the recovery of this Qin Dynasty polychrome as well as in the cleaning of ancient coins from other archaeological sites.

Asmus, John F.

1994-10-01

270

Existence of mild solutions for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are concerned with nonlocal problem for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term of the form ^CDq_tu(t) + Au(t) = f(t, u(t), u(t)),quad t in J = [0, a],u(0) = g(u, u),. where E is an infinite-dimensional Banach space, {^CDq_t} is the Caputo fractional derivative of order {qin (0, 1)}, A : D(A) ? E ? E is a closed linear operator and -A generates a uniformly bounded C 0-semigroup T(t) (t ? 0) in E, {f in C(J× E × E, E)}, and g is appropriate continuous function so that it constitutes a nonlocal condition. Under a new concept of coupled lower and upper mild L-quasi-solutions, we construct a new monotone iterative method for nonlocal problem of fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term and obtain the existence of coupled extremal mild L-quasi-solutions and the mild solution between them. The results obtained generalize the recent conclusions on this topic. Finally, we present two applications to illustrate the feasibility of our abstract results.

Chen, Pengyu; Li, Yongxiang

2013-08-01

271

Mixed effect regression analysis for a cluster-based two-stage outcome-auxiliary-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome  

PubMed Central

Two-stage design is a well-known cost-effective way for conducting biomedical studies when the exposure variable is expensive or difficult to measure. Recent research development further allowed one or both stages of the two-stage design to be outcome dependent on a continuous outcome variable. This outcome-dependent sampling feature enables further efficiency gain in parameter estimation and overall cost reduction of the study (e.g. Wang, X. and Zhou, H., 2010. Design and inference for cancer biomarker study with an outcome and auxiliary-dependent subsampling. Biometrics 66, 502–511; Zhou, H., Song, R., Wu, Y. and Qin, J., 2011. Statistical inference for a two-stage outcome-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome. Biometrics 67, 194–202). In this paper, we develop a semiparametric mixed effect regression model for data from a two-stage design where the second-stage data are sampled with an outcome-auxiliary-dependent sample (OADS) scheme. Our method allows the cluster- or center-effects of the study subjects to be accounted for. We propose an estimated likelihood function to estimate the regression parameters. Simulation study indicates that greater study efficiency gains can be achieved under the proposed two-stage OADS design with center-effects when compared with other alternative sampling schemes. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a dataset from the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

Xu, Wangli; Zhou, Haibo

2012-01-01

272

Variational Symplectic Orbit Code in 3-D Tokamak Geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since advanced tokamak experiments -- including ITER -- are long-pulse systems, it is important to develop accurate numerical methods to track plasma dynamics over an extended temporal period. When attempting to model the motion of individual particles, standard integrators (e.g. 4th order Runge-Kutta) discretize the differential equations of motion -- but do not possess desired properties such as energy conservation. The variational symplectic integrator adopts instead a different approach via minimizing the action of the guiding center motion to determine iteration rules. Consequently, the Lagrangian symplectic structure is conserved, and the numerical energy error is bounded by a small number for all time-steps. In previous work [1], the theoretical basis for this method was introduced, but the implementation was for 2-D geometry. To address realistic experimental scenarios, the variational symplectic integrator has been implemented for 3-D tokamak geometry for the first time. Sample results will be presented and compared with those from standard Runge-Kutta-based 3-D tokamak orbit codes. [4pt] [1] H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 16, 042510 2009.

Ellison, Charles; Qin, Hong; Tang, William M.

2011-11-01

273

Global solvability and asymptotic behavior of a free boundary problem for the one-dimensional viscous radiative and reactive gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a Neumann and free boundary problem for the one-dimensional viscous radiative and reactive gas. We prove that under rather general assumptions on the heat conductivity ?, for any arbitrary large smooth initial data, the problem admits a unique global classical solution. Our global existence results improve those results by Umehara and Tani [``Global solution to the one-dimensional equations for a self-gravitating viscous radiative and reactive gas,'' J. Differ. Equations 234(2), 439-463 (2007); and ``Global solvability of the free-boundary problem for one-dimensional motion of a self-gravitating viscous radiative and reactive gas,'' Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. A: Math. Sci. 84(7), 123-128 (2008)] and by Qin, Hu, and Wang [``Global smooth solutions for the compressible viscous and heat-conductive gas,'' Q. Appl. Math. 69(3), 509-528 (2011)]. Moreover, we analyze the asymptotic behavior of the global solutions to our problem, and we prove that the global solution will converge to an equilibrium as time goes to infinity. This is the result obtained for this problem in the literature for the first time.

Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Songmu

2012-12-01

274

[A brief discussion on ancient Chinese Infectious Hospital and setting down for the patients with infectious diseases].  

PubMed

The medical care and treatment of patients with infectious diseases began in the Yin-Sang dynasty is the earliest in Chinese character, indicating an idea of patients with infectious diseases kept in isolation ward. This character was found in Bronze inscriptious dated 3350 years ago. In the Spring and Autumn period, isolation ward for infectious disease patients was mentioned in Lun Yu. In the Qin dynasty, isolation ward for leprosy patients was mentioned by Qinjian from Yunmeng (Cloudy Dreams of Sleeping Tiger) in Hubei provice, which was called Liqiansuo. In the Eastern Han dynasty, infectious army hospital was set up --Yanlu. From the Six dynasties period to the Sui-Tang dynasties, clinical wards in the temples, and after the song dynasty--An Le Fang, An Ji Fang, Bao Shou Cui He Guan, Jiang Li Yuan, Yang Ji Yuan, Fu Tian Yuan etc, though not specifically set up for infectious diseases patients, all played an important role for the isolation, setting down and treatment of infectious diseases patients. PMID:11618963

Li, L

1997-01-01

275

An early Jurassic dextral strike-slip system in southern South China and its tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ductile shear structure of the Guanging-Bobai fault belt in the SW part of the Qin-Hang belt, South China, has been investigated and interpreted in terms of radiometric dating data. A series of ductile shear zones occurs within the fault belt with deformation and metamorphic features indicative of formation under medium temperature and pressure conditions. The foliation such formed is steeply dipping and bears a gently plunging lineation, which along with the dextral kinematic indicators determines a broad NE-SW-trending dextral strike-slip regime responsible for the development of these shear zones. Field overprinting relationships indicate that this dextral shear is pre-dated by the Indosinian (P2-T) NNE-verging thrusting and post-dated by the Yanshanian (J2-K2) SE-verging thrusting, and thus occurred during a transitional period between the two orogenies. 40Ar-39Ar radiometric dating on muscovite from mylonites further constrains timing of the dextral shear to the Early Jurassic (187-193 Ma). Based on the coeval tectonic framework of eastern Asia, we propose here that the dextral strike-slip system was initiated by the far-field oblique stress field from the incipient subduction of the Izanagi oceanic plate. An offset continental margin of the South China plate may have been created in response to this transcurrent movement along the fault belt, dissecting and displacing not only a relict Caledonian foreland basin, but also an Indosinian magmatic belt.

Cai, Jian-Xin

2013-01-01

276

Defect Dynamics and Diblock Copolymer Alignment on Smooth and Intentionally Crafted Templating Substrates*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will present issues pertaining to defect mobility and thermal annealing, spatial alignment, and the prospect for functional decoration of diblock copolymer surface structures. The first stage of this effort has demonstrated that atomic force microscopy imaging can be used in a time-lapse manner to track the interactions of topological defects. Combining rules for various dislocation and disclination pairs have been established [1]. Next, efforts have been focussed on inducing spatial alignment in phase-separated cylinders. Strong polymer alignment has been realized in annular structures [2] and, most recently, on intentionally constructed lithographically generated grating substrates having selected depths and widths which guide the assembly of highly-aligned polymeric interfaces [3]. Future activities in hierarchical decoration of these thin-film materials will also be discussed. *It is with pleasure that I acknowledge my collaborators Jong-in Hahm, Deepak Sundrani, Qin Zheng, Dong-Chang Lee, Vladimir Belyi, Luping Yu, Heinrich Jaeger, and Tom Witten, as well as funding from the UC NSF-MRSEC, the UC-ANL Consortium for Nanoscience Research, and instrumentation development funds from the AFOSR. [1]. J. Hahm and S.J. Sibener, J. Chem. Phys. 114 4730-4740 (2001). [2]. J. Hahm and S.J. Sibener, Langmuir 16 4766-4769 (2000). [3]. Deepak Sundrani and S.J. Sibener, Macromolecules 35, 8531-8539 (2002).

Sibener, Steven J.

2003-03-01

277

Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.  

PubMed

Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126ngg(-)(1), ND to 2.65ngg(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41ngg(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant ?-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area. PMID:24103096

Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

2013-10-05

278

Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Phages are the most abundant entity in the biosphere and outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10. Phage DNA may also constitute 20% of bacterial genomes; however, its role is ill defined. Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166?kbp) using Escherichia coli. We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and ?-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin). Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation. Prophage CPS-53 proteins YfdK, YfdO and YfdS enhanced resistance to oxidative stress, prophages e14, CPS-53 and CP4-57 increased resistance to acid, and e14 and rac proteins increased early biofilm formation. Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

Wang, Xiaoxue; Kim, Younghoon; Ma, Qun; Hong, Seok Hoon; Pokusaeva, Karina; Sturino, Joseph M.; Wood, Thomas K.

2010-01-01

279

Electromagnetic high frequency gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of radio frequency waves in magnetically-confined plasmas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the gyrocenter-gauge kinetic theory, we developed an electromagnetic version of the high frequency gyrokinetic algorithm [1, 2] for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of plasma heating and current drive with RF waves. Gyrokinetic formalism enables separation of gyrocenter and gyrophase motions of a particle in a magnetic field. From this point of view, a particle may be viewed as a combination of a slow gyrocenter and a quickly changing Kruskal ring. The efficiency of the algorithm is due to the fact that the simulation particles are advanced along the slow gyrocenter orbits, while the Kruskal rings capture fast gyrophase physics. The nonlinear dynamics of RF waves is described by the Kruskal rings based on first principles physics. Self-consistent simulation is performed by solving Faraday's and Ampere's laws using Yee's algorithm together with the locally implicit method [3]. We performed a number of simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation in hot inhomogeneous plasmas using new nonlinear delta-f PIC algorithm. Comparisons with a direct Lorentz-force approach are presented. This work is supported by the MSG project (U.S. DoE ASCR Multiscale Mathematics Research and Education Program). [1] R. A. Kolesnikov et al., Phys. Plasmas, 14, 072506 (2007). [2] H. Qin et al., 17^th RF Conference (2007). [3] D.Smithe et al., 17^th RF Conference (2007).

Kolesnikov, Roman; Qin, Hong; Lee, W. W.

2007-11-01

280

A case study of the tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) using a geostationary meteorological satellite and the TAO/TRITON mooring array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qin et al. have found Hot Events (HE), which are short-term (about 20 days) large-scale (about 15,000,000 km2) regions with very high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST > 30°C). Following their definition, an HE was identified in the tropical western Pacific in November 2006, which is named HE0611. A case study of HE is conducted by using the advanced satellite products and in-situ measurements from the TAO/TRITON mooring array. Two parts (HE0611-East and -West) with very high SST connected to form HE0611. SST in HE0611-West increases quickly with large diurnal SST variations, which are caused by large solar radiation and suppressed latent heat loss. The increase of the mixed-layer heat content is clearly accounted for the accumulated heat gain through the air-sea interaction. The formation mechanism of HE0611-East is completely different; its very high SST is supported by a subsurface high SST anomaly associated with the El Niño. Two phenomena similar to HE0611 were observed in November of the El Niño years of 1994 and 2002.

Qin, Huiling; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Sakaida, Futoki; Ando, Kentaro

2008-08-01

281

A case study of the tropical Hot Event in November 2006 (HE0611) using a geostationary meteorological satellite and the TAO/TRITON mooring array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Qin et al. [2007] have found Hot Event (HE), which is a short-term (about 20 days) large-scale (about 15,000,000km2) region with very high Sea Surface Temperature (SST˜30o C). Following their definition, a HE was identified in the tropical western Pacific in November 2006, which is named HE0611. A case study of HE is conducted by using the advanced satellite products and in situ measurements from TAO/TRITON mooring array. Two parts (HE0611-East and -West) with very high SST did connected to form HE0611. SST in HE0611-West increases quickly with large diurnal SST variations, which are caused by large solar radiation and suppressed latent heat loss. Increase of the mixed-layer heat content is well explained by the accumulated heat gain through the air-sea interaction. The formation mechanism of HE0611-East is completely different; its very high SST is supported by sub-surface high SST anomaly associated with the El Nino. Two phenomena similar to HE0611 were observed in November of El N?o Years of n 1994 and 2002.

Qin, Huiling

282

[Medical doctor Lee Hyeon Yang's writings in Gokcheongsago].  

PubMed

Medical doctors in the Chosun Dynasty read Chinese literature of high level in order to take the medical civil service examination, but there are not many extant writings of theirs except some medical books. Middle class people's selections of poems such as Haedongyuju, Sodaepungyo, Pungyosokseon and Pungyosamseon were published, and among the list of the writers, those who were identified as medical doctors were Park Gun, Baek Heung jeon, Shin Myeong hee, Shin Hee myeong, Oh Chang ryeol, Yoo Dong yeok, etc. Even their works are not many, and this suggests that doctors' writing was not active except for medical books. Lee Hyeon yang (1783-1852), the author of Gokcheongsago, was born the only son of Lee Jaewoo (1750-1808), an acupuncturist at the Lee family from Ansan, which was an influential middleclass family. His pen name was changed from Gokcheong to Anrakwa, Yongheon and Gyeongsudang, and for each pen name, he wrote a foreword explaining the origin of the name and his resolution. The Lee family from Ansan produced 20 medical officials through eight generations from Lee Yoon yeong in the 7th generation to Lee Myeong ryun in the 15th generation. He learned medicine, his family occupation, diligently and passed the medical civil service examination in 1803 when he was 21. In addition, he studied Confucian scriptures enthusiastically and left many writing along with medical books. Based on the forewords in his anthology Gokcheongsago, there are eight writings of his as follows in chronological order: Suseongpyeongam (1798), Cheongimiyo (1799), Euihakjeongwon (1801), Gwangjebiyo(five volumes, 1810), Wonbyeonggiyo (1819), Bonchojeongeui(1826), Euiyakcheongji (1838), and Yeonghwaji (1843). He wrote not only medical books but also traditional Chinese texts in different styles. In the 180pages transcription, he as a medical doctor showed various writing styles based on Confucianism including 22 prologues and epilogues, 9 diaries, discussions and opinions, 2 biographies, 5 letters, 10 memorial addresses and condolence messages, and 8 miscellaneous writings. His writing attitude was different among the periods when preparing for the medical civil service examination, when acting as a medical doctor, and when working as a magistrate, and it shows medical doctors' life in the 18th and 19th centuries. PMID:19174624

Hur, Kyoungjin

2008-12-01

283

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

PubMed

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

2009-01-01

284

Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin-NMP1 Conjugate: A Near Infrared (NIR)-Activatable Fluorescence Imaging Agent to Detect Peritoneal Ovarian Cancer Metastases  

PubMed Central

Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM) and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it. hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by co-localizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 hours of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1. We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity.

Alexander, Vinita M.; Sano, Kohei; Yu, Zhanqian; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L.; Ptaszek, Marcin; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2012-01-01

285

PREFACE: International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics 2009 (IW-SMI 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical mechanical informatics (SMI) is an approach that applies statistical-mechanics techniques developed for many-body problems in natural science to information sciences. SMI has been extensively applied to various research fields of information sciences, including in particular information and communication theory, probabilistic inference, and combinatorial optimization problems, and has brought about novel advances in these fields. From a formal point of view, the most significant advantage of the SMI approach would be that it facilitates our look at hierarchical organization of a complex system, on the basis of which reduction of many `microscopic' degrees of freedom is performed to obtain a `macroscopic' description of the system with a small number of parameters, which is in turn utilized to analyze the system microscopically. Hierarchy, reduction, and macroscopic description should also be essential in order to understand biological systems. These observations imply that the conceptual framework of SMI should be extensible to various research fields in bioinformatics, and new theoretical frameworks for bioinformatics will be established from the system science viewpoint. To advance research activities in these directions, however, interactions between SMI and bioinformatics are needed. The International Workshop on Statistical-Mechanical Informatics has been organized in order to explore such new directions for SMI and bioinformatics through interactions between various research disciplines, and to incubate joint research initiatives. This workshop, held at Mielparque-Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan, 13-16 September 2009, and sponsored by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas `Deepening and Expansion of Statistical Mechanical Informatics (DEX-SMI)' (Head investigator: Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Tokyo Institute of Technology) (Project http://dex-smi.sp.dis.titech.ac.jp/DEX-SMI), was intended to provide leading researchers in the fields of DNA microarray analysis, brain science, medical engineering and mathematical biology, to exchange advanced findings on and to detail achievements in bioinformatics and statistical mechanics. We would like to thank the contributors of the workshop as well as all the participants, who have enjoyed the workshop as well as their stay in Kyoto. This successful workshop will stimulate further development of the interdisciplinary research field of bioinformatics and SMI. Editors Masato Inoue Shin Ishii Yoshiyuki Kabashima Masato Okada The IW-SMI 2009 Organizing Committee Masato Okada, General Chair (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, Vice-General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii, Program Chair (Kyoto University) Masato Inoue, Publications Chair (Waseda University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka (Kyoto University)

Inoue, Masato; Ishii, Shin; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Okada, Masato

2009-11-01

286

Measuring the risk of sustaining injury in sport a novel approach to aid the re-design of personal protective equipment.  

PubMed

Despite the possibilities offered by new approaches in design and advances in materials and manufacturing methods, few items of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) used in sport have seen significant change for many decades. A major reason for this is the tradition and conservative attitudes associated with many sports, although the absence of appropriate tools and techniques to assist the design and development process has also played a large part. The aim of this study was to develop the first stage of a method of identifying specific regions of the human anatomy that are at the greatest risk of sustaining injury during participation in sports in which the player is subjected to multiple ballistic impacts. It is proposed that the findings could be used to confirm future designs of sports PPE. Previous studies have identified the amount and the location of the protection provided by current commercially available products but, until now, no evidence has been reported to determine what protection is required based on an understanding of the likely impact and the anatomy of the athlete. Using the leg and cricket as examples of an anatomical feature and a sporting application respectively, the severity and probability of injury due to ball impacts typically observed in play are quantified, with respect to their location on the leg, to estimate the level of risk in that region. Results show that the level of risk is greatest in the shin regions of the front leg, suggesting that this region should be offered the greatest degree of protection, as is generally the case in commercially available leg guard designs. Conversely, however, the inner region of the mid shin of the back leg is at the lowest risk, suggesting that protection in this region might be substantially reduced, a feature which is certainly not included in current product; such a reduction may significantly enhance the ergonomic performance of the leg guard design. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that the method offers the potential to quantify the relative risk of sustaining injury, in a sports specific application, as a function of location on the body and is thus a potentially useful design tool for design engineers of sports PPE. Given the embryonic nature of this approach, however, a number of assumptions and additional considerations is presented which reveal that, whilst the technique offers additional design insight, further research is required before it should be applied to equipment design. PMID:22245636

Velani, Nikunj; Wilson, Ollie; Halkon, Ben J; Harland, Andy R

2012-01-14

287

Stimulation of oncogenic metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 in melanoma cells activates ERK1/2 via PKCepsilon.  

PubMed

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1, formerly mGluR1) is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) normally expressed and functional in the central nervous system. Studies of our transgenic mouse melanoma model (TG-3) revealed that ectopic expression of Grm1 in melanocytes is sufficient to induce melanoma development in vivo [P.M. Pollock, K. Cohen-Solal, R. Sood, J. Namkoong, J.J. Martino, A. Koganti, H. Zhu, C. Robbins, I. Makalowska, S.S. Shin, Y. Marin, K.G. Roberts, L.M. Yudt, A. Chen, J. Cheng, A. Incao, H.W. Pinkett, C.L. Graham, K. Dunn, S.M. Crespo-Carbone, K.R. Mackason, K.B. Ryan, D. Sinsimer, J. Goydos, K.R. Reuhl, M. Eckhaus, P.S. Meltzer, W.J. Pavan, J.M. Trent, S. Chen, Nat. Genet. 34 (2003) 108-112.]. We have established and characterized several cell lines in vitro from independent mouse melanoma tumors [Y.E. Marín, J. Namkoong, S.S. Shin, J. Raines, K. Degenhardt, E. White, S. Chen, Neuropharmacol. 49 (2005) 70-79.]. These cell lines are useful tools in the studies of signaling events that may be mediated by Grm1 in transformed melanocytes. Here we show that stimulation of Grm1 by l-quisqualate, a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, results in inositol triphosphate (IP3) accumulation, and the activation of ERK1/2 in these cell lines. IP3 accumulation and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited by pretreatment of the tumor cells with a Grm1-specific antagonist (LY367385) or by dominant negative mutants of Grm1, demonstrating the specificity of these events. We also show that ERK1/2 activation by Grm1 was PKC-dependent, but cAMP and PKA-independent. PKCepsilon was shown to play a pivotal role in Grm1-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Insights into the signaling cascades mediated by Grm1 in melanoma cells may aid in the identification of key molecular targets for the future design of combined therapies for melanoma. PMID:16305822

Marín, Yarí E; Namkoong, Jin; Cohen-Solal, Karine; Shin, Seung-Shick; Martino, Jeffrey J; Oka, Masahiro; Chen, Suzie

2005-11-21

288

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In a changing climate the non-steady state series of climatic characteristics will affect on the groundwater recharge.. A well-tested approach to calculating water flux through the vadoze zone is the application of Richard’s equations for a heterogeneous one-domain porosity continuum with specially formulated atmospheric boundary conditions at the ground surface. In this approach the climatic parameters are reflected in upper boundary conditions, while the recharge series is the flux through the low boundary. In this work developed by authors code Surfbal that simulates water cycle at surface of topsoil to take into account the various condition of precipitation transformation at the surface in different seasons under different vegetation cover including snow accumulation in winter and melting in spring is used to generate upper boundary condition at surface of topsoil for world-wide known Hydrus-1D code (Simunek et al, 2008). To estimate the proposal climate change effect we performed Surfbal and Hydrus simulation using the steady state climatic condition and transient condition due to global warming on example of Moscow region, Russia. The following scenario of climate change in 21 century in Moscow region was selected: the annual temperature will increase on 4C during 100 year and annual precipitation will increase on 10% (Solomon et al, 2007). Within the year the maximum increasing of temperature and precipitation falls on winter time, while in middle of summer temperature will remain almost the same as observed now and monthly precipitation. For simulating climate input the weather generator LARSWG (Semenov and Barrow 1997) was trained for generation daily meteorological records for both steady state and transient climatic conditions and two 100 year of meteorological series of minimum and maximum of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation were generated. The numerical experiment for studying of transient climate on groundwater was performed for typical vadoze zone parameters of western part of Moscow Artesian basin. As the result, the 100 years series of recharge were simulated. Examination of stochastic properties of simulated time-series and comparative analysis series for the transient and for the steady state conditions shows the trend of increasing of recharge in this region in transient climate. Analysis of daily and monthly simulated water balance shows that this increasing is result of winter snow melting and winter infiltration into thaw topsoil. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant 08-05-00720a REFERENCES Semenov M.A and Barrow E.M., 1997. Use of a stochastic weather generator in the development of climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 35:397-414 Šim?nek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue "Vadose Zone Modeling", 7(2), 587-600. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

2010-03-01

289

Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2003-10-20

290

The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].  

PubMed

All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing. PMID:22855815

Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

2012-08-01

291

Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m  

SciTech Connect

Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

1985-05-01

292

The Stat3/Socs3a Pathway is a Key Regulator of Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors, i.e. hair cells (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals only possess a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals suffer from permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique, Digital Gene Expression (DGE), which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological up-regulation of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without over-producing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Zhu et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Dierssen et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing.

Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Burgess, Shawn M.

2012-01-01

293

An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper  

SciTech Connect

Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

1997-07-01

294

The PrP-like protein Doppel binds copper.  

PubMed

Doppel (Dpl) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed in the testis. It exhibits 26% sequence identity with the prion protein (PrP) but lacks the octarepeat region implicated as the major copper-binding domain. Contrary to expectations, Cu(II) induced a 26% reduction in the intrinsic fluorescence of Dpl(27-154) and a calculated K(d) for a single-site model of 0.16 +/- 0.08 microm. Other metals had minimal effects on fluorescence quenching. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of a Dpl peptide revealed binding of copper (but not other metals) to the helical alphaB/B'-loop-alphaC subregion of Dpl. Fluorescence quenching and equilibrium dialysis analyses of this Dpl(101-145) peptide were compatible with a binding site of K(d) = 0.4 microm. Diethylpyrocarbonate footprinting (Qin, K., Yang, Y., Mastrangelo, P., and Westaway, D. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1981-1990) of Dpl(27-154) defined one residue/molecule was protected by copper from diethylpyrocarbonate adduct formation, and reiteration of this analysis with Dpl(101-145) suggested that His(131) may contribute to Cu(II) binding. Taken together, our data indicate that the alpha-helical region of mouse Dpl possesses a selective copper-binding site with a submicromolar K(d) and perhaps one or more lower affinity sites. Although metallated forms of Dpl might exist in vivo, analyses of Tg(Dpl)10329 mice were inconsistent with reports that Dpl expression is associated with increased carbonylation and nitrosylation of brain proteins. Thus, rather than comprising an important source of free radical damage, copper binding may serve to modulate the activity, stability, or localization of the Dpl protein. PMID:12482851

Qin, Kefeng; Coomaraswamy, Janaky; Mastrangelo, Peter; Yang, Ying; Lugowski, Stan; Petromilli, Chris; Prusiner, Stanley B; Fraser, Paul E; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Westaway, David

2002-12-13

295

A Simple 2nd-order Physically Bounded Convective Scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we focus on the transient convection problems of which physically bounds are already known. In tradition, the high-resolutions (HR) schemes that use some parameters to measure the local monotonicity in the predicted scalar field, including the well-known TVD-type and NVD-type schemes, are widely used. Recently, Qin Qian, et al., [1] proposed a new approach which use the upwind approximation as the `unbounded indicator''. During the computation, the actual scheme switches between QUICK scheme and 1st-order upwind (FUD) scheme, according to whether the indicator locates in the range of physical bounds or not. However, the new approach does not apply to unstructured grids as the far-upwind point for QUICK scheme is not easy to determine. Considering the easy implementation of central differencing (CD) scheme on structured and unstructured meshes, we propose a new convective scheme following the idea of [1], but using CD scheme as the high-order base scheme. The new scheme is extremely simple, but with 2nd-order accuracy. And best of all, the scheme can be applied to arbitrary grids. Testing is carried out on the 1D (transport of a top-hat pulse) problem on a uniform grid. Further testing on the problem of advection of a square-shaped scalar field on structured and unstructured grids are also done. Finally, we compare the solution obtained by FUD, Gamma, MUSCL and the proposed scheme and find that the new scheme performs well for all the test cases considered.

Jian, Wu; Traoré, Philippe; Hubert, Romat

2010-09-01

296

Altered Resting-State Brain Activity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Structural and functional brain changes may contribute to neural dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the effect of OSA on resting-state brain activity has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the common brain networks in patients with OSA and their relationships with changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the corresponding brain regions. Designs: Resting-state functional and structural MRI data were acquired from patients with OSA and healthy controls. Seven brain networks were identified by independent component analysis. The rsFC in each network was compared between groups and the GMV of brain regions with significant differences in rsFC was also compared. Setting: University hospital. Patients and Participants: Twenty-four male patients with untreated OSA and 21 matched healthy controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: OSA specifically affected the cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks but not the visual and auditory networks. The medial prefrontal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed decreased rsFC and GMV in patients with OSA, suggesting structural and functional deficits. The right DLPFC and left precentral gyrus showed decreased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting a functional deficit. The right posterior cingulate cortex demonstrated increased rsFC and unchanged GMV, suggesting functional compensation. In patients with OSA, the rsFC of the right DLPFC was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: OSA specifically affects resting-state functional connectivity in cognitive and sensorimotor-related brain networks, which may be related to the impaired cognitive and motor functions in these patients. Citation: Zhang Q; Wang D; Qin W; Li Q; Chen B; Zhang Y; Yu C. Altered resting-state brain activity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(5):651-659.

Zhang, Quan; Wang, Dawei; Qin, Wen; Li, Qiong; Chen, Baoyuan; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui

2013-01-01

297

Electromagnetic Weibel instability in intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson, and H. Qin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-type instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T?b/T?b>>1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius rw. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy [(T?b/T?b)Weibel>>(T?b/T?b)Harris] below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

2003-12-01

298

Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

2012-04-01

299

Effects of Chronic Immobilization Stress on Anxiety-like Behavior and Basolateral Amygdala Morphology in Fmr1 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Several lines of clinical evidence support the idea that fragile X syndrome (FXS) may involve a dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (Wisbeck et al, 2000; Hessl et al, 2002). We had tested this idea in a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 KO) and found that the hormonal response to acute stress was similar to that of wild type (WT) mice (Qin and Smith, 2008). We report here responses to chronic stress (CS) in Fmr1 KO mice. Following restraint for 120 min/day, 10 consecutive days, we assessed dendrite and spine morphology in basolateral amygdala (BLA). We also monitored behavior in an elevated plus maze (EPM) and the hormonal response to this novel spatial environment. After CS, mice of both genotypes underwent adrenal hypertrophy, but effects were greater in WT mice. Behavior in the EPM indicated that only WT mice had the expected increase in anxiety following CS. Serum corticosterone and ACTH levels were both increased following the spatial novelty of EPM, and there were no differences between genotypes in the hormonal responses. BLA dendritic branching increased proximal to the soma in WT, but in Fmr1 KO mice branching was unaffected close to the soma and slightly decreased at one point distal to the soma. Similarly, spine density on apical and basal dendrites increased in WT but decreased in Fmr1 KO mice. Spine length on apical and basal dendrites increased in WT but was unaffected in Fmr1 KO mice. These differences in behavioral response and effects on neuron morphology in BLA suggest a diminished adaptive response of Fmr1 KO mice.

Qin, Mei; Xia, Zengyan; Huang, Tianjian; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

2011-01-01

300

Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

Hong Qin

2003-01-21

301

Theoretical analysis of the adaptive contractile behaviour of a single cardiomyocyte cultured on elastic substrates with varying stiffness.  

PubMed

In vivo, cardiomyocytes interact with surrounding extracellular matrix while performing periodically a contractile behaviour, which is the main determinant of heart performance. As extracellular substrates with easily tunable stiffness properties, polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) provide valuable flexible media for studying in vitro the dynamical behaviour of cardiomyocytes responding to stiffness variations of their surrounding environment. We propose in this paper an original mechano-chemical model of the cardiac cell contraction that sheds light on the adaptive response of cardiomyocytes evidenced recently in the experiments of Qin et al. [2007. Dynamical stress characterization and energy evaluation of single cardiac myocyte actuating on flexible substrate. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 360, 352-356]. The model links the amplitude of the extracellular PAGs strain fields to the spatio-temporal variation of the intracellular stresses in every part of the cell during the sarcomeres contraction-relaxation. In a continuum mechanics framework, we derived a unified description of the sarcomere-length dependence of intracellular active stress and of its control by anisotropic calcium diffusion and autocatalytic calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Taking benefit of our previous work on the characterization of mechanical properties of PAGs with varying stiffness, we were thus able to evaluate the active intracellular stress exerted by the cardiomyocyte on flexible PAGs with different and known Young's moduli. Interestingly, we were able to explain the intriguing increase of maximal cellular stress observed experimentally when substrate stiffness is increased. By providing an evaluation of the whole-field cell stresses and strains, this integrative approach of cardiomyocyte contraction provides a reliable basis for further analysis of additional cooperativity and mechanotransduction mechanisms involved in cell contractility regulation, notably in physiological and pathological situations where modifications of cardiac performance are linked to varied stiffness of the cardiomyocytes environment. PMID:18721813

Tracqui, P; Ohayon, J; Boudou, T

2008-07-31

302

Protein Dynamics, Ligand Binding, and Biological Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics is essential for protein function. To demonstrate this point, this talk presents three studies. (1) For a ligand-gated ion channel, ligand binding leads to channel activation by modulating the dynamics of the channel protein. A common theme that emerges from different families of ligand-gated ion channels is that agonist binding closes the ligand-bidning domain (LBD), leading to pore opening in the transmembrane domain (TMD); in contrast, antagonist binding opens the LBD, leading to pore closing in the TMD [1]. (2) When the structure [2] and gating dynamics [3] of the influenza M2 proton channel are accounted for, the calculated rate of ion transport is in quantitative agreement with experimental data [4]. (3) In enzymes, gating dynamics afford substrate selectivity [5]. [4pt] [1] M. Yi, H. Tjong, and H.-X. Zhou (2008). Spontaneous conformational change and toxin binding in ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insight into channel activation and inhibition. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 8280-8285. [0pt] [2] M. Sharma, M. Yi, H. Dong, H. Qin, E. Peterson, D. D. Busath, H.-X. Zhou, and T. A. Cross (2010). Insight into the mechanism of the influenza A proton channel from a structure in a lipid bilayer. Science 330, 509-512. [0pt] [3] M. Yi, T. A. Cross, and H.-X. Zhou (2009). Conformational heterogeneity of the M2 proton channel and a structural model for channel activation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 13311-13316. [0pt] [4] H.-X. Zhou (2010). Diffusion-influenced transport of ions across a transmembrane channel with an internal binding site. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 1973-1976. [0pt] [5] H.-X. Zhou, S. T. Wlodek, and J. A. McCammon (1998). Conformation gating as a mechanism for enzyme specificity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 9280-9283.

Zhou, Huan-Xiang

2011-03-01

303

Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.  

PubMed

Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations. PMID:21888126

Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

2011-01-01

304

Editorial: Focus on Extra Space Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have just started. In addition to verifying the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, these experiments will probe a new energy frontier and test extensions of the SM. The existence of extra dimensions is one of the most attractive possibilities for physics beyond the SM. This focus issue contains a collection of articles addressing both theoretical and phenomenological aspects of extra-dimensional models. Focus on Extra Space Dimensions Contents Minimal universal extra dimensions in CalcHEP/CompHEP AseshKrishna Datta, Kyoungchul Kong and Konstantin T Matchev Disordered extra dimensions Karim Benakli Codimension-2 brane-bulk matching: examples from six and ten dimensions Allan Bayntun, C P Burgess and Leo van Nierop Gauge threshold corrections in warped geometry Kiwoon Choi, Ian-Woo Kim and Chang Sub Shin Holographic methods and gauge-Higgs unification in flat extra dimensions Marco Serone Soft-wall stabilization Joan A Cabrer, Gero von Gersdorff and Mariano Quirós Warped five-dimensional models: phenomenological status and experimental prospects Hooman Davoudiasl, Shrihari Gopalakrishna, Eduardo Pontón and José Santiago

Agashe, Kaustubh; Pomarol, Alex

2010-07-01

305

A pneumatic leg brace for the treatment of tibial stress fractures.  

PubMed

Forty-two competitive athletes with posterior medial pain in the lower one-half of the tibia were evaluated by plain roentgenograms and bone scans. Twenty stress fractures were diagnosed in 17 patients by plain roentgenograms or bone scans or both. The remaining 25 patients were diagnosed as having shin splints. All 42 patients subsequently had a pneumatic leg brace applied to the affected limb or limbs. The 17 patients with stress fractures were able to ambulate without pain and were allowed to resume light training in an average of one week. Their injuries were nontender to palpation. The patients were allowed to resume intensive training at an average of 3.7 weeks postinjury. Patients returned to competition at the preinjury level in an average of 5.3 weeks after application of the brace. The pneumatic leg brace allowed the athletes with tibial stress fractures to begin pain-free ambulation and rehabilitation, thus facilitating the maintenance of their cardiovascular fitness and permitting an early return to competition. PMID:1884554

Whitelaw, G P; Wetzler, M J; Levy, A S; Segal, D; Bissonnette, K

1991-09-01

306

Abnormal biomechanics of the foot and ankle.  

PubMed

The biomechanics of the foot and ankle is important to the normal function of the lower extremity. The foot is the terminal joint in the lower kinetic chain that opposes external resistance. Proper arthrokinematic movement within the foot and ankle influences the ability of the lower limb to attenuate the forces of weightbearing. It is important for the lower extremity to distribute and dissipate compressive, tensile, shearing, and rotatory forces during the stance phase of gait. Inadequate distribution of these forces could lead to abnormal stress and eventual breakdown of connective tissue and muscle. Pathologies such as heel spurs, hallux valgus, neuromas, hallux limitus, shin splints, and nonspecific knee pain result from abnormal mechanics of the foot and ankle. The use of orthotics to re-establish the normal biomechanics of the foot and ankle have profound clinical applications. The combined effect of muscle, bone, ligaments, and normal biomechanics will result in the most efficient force attenuation in the lower limb. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 1987;9(1):11-16. PMID:18794588

Donatelli, R A

1987-01-01

307

Women midshipmen in sports.  

PubMed

This is a study of the physical performance and injury rate for seven classes of women midshipmen at the United States Naval Academy. Women comprise only 6.2% of the brigade of midshipmen, but men and women live in the same dormitory, undergo the same physical training and fitness tests, study the same academic curriculum, and live in an environment where performance and activities can be constantly monitored. The required number of hours of physical education are the same for men and women. The conclusions from this study are: (1) women midshipmen continue to improve their fitness level more rapidly than men; (2) while some disparities in performance are correctly attributed to physiological differences, many of the present disparities should be attributed to societal conditions; (3) should physical performance requirements ever become the same, women will have to work harder than men to achieve the same standards because of the physiological differences; (4) women continue to seek medical attention for stress-related problems (i.e., shin splints, stress fractures) more often than men, but do so less often as they become acclimated to the active life of the Naval Academy; (5) women midshipmen have the same number of serious injuries as men, and in some sports are more susceptible to certain types of injuries. PMID:6742310

Cox, J S; Lenz, H W

308

Orthopedic pathology of the lower extremities: scintigraphic evaluation in the thigh, knee, and leg.  

PubMed

Radionuclide imaging (RI) of the osseous and nonosseous structures of the thigh, knee, and leg provide important diagnostic and prognostic information upon which the orthopedic surgeon can base treatment planning and management decisions. 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy is essential in overuse injuries such as stress fractures and shin splints. RI is important in assessing complications of trauma. It is the only imaging modality able to assess the magnitude of physeal stimulus caused by femoral fractures and to predict a favorable or unfavorable outcome of leg length by semiquantitative analysis; SPECT imaging can detect and locate decreased metabolism associated with posttraumatic closure of the physeal plate to predict growth arrest and deformities. Three-phase bone imaging (TPBI) is essential to differentiate hypervascular from avascular nonunions and follow delayed union. In osteonecrosis of the knee, bone scintigraphy precedes radiography changes even in stage l of the disease. 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-HIG imaging are powerful tools in determining the outcomes of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, respectively. Bone scintigraphy can also detect chronic ligament and acute and chronic meniscal lesions. The combined use of TPBI, gallium-67 citrate imaging, and indium-111 or 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocytes is important to diagnose and differentiate acute from chronic osteomyelitis, and to detect infected knee prostheses. Thallium-201 chloride imaging and 99mTc-sestamibi imaging have an important role in the assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy and in the quantification of tumor viability. PMID:9467192

Etchebehere, E C; Etchebehere, M; Gamba, R; Belangero, W; Camargo, E E

1998-01-01

309

Modified track shoes and their effect on the EMG activity of calf muscles.  

PubMed

Although track and field spike shoes are crafted for runners, these shoes are not designed for regular walking. With such shoes, runners may eventually encounter serious chronic injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, achilles tendinitis, chondromalacia, and iliotibial band syndrome. To address this problem, a modified spike shoe was tested and compared to a regular spike shoe. The modification consists of adding a removable heel to the shoe sole in order to reduce the flexion of the foot and properly level the foot for walking. Nine healthy participants performed walking drills at 2 and 3 mph, using the original and the modified shoes. Electromyography (EMG) measurements were used to evaluate muscle activities. Participants also rated their discomfort on a 0-10 scale. Results show that the use of modified shoes resulted in a reduction of 22% and 24.25% EMG activity for the tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively. Comfort ratings increased by an average of 2.7, 2.6, 3.9, and 4.2 points at the knees, calves, ankles, and feet, respectively. PMID:22316968

Greensword, Marlon; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Al-Qaisi, Saif

2012-01-01

310

Orthotic design and foot impression procedures to control foot alignment.  

PubMed

The traditional theory on subtalar joint neutral position and intrinsic foot deformities for the evaluation and treatment of foot and ankle disorders has been the basis for foot orthotics for many years. Although clinical evaluations have suggested a relationship between subtalar pronation and a variety of lower limb problems, such as shin splints and anterior knee pain, recent research has raised serious concerns about the reliability and validity of the assessment and intervention methods. Results of recent studies in foot biomechanics suggest that the orthosis design to control foot alignment should stabilise the medial apical bony structure of the arch to control the first ray mobility and transmit load through the lateral support structures of the foot, locking the calcaneocuboid joint and decreasing strain in the plantar aponeurosis. The concept of "posting" according to a measured foot deformity is de-emphasised. Reliable foot impression procedures are required to provide appropriate orthotic design and thus management. A prone lying position manipulated foot impression method using polycaprolactone based low temperature thermoplastic material was introduced. Ten (10) subjects were recruited to participate in the reliability tests, which were conducted by 2 orthotists specialized in foot orthotics. Results showed high intrarater and interrater reliability of the measured forefoot width and the navicular height. The reliability of the forefoot-rearfoot relationship was demonstrated by the small variance of the root mean square calculation. Subsequently orthotic intervention can be done in a more consistent manner. PMID:15658638

Leung, A K L; Cheng, J C Y; Mak, A F T

2004-12-01

311

Radionuclide bone imaging: an illustrative review.  

PubMed

Bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled diphosphonates is one of the most frequently performed of all radionuclide procedures. Radionuclide bone imaging is not specific, but its excellent sensitivity makes it useful in screening for many pathologic conditions. Moreover, some conditions that are not clearly depicted on anatomic images can be diagnosed with bone scintigraphy. Bone metastases usually appear as multiple foci of increased activity, although they occasionally manifest as areas of decreased uptake. Traumatic processes can often be detected, even when radiographic findings are negative. Most fractures are scintigraphically detectable within 24 hours, although in elderly patients with osteopenia, further imaging at a later time is sometimes indicated. Athletic individuals are prone to musculoskeletal trauma, and radionuclide bone imaging is useful for identifying pathologic conditions such as plantar fasciitis, stress fractures, "shin splints," and spondylolysis, for which radiographs may be nondiagnostic. A combination of focal hyperperfusion, focal hyperemia, and focally increased bone uptake is virtually diagnostic for osteomyelitis in patients with nonviolated bone. Bone scintigraphy is also useful for evaluating disease extent in Paget disease and for localizing avascular necrosis in patients with negative radiographs. Radionuclide bone imaging will likely remain a popular and important imaging modality for years to come. PMID:12640151

Love, Charito; Din, Anabella S; Tomas, Maria B; Kalapparambath, Tomy P; Palestro, Christopher J

312

Effort-related chronic compartment syndrome of the lower extremity.  

PubMed

Effort-related chronic compartment syndrome (ERCCS) of the lower extremity is often misdiagnosed, requiring repeated visits to the physician and subsequent delay in definitive treatment. The most significant causes of chronic leg pain in physically active individuals are stress fractures, shin splints, and "exercise-induced" or effort-related chronic compartment syndrome. In patients susceptible to ERCCS, the fascial compartments are too small to accommodate the associated 20% increase in muscle mass that typically occurs with heavy exercise. The increased pressure within a small unyielding compartment limits circulation and subsequent muscle function. The only appropriate conservative treatment is cessation of the offending activity. Early suspicion of the condition is paramount, because the definitive treatment is fasciotomy. ERCCS has only recently been recognized, and therefore it may be underdiagnosed. Family physicians and general medical officers caring for otherwise healthy soldiers and athletes should be aware of ERCCS so that prompt orthopedic referral for evaluation and definitive treatment will not be delayed. PMID:10578599

Schissel, D J; Godwin, J

1999-11-01

313

The influence in airforce soldiers through wearing certain types of army-issue footwear on muscle activity in the lower extremities.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities.37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing - one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris.When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

2011-08-10

314

Fatigue bone injuries causing anterior lower leg pain.  

PubMed

Shin splints, or stress-related anterior lower leg pain, seem to arise from numerous causes, including stress fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 154 consecutive military patients who had magnetic resonance imaging during a 5-year period for stress-related anterior lower leg pain. Using magnetic resonance imaging, 143 bone stress injuries were diagnosed in 86 of the 154 (56%) patients. The incidence of bone stress injury requiring orthopaedic consultation and magnetic resonance imaging among recruits during the 5 years was 117 per 100,000 person years in military service. The bone stress injury was located in the tibia in 141 (99%) patients. Of these injuries, 80 (57%) were located in the distal (1/3) of the tibial shaft, 42 (30%) in the middle (1/3), 14 (10%) in the proximal (1/3), and five (3%) in the medial condyle. The locations of tibial stress injuries related to the magnetic resonance imaging grades. Almost all lower leg fatigue bone stress injuries were located in the tibia, and the distal lateral shaft was affected most often. When used early after onset of symptoms, magnetic resonance imaging provides accurate diagnosis to ensure appropriate treatment, especially when dealing with exercise-induced lower leg pain in physically active patients. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic study, Level II (development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients [with universally applied reference "gold" standard]). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:16523142

Ruohola, Juha-Petri S; Kiuru, Martti J; Pihlajamäki, Harri K

2006-03-01

315

Interpretation and classification of bone scintigraphic findings in stress fractures.  

PubMed

A new system for classification of stress fractures identified by bone scintigraphy was developed and divided into four grades according to lesion dimension, bone extension, and tracer accumulation. The scintigraphic findings were evaluated for severity of lesions by extent of the visualized bone response, ranging from ill-defined cortical lesions with slightly increased activity (I) to well-defined intramedullary transcortical lesions with intensely increased activity (IV). Bone scintigraphies using [99mTc]MDP were obtained in 310 military recruits suspected of having stress fractures. In 235 patients, 391 stress fractures were diagnosed. Forty percent of the lesions were asymptomatic. Most of the lesions were in the tibiae (72%), and 87% of the patients had one or two lesions, while 13% had three to five lesions. Eighty-five percent of the lesions were classified as mild and showed early and more complete resolution on follow-up studies after treatment as compared to the severe grades. Furthermore, specific scintigraphic patterns have been introduced for distinguishing inflammatory shin-splints from stress fractures, allowing for their appropriate early treatment. Thus, early recognition of mild stress fracture scintigraphic patterns representing the beginning of pathologic bone response to stress enabled a prompt and effective treatment to prevent progression of lesions, protracted disability, and complications. PMID:3572532

Zwas, S T; Elkanovitch, R; Frank, G

1987-04-01

316

Previous injuries and persisting symptoms in female soccer players.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty players in a female senior soccer division, starting up a new season, were examined for past injuries and persisting symptoms. An incidence of 0.18 injury/player/year was found, which is not significantly different from previously reported injury rates for male soccer. Sprains to the lower extremity and shin-splints were the most common previous injuries. Forty-three percent of the players had some kind of persistent symptom as a result of a past injury. Symptoms from previous ankle and knee sprains and from overuse injuries were the most common. Players who had sustained an ankle joint injury were more prone to have persistent symptoms (p less than 0.05) if they had persistent mechanical instability. Compared to previous retrospective studies on men's soccer, the women showed a higher rate of previous patellar dislocations. These injuries often caused persistent symptoms. The women showed fewer serious knee injuries. This might depend on a real difference in incidence or is just a reflection of female players ceasing to play soccer after a severe knee injury. PMID:2286489

Brynhildsen, J; Ekstrand, J; Jeppsson, A; Tropp, H

1990-12-01

317

Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury. PMID:3291129

Matin, P

1988-04-01

318

Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.  

PubMed

The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed. PMID:15518304

Hislop, M; Tierney, P

2004-09-01

319

Tibial periosteal reactions in soldiers. A scintigraphic study of 29 cases of lower leg pain.  

PubMed

Twenty-two soldiers with tibial pain along the posteromedial tibial border (29 painful tibias) entered the study. The tibias were evaluated using radiographs and scintigraphs. Follow-up scintigraphs of 12 tibias were performed. The scintigraphic lesions were classified as Stages 0-V depending on the percentage of bone thickness involved. No attempts were made to differentiate between shin splints and stress fractures. Twenty-four symptomatic lesions and five asymptomatic lesions were found by scintigraphy. Radiographic changes were found in all the lesions classified as Stage III or higher, in some Stage II lesions, but never in Stages 0 and I lesions. Because intense scintigraphic uptake is seen in bone tumors, radiographs are needed to exclude this diagnosis. Radiographs were, however, not as sensitive as scintigraphs for differentiating the periosteal injuries seen in this study. The initial scintigraphs can be used to classify the lesions. Follow-up scintigraphs are not useful because they take months to return to normal. Consequently, the clinical symptoms and the level of pain should be the guidelines for treatment. PMID:1767641

Nielsen, M B; Hansen, K; Hølmer, P; Dyrbye, M

1991-12-01

320

Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid Li surfaces exposed to deuterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the structure of liquid Li and its interactions with deuterium atoms using PROFESS (PRinceton Orbital-Free Electronic Structure Software) [1]. This linear-scaling orbital-free density functional theory method is a very fast quantum mechanics technique that allows one to perform ab initio molecular dynamics of metals for a large number of atoms and fairly long times. We adopt the WGC99 kinetic energy density functional that is very accurate for simple metals [2]. We use well validated bulk-derived local pseudopotentials [3] to describe the electron-ion interactions. Key properties of liquid Li will be presented and discussed, such as its bulk and surface structures, etc. Time permitting, we will discuss predictions related to adsorption and absorption of deuterium atoms into Li. This work provides new insights into understanding the surface structure of liquid Li using large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics methods. [1] L. Hung, C. Huang, I.Shin, G. Ho, V. L. Ligneres, and E. A. Carter, Comput. Phys. Comm., 181, 2208 (2010). [2] Y. A. Wang, N. Govind, and E. A. Carter, Phys. Rev. B, 60, 16350 (1999). Erratum: Phys. Rev. B, 64, 089903-1 (2001). [3] C. Huang and E. A. Carter, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, 7109 (2008).

Chen, Mohan; Xia, Junchao; Shin, Ilgyou; Carter, Emily

2013-03-01

321

Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

322

Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Phialophora richardsiae  

PubMed Central

Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by a group of dematiaceous (black) fungi. The most common etiologic agents are Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii, both of which can be isolated from plant debris. The infection usually follows traumatic inoculation by a penetrating thorn or splinter wound. Several months after the injury, painless papules or nodules appear on the affected area; these papules then progress to scaly and verrucose plaques. We report a case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Phialophora richardsiae, which has been rarely associated with chromoblastomycosis. The case involved a 43-year-old male, who for the past 2 months had noted an erythematous, pustulous plaque that was somewhat dark brown in color on his right shin; the plaque also had intermittent purulent discharge and crust formation. On histopathological examination, chronic granulomatous inflammation and sclerotic cells were seen. The tissue fungus culture grew out the typical black fungi of P. richardsiae, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The patient has been treated with a combination of terbinafine and itraconazole for 3 months with a good clinical response.

Son, Young-Min; Kang, Hong-Kyu; Na, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Young; Baek, Jin-Ok; Lee, Jong-Rok; Seo, Yiel-Hea

2010-01-01

323

Electronic states in 1/1 Cd6 Yb and 1/1 Cd6 Ca : Relativistic, correlation, and structural effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of the rational approximants 1/1 Cd6Yb and 1/1 Cd6Ca to the stable icosahedral Cd5.7Yb and Cd5.7Ca quasicrystals is studied by the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method. A comparison is made between several structural models. We show that the (relativistic) spin-orbit (SO) interaction and electronic correlations that are not described by the usual local density approximation are essential for an accurate description of the electronic structure. In particular, we show that the SO interaction is responsible for a splitting of the Cd 4d and Yb 4f peaks, and that the experimental peak positions can be reproduced by including a Hubbard U term in the Hamiltonian [ U(Cd)=5.6eV , U(Yb)=3.1eV ]. Our results show very good agreement with a photoemission (PE) spectrum of 1/1 Cd6Yb [R. Tamura, Y. Murao, S. Takeuchi, T. Kiss, T. Yokoya, and S. Shin, Phys. Rev. B 65, 224207 (2002)] and a 350eV PE spectrum of 1/1 Cd6Ca , which we present in this paper.

Zijlstra, E. S.; Bose, S. K.; Tamura, R.

2004-11-01

324

Characterization of an ultra-thick positive photoresist for electroplating applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance requirements for ultra-thick photoresists have increased rapidly with the dramatic growth in new lithographic applications that require electroplating processes. Two of the main applications for ultra-thick photoresists are nanotechnology (MEMS) and advanced packaging. Flipchip packaging has become widely adopted to address electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. The growth in the nanotechnology market is driven by a wide range of products, which include accelerometers, ink jet print heads, biomedical sensors and optical switches. Electroplating levels for these applications require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and plating with conventional semiconductor equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. A single coat step to achieve the final photoresist thickness is critical to minimize the number of process steps and cycle time. The sidewall profile, aspect ratio, electroplating durability and subsequent stripability are all important. This study characterized a novel positive photosensitive chemically amplified photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR) for the use in a 65 µm thick electroplating level on copper. The lithographic performance of the ultra-thick positive photoresist was optimized using a broad band, low numerical aperture, 1x stepper to control critical dimensions (CD), sidewall angles and aspect ratios. Cross sectional SEM analysis, contrast curves, process linearity, and process latitude plots were used to establish the lithographic capabilities. High aspect ratio structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability. A recommended process flow is described for this photoresist and stepper.

Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

2003-06-01

325

Characterization of an ultrathick positive photoresist for electroplating applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance requirements for ultra-thick photoresists are rapidly increasing with the dramatic growth in new lithographic applications that require electroplating processes. Two of the main applications for ultra-thick photoresists are nanotechnology (MEMS) and advanced packaging. Flipchip packaging has become widely adopted to address electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. The growth in the nanotechnology market is driven by a wide range of products, which include accelerometers, ink jet print heads, biomedical sensors and optical switches. Electroplating levels for these applications require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and plating with conventional semiconductor equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. A single coat step to achieve the final photoresist thickness is critical to minimize the number of process steps and cycle time. For this thick layer the sidewall profile, aspect ratio, electroplating durability and subsequent stripability are all important. This study characterized a novel positive photoresist (Shin-Etsu SIPR) for use in a 100 micron thick coat for electroplating on copper. The lithographic performance of the ultra-thick positive photoresist was optimized using a broad band, 1X KARL SUSS MA150 aligner used in the proximity mode. All proximity gaps were hard set at 100 microns. Cross sectional SEM analysis, process linearity, and optimized proximity gaps were used to establish the lithographic capabilities. High aspect ratio structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability. A recommended process flow is described for this photoresist and exposure tool.

Avrit, Brad K.; Maxwell, Edward W.; Huynh, Lisa M.; Capsuto, Elliott S.

2004-05-01

326

Calculated proton-induced thick-target radionuclide activation yields and neutron yield spectra for E/sub p/ less than or equal to 50 MeV, with comparisons to other calculations and measured data  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide production cross sections have been calculated with the GNASH code for protons below 50 MeV incident of on the stable nuclides of a range of elements common to accelerator materials. These elements include C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and W. These data, augmented with limited measured data, have been used with the proton stopping cross-section data of Anderson and Ziegler to calculate thick-target yield values for the formation of a range of radionuclides in accelerator materials. Illustrative results are presented. GNASH calculations have also been made on a grid of proton energies below 50 MeV to produce differential cross sections describing angle-integrated neutron production spectra. The angular distribution systematics of Kalbach and Mann have been used to produce double-differential cross-section, which were used with the proton stopping data to produce anisotropic thick-target neutron yield spectra. Results are presented for 52-MeV protons on a thick target of Cu. Comparisons are made with results of HETC calculations, using cross sections from the intranuclear cascade plus evaporation model, and with thick-target neutron yield spectra measured by Nakamura, Fijii, and Shin. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wilson, W.B.; Arthur, E.D.; LaBauve, R.J.; Perry, R.T.

1988-01-01

327

Infrared spectroscopy of perdeuterated protonated water clusters in the vicinity of the clathrate cage.  

PubMed

We report infrared predissociation spectra of size-selected D(+)(D(2)O)(n) clusters in the size range n = 18-24 for comparison to previous studies of the corresponding H(+)(H(2)O)(n) species (Shin, J.-W.; Hammer, N. I.; Diken, E. G.; Johnson, M. A.; Walters, R. S.; Jaeger, T. D.; Duncan, M. A.; Christie, R. A.; Jordon, K. D. Science 2004, 304, 1137). For n = 18-20, two "free" OD stretch bands are observed and assigned to D(2)O molecules in acceptor-acceptor-donor (AAD) and acceptor-donor (AD) hydrogen bonding arrangements. Only the AAD band is observed for the n = 21 perdeuterated species. This behavior is identical to that observed previously for the corresponding H(+)(H(2)O)(n) clusters. Similar to the all-H protonated species, the AD "free" OD stretch band is also absent for the perdeuterated n = 22 cluster but returns for clusters larger than n = 22. Like the H(+)(H(2)O)(n) systems, the perdeuterated clusters have no spectral band in the lower frequency range where the signature of the hydronium cation is predicted. These observations shed new light on the intriguing spectroscopy and dynamics of large protonated water clusters. PMID:19580309

Douberly, Gary E; Ricks, Allen M; Duncan, Michael A

2009-07-30

328

Identification and molecular mapping of a wheat gene for resistance to an unadapted isolate of Colletotrichum cereale.  

PubMed

To elucidate genetic mechanisms of host species specificity between graminicolous anthracnose fungi and gramineous plants, infection assays were performed with a Sorghum isolate (Colletotrichum sublineolum), a Digitaria isolate (C. hanaui), a Polypogon isolate (C. cereale), and an Avena isolate (C. cereale). They were specifically virulent on the plants from which they were isolated. When 72 wheat lines were inoculated with an unadapted isolate from Asia Minor bluegrass (Cgp29), however, some exceptional cultivars were recognized. Although most cultivars were resistant to Cgp29, 'Hope' was susceptible. In F2 populations derived from crosses between three resistant cultivars-'Norin 4' (N4), 'Chinese Spring' (CS), and 'Shin-chunaga' (Sch)-and the susceptible Hope, resistant and susceptible seedlings segregated in a 3:1 ratio, suggesting that a major gene is involved in the resistance of each cultivar to Cgp29. In F2 populations derived from crosses between the three resistant cultivars, all seedlings were resistant, suggesting that these three cultivars carry the same gene. This resistance gene was designated as "resistance to Colletotrichum cereale 1" (Rcc1). Analysis with the CS-Hope chromosome substitution lines and molecular mapping revealed that Rcc1 was located on the long arm of chromosome 5A. Cytologically, Rcc1 was mainly associated with hypersensitive reaction. These results suggest that major genes similar to those controlling cultivar specificity are involved in the resistance of wheat against the unadapted isolate of C. cereale. PMID:23676088

Inoue, Yoshihiro; Mori, Ryota; Takahashi, Yujiro; Kiguchi, So; Enomoto, Takashi; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

2013-06-01

329

Mice lacking complex gangliosides develop Wallerian degeneration and myelination defects.  

PubMed

Gangliosides are a family of sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids highly enriched in the mammalian nervous system. Although they are the major sialoglycoconjugates in the brain, their neurobiological functions remain poorly defined. By disrupting the gene for a key enzyme in complex ganglioside biosynthesis (GM2/GD2 synthase; EC 2.4.1.92) we generated mice that express only simple gangliosides (GM3/GD3) and examined their central and peripheral nervous systems. The complex ganglioside knockout mice display decreased central myelination, axonal degeneration in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, and demyelination in peripheral nerves. The pathological features of their nervous system closely resemble those reported in mice with a disrupted gene for myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), a myelin receptor that binds to complex brain gangliosides in vitro. Furthermore, GM2/GD2 synthase knockout mice have reduced MAG expression in the central nervous system. These results indicate that complex gangliosides function in central myelination and maintaining the integrity of axons and myelin. They also support the theory that complex gangliosides are endogenous ligands for MAG. The data extend and clarify prior observations on a similar mouse model, which reported only subtle conduction defects in their nervous system [Takamiya, K., Yamamoto, A., Furukawa, K., Yamashiro, S., Shin, M., Okada, M., Fukumoto, S., Haraguchi, M., Takeda, N., Fujimura, K., et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 10662-10667]. PMID:10377449

Sheikh, K A; Sun, J; Liu, Y; Kawai, H; Crawford, T O; Proia, R L; Griffin, J W; Schnaar, R L

1999-06-22

330

MEMS Fabricated MM-Wave Slow Wave Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication and test of a MEMS slow wave structure designed for a > 40 GHz bandwidth centered on 220 GHz operation, that slows radiation down to group velocity of 8.16 x 10^7 ms-1 where the velocity matches the speed of electrons from a 20 keV source. The slow wave device uses a 40 mm long staggered interdigitated vane structure within a waveguide [1]. Ultimately, such a device will be integrated with an electron beam to become part of a sheet beam travelling wave tube (SBTWT) amplifier. A gold coated deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) silicon test structure was fabricated to test the RF properties of the design. This MEMS structure was coupled to WR-4 waveguide in a metal fixture and the S-parameters measured using a vector network analyzer, allowing extraction of the insertion loss and signal delay as a function of frequency. A further MEMS structure with just 10 cells of the vane structure within a cavity were fabricated which allows points on the dispersion curve to be directly measured as resonances of the structure. Extraction of the dispersion curve verifies the group velocity measurement of the device. [4pt] [1] Y-M. Shin & L.R. Barnett, Appl.Phys. Lett. 2008, 92 pp. 091501.

Field, Mark; Borwick, Robert; Shin, Young-Min; Barnett, Larry; Luhmann, Neville; Kimura, Takuji; Atkinson, John

2012-02-01

331

The venomous hair structure, venom and life cycle of Lagoa crispata, a puss caterpillar of Oklahoma.  

PubMed

The presence of a unique population of Lagoa crispata, puss caterpillar, in western Oklahoma is reported. A detailed microscopic examination shows the structure of the L. crispata spines resemble the type 4 spines described by [Kawamoto, F., Kumada, N., 1984. Biology and venoms of lepidoptera. In: Tu, A.T. (Ed.), Handbook of Natural Toxins, Insect Poisons, Allergens and other invertebrate venoms, vol. 2, pp. 291-332 (ch. 9)]. The major food source of L. crispata are the leaves of oak (shin oak). The high tannin content of this food source results in spine extracts high in oak tannins. These extracts have activity but enzyme and toxin activity is lost with time. The gel filtration protein fractions are colored from brown to yellow and are inactive as enzymes or toxins. No hyaluronidase, protease or phosphohydrolase activity is detected in these protein fractions. The life cycle shows these caterpillars have 6 instars. Characterizations and annual emerging times of each instar are included. PMID:10736472

Lamdin, J M; Howell, D E; Kocan, K M; Murphey, D R; Arnold, D C; Fenton, A W; Odell, G V; Ownby, C L

2000-09-01

332

PREFACE: Eucas '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 6 plenary, 22 invited, 206 oral and 429 poster contributions were presented on recent developments in the field of applied superconductivity. This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains all contributed papers that were accepted for the Conference Proceedings. The Dresden EUCAS conference with 712 participants from 43 countries continued the tradition of preceding EUCAS conferences of combining basic superconductivity research contributions with the discussion of recent material advances and new developments in large scale and electronic applications. In Dresden, contributions on the recently discovered Fe based superconductors were presented for the first time during a EUCAS conference and their potential for applications was intensively discussed. Finally we want to acknowledge the help of the International Advisory and National Committees in setting up the scientific program and especially we would like to express our gratitude to all members of the Local Organization Committee. Their enthusiastic and well organized work made this Dresden EUCAS conference a memorable event for all participants. Last but not least we are very grateful to W. Goldacker , S. Haindl, J. Hänisch, R. Hühne, M. Noe, P. Seidel and M. Siegel for their extraordinary help during the proceedings review process. Bernhard Holzapfel Ludwig Schultz Conference Chairmen The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

2010-04-01

333

Nest site characteristics of three coexisting Accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat data were evaluated at 34 Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 31 Cooper's Hawk (A. cooperii), and 15 Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus) nest sites in coniferous forests of northeastern Oregon. Crown volume profiles indicate a strong similarity in vegetative structure at nest sites of cooperii and striatus; both commonly nest in younger successional stands than gentilis. Habitat separation of nest sites among the three species was illustrated using a stepwise discriminant analysis; 88% of all gentilis sites were correctly classified. Interspecific overlap in nest site habitat was further demonstrated using a canonical analysis of habitat variables. Nest site habitat space of gentilis is distinct and is less variable in structure than that of the other species. Cooperii preferred nesting sites with norhern aspects, whereas striatus and gentilis showed no preference. The use of mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) growth by cooperii for nest platforms (64% of all nests) may explain its preference for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as a nesting tree. Douglas fir is most commonly parasitized by mistletoe.

Moore, K.R.; Henny, C.J.

1983-01-01

334

Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

1990-01-01

335

Influence of cutting parameters on diamond turning titanium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its alloy have wider application prospects in such engineering fields as aerospace and nuclear energy. Presently, most of the ordinary cutting tools couldn't meet the requirement when machining those materials, even if cubic boron nitride and precision ceramics tools as their limitation of physics performance. But natural single crystal diamond tool can be applied to lens manufacture with high accuracy and surface quality as its sharp enough knife-edge used to extremely shin cutting. However, its easily wearing disadvantage limits its application to Titanium and its alloy machining. Ultrasonic vibration is applied to diamond turning of Titanium and its alloy to decrease diamond tool wear and improve the surface quality of work-piece. Under given experimental conditions, when cutting distance is less than 2000 meters, the work-piece surface roughness(Ra) is lower than 0.25?m and the wear width of rear sides of cutting tools less than 8?m. If increasing the amplitude, surface quality of titanium alloy will be improved a lot. With amplitude increasing, diamond tools wear alleviates obviously. Experiment reveals that the effect of cutting depth on surface roughness is distinct. Roughness increases with the increase of cutting depth.. The effect of feed rate on surface roughness(Ra) is obvious. Surface roughness(Ra) increases with the increase of feed rate.

Zhang, Yuan-liang; Zhou, Zhi-min; Xiu, Wei; Xia, Zhi-hui

2007-12-01

336

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

PubMed

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y

2012-05-09

337

Conference Committees: Conference Committees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Günther Schmahl University Göttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

2009-09-01

338

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa of elderly onset.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man with no family history of skin diseases presented with a 4 month history of recalcitrant pruritic papules and nodules on the lower extremities. He had prurigo-like eruptions with tense bullae on the extensor aspect of his lower extremities with multiple adjacent milia. Toenail dystrophy was observed. Mucous membranes were not affected. Skin biopsy from the shin showed a subepidermal blister with milium. Electron microscopy from lesional and perilesional skin of the leg showed scanty, hypoplastic anchoring fibrils. We detected a heterozygous mutation in the COL7A1 gene, a G-to-A substitution in exon 87 (c.6859G>A; p.Gly2287Arg). Thus, the clinicopathological and molecular findings supported a diagnosis of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa. Assessment of other relatives was not feasible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest clinical onset of this unusual variant of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa reported to date. Why the onset of skin fragility should have occurred so late is not known, but the case serves as a reminder that this particular mechanobullous disease can have a delayed presentation. PMID:21269315

Hayashi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Hozumi, Yutaka; Nakano, Hajime; Sawamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tamio

2010-09-29

339

The Integration of Bacteriorhodopsin Proteins with Semiconductor Heterostructure Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioelectronics has emerged as one of the most rapidly developing fields among the active frontiers of interdisciplinary research. A major thrust in this field is aimed at the coupling of the technologically-unmatched performance of biological systems, such as neural and sensing functions, with the well developed technology of microelectronics and optoelectronics. To this end we have studied the integration of a suitably engineered protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), with semiconductor optoelectronic devices and circuits. Successful integration will potentially lead to ultrasensitive sensors with polarization selectivity and built-in preprocessing capabilities that will be useful for high speed tracking, motion and edge detection, biological detection, and artificial vision systems. In this presentation we will summarize our progresses in this area, which include fundamental studies on the transient dynamics of photo-induced charge shift in BR and the coupling mechanism at protein-semiconductor interface for effective immobilizing and selectively integrating light sensitive proteins with microelectronic devices and circuits, and the device engineering of BR-transistor-integrated optical sensors as well as their applications in phototransceiver circuits. Work done in collaboration with Pallab Bhattacharya, Jonghyun Shin, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Robert R. Birge, Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269; and György V'ar'o, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Science, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary.

Xu, Jian

2008-03-01

340

Early pancreatic panniculitis associated with HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pancreatic panniculitis represents a rare cutaneous disorder most commonly associated with acute or chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic carcinoma. We describe a case of a 17-year-old woman who presented with a 2-day history of erythematous patches involving her bilateral knees and tender, scattered red-brown nodules involving her bilateral anterior shins. She was seen during a hospitalization for emergent cesarean section and her hospital course was complicated by HELLP syndrome (defined by the presence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count), acute fatty liver of pregnancy and pancreatitis. The characteristic histopathologic findings, including ghost cells, fat necrosis and granular basophilic material with dystrophic calcification, appear in later lesions. In early lesions, as was shown in this case, a neutrophilic subcutaneous infiltrate raises a differential diagnosis including infection, subcutaneous Sweet's syndrome or atypical erythema nodosum. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of pancreatic panniculitis in association with HELLP syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Early recognition is critical, as skin lesions may precede the development of pancreatitis. Often, as in our case, the effects of pancreatitis may be life threatening. PMID:21752052

Kirkland, Eugene B; Sachdev, Reena; Kim, Jinah; Peng, David

2011-07-14

341

Physiological strain of next generation combat uniforms with chemical and biological protection: importance of clothing vents.  

PubMed

This study examined whether vents in the arms, legs and chest of new protective assault uniforms (PTAU) reduced heat strain at 35 °C during a low dressed state (DSlow), and subsequently improved tolerance time (TT) after transitioning to DShigh compared with the battle dress uniform and overgarment (BDU+O). Small but significant reductions in rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate and vapour pressures over the thigh and shin were observed during DSlow with vents open (37.9 ± 0.2 °C, 120 ± 10 b/min, 3.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 1.0 kPa) versus closed (38.0 ± 0.1 °C, 127 ± 5 b/min, 4.3 ± 0.3 and 4.6 ± 0.5 kPa). During DShigh Tre was reduced and TT increased significantly with the PTAUs (1.1 ± 0.2 °C/h and 46 ± 24 min) versus BDU+O (1.6 ± 0.2 °C/h and 33 ± 16 min). The vents marginally reduced heat strain during DSlow and extended TT during DShigh) compared with BDU+O. Practitioner Summary: Clothing vents in chemical and biological protective uniforms can assist with heat transfer in situations where the uniforms must be worn for extended periods prior to exposure to a hazardous condition. Once the vents are closed, exposure time is increased and the increase in body temperature reduced. PMID:23231665

McLellan, Tom M; Boscarino, Cathy; Duncan, E J Scott

2012-12-11

342

Unilateral hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a patient with a vascular graft infection.  

PubMed

We report a patient who presented with high fever; a unilateral, palpable tender swelling along the right shin; and effusions in knee and ankle joints leading to the diagnosis of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA). The diagnostic workup revealed an infected vascular graft that had been implanted 2 years before because of a ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm as the cause of HOA. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics and surgically replacing the infected graft. Hypertrophic osteoarthritis is a clinical entity characterized by digital clubbing, periostitis, and synovial effusions. Primary and secondary forms have been described. Secondary HOA develops as a consequence of various diseases, mainly intrathoracic malignancies. Vascular graft infection, as reported here, is a rare cause of HOA. This case underlines the typical clinical features of HOA and the importance of a prompt and comprehensive diagnostic workup in cases of HOA. Our aim is to sharpen the awareness of its multiple underlying causes. Unilateral HOA is a rare but strong and important sign of infection of vascular prosthesis. PMID:23120763

Ahrenstorf, Gerrit; Rihl, Markus; Pichlmaier, Maximilian A; Rosenthal, Herbert; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E

2012-09-01

343

X-Ray Pulse Selector With 2 ns Lock-in Phase Setting And Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selector devices, which are based on magnetically suspended, high speed triangular shutter rotors, have been designed and built in cooperation with ESRF, APS, and recently Spring-8 for time resolved studies with isolated x-ray pulses at white beam lines. The x-ray pulse selection is accomplished by means of a beam channel along one of the edges of the triangular rotor, which opens once per revolution. Entrance and exit apertures of the channel can be designed wedge shaped for variable tuning of the channel height between 0.1 mm to 0.9 mm. At the 1 kHz maximum operation frequency of a 220 mm diameter disk with 190 mm channel length, the practicable open times of the channel are demonstrated to range down to 200 ns. The selector drive electronics is directly coupled to the storage ring RF clock for rotational phase control. It allows for continuous selector operation in phase locked mode to the temporal pulse structure of the synchrotron at 2 ns RMS stability. The phase angle between the pulse transmission period and the synchrotron bunch sequence can be adjusted with similar precision for X-ray pulse selection according to the experimental needs. ID09, Michael Wulff ; BioCARS 14-BM, Reinhard Pahl; BL40-XU, Shin-ichi Adachi.

Lindenau, B.; Räbiger, J.; Polachowski, S.; Fremerey, J. K.

2004-05-01

344

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of sedimentation of a single fiber in a weak vertical shear flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instability of a suspension is directly related to the problem of the cross-stream migration of a particle relative to its neighboring particle suspension. Such cross-stream or lateral migration of a single non-spherical particle (fiber) settling in a bounded weak shear flow with vertical streamlines produced by a perturbation to the fiber number density is studied using lattice Boltzmann simulations. The present simulation results demonstrate that at a given shear rate, the lateral migration can be divided into three phases depending on settling Reynolds number Rsd and particle aspect ratio ?. At a low settling Reynolds number Rsd, the suspension becomes more stable in phase 1. As Rsd increases and excesses a critical settling Reynolds number Rsd1, the fiber suspension becomes unstable in phase 2. In phase 3, at an enough large Rsd, the inertia dominates the weak shear flow and it may have little effect on stability. A mechanism of the instability induced by an inertial fiber orientation drift and a shear induced cross-streamline drift, recently proposed by Shin, Koch, and Subramanian [``Structure and dynamics of dilute suspensions of finite reynolds number settling fibers,'' Phys. Fluids 21, 123304 (2009)], is examined and confirmed.

Qi, Dewei; He, Guowei; Liu, Yingming

2013-09-01

345

BRAF and KRAS mutations in sporadic glomus tumors.  

PubMed

Glomus tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms resembling the normal glomus body, which is a specialized form of arteriovenous anastomosis that regulates heat. The molecular genetics of sporadic glomus tumors has not been studied. We genotyped tumors from 28 patients (16 female patients and 12 male patients) ranging from 13 to 77 years and correlated the results with the tumor site (15 finger/1 hand/4 arm/7 leg/1 eyelid), Ki-67 index, and clinical follow-up. Tumor DNA from paraffin-embedded tissue was screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and mass spectroscopy, using a panel covering 370 mutations across 30 genes, including AKT1, BRAF, CTNNB1, EGFR, ERBB2, FGFR1/2/3, HRAS, KIT, KRAS, MEK1/2, NRAS, PDGFRA, and PIK3CA. A BRAF V600E mutation was identified in 3 cases, all of which occurred in proximal locations (upper shin, thigh, and upper arm). Two of the patients with BRAF-mutated tumors were quite young (21 and 13 years) and one of the BRAF-mutated tumors recurred in 3 years. A KRAS G12A mutation was found in tumor removed from the finger. Ki-67 index did not correlate with genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report of oncogenic mutations in sporadic glomus tumors. PMID:22317887

Chakrapani, Andrea; Warrick, Andrea; Nelson, Dylan; Beadling, Carol; Corless, Christopher L

2012-07-01

346

X-Ray Pulse Selector With 2 ns Lock-in Phase Setting And Stability  

SciTech Connect

Selector devices, which are based on magnetically suspended, high speed triangular shutter rotors, have been designed and built in cooperation with ESRF, APS, and recently Spring-8 for time resolved studies with isolated x-ray pulses at white beam lines. The x-ray pulse selection is accomplished by means of a beam channel along one of the edges of the triangular rotor, which opens once per revolution. Entrance and exit apertures of the channel can be designed wedge shaped for variable tuning of the channel height between 0.1 mm to 0.9 mm. At the 1 kHz maximum operation frequency of a 220 mm diameter disk with 190 mm channel length, the practicable open times of the channel are demonstrated to range down to 200 ns. The selector drive electronics is directly coupled to the storage ring RF clock for rotational phase control. It allows for continuous selector operation in phase locked mode to the temporal pulse structure of the synchrotron at 2 ns RMS stability. The phase angle between the pulse transmission period and the synchrotron bunch sequence can be adjusted with similar precision for X-ray pulse selection according to the experimental needs. ID09, Michael Wulff ; BioCARS 14-BM, Reinhard Pahl; BL40-XU, Shin-ichi Adachi.

Lindenau, B.; Raebiger, J.; Polachowski, S.; Fremerey, J.K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH ( FZJ ), 52425 Juelich (Germany); Central Department of Technology ( ZAT ), 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2004-05-12

347

Explicit formulas for effective piezoelectric coefficients of ferroelectric 0-3 composites based on effective medium theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explicit formulas were derived for the effective piezoelectric stress coefficients of a 0-3 composite of ferroelectric spherical particles in a ferroelectric matrix which were then combined to give the more commonly used strain coefficients. Assuming that the elastic stiffness of the inclusion phase is sufficiently larger than that of the matrix phase, the previously derived explicit expressions for the case of a low volume concentration of inclusion particles [C. K. Wong, Y. M. Poon, and F. G. Shin, Ferroelectrics 264, 39 (2001); J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4690 (2001)] were ``transformed'' analytically by an effective medium theory (EMT) with appropriate approximations, to suit the case of a more concentrated suspension. Predictions of the EMT expressions were compared with the experimental values of composites of lead zirconate titanate ceramic particles dispersed in polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer, reported by Furukawa [IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul. 24, 375 (1989)] and by Ng et al. [IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1308 (2000)] respectively. Fairly good agreement was obtained. Comparisons with other predictions, including the predictions given by numerically solving the EMT scheme, were also made. It was found that the analytic and numeric EMT schemes agreed with each other very well for an inclusion of volume fraction not exceeding 60%.

Wong, C. K.; Poon, Y. M.; Shin, F. G.

2003-01-01

348

[The specific features of present-day children's physical development in the estimation of the functional sizes of furniture for pupils].  

PubMed

The authors made mass anthropometric surveys in 923 first-to-fourth-form pupils and determined the values of 5 variables for height groups 2, 3, and 4, used to justify the functional sizes of furniture for pupils: the length of a shoulder slope above the seat, that of an elbow slope above the seat, that of a popliteal space slope above the floor, the distance from the chair hack to the popliteal space, and the highest pelvic width. Differences were found in the anthropometric values in the present-day junior pupils and the equals in age of the early 1970s. The present-day children are characterized by changes in body proportions (a decrease in height and an increase in the length of the shin and femur), which should be kept in mind on optimizing the working place of pupils. It is suggested that popliteal space length rather than the currently applied height should be used as a fitting ratio of anthropometric characteristics to the functional sizes of furniture for pupils. PMID:19514284

Khramtsov, P I; Strokina, A N; Sotnikova, E N; Butareva, I I; Moldovanov, V V

349

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

PubMed Central

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an ‘inverted pendulum’, with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic ‘M’-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse–vault–impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the ‘M’-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel–sole–toe stance; it is maintained in tip–toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure—with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front—enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel–sole–toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all—largely avoiding the ‘cost of muscle force’—during the passive vaulting phase.

Usherwood, J. R.; Channon, A. J.; Myatt, J. P.; Rankin, J. W.; Hubel, T. Y.

2012-01-01

350

Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by Bird Studies Canada, this site contains an online version of the _Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario_, a publication based on information collected between 1981 and 1985 involving "the efforts of over 1,300 volunteers who collectively carried out more than 180,000 hours of field work." The Atlas was published in 1987 by the Long Point Bird Observatory and the Federation of Ontario Naturalists. The site is nicely laid out with a hyperlinked Table of Contents which connects visitors to the many sections of this comprehensive and substantial Atlas. The publication contains Species Accounts for a multitude of birds such as the Wood Duck, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Boreal Owl, Winter Wren, and many more. The Atlas also contains sections on the Biogeography of Ontario, Conduct of the Survey, and Atlas Results. In addition, this site links to a larger Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas website with information about a nearly completed five-year data collection project that will result in a second edition of the Atlas.

351

Evaluation of a flexible force sensor for measurement of helmet foam impact performance.  

PubMed

The association between translational head acceleration and concussion remains unclear and provides a weak predictive measure for this type of injury; thus, alternative methods of helmet evaluation are warranted. Recent finite element analysis studies suggest that better estimates of concussion risk can be obtained when regional parameters of the cranium, brain and surrounding tissues are included. Lacking, however, are empirical data at the head-helmet interface with regards to contact area and force. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a system to capture the impact force distribution of helmet foams. Thirteen Flexiforce(®) sensors were arranged in a 5 × 5 cm array, secured to a load cell. Three densities of foam were repeatedly impacted with 5 J of energy during ambient (20°C) and cold (-25°C) conditions. RMS error, calculated relative to the global force registered by the load cell, was <1.5% of the measurement range during individual calibration of the Flexiforce(®) sensors. RMS error was 5% of the measured range for the global force estimated by the sensor array. Load distribution measurement revealed significant differences between repeated impacts of cold temperature foams for which acceleration results were non-significant. The sensor array, covering only 36% of the total area, possessed sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture dynamic load distribution patterns. Implementation of this force mapping system is not limited to helmet testing. Indeed it may be adopted to assess other body regions vulnerable to contact injuries (e.g., chest, hip and shin protectors). PMID:21194694

Ouckama, Ryan; Pearsall, David J

2010-12-30

352

Muli-state operation in quantum dot channel FETs incorporating spatial wavefunction-switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-state behavior has been demonstrated in Si and InGaAs quantum dot gate (QDG) field-effect transistorsootnotetextS. Karmakar, et al., J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1746, 2011.^,ootnotetextF Jain, J. Electronic Materials, 40, 1717, 2011. (FETs). Recently, spatial wavefunction switchedootnotetextIbid. (SWS) and quantum dot channelootnotetextF. Jain et al., Proc. II-VI Workshop, Oct.2011. (QDC) FETs have been reported to exhibit four-state operation. This paper presents simulations of versatile combinations of SWS features in QDC channels to optimally design multi-state transport in FETs that have the potential of scaling to sub-12nm regime. A QDC-FET channel is modeled as having superlattice-like mini-energy bands where the carrier wavefunctions are transferred across the channel as drain voltage is changed, producing step-like multi-state electrical characteristics. This behavior is analogous to that of single electron transistors.ootnotetextS. J. Shin, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 103101, 2010. The difference is that QDC devices use more than a few electrons and operate at room temperature. The SWS feature additionally provides carrier transfer from lower to upper dot layer(s) in a QDC having more than one layer of quantum dots.

Jain, F.; Baskar, K.; Karmakar, S.; Chan, P.-Y.; Suarez, E.; Miller, B.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

2012-02-01

353

Phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis and its application to time-resolved infrared spectra.  

PubMed

A method of spectral analysis, phase angle description of perturbation correlation analysis, is proposed. This method is based on global phase angle description of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shin-ichi Morita et al., and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D (PCMW2D) correlation spectroscopy, proposed by Shigeaki Morita et al. For a spectral data set collected under an external perturbation, such as time-resolved infrared spectra, this method provides only one phase angle spectrum. A phase angle of the Fourier frequency domain correlation between a spectral intensity (e.g., absorbance) variation and a perturbation variation (e.g., scores of the first principle component) as a function of spectral variable (e.g., wavenumber) is plotted. Therefore, a degree of time lag of each band variation with respect to the perturbation variation is directly visualized in the phase angle spectrum. This method is applied to time-resolved infrared spectra in the O-H stretching region of the water sorption process into a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) film. The time-resolved infrared (IR) spectra show three broad and overlapping bands in the region. Each band increases toward saturated water sorption with different relaxation times. In comparison to conventional methods of generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and global phase angle mapping, the method proposed in the present study enables the easier visualization of the sequence as a degree of phase angle in the spectrum. PMID:17716406

Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

2007-08-01

354

Evaluation of Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Surface Structures for Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) Analysis: Surface Area Versus LDI Signal Intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural effect of a nanoporous gold (NPG) surface on the signal intensities of laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) were investigated using NPG surfaces with controlled structures. The relationship between surface area and LDI efficiency was compared and evaluated. Comparisons between bare flat gold and NPG surfaces show that nanostructures increased LDI efficiency. We also found that the LDI signal decreased with increasing depth of nanoporous layers, thus increasing the surface area. This result agrees with a previous report (Shin J. A. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2010, 21, 989) in which the LDI efficiency of small molecules decreased for ZnO wires with longer lengths. This observation was explained by the penetration and deposition of samples into locations inaccessible to photons because of structural screening. The LDI-MS analysis of oils with NPG surfaces (but without matrix) showed the same trend whereby the NPG with about a 200 nm depth of porous area showed the highest sensitivity. This study clearly shows that the active surface area for solution chemistry can differ from LDI-MS and that NPGs can function as a substrate for LDI oil analysis.

Jin, Jang Mi; Choi, Suhee; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-09-01

355

Primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma with aberrant coexpression of CD20: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in a 45-year-old male showing expression of the B-cell marker CD20. The lesion presented as a large plaque on the right shin and rapidly developed into additional lesions on the right lower leg and right anterior chest. Despite therapy, bone involvement was discovered at 1 year after initial presentation. Punch biopsy of the right leg revealed a diffuse, atypical dermal lymphocytic infiltrate with papillary edema and no epidermotropism. The atypical cells strongly expressed the T-cell markers CD3, CD2, and CD43, with additional expression of cytotoxic T-cell markers CD8, cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA-1), and granzyme B and loss of CD7 by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, the atypical cells with the above phenotype exhibited moderate expression of CD20 by IHC. Coexpression of CD8 and CD20 in the atypical cells was confirmed by a dual-labeled IHC stain. Clonal rearrangements of the T-cell receptor gamma- and beta-chain genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction; however, there was no expression of T-cell receptor beta-chain identified by IHC. In conclusion, we present a case a of CD8-positive primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with CD20 expression, exhibiting aggressive behavior. PMID:19318808

Balmer, Nicole N; Hughey, Lauren; Busam, Klaus J; Reddy, Vishnu; Andea, Aleodor A

2009-04-01

356

Numerical simulation of Faraday waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday first described in 1831 the pattern of standing waves generated at the surface of a vertically oscillated fluid layer; the corresponding linear stability analysis was carried out in 1954 by Benjamin and Ursell for inviscid fluids and in 1994 by Kumar and Tuckerman for viscous fluids. Linear stability analysis, however, predicts only the critical wavenumber and oscillation amplitude, and not the variety of periodic lattice patterns manifested by Faraday waves which have long intrigued researchers. The experimental observation in 1992 of quasicrystalline patterns by Edwards and Fauve has inspired an abundance of experimental and theoretical research. However, this has not been accompanied by realistic numerical computations. Here, we report on fully three-dimensional and nonlinear Navier- Stokes simulations of Faraday waves using a front tracking method for the interface between two immiscible fluids. M. Faraday, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 52, 319 (1831). T.B. Benjamin & F. Ursell, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 225, 505 (1954). K. Kumar & L.S. Tuckerman, J. Fluid Mech. 279, 49 (1994). W.S. Edwards & S. Fauve, J. Fluid Mech. 278, 123 (1994). S. Shin & D. Juric, J. Comput. Phys. 180, 427 (2002).

Perinet, Nicolas; Juric, Damir; Tuckerman, Laurette

2008-11-01

357

[Severe disseminated constrictive polyserositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

Constrictive polyserositis (pleuritis, pericarditis) is a syndrome within the underlying disease (tuberculosis, periodic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, asbestos, silicosis, uremia, some genetic diseases), a complication due to chest surgery or radiation or drug therapy, is occasionally idiopathic (fibrosing mediastinitis). There are frequently great difficulties in making its nosological diagnosis. The paper describes a patient in whom the onset of disease was exudative pleurisy with the signs of constriction, arthralgias; pleural punctures provided serous exudates with 80% lymphocytes. A year later there was ascitis and shin and foot edemas, which concurrent with hepatomegaly and cholestasis was regarded as cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The signs of constrictive pericarditis were further revealed. The disease was complicated by the development of pulmonary artery thromboembolism (PATE) (which required the use of warfarin) and hemorrhagic vasculitis. Therapy with metipred in combination with isoniazid yielded a slight effect. The diagnoses of tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis, systemic vasculitis were consecutively rejected; the diagnosis of rheumatoid polyarthritis with systemic manifestations was made, by taking into account persistent arthalgias with the minimum signs of arthritis, noticeably increased C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCPA); plasmapheresis, therapy with metipred and methotrexate, and subtotal pericardectomy were performed. Constrictive polyserositis concurrent with PATE, hemorrhagic vasculitis (probably, drug-induced one), and hepatic lesion has been first described in a CCPA-positive patient with rheumatoid arthritis in the presence of moderate true arthritis (during steroid therapy). PMID:20731114

Blagova, O V; Tsaregorodtsev, D A; Nedostup, A V; Maevskaia, I V; Petukhova, N V; Troitskaia, M P; Shadaniia, Ia R

2010-01-01

358

Simultaneous quantitation of nicorandil and its denitrated metabolite in plasma by LC-MS/MS: application for a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of nicorandil and its denitrated metabolite, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-nicotinamide, in rat plasma. After a liquid-liquid extraction step, chromatographic separation was performed on a ShinPack C(18) column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol and 2 mM aqueous ammonium acetate containing 0.03% (v/v) formic acid (33:67 v/v). Procainamide was used as an internal standard (IS). Selected reaction monitoring was performed using the transitions m/z 212 ? m/z 135, m/z 166 ? m/z 106 and m/z 236 ? m/z 163 to quantify nicorandil, its denitrated metabolite and IS, respectively. Calibration curves were constructed over the range of 5-15,000 ng.ml(-1) for both nicorandil and its metabolite. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD%) values for the intra-run precision were 5.4% and 7.3% and for the inter-run precision were 8.5% and 7.3% for nicorandil and its metabolite, respectively. The mean accuracy values were 100% and 95% for nicorandil and its metabolite, respectively. No matrix effect was detected in the samples. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after per os administration of nicorandil in rats. PMID:22124983

César, Isabela Costa; Bastos, Leandro Francisco Silva; Godin, Adriana Martins; Coelho, Márcio de Matos; Araujo, Débora Pereira; de Fátima, Ângelo; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Pianetti, Gerson Antônio

2011-11-01

359

Nucleosynthetic Nd isotope anomalies in primitive enstatite chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out stepwise dissolutions of four primitive enstatite chondrites (EC) belonging to the EH subgroup. Large Nd isotope anomalies are found in the most refractory phases, dissolved using strong acids. Residues are characterized by excesses in 142Nd and deficits in 145Nd, 148Nd and 150Nd isotopes. The Nd anomalies measured in the ALHA77295 residue are even greater than those measured in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite (CC) using a similar analytical technique (Qin et al., 2011). Once corrected for a common Sm/Nd evolution, the 142Nd excess in the ALHA77295 residue is equal to 700 ppm relative to the terrestrial standard value. The Nd isotope patterns measured in EC and CC residues can be adjusted to coincide by adding a small amount of an s-process-rich carrier phase such as SiC and 0.075% is required to fit the ALHA7795 residue. Small isotope differences still persist between these residues even if they can be considered similar within error. In enstatite chondrites, residues have a deficit in 150Nd similar to or smaller than that measured in 148Nd, whereas in SiC extracted from carbonaceous chondrites or in whole rock, the deficit in 150Nd is always greater than that in 148Nd. Moreover in a binary 142Nd-148Nd diagram, the best-fit lines obtained for leachates and residues from carbonaceous chondrites and enstatite chondrites have slightly different slopes. For the same 148Nd/144Nd ratio, the anomalous component in an enstatite chondrite has a higher 142Nd/144Nd ratio compared to carbonaceous chondrites, a feature already observed at the whole rock scale. Our results suggest that different chondrite groups sample different reservoirs of presolar grains formed in different environments. Assuming that the carrier of this anomalous component measured in residues of enstatite chondrites are SiC, our results may suggest that different meteorite parent bodies sample reservoirs of presolar SiC formed in different stellar environments. This could explain why ALHA77295, the sample which is the most enriched in presolar grains, has a bulk 142Nd isotope composition similar to the terrestrial value. Further investigation of enstatite chondrites is needed to test whether the isotope composition of the most refractory phases is similar to that measured in carbonaceous chondrites and in particular the 144Sm that is a p-process isotope only. Finally this study highlights the difficulty of interpreting the 142Nd excess in terrestrial samples relative to chondrites since incomplete mixing of nucleosynthetic material in the solar nebula creates significant 142Nd variation, as shown by ALHA77295.

Boyet, M.; Gannoun, A.

2013-11-01

360

Impacts of recent cultivation on genetic diversity pattern of a medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Cultivation of medicinal plants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinal plant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of this species has suffered rapid declines and large-scale cultivation was initiated to meet the increasing demand for its root. However, the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on S. baicalensis have never been evaluated. In this study, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 28 wild and 22 cultivated populations were estimated using three polymorphic chloroplast fragments. The objectives of this study are to provide baseline data for preserving genetic resource of S. baicalensis and to evaluate the genetic impacts of recent cultivation on medicinal plants, which may be instructive to future cultivation projects of traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Results Thirty-two haplotypes of S. baicalensis (HapA-Y and Hap1-7) were identified when three chloroplast spacers were combined. These haplotypes constituted a shallow gene tree without obvious clusters for cultivated populations, suggesting multiple origins of cultivated S. baicalensis. Cultivated populations (hT = 0.832) maintained comparable genetic variation with wild populations (hT = 0.888), indicating a slight genetic bottleneck due to multiple origins of cultivation. However, a substantial amount of rare alleles (10 out of 25 haplotypes within wild populations) lost during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. The genetic differentiation for cultivated group (GST = 0.220) was significantly lower than that of wild group (GST = 0.701). Isolation by distance analysis showed that the effect of geographical isolation on genetic structure was significant in wild populations (r = 0.4346, P < 0.0010), but not in cultivated populations (r = 0.0599, P = 0.2710). These genetic distribution patterns suggest that a transient cultivation history and the extensive seed change among different geographical areas during the course of S. baicalensis cultivation. Conclusions Although cultivated S. baicalensis maintains comparable genetic diversity relative to wild populations, recent cultivation has still imposed profound impacts on genetic diversity patterns of the cultivated S. baicalensis populations, i.e., the loss of rare alleles and homogenization of cultivated populations. This study suggests that conservation-by-cultivation is an effective means for protecting genetic resources of S. baicalensis, however, the wild resources still need to be protected in situ and the evolutionary consequences of extensive seed exchange mediated by human being should be monitored carefully.

2010-01-01

361

Noncommutative Lévy Processes for Generalized (Particularly Anyon) Statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let {T=R^d} . Let a function {QT^2toC} satisfy {Q(s,t)=overline{Q(t,s)}} and {|Q(s,t)|=1}. A generalized statistics is described by creation operators {partial_t^dagger} and annihilation operators ? t , {tin T}, which satisfy the Q-commutation relations: {partial_spartial^dagger_t = Q(s, t)partial^dagger_tpartial_s+?(s, t)} , {partial_spartial_t = Q(t, s)partial_tpartial_s}, {partial^dagger_spartial^dagger_t = Q(t, s)partial^dagger_tpartial^dagger_s}. From the point of view of physics, the most important case of a generalized statistics is the anyon statistics, for which Q( s, t) is equal to q if s < t, and to {bar q} if s > t. Here {qinC} , | q| = 1. We start the paper with a detailed discussion of a Q-Fock space and operators {(partial_t^dagger,partial_t)_{tin T}} in it, which satisfy the Q-commutation relations. Next, we consider a noncommutative stochastic process (white noise) {?(t)=partial_t^dagger+partial_t+?partial_t^daggerpartial_t} , {tin T} . Here {?inR} is a fixed parameter. The case ? = 0 corresponds to a Q-analog of Brownian motion, while ? ? 0 corresponds to a (centered) Q-Poisson process. We study Q-Hermite ( Q-Charlier respectively) polynomials of infinitely many noncommutatative variables {(?(t))_{tin T}} . The main aim of the paper is to explain the notion of independence for a generalized statistics, and to derive corresponding Lévy processes. To this end, we recursively define Q-cumulants of a field {(?(t))_{tin T}}. This allows us to define a Q-Lévy process as a field {(?(t))_{tin T}} whose values at different points of T are Q-independent and which possesses a stationarity of increments (in a certain sense). We present an explicit construction of a Q-Lévy process, and derive a Nualart-Schoutens-type chaotic decomposition for such a process.

Bo?ejko, Marek; Lytvynov, Eugene; Wysocza?ski, Janusz

2012-07-01

362

Hydrological Projections over the 3H Region of China using VIC model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrological evaluation and projection over the 3H region of China was carried out using the VIC model under different climate scenarios, which aims at providing the scientific background for the adaptation to climate change in water resource management and rural development. To consider the uncertainty of climate change projections, 12 climate scenarios were designed with respect to the baseline of historic climate change and possible variation magnitude in the future. The results will present the generally large-scale hydrological variation under climate change. For example, the results from the six representative types of climate scenarios (+2°C and +5°C warming, and 0%, 15%, -15% change for precipitation) show that the temperature rise enhances evapotranspiration, and its general increasing pattern over the 3H region is high in the south and low in the north when precipitation has no change and a 15% increase. The simulation will also gives some key regions of hydrological variation sensitive to climate change, which can be used as the scientific baseline in implementing adaptation by local provinces of 3H. The temperature rise can lead to the south-to-north decreasing gradient of surface runoff across the 3H region. For scenarios of 3-type percentage change of precipitation, the large variation of runoff exits in the south end of the 3H region, which reflects that this zone is sensitive to climate change in surface runoff change. As for the soil moisture variation, Jiangsu province in the southeastern part of the 3H region, shows an obvious sensitivity to climate change. At the regional mean scale, the hydrological change amplitude induced by the larger precipitation variation of 30% in contrast with 15% is more obvious than that induced by greater warming of +5°C relative to +2°C.
Temperature and precipitation variation in the 3H region under climate scenarios of global models from IPCC3, units: °C for temperature, percentage for precipitation. (Qin et al., 2005)

Dan, L.; Ji, J.; Xie, Z.; Chen, F.; Wen, G.; Richey, J. E.

2011-12-01

363

The Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient for Charged Particles of Arbitrary Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of perpendicular diffusion by a particle in a turbulent plasma is a problem of enduring interest, and one that has yet to be fully solved. Analytic models do not agree with either observations or numerical simulations. Recently, a nonlinear theory was developed by Matthaeus et al. [2003] which, for the first time, appears to be consistent with numerical simulations in both the high- and low-energy particle regimes. Their approach is to assume that perpendicular transport is governed by the velocity of gyrocenters that follow magnetic field lines. Qin et al. [2002a,b] showed using numerical simulations that perpendicular diffusion could occur only in the presence of a transverse complex magnetic field. Flux surfaces with high transverse complexity are characterized by the rapid separation of nearby magnetic field lines and are therefore important to perpendicular diffusion. In particular, it appears that the combination of slab and 2D turbulence (a ``two-component'' model) is necessary to produce transverse complexity, and that slab turbulence alone, for example, is insufficient. The nonlinear theory is expressed through the solution of an integral equation. While the numerical solution of the integral equation in the appropriate parameter regime shows excellent agreement with numerical simulations for both high- and low-energy particles, the physical content is difficult to evaluate, nor is it evident how ? xx scales with parameters such as the energy density in magnetic fluctuations, mean field strength, particle gyroradius, MHD turbulence correlation length scales, parallel diffusion coefficient, etc. Furthermore, the integral equation formulation is not readily amenable to inclusion in models and numerical codes that require the perpendicular diffusion coefficient explicitly, such as heliospheric cosmic ray modulation models. We therefore introduce an explicit model for turbulence in the solar wind and solve the integral equation approximately for ? xx. We show that our approximate solution agrees very well with the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear integral equation. The approximate solution reveals the dependence of ? xx on the characteristics of the turbulent magnetofluid and particle energy (through the particle gyroradius). We conclude by using the perpendicular diffusion coefficient to evaluate 1) the particle acceleration timescale for diffusive shock acceleration at perpendicular shocks, and 2) the diffusion coefficient for cosmic ray modulation throughout the heliosphere.

Zank, G. P.; Li, G.; Florinski, V.; Webb, G. M.; Le Roux, J. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.

2003-12-01

364

Tectonic evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, composed of several continental slivers within the eastern Tethyan domain, is one of the pivotal sites to examine to better understand the theory of plate tectonics and the orogenic evolution on Earth. This plateau is generally inferred to be a collage of several continental blocks that rifted from Gondwanaland and subsequently accreted to the Asian continent. However, recent recognition of over twenty ophiolite mélange zones and their associated island arcs indicates that the traditional model of tectonic evolution requires revision. Based on 177 recently finished 1:250,000 scale geological maps and related studies, we summarize the main tectonic context of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and propose a new integrated model to account for the new findings. The complex orogen of the immense Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, consisting of multiple island arc-basin systems that developed at different stages while surrounded by the North China, Yangtze, Tarim, and Indian plates, is emphasized. The entire orogen, surrounded by suture zones that mark the locations of oceanic closure, is investigated by examining (I) the first-order tectonic units and ophiolitic mélanges (including arc-arc/continent collision zones) and (II) their internally enclosed blocks as the second-order tectonic units. Therefore, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is divided into three major orogenic systems, namely, from northeast to southwest, the Early Paleozoic Qinling-Qilianshan-Kunlunshan (Qin-Qi-Kun), the Late Paleozoic-Triassic Qiangtang-Sanjiang, and the Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic Gangdese-Himalaya orogenic systems, which are separated by the Kangxiwa-Muzitagh-Maqin-Mianxian and the Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian sutures, respectively. We propose that the formation and evolution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to have been intrinsically related to those of the eastern Tethys, recorded by the Longmu Co-Shuanghu ophiolite mélange zone, the Southern Qiangtang Paleozoic accretionary arc-basin system, the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, and their associated, composite island arc-basin systems. The present-day Bangong-Shuanghu-Changning-Menglian suture system marks the final closure of the Tethyan Ocean. The Yarlung Zangbo Ocean opened as a back-arc basin in response to the southward subduction of the Tethyan Ocean lithosphere in the Middle Triassic and closed as a result of the India-Asia collision at the end of Cretaceous, followed by the northward indention of the Indian plate that resulted in significant intra-continental deformation and plateau uplift in the Cenozoic.

Pan, Guitang; Wang, Liquan; Li, Rongshe; Yuan, Sihua; Ji, Wenhua; Yin, Fuguang; Zhang, Wanping; Wang, Baodi

2012-07-01

365

16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

Sugiyama, Y.

2007-12-01

366

16 July 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake; its characteristics, tectonic background and significance for active fault evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 16, 2007, the Mw 6.6 (MJMA 6.8) Niigata-ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake occurred along the Japan Sea coast south of Sado Island. Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant, situated at the eastern margin of the source area of this earthquake, recorded significantly severe ground motion, which was more than twice, at the maximum, as strong as the designed acceleration in the E-W direction at the foundation base mat level of 3 nuclear power units. Exceedance of the designed ground motion by the Chuetsu-Oki earthquake became the center of public attention. The epicenter of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake is located about 30 km northwest of the epicentral area of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake, and both of the two earthquakes were caused by reverse faulting. Although the source of the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake has been identified as an NW-dipping reverse fault, the dip direction of the source fault of the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, SE or NW, has not been settled yet as of September 3, 2007. The 2004 Chuetsu and 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquakes occurred in the Strain Concentration Zone characterized by shortening tectonics with E-W- to NW-SE-trending compressive axis. The Strain Concentration Zone traces its origin back to the formation of Japan Sea under E-W extensional tectonics ca 20 Ma. Along the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, grabens or depositional basins were formed in association with the opening of the Japan Sea, being filled with ~5-km-thick Neogene-Quaternary volcano-sedimentary sequences. Around 3 Ma, the eastern marginal area of the Japan Sea changed into a compressional tectonic field, and reverse faulting and folding have been prevailing in the area ever since. The 2004 Chuetsu earthquake was produced by reverse faulting on a northern segment of the known Muikamachi fault system, which probably had been formed as the eastern boundary fault of the Shin'etsu depositional basin. For the 2007 Chuetsu-Oki earthquake, two possibilities exist regarding its relation to known faults. If the source fault dips southeast, a deep part of a 20-km-long submarine active fault, which had possibly been formed as a western border fault of the Shin'etsu basin, should have caused the earthquake. If the source fault dips northwest, on the other hand, west-dipping reverse faults in the coastal hilly area might have relation to the recent earthquake, although there is no known active fault that exactly corresponds to the location and extent of the 2007 earthquake source area. This presentation will brief the latest situation of the controversy on dip direction and its implication to active fault evaluation for seismic safety of nuclear power plants, based on the newest results of post-earthquake researches by related institutions.

Sugiyama, Y.

2004-12-01

367

Preventing and Treating Lower Extremity Stress Reactions and Fractures in Adults  

PubMed Central

Reference/Citation: Rome K, Handoll HH, Ashford R. Interventions for preventing and treating stress fractures and stress reactions of bone of the lower limbs in young adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.20052:CD000450. Update from Gillespie WJ, Grant I. Interventions for preventing and treating stress fractures and stress reactions of bone of the lower limbs in young adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.20002: CD000450. Clinical Question: Do evidence-based interventions exist for the prevention and treatment of stress reactions and stress fractures in young active adults? Data Sources: This systematic review is an update of the original article, which was published in 2000. The authors conducted a literature review of computerized databases that included the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group Specialized Register (April 2004), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (1966 to September 2004), EMBASE (1988 to 2004, week 36), CINAHL (1982 to 2004, September, week 1), Index to Theses (1990 to 2004), and Dissertation Abstracts (1990 to 2004). In addition, the authors searched the Current Controlled Trials at http://www.controlled-trials.com (June 2004, week 1) and the United Kingdom National Research Registrar at http://www.update-software.com/national/ (to issue 1, 2004) for current or recently completed studies. They also reviewed the British Journal of Podiatry, International Journal of Podiatric Biomechanics, Physiotherapy, and the Australian Journal of Podiatric Medicine for relevant studies. Furthermore, they contacted the Medical Departments of Defense Forces in Europe and North America to identify unpublished or unlisted military studies. Reference lists of all identified studies and Cochrane reviews were also investigated. The computer search strategy included 61 separate entries and included such terms as stress fractures, stress reactions, shin splints, overuse, athletic injuries, cumulative trauma disorders, running, and randomized controlled trial. The 3 authors of this updated review independently selected new articles for inclusion. Furthermore, the 12 articles that were included in the original systematic review were also reevaluated to ensure they met the defined inclusion criteria. Study Selection: To qualify for inclusion, studies had to be randomized or quasirandomized control trials, involve interventions to prevent or treat lower extremity stress reactions and fractures, and include physically active adults (adolescence to middle age) who were involved in athletics or military training. Clinical and radiographic (bone scan or x-ray) evidence of a lower extremity stress reaction or stress fracture was also required for inclusion of treatment-based studies. Specifically, skeletal overuse injuries are considered the result of a cumulative and repetitive process that produces initial microstructural changes or stress reactions that are identified by bone scans or magnetic resonance imaging but not conventional radiographs. If cumulative stresses continue, structural changes are visualized on radiographs and are referred to as stress fractures. In addition, research studies involving the treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome or shin splints were excluded. Desired outcome measures for treatment studies included return to training time, return to normal physical activity, functional performance, quality of life measures, resource management (eg, costs, health care visits, diagnostic procedures), adverse effects, and compliance. The inclusion criteria for stress fracture prevention studies were similar, except that the authors did not have to provide radiographic evidence of a stress fracture or stress reaction. Prevention studies included a combination of the following outcome measures: occurrence and location of stress fracture, stratification of diagnosis, incidence of other lower limb injuries, complications and adverse effects of prevention techniques, resource management, and compliance with the prevention strategy. Data Extraction: At least 2 reviewers independently extracted th

Shaffer, Scott W; Uhl, Timothy L

2006-01-01

368

Non-linearity of the Response Accommodative Convergence to Accommodation Ratio.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Methods: Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3?±?1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4?m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Results: Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p?

Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y

2013-09-01

369

Axial distribution heterogeneity of nitric oxide airway production in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Model simulations of nitric oxide (NO) transport considering molecular diffusion showed that the total bronchial NO production needed to reproduce a given exhaled value is deeply influenced by its axial distribution. Experimental data obtained by fibroscopy were available about proximal airway contribution (Silkoff PE, McClean PA, Caramori M, Slutsky AS. Zamel N. Respir Physiol 113: 33-38, 1998), and recent experiments using heliox instead of air gave insight on the peripheral airway production (Shin HW, Condorelli P, Rose-Gottron CM, Cooper DM, George SC. J Appl Physiol 97: 874-882, 2004; Kerckx Y, Michils A, Van Muylem A. J Appl Physiol 104: 918-924, 2008). This theoretical work aimed at obtaining a realistic distribution of NO production in healthy adults by meeting both proximal and peripheral experimental constraints. To achieve this, a model considering axial diffusion with geometrical boundaries derived from Weibel's morphometrical data was divided into serial compartments, each characterized by its axial boundaries and its part of bronchial NO production. A four-compartment model was able to meet both criteria. Two compartments were found to share all the NO production: one proximal (generations 0 and 1; 15-25% of the NO production) and one inside the acinus (proximal limit, generations 14-16; distal limit, generations 16 and 17; 75-85% of the NO production). Remarkably, this finding implies a quasi nil production in the main part of the conducting airways and in the acinar airways distal to generation 17. Given the chosen experimental outcomes and reliant on their accuracy, this very inhomogeneous distribution is likely the more realistic one that may be achieved with a "one-trumpet"-shaped model. Refinement should come from a more realistic description of the acinus structure. PMID:19342432

Kerckx, Yannick; Van Muylem, Alain

2009-04-02

370

Effectiveness of orthotic shoe inserts in the long-distance runner.  

PubMed

Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to long-distance runners who had used, or who were using orthotic shoe inserts for symptomatic relief of lower extremity complaints. Three hundred forty-seven (69.4%) responded (males, 71%; females, 29%). The mean age of the respondents was 36 years (range, 15 to 61). The average distance run per week was 39.6 miles (range, 5 to 98). The mean duration for use of the orthotic inserts was 23 months (range, 1 to 96). The predominant (63%) type of orthotic device used was flexible. The presumed diagnoses in the population studied were excessive pronation (31.1%), leg length discrepancy (13.5%), patellofemoral disorders (12.6%), plantar fasciitis (20.7%), Achilles tendinitis (18.5%), shin splints (7.2%), and miscellaneous (4.9%). Of the runners responding, 262 (75.5%) reported complete resolution or great improvement of their symptoms. Results of treatment with orthotic shoe inserts were independent of the diagnosis or the runner's level of participation. A high degree of overall satisfaction was demonstrated by the finding that 90% of the runners continued to use the orthotic devices even after resolution of their symptoms. Orthotic shoe inserts were most effective in the treatment of symptoms arising from biomechanical abnormalities, such as excessive pronation or leg length discrepancy. Along with other conservative measures, orthotic shoe inserts may allow the athlete to continue participation in running and avoid other treatment modalities that are more costly and time consuming, and therefore less acceptable to them. PMID:1897659

Gross, M L; Davlin, L B; Evanski, P M

371

[Overuse injury syndromes of the calf and foot] ].  

PubMed

The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle. PMID:11831128

Smerdelj, M; Madjarevi?, M; Oremus, K

2001-12-01

372

Physical characteristics as risk factors for sports injuries: a four year prospective study.  

PubMed

A variety of physical characteristics of athletes has been proposed to be related to the risk to sustain a sports injury. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of flexibility, anthropometric characteristics and malalignment of the lower extremities on the risk to sustain a sports injury, using a prospective study design and subjects exposed to rather equal extrinsic risk factors. Physical education students (N = 136) were followed during their four-year education. Sixteen flexibility indices, four anthropometric characteristics and five malalignment indices of the lower extremities were assessed at the start of the study and all sports injuries sustained in that four-year period were recorded. No influence of flexibility or anthropometric variables on the total number of injuries or the number of several specific injuries (ankle sprain, muscle rupture, dislocation, shin splints, backache) could be established. Malalignments of the lower extremities (average prevalence 18% and only minor deviations) did show some but inconsistent relations with the number of (specific) injuries. For pelvic obliquity it was positive as predicted, but for malalignment of the rearfoot and a deviant footprint it appeared to be negative. Leg length inequality and malalignment of the knees were not related to injuries. The most likely explanation for these (poor) findings is the relatively low number and great variety of sports injuries recorded. Further, the homogeneity in physical characteristics of the population under study makes it difficult to find significant relationships. A study design that meets both the criterium of similar extrinsic risk factors and that of a wide range of physical characteristics in a representative sporting population, however, is not practicable. PMID:9059908

Twellaar, M; Verstappen, F T; Huson, A; van Mechelen, W

1997-01-01

373

Stress fracture in military recruits: gender differences in muscle and bone susceptibility factors.  

PubMed

A total of 693 female U.S. Marine Corps recruits were studied with anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the midthigh and distal third of the lower leg prior to a 12 week physical training program. In this group, 37 incident stress fracture cases were radiologically confirmed. Female data were compared with male data from an earlier study of 626 Marine recruits extended with additional cases for a total of 38 stress fracture cases. Using DXA data, bone structural geometry and cortical dimensions were derived at scan locations and muscle cross-sectional area was computed at the midthigh. Measurements were compared within gender between pooled fracture cases and controls after excluding subjects diagnosed with shin splints. In both genders, fracture cases were less physically fit, and had smaller thigh muscles compared with controls. After correction for height and weight, section moduli (Z) and bone strength indices (Z/bone length) of the femur and tibia were significantly smaller in fracture cases of both genders, but patterns differed. Female cases had thinner cortices and lower areal bone mineral density (BMD), whereas male cases had externally narrower bones but similar cortical thicknesses and areal BMDs compared with controls. In both genders, differences in fitness, muscle, and bone parameters suggest poor skeletal adaptation in fracture cases due to inadequate physical conditioning prior to training. To determine whether bone and muscle strength parameters differed between genders, all data were pooled and adjusted for height and weight. In both the tibia and femur, men had significantly larger section moduli and bone strength indices than women, although women had higher tibia but lower femur areal BMDs. Female bones, on average, were narrower and had thinner cortices (not significant in the femur, p = 0.07). Unlike the bone geometry differences, thigh muscle cross-sectional areas were virtually identical to those of the men, suggesting that the muscles of the women were not relatively weaker. PMID:10962357

Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Shaffer, R A; Betsinger, K; Trone, D W; Brodine, S K

2000-09-01

374

Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) (median = 780 CFU/m3) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM10)), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO2 level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria.

Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L.; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H. Jasmine

2012-11-01

375

Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment.  

PubMed

We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)) (median?=?780 CFU/m(3)) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM(10))), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO(2) level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria. PMID:22219040

Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H Jasmine

2012-01-05

376

In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.  

PubMed Central

In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images

Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

1988-01-01

377

List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J Zagrodzinski, Alexei Zhedanov

2001-12-01

378

Routes to Frustrated Nanostructures with Block Copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diblock copolymers of polystyrene and polybutadiene, PS-b-PBD were confined within nanoscopic cylindrical pores in alumina membranes. By capillary action, microphase separated symmetric and asymmetric PS-b-PBD were drawn into pores varying in diameter from 15 to several hundred nanometers. After thermal annealing, the alumina membrane was dissolved in a weak base, leaving nanorods of the PS-b-PBD that were then imbedded in epoxy, microtomed and stained with OsO4. TEM on cross-sections taken parallel to and normal to the nanorod axis was used to investigate the morphology. For symmetric PS-b-PBD, when the pore diameter, d, was much larger than the copolymer repeat period, L0, multiple concentric cylinders of PS and PBD oriented along the nanorod axis was obtained. When d<2L0 and d/L0 was non-integer, the morphology changed to a torroidal or stacked-disc type of morphology. For asymmetric PS-b-PBD (?PBD˜0.3) when d/L0 was large, cylinders of PBD in a PS matrix were found where the hexagonal packing was altered by the constraints of the walls. However, if d<2L0, helices of PBD in PS running along the nanopore axis were found. Thus, using simple diblock copolymers, the frustration and curvature imposed on the copolymers forces new morphologies leading to novel templates and scaffolds for nanostructured materials. Supported by the NSF, MRSEC and NIRT at UMass, the Dept. of Energy, and the Hyperstructured Organic Materials Research Center in Seoul, Korea. With K. Shin, H. Xiang, S. Moon, T. Kim and Thomas J. McCarthy

Russell, Thomas

2005-03-01

379

Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Factor for Cerebral White Matter Change in a Middle-Aged and Older General Population  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) contributes to the development of systemic hypertension, and hypertension strongly predicts the development of white matter change (WMC). Thus, it is plausible that OSA mediates WMC. The goal of the current study is to determine whether a contextual relationship exists between OSA and cerebral WMC. Design: Cross-sectional analyses conducted in a population-based study. Setting: Korean community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) who attended examinations in 2011 at a medical center. Participants: There were 503 individuals (mean ± SD, age 59.63 ± 7.48 y) who were free of previously diagnosed cardiovascular and neurologic diseases. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent 1-night polysomnography and were classified as no OSA (obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] < 5, n = 289), mild OSA (AHI 5-15, n = 161), and moderate to severe OSA (AHI ? 15, n = 53). WMC was identified with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was found in 199 individuals (39.56%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for covariates revealed that moderate to severe OSA was significantly associated with the presence of WMC (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.05-4.13) compared with no OSA. Additional adjustment of hypertension to the model did not alter the significance of the association (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.02-4.05). Conclusions: Moderate to severe OSA is an independent risk factor for WMC in middle-aged and older individuals. Thus, early recognition and treatment of OSA could reduce the risk of stroke and vascular dementia. Citation: Kim H; Yun CH; Thomas RJ; Lee SH; Seo HS; Cho ER; Lee SK; Yoon DW; Suh S; Shin C. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cerebral white matter change in a middle-aged and older general population. SLEEP 2013;36(5):709-715.

Kim, Hyun; Yun, Chang-Ho; Thomas, Robert Joseph; Lee, Seung Hoon; Seo, Hyung Suk; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Suh, Sooyeon; Shin, Chol

2013-01-01

380

Fluorophore-quencher based activatable targeted optical probes for detecting in vivo cancer metastases  

PubMed Central

In vivo molecularly targeted fluorescence imaging of tumors has been proposed as a strategy for improving cancer detection and management. Activatable fluorophores, which increased their fluorescence by 10-fold after binding tumor cells, result in much higher target to background ratios than conventional fluorophores. We developed an in vivo targeted activatable optical imaging probe based on a fluorophore-quencher pair, bound to a targeting moiety. With this system, fluorescence is quenched by the fluorophore-quencher interaction outside cancer cells, but is activated within the target cells by dissociation of the fluorophore-quencher pair. We selected the TAMRA (fluorophore)-QSY7 (quencher) pair and conjugated it to either avidin (targeting the d-galactose receptor) or trastuzumab (a monoclonal antibody against the human epithelial growth factor receptor type2 (HER2/neu)) and evaluated their performance in mouse models of cancer. Two probes, TAMRA-QSY7 conjugated avidin (Av-TM-Q7) and trastuzumab (Traz-TM-Q7) were synthesized. Both demonstrated better than similar self-quenching probes. In vitro fluorescence microscopic studies of SHIN3 and NIH/3T3/HER2+ cells demonstrated that Av-TM-Q7 and Traz-TM-Q7 produced high intracellular fluorescent signal. In vivo imaging with Av-TM-Q7 and Traz-TM-Q7 in mice enabled the detection of small tumors. This molecular imaging probe, based on a fluorophore-quencher pair conjugated to a targeting ligand, successfully detected tumors in vivo due to its high activation ratio and low background signal. Thus, these activatable probes, based on the fluorophore-quencher system, hold promise clinically for “see and treat” strategies of cancer management.

Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Longmire, Michelle; Urano, Yasuteru; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2009-01-01

381

Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

Rusell Tiede, Vance

2010-01-01

382

First-Principles Prediction of Crystal Structures, Reaction Pathways, and Intermediate Products in Hydrogen Storage Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical hydrogen storage for mobile applications requires materials that exhibit high hydrogen densities, low decomposition temperatures, and fast kinetics for absorption and desorption. Unfortunately, no reversible materials are currently known that possess all of these attributes. Here we present an overview of our recent efforts aimed at developing a first-principles computational approach to the discovery of novel hydrogen storage materials. We have developed computational tools which enable accurate prediction of decomposition thermodynamics, crystal structures for unknown hydrides, and thermodynamically preferred decomposition pathways. We present examples that illustrate each of these three capabilities. Specifically, we focus on recent work on crystal structure and dehydriding reactions of (i) borohydride materials, such as Ca(BH4)2 and Mg(BH4)2, (ii) amidoboranes and their decomposition products, and (iii) mixtures of complex hydrides. [4pt] [1] J. Yang, A. Sudik, C. Wolverton, and D. J. Siegel, Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 656 (2010). [0pt] [2] D. E. Farrell, D. Shin, and C. Wolverton, Phys. Rev. B 80, 224201 (2009). [0pt] [3] C. Weidenthaler, A. Pommerin, M. Felderhoff, W. Sun, C. Wolverton, B. Bogdanovic, and F. Schuth, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 131, 16735 (2009). [0pt] [4] A. R. Akbarzadeh, C. Wolverton, and V. Ozolins, Phys. Rev. B 79, 184102 (2009). [0pt] [5] Y. S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. W. Cho, D. Shapiro, C. Wolverton, and V. Ozolins, Phys. Rev. B 79, 104107 (2009). [0pt] [6] V. Ozolins, E. H. Majzoub, and C. Wolverton, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 131, 230 (2009). [0pt] [7] V. Ozolins, E. H. Majzoub, and C. Wolverton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 135501 (2008). [0pt] [8] Y. Zhang, E. Majzoub, V. Ozolins, and C. Wolverton, Phys. Rev. B 82, 174107 (2010).

Wolverton, Chris

2011-03-01

383

[Medical peculiarities and social effects of accidents with motorcycles].  

PubMed

During the period 1976 until 1982, 133 accident patients with two-cycle motor vehicles were treated at the traumatological Department of the Dr. Horst Schmidt Hospital. 80% of those patients were below or 21 years of age, 58.5% were undergoing training for professional work. 23.3% had suffered severe injuries (according to the Gögler scheme), 6.8% died as a result. Six out of nine dead patients were caused by severe head injuries, five of whom did not wear protective helmets. 37.7% cover all head injuries 5% more than injuries of the lower extremities (thigh and shins). The result of these accidents causes an enormous impact on those concerned as well as on the society. 32.3% interruptions and extensions of training periods and change of training for the youth became necessary. Treatment after admissions as in-patient (for minor injuries costs ca. DM 1000, for major injuries DM 20,000) costs about DM719,368,000 excluding costs for rents and auxiliary requirements which have not been taken into consideration. The invaluation of treatment of 133 accident cases with motorcycles has resulted in the following consideration: 1. Yearly publication of motor cycle accidents and its death tolls including cost sustained or prospective costs involved. 2. Strict rules concerning covering clothing. 3. Rigorous accident theching during driving lesions. 4. Security measures and its execution enforced by law to control the construction of motorized two cycle in consideration of optical and technical performance criteria. 5. Severe criticism of advertisers in usage of words like speed, performance and freedom which influence the youth without indicating the risks of the two-cycle vehicles. PMID:3455056

Tittel, K; Fichtner, K; Schauwecker, F

1987-12-01

384

A biomechanical comparison of the traditional squat, powerlifting squat, and box squat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. PMID:22505136

Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Keogh, Justin W L; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur D

2012-07-01

385

Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.  

PubMed

Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2007-04-01

386

In vitro metabolism of magnolin and characterization of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for its metabolism in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Magnolin is a major bioactive component found in Shin-i, the dried flower buds of Magnolia fargesii; it has anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic activities. Incubation of magnolin in human liver microsomes with an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating system resulted in the formation of five metabolites, namely, O-desmethyl magnolin (M1 and M2), didesmethylmagnolin (M3), and hydroxymagnolin (M4 and M5). In this study, we characterized the human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of three major metabolites--M1, M2, and M4--of magnolin. CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were identified as the major enzymes responsible for the formation of the two O-desmethyl magnolins (M1 and M2), on the basis of a combination of correlation analysis and experiments, including immunoinhibition of magnolin in human liver microsomes and metabolism of magnolin by human cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes. CYP2C8 played a predominant role in the formation of hydroxymagnolin (M4). These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of magnolin may not be affected by CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 responsible for the metabolism of magnolin or by the co-administration of appropriate CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers due to the involvement of multiple CYP enzymes in the metabolism of magnolin. PMID:21294626

Kim, Dong Kyun; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hyun; Ji, Hye Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Hye Suk

2011-02-04

387

Strong electron correlation and nonlinear optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on experimental and theoretical research during the last decade, giant optical nonlinearities found in Mott-Hubbard insulators like Sr2CuO3,Ca2CuO3, Nickel halides ([Ni(chxn)2X]X2 where X = Br, Cl and `chxn' refers to cyclohexanediamine) are presented. These materials are reported to be potential materials for all optical switching devices. The occurrence of nearly degenerate lowest one- and two-photon states, strong Coulomb correlation and strong dipole coupling between the one- and two-photon states are believed to be the reason for such colossal optical nonlinearities in these systems. In some of these materials (at least), the two photon state is below the one-photon state. This leads to the possibility that such material can be excited to the lowest optical state by shinning laser of suitable wavelength, the populations thus generated decays to the two-photon state at ultrafast short time. Thus nonlinear measurements can be made from an excited state (we call as excited state nonlinear optical properties). One dimensional strongly correlated materials are predicted to have several orders-of-magnitude larger excited state optical non-linearities in comparison to that from the ground state, in the wavelength region suitable for terahertz communications. A large number of measurable nonlinear optical properties like Two Photon absorption, Photo induced absorption, Third Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman Scattering are obtained theoretically and compared with available experimental observations. Then a large number excited state nonlinear optical properties are predicted which are experimentally measurable. We emphasize that the mechanism of nonlinear optics in one dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators is different from that of the ?-conjugated polymers -- in the former spin excitation play an important role. We argue from detailed understanding of nonlinear optics of ?-conjugated systems that some features in the Third Harmonic Generation susceptibility measurements are perhaps finger print of gapless spin excitations of Mott-Hubbard insulators.

Ghosh, Haranath

2012-07-01

388

Effect of high-speed treadmill training with a body weight support system in a sport acceleration program with female soccer players.  

PubMed

Maximum running speed and acceleration are essential components in many sports. The identification of specific training protocols to maximize sprint speed would be useful knowledge for coaches and players. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-speed treadmill (HST) with the use of a body weight support (BWS) system in a 6-week sport acceleration program (SAP) on female soccer athlete's 40-yard sprint time and maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength. Two treatment groups and one control group were created. Both treatment groups participated in a 12-session SAP. The first treatment group (n = 12) used a BWS system while running on a HST; the second group (n = 12) used a standard treadmill (ST) with no BWS system. The participants of the control group (n = 8), NT, did not participate in a sports acceleration program and did not alter their exercise routines outside of the study. An analysis of covariance was performed using baseline measures as the covariate. The 40-yard sprint times for both treatment groups were shown to improve significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Isometric knee flexor strength showed a greater increase in the ST group (p = 0.026) than in the other 2 groups, whereas knee extensor strengths did not show significant differences between treatment groups and control group (p > 0.05). Participants in the ST group had a much higher rate (66%) of shin splints and foot pain throughout the study than those in the HST (8%) and NT (0%) groups. These results can help high school coaches and athletes determine the optimal treadmill training regime. PMID:22986445

Johnson, A Wayne; Eastman, Carie S; Feland, Jeffery Brent; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Mortensen, Bartley Brett; Eggett, Dennis

2013-06-01

389

Prosthetic loading during kneeling of persons with transfemoral amputation.  

PubMed

Observations in the field of lower limb prosthetic rehabilitation have shown that several transfemoral prostheses show signs of wear on some components of the knee unit. This is thought to be a result of severe loading developed during activities associated with kneeling. Some prostheses may have failed due to repetitive action of such loading. In order to determine the nature and magnitude of the loads developed during kneeling by persons with transfemoral amputation, and to investigate the influence of various prosthetic parameters, an analysis of the results of 162 tests in prosthetic knee hyperflexion was undertaken. The services of four males with amputation were enlisted. The measurements involved simultaneous use of two Kistler force platforms, a six-channel strain gauge transducer mounted on the prosthetic shank, and a data acquisition system. The critical loads for this configuration were found to be the shear force on the knee hinge, the shear force imposed by the knee chassis on the shin, and the bending moment tending to hyperflex the knee. These loads ranged from 0.6 to 6.2 kN, 0.9 to 6.7 kN, and from 18.3 to 155.7 Nm, respectively. To achieve a comfortable kneeling position, some prostheses permit foot rotation about the pylon axis of 90 infinity to allow the shank to be approximately parallel to the ground. Tests were also conducted with the prostheses in this configuration and the most influential prosthetic parameter was found to be the external rotation of the foot (toe-out angle). During kneeling, it was found that the loading was dependent upon the position of the torso relative to the prosthesis, but loads were much higher than those developed during level walking. PMID:10659799

Magnissalis, E A; Solomonidis, S E; Spence, W D; Paul, J P; Zahedi, S

1999-07-01

390

1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM  

SciTech Connect

Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-01-01

391

Mercury concentrations in tropical resident and migrant songbirds on Hispaniola.  

PubMed

Despite growing concerns over mercury (Hg) exposure to humans and wildlife on a global scale, little is known about Hg bioaccumulation in the New World tropics. From 2005 to 2011, we monitored Hg concentrations in blood of nine avian species occupying a geographic range of tropical wet broadleaf sites on the island of Hispaniola, including eight passerines (two Nearctic-Neotropical migrant and six resident species) and one top order predatory accipiter. Invertivorous songbirds were further differentiated by foraging guild, with six species of ground-foragers and two species of foliage-gleaners. Blood Hg concentrations were orders of magnitude higher in birds sampled in central and southern cloud forest sites (1,000-1,800 m elevation) than in northern and northeastern rainforest sites (50-500 m elevation), with migratory and resident species both showing 2-20× greater blood Hg concentrations in cloud forests than in rainforests. Within cloud forest sites, ground-foraging species had higher Hg concentrations than foliage-gleaning species. Top order predatory sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) had the highest blood Hg concentrations among all species, suggesting that Hg biomagnification is occurring in terrestrial forests of Hispaniola. Two migrant songbird species overwintering on the island had higher blood Hg concentrations than have been recorded on their North American breeding grounds. Future studies should seek to elucidate sources of variation in atmospheric Hg deposition on Hispaniola and to quantify the dynamics of Hg cycling in tropical forest ecosystems, which may differ in important ways from patterns documented in temperate forest ecosystems. PMID:23076839

Townsend, Jason M; Rimmer, Christopher C; Driscoll, Charles T; McFarland, Kent P; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo

2012-10-18

392

Longitudinal Course of Depression Scores with and without Insomnia in Non-Depressed Individuals: A 6-Year Follow-Up Longitudinal Study in a Korean Cohort  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: This is a population-based longitudinal study that followed insomnia symptoms over a 6-year period in non-depressed individuals. The purpose of the study was to (1) investigate the longitudinal course of depression based on number of insomnia episodes; and (2) describe longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression, and insomnia and suicidal ideation. Design: Population-based longitudinal study. Setting: Community-based sample from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Participants: 1,282 non-depressed individuals (44% male, mean age 52.3 ± 7.14 years) Measurements and Results: This study prospectively assessed insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation with 4 time points. Individuals were classified into no insomnia (NI), single episode insomnia (SEI), and persistent insomnia (PI; ? insomnia at 2+ time points) groups based on number of times insomnia was indicated. Mixed effects modeling indicated that depression scores increased significantly faster in the PI group compared to the NI (P < 0.001) and SEI (P = 0.02) groups. Additionally, the PI group had significantly increased odds of depression as compared to NI or SEI (OR 2.44, P = 0.001) groups, with 18.7% meeting criteria for depression compared to the NI (5.3%) and SEI (11.6%) groups at end point. The PI group also had significantly increased odds of suicidal ideation as compared to NI or SEI (OR 1.86, P = 0.002) groups. Conclusions: Persistent insomnia significantly increases the rate in which depression occurs over time in non-depressed individuals, which ultimately leads to higher risk for depression. Additionally, having persistent insomnia also increased the risk of suicidal ideation. Citation: Suh S; Kim H; Yang HC; Cho ER; Lee SK; Shin C. Longitudinal course of depression scores with and without insomnia in non-depressed individuals: a 6-year follow-up longitudinal study in a Korean cohort. SLEEP 2013;36(3):369-376.

Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyun; Yang, Hae-Chung; Cho, Eo Rin; Lee, Seung Ku; Shin, Chol

2013-01-01

393

Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

2011-11-18

394

Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.  

PubMed

The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p < .01) while backpacking a 22.5 kg load. A decrease of EISM also appeared at the next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

1999-01-01

395

Mechanisms of adiponectin regulation and use as a pharmacological target.  

PubMed

Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory fat cell hormone that has immense potential as a therapeutic target for a multitude of obesity-associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes, NASH and atherosclerosis (Chandran M, Phillips SA, Ciaraldi T, Henry RR: Adiponectin: more than just another fat cell hormone?Diabetes Care 2003, 26:2442-2450). The adiponectin gene is located in chromosome 3q27, a susceptibility locus for T2DM and metabolic disorders (Saito K, Tobe T, Minoshima S, Asakawa S, Sumiya J, Yoda M, Nakano Y, Shimizu N, Tomita M: Organization of the gene for gelatin-binding protein (GBP28). Gene 1999, 229:67-73). Increased circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with improvement in the metabolic syndrome and reductions are strongly predictive of diabetes risk (Li S, Shin HJ, Ding EL, van Dam RM: Adiponectin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2009, 302:179-188. Extensive efforts have been made to understand how adiponectin levels can be elevated. The complex post-translational processing and secretion of adiponectin provides a rich area where pharmacologic manipulation may be developed to increase adiponectin levels in humans. Circulating adiponectin levels are increased by many commonly used drugs, such as statins, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) providing an important opportunity to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying their effects. This review describes the cellular processes by which adiponectin is synthesized and secreted, current therapeutics known to affect this pathway and the potential for therapeutic manipulation in human subjects. PMID:20810317

Phillips, Susan A; Kung, Jacqueline T

2010-12-01

396

The nature and course of sensory changes following spinal cord injury: predictive properties and implications on the mechanism of central pain.  

PubMed

Central pain below the injury level after spinal cord injury is excruciating, chronic and resistive to treatment. Animal studies suggest that pretreatment may prevent central pain, but to date there are no measures to predict its development. Our aim was to monitor changes in the sensory profile below the lesion prior to the development of below-level central pain in order to search for a parameter that could predict its risk and to further explore its pathophysiology. Thirty patients with spinal cord injury and 27 healthy controls underwent measurement of warm, cold, heat-pain and touch thresholds as well as graphaesthesia, allodynia, hyperpathia and wind-up pain in intact region and in the shin and feet (below level). Patients were tested at 2-4 weeks, 1-2.5 months and 2.5-6 months after the injury or until central pain had developed. At the end of the follow-up, 46% of patients developed below-level central pain. During the testing periods, individuals who eventually developed central pain had higher thermal thresholds than those who did not and displayed high rates of abnormal sensations (allodynia and hyperpathia), which gradually increased with time until central pain developed. Logistic regressions revealed that the best predictor for the risk of below-level central pain was allodynia in the foot in the second testing session with a 77% probability (90.9% confidence). The results suggest that neuronal hyperexcitability, which may develop consequent to damage to spinothalamic tracts, precedes central pain. Furthermore, it appears that below-level central pain develops after a substantial build-up of hyperexcitability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report establishing that neuronal hyperexcitability precedes central pain. Predicting the risk for central pain can be utilized to initiate early treatment in order to prevent its development. PMID:22094538

Zeilig, Gabi; Enosh, Shavit; Rubin-Asher, Deborah; Lehr, Benjamin; Defrin, Ruth

2011-11-16

397

News from Online: A Spectrum of Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to an experiment that is suitable for older students, Circles of Light--The Mathematics of Rainbows at http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/. Frederick J. Wicklin and Paul Edelman of the University of Minnesota note that this comprehensive lab is based on a module developed by Steven Janke. Go back to About Rainbows to link to a Java applet, allowing you to change the incident angle and color of light striking a water droplet. This great teaching device is from Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taiwan Normal University at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html. And while you are here in this site (choose English or Chinese), look at the more than 30 Java applets created by F.-K. Hwang at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/index.html. The interactive applet on Shadow/Image and Color is great fun, (http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow /shadow.html). From mixing colors, we can go to Thomas Chasteen's fine work at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html for an animation (and movie also) of how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). This colorful graphic, showing incoming parallel white light, is clipped from that monochromator animation. While you are here at this site at Sam Houston State University, look at the other great animations and movies, including a movie showing solution-phase chemiluminescence at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html. So now that we have explored the breaking down of light into its component colors, we need to also look at another process--polarizing light. Let's go to Science Media's comprehensive site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) to examine polarized light ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm). Of course, most

Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

1999-06-01

398

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry derived structural geometry for stress fracture prediction in male U.S. Marine Corps recruits.  

PubMed

A total of 626 U.S. male Marine Corps recruits underwent anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the femoral midshaft and the distal third of the tibia prior to a 12 week physical training program. Conventionally obtained frontal plane DXA scan data were used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to derive the cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus, and bone width in the femur, tibia, and fibula. During training, 23 recruits (3.7%) presented with a total of 27 radiologically confirmed stress fractures in various locations in the lower extremity. After excluding 16 cases of shin splints, periostitis, and other stress reactions that did not meet fracture definition criteria, we compared anthropometric and bone structural geometry measurements between fracture cases and the remaining 587 normals. There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.8), femur length (p = 0.2), pelvic width (p = 0.08), and knee width at the femoral condyles (p = 0.06), but fracture cases were shorter (p = 0.01), lighter (p = 0.0006), and smaller in most anthropometric girth dimensions (p < 0.04). Fracture case bone cross-sectional areas (p < 0.001), moments of inertia (p < 0.001), section moduli (p < 0.001), and widths (p < 0.001) as well as BMD (p < 0.03) were significantly smaller in the tibia and femur. After correcting for body weight differences, the tibia cross-sectional area (p = 0.03), section modulus (p = 0.05), and width (p = 0.03) remained significantly smaller in fracture subjects. We conclude that both small body weight and small diaphyseal dimensions relative to body weight are factors predisposing to the development of stress fractures in this population. These results suggest that bone structural geometry measurements derived from DXA data may provide a simple noninvasive methodology for assessing the risk of stress fracture. PMID:9157779

Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Mourtada, F A; Shaffer, R A; Maxwell-Williams, K; Kao, G L; Sartoris, D J; Brodine, S

1996-05-01

399

Adjoint sensitivity structures of typhoon DIANMU (2010) based on a global model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sung-Min Kim1, Hyun Mee Kim1, Sang-Won Joo2, Hyun-Cheol Shin2, DukJin Won2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea1 Korea Meteorological Administration2 Submitted to AGU 2010 Fall Meeting 13-17 December 2010, San Francisco, CA The path and intensity forecast of typhoons (TYs) depend on the initial condition of the TY itself and surrounding background fields. Because TYs are evolved on the ocean, there are not many observational data available. In this sense, additional observations on the western North Pacific are necessary to get the proper initial condition of TYs. Due to the limited resource of observing facilities, identifying the sensitive regions for the specific forecast aspect in the forecast region of interest will be very beneficial to decide where to deploy additional observations. The additional observations deployed in those sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observations, and the strategies to decide the sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observation strategies. Among the adaptive observation strategies, the adjoint sensitivity represents the gradient of some forecast aspects with respect to the control variables of the model (i.e., initial conditions, boundary conditions, and parameters) (Errico 1997). According to a recent research on the adjoint sensitivity of a TY based on a regional model, the sensitive regions are located horizontally in the right half circle of the TY, and vertically in the lower and upper troposphere near the TY (Kim and Jung 2006). Because the adjoint sensitivity based on a regional model is calculated in a relatively small domain, the adjoint sensitivity structures may be affected by the size and location of the domain. In this study, the adjoint sensitivity distributions for TY DIANMU (2010) based on a global model are investigated. The adjoint sensitivity based on a global model is calculated by using the perturbation forecast (PF) and adjoint PF model of the Unified Model at KMA originated from UK Met Office. Results of the adjoint sensitivity structure will be presented in the conference.

Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Joo, S.; Shin, H.; Won, D.

2010-12-01

400

Preface: phys. stat. sol. (b) 241/7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting.The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for enhanced relationship between all participants. We deeply appreciate the help of the editorial staff of physica status solidi for their efficient and kind help during the paper preparations and publications.Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all members of the Advisory Committee, Organizing Committee, referees, and KMS staff for their effort before, during, and after the meeting.

Shin, Sung-Chul

2004-06-01

401

Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 201/8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KMS/SOMMA Meeting 2003 was held 3-6 December 2003 at Spapia Hotel, Daejeon, Korea. It was the 5th SOMMA (International Symposium on Magnetic Materials and Applications) organized by ReCAMM (Research Center for Advanced Magnetic Materials) of Chungnam National University. Since 2002, the Korean Magnetics Society (KMS) winter conference has been jointly held with SOMMA. This was the second time to have a KMS/SOMMA joint meeting. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum to discuss up-to-date results on magnetism and magnetic materials. The conference brought together 360 participants from 12 countries. Sessions of the meeting were: Theory and Fundamentals, Magnetic Random Access Memory, Spintronics, Information Storage, Nanostructured Materials, Sensors, and Interdisciplinary. In these seven sessions, 325 papers were presented including 66 oral and 259 poster presentations. Since the symposium was held in Korea, this enabled a large number of Asian scientists to attend: 239 from Korea, 41 from Japan, 7 from Taiwan, and 5 from China.The conference program had 25 invited and plenary speakers. They were Y. Ando (Tohoku U.), M. Inoue (Toyohashi U. Tech), H. Kubota (Tohoku U.), K. Mohri (Nagoya U.), M. Sahashi, M. Takahashi, K. Takanashi, M. Tsunoda (Tohoku U.), and H. Yoda (Toshiba) from Japan; A. J. Freeman (Northwestern U.), A. T. Hanbicki (NRL), F. B. Humphrey (Boston U.), and S. Sun (IBM) from the USA; J. D. Boeck (IMEC, Belgium), B. Dieny (CEA, France), N. Garcia (CSIS, Spain), G. Reiss (Bielefeld U., Germany), T. Stobiecki (U. M. & M. Krakow, Poland), and M. Wolfram (Singulus Tech, Germany) from Europe; C. G. Kim, D. J. Kim (CNU), T. W. Kim (SAIT), S. H. Lim (KIST), Sung-Chul Shin (KAIST), and Yoon Hee Chung (POSTEC) from Korea.For the first time, the SOMMA Proceedings appear in physica status solidi. The Editors hope that the Proceedings could provide chances for deeper and wider understanding of the presentations as well as for enhanced relationship between all participants. We deeply appreciate the help of the editorial staff of physica status solidi for their efficient and kind help during the paper preparations and publications.Finally, we would like to take this opportunity to thank all members of the Advisory Committee, Organizing Committee, referees, and KMS staff for their effort before, during, and after the meeting.

Shin, Sung-Chul

2004-06-01

402

Determining the 630nm emission altitude using modelling and observations from a tristatic configuration of Fabry-Perot Interferometers and EISCAT radars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anasuya Aruliah, a.aruliah@ucl.ac.uk University College London, London, United Kingdom Michael Kosch, m.kosch@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom Tristatic team Anasuya Aruliah,Ho-Ching Iris Yiu,Ian McWhirter, Michael Kosch,Kazuo Shiokawa,Shin-ichiro Oyama,Satonori Nozawa,Vikki Howells,Ian McCrea During early February 2010 a tristatic FPI-EISCAT experiment was run in order to investigate the peak emission altitude of the 630nm airglow and auroral emission in the region of the auroral oval. Two UCL Fabry-Perot Interferometers and a new STEL FPI have been located close to the three EISCAT radars at Tromsø, Kiruna and Sodankylü. The radars were pointed a at a common volume seen by all three FPIs, on assuming a peak emission height of 235km. This altitude is generally assumed to be fairly steady for FPI studies probing the behaviour of the upper atmosphere, though the height is a little different at other latitudes. The smoothing effect of the large viscosity of the upper thermosphere is invoked as a reason why the actual altitude is not too important, and there has been little investigation of the appropriateness of this assumption. However, mesoscale variability in the ionosphere has now been identified as producing a similar quantity of heating as does steady state convection; and FPIs and the CHAMP satellite have shown mesoscale structure in the high-latitude thermosphere. This indicates a need to revisit old assumptions that were based on the premise of thermospheric variability being large-scale. The STEL FPI at Ramfjord has a fully variable pointing direction mechanism and was programmed to point rapidly at successive volumes that would overlap the UCL KEOPS/Kiruna FPI look direction if the emission volume was 195km, 215km, 235km and 255km. Cross-correlation of the temperatures and intensity measurements would then identify the peak emission height. The EISCAT radar provided ionospheric parameters to model the 630nm emission profile for comparison with the FPI observations.

Aruliah, Anasuya; Kosch, Michael

403

Imaging fast spin dynamics at the nanoscale with soft x-ray microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale and multicomponent magnetic systems are attracting both fundamental interest and are widely used in technological applications such as high density magnetic storage and sensor devices. The challenge to modern magnetic microscopies is to image magnetic microstructures in such specimens with high spatial and time resolution and elemental specificity. Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy is a novel technique combining a spatial resolution down to currently 15nm, elemental sensitivity due to X-ray magnetic circular dichroism used as huge magnetic contrast mechanism and a sub-ns time resolution limited by the current time structure of the synchrotron radiation used as source for circularly polarized soft X-rays. We report on recent results and achievements in magnetic soft X-ray microscopy obtained at the full-field soft X-ray microscopy beamline 6.1.2 (XM-1) located at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley CA. Magnetization reversal processes at the grain level in a nanogranular CoCrPt system were studied with 15nm spatial resolution to obtain insight into spin fluctuations on a fundamental length scale. The inherent elemental sensitivity of XMCD contrast allows e.g. in (coupled) multilayered magnetic systems to explore their microscopic magnetization reversal process with layer resolution. Spin dynamics in magnetic nanostructures can be addressed by a stroboscopic pump and probe scheme utilizing the inherent time structure of synchrotron radiation, where the pump is a fast electronic pulse launched into a waveguide structure to excite the spin dynamics of a magnetic nanoelement. Varying the delay time between the pump and the probing x-ray flash one can follow the time development of e.g local spin and vortex dynamics and relaxation phenomena, but also spin-torque driven domain wall displacements with sub-ns time resolution. Current developments of X-ray optics aim to achieve better than 10nm spatial resolution. At upcoming high brillant ultrast X-ray sources snapshots of spin dynamics with fs time resolution recorded with magnetic soft X-ray microscopy can be foreseen. Many thanks to D.-H. Kim, B. Mesler, W. Chao, R. Oort, E. Anderson, G. Meier, R. Eiselt, M. Bolte, M.-Y. Im, S.-C. Shin, S. Mangin, E. Fullerton.

Fischer, Peter

2007-03-01

404

Attenuation imaging of cross-well data using waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waveforms contain the information not only about velocity, but also various parameters, such as attenuation (or Q factor), density, and anisotropic parameters. The Q values can provide the useful information about rheology, pore fluid, and fluid flow information. Attenuation has conventionally been imaged from the first arrival waveforms (amplitudes and/or spectra) using with ray theoretical methods. Although these methods are simple and fast, the method does not use the full record of observed waves, and the resolution is limited. By using a greater portion of the waveforms, frequency domain full waveform inversion has resulted in the improved velocity and attenuation images (Hicks and Pratt, 2001). Challenges remain regarding attenuation imaging, including the estimation of source signatures, source and receiver coupling effects, geometrical spreading, etc. Our previous work with synthetic data showed that it is critical to obtain accurate velocity images prior to attenuation imaging, in order to enhance parameter resolution (Kamei and Pratt, 2008). Inaccurate velocity structures lead to instable attenuation imaging. However the work focused on parameter separation between attenuation and velocity, and the results were limited to noise-free synthetic data. In this study we first investigate the tradeoff between the amplitudes of estimated source signatures, and attenuation models. There is inverse proportionality between Q values and source amplitudes.. Apparently waveform inversion provides relative attenuation images, and some other information is required to obtain absolute Q values. We also compare two objective function; the standard and the logarithmic L2 objective function proposed by Shin and Min (2006). The logarithmic L2 objective function enabled to recover higher wavenumber components of the attenuation model, than the standar L2 objective function, since the logarithmic function enhanced the contribution from small-valued data. Then, the waveform inversion technique is applied to the synthetic data contaminated with Gaussian noise. The attenuation imaging is severely affected by inadequate amplitude information at low and middle frequencies, although the standard L2 function showed more robustness. The noise test revealed that it is essential to use a group of frequencies to stabilize the inversion.

Kamei, R.; Pratt, R. G.

2009-12-01

405

Non-perturbative phenomena in resonantly interacting quantum gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this thesis, we present an inhomogeneous theory for the low-temperature properties of a resonantly interacting Fermi mixture in a trap that goes beyond the local-density approximation. We compare a Bogoliubov-de Gennes and a Landau-Ginzburg approach that both include mean-field-like self-energy effects to account for the strong interactions at unitarity. We conclude that the Landau-Ginzburg approach is more appropriate when dealing with a first-order phase transition. We show diagrammatically how these self-energy effects arise from fluctuations in the superfluid order parameter. Gradient terms of the order parameter are included to account for inhomogeneities. This approach incorporates the state-of-the-art knowledge of the homogeneous mixture with a population imbalance exactly and gives good agreement with the experimental density profiles of Shin et al. [Nature 451, 689 (2008)]. We calculate the universal surface tension due to the observed interface between the equal-density superfluid and the partially polarized normal state of the mixture. We find that the exotic and gapless superfluid Sarma phase can be stabilized at this interface, even when this phase is unstable in the bulk of the gas. We also discuss the possibility of a metastable state to explain the deformation of the superfluid core that is seen in the experiment of Partridge et al. [Science 311, 503 (2006)]. In the second part, we show that a two-channel mean-field theory for a Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance allows for an analytic computation of the chemical potential, and therefore the universal constant ?, at unitarity. To improve on this mean-field theory, which physically neglects condensate depletion, we study a variational Jastrow ansatz for the ground-state wavefunction and use the hypernetted-chain (HNC/0) approximation to minimize the energy for all positive values of the scattering length. We also show that other important physical quantities such as Tan's contact and the condensate fraction can be directly obtained from this approach.

Diederix, J. M.

2011-09-01

406

Imipramine blocks ethanol-induced ASMase activation, ceramide generation, and PP2A activation, and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed mice  

PubMed Central

Our previous data showed the inhibitory effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, which appears to be mediated, in part, through increased levels of hepatic ceramide and activation of protein phosphatase 2A (Liangpunsakul S, Sozio MS, Shin E, Zhao Z, Xu Y, Ross RA, Zeng Y, Crabb DW. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 298: G1004–G1012, 2010). The effect of ethanol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was reversed by imipramine, suggesting that the generation of ceramide via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is stimulated by ethanol. In this study, we determined the effects of imipramine on the development of hepatic steatosis, the generation of ceramide, and downstream effects of ceramide on inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, in ethanol-fed mice. The effect of ethanol and imipramine (10 ?g/g body wt ip) on ceramide levels, as well as inflammatory, insulin, and apoptotic signaling pathways, was studied in C57BL/6J mice fed the Lieber-DeCarli diet. Ethanol-fed mice developed the expected steatosis, and cotreatment with imipramine for the last 2 wk of ethanol feeding resulted in improvement in hepatic steatosis. Ethanol feeding for 4 wk induced impaired glucose tolerance compared with controls, and this was modestly improved with imipramine treatment. There was a significant decrease in total ceramide concentrations in response to imipramine in ethanol-fed mice treated with and without imipramine (287 ± 11 vs. 348 ± 12 pmol/mg tissue). The magnitude and specificity of inhibition on each ceramide species differed. A significant decrease was observed for C16 (28 ± 3 vs. 33 ± 2 pmol/mg tissue) and C24 (164 ± 9 vs. 201 ± 4 pmol/mg tissue) ceramide. Ethanol feeding increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of ERK slightly and increased phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK substantially. The levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK were reduced by treatment with imipramine. The activation of ASMase and generation of ceramide in response to ethanol feeding may underlie several effects of ethanol. ASMase inhibitors may be considered as a therapeutic target for alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis and activation of stress kinases.

Rahmini, Yasmeen; Ross, Ruth A.; Zhao, Zhenwen; Xu, Yan; Crabb, David W.

2012-01-01

407

Overview of injuries in the young athlete.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 30 million children in the US participate in organised sports programmes. As more and more children participate in sports and recreational activities, there has been an increase in acute and overuse injuries. Emergency department visits are highest among the school-age to young adult population. Over one-third of school-age children will sustain an injury severe enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse. The yearly costs have been estimated to be as high as 1.8 billion US dollars. There are physical and physiological differences between children and adults that may cause children to be more vulnerable to injury. Factors that contribute to this difference in vulnerability include: children have a larger surface area to mass ratio, children have larger heads proportionately, children may be too small for protective equipment, growing cartilage may be more vulnerable to stresses and children may not have the complex motor skills needed for certain sports until after puberty. The most commonly injured areas of the body include the ankle and knee followed by the hand, wrist, elbow, shin and calf, head, neck and clavicle. Contusions and strains are the most common injuries sustained by young athletes. In early adolescence, apophysitis or strains at the apophyses are common. The most common sites are at the knee (Osgood-Schlatter disease), at the heel (Sever's disease) and at the elbow (Little League Elbow). Non-traumatic knee pain is one of the most common complaints in the young athlete. Patellar Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) has a constellation of causes that include overuse, poor tracking of the patellar, malalignment problems of the legs and foot problems, such as pes planus. In the child, hip pathology can present as knee pain so a careful hip exam is important in the child presenting with an insidious onset of knee pain. Other common injuries in young athletes discussed include anterior cruciate ligament injuries, ankle sprains and ankle fractures. Prevention of sports and recreation-related injuries is the ideal. There are six potential ways to prevent injuries in general: (i) the pre-season physical examination; (ii) medical coverage at sporting events; (iii) proper coaching; (iv) adequate hydration; (v) proper officiating; and (vi) proper equipment and field/surface playing conditions. PMID:12477379

Adirim, Terry A; Cheng, Tina L

2003-01-01

408

Characterization of the terrigenous organic matter distribution in the bottom sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is a Mediterranean sea with exceptionally large shelves that account for approximately 50% of the total area of the enclosed ocean. Accordingly, the inorganic and organic character of the sediments both on the shelves and in the basins of the Arctic Ocean strongly reflect a pervasive influence from the surrounding land/thawing permafrost (Macdonald et al., 2008). The East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is an enormous, shallow shelf that receives most of its particulate supply from coastal erosion A notable characteristic of the ESAS is an extremely large gradient of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters from Long Strait/Wrangell Island to the Lena River Delta that corresponds to geographically critical contrasts in the Arctic system where the Pacific and local shelf waters interact over the shelf (Semiletov et al., 2005). ESAS is clearly important region for storing and processing material that derives from the land and the sea. Here we synthesize the lithological and biogochemical data obtained in the ESAS by Laboratory of Arctic studies POI in cooperation with the IARC and SU during the last 10 years (1999-2009). Highest organic carbon (OC) concentrations in the surface sediment (up to 4w/w%) was found near mouths of major rivers (Lena, Yana, Indigirka, Alaseya, Kolyma), and near highly eroded coast (1-2 w/w %). .However, sedimentation over the major portion of shallow ESAS is dominated by coastal erosion not riverine runoff. It has been shown that contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (CTOM) is up to 100% in areas strongly impacted by coastal erosion. Lowest OC values (~0.1-0.5 w/w %) were found in the relic sediments of shoals (e.g. Semenovskaya, Vasilevskaya, and Diomid). New detail maps of distribution of sediment OC, CTOM, and C/N are considered along with the sediment sizing and mineralogical data. This multi-year study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Russian NSF), FEBRAS, NOAA, NSF, Wallenberg Foundation, and Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis," Edited by K.-K. Liu, L. Atkinson, R. Quinones, L. Talaue-McManus, Springer-Verlag, 291-303. Semiletov, I., O. Dudarev, V. Luchin, K.-H. Shin, and N. Tanaka, 2005, The East-Siberian Sea as a transition zone between Pacific-derived waters and Artic shelf waters, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L10614/2005GL022490

Dudarev, Oleg; Charkin, Alexander; Semiletov, Igor; Gustafsson, Örjan; Vonk, Jorien; Sánchez-García, Laura

2010-05-01

409

Effect of target spatial frequency on accommodative response in myopes and emmetropes.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether systematic differences exist between the accommodation response/stimulus curves of emmetropes and myopes when the targets are sinusoidal gratings, in particular whether myopic accommodation is relatively less effective when presented with targets of high spatial frequency due to increased tolerance to defocus blur. Ten emmetropes (overall mean sphere +0.19 D, range -0.37 to +1.37 D) and 10 myopes (overall mean sphere -2.89 D, range -1.13 to -6.63 D) viewed Gabor targets with dominant frequencies 1, 4, 8 and 16 c/deg. Maximal grating contrast was 80% and the full, green, stimulus field was 6 deg. Subjects were aged between 18 and 37 years. A further high-contrast 6/30 optotype target was included for comparison purposes. Viewing was monocular, the other eye being occluded. Stimulus demand was varied with trial lenses over the nominal range 0 to 6.0 D and the corresponding accommodation responses were recorded with an open-view, Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 auto-refractor. The resulting accommodation response/stimulus curves were characterized by their slopes over the stimulus range 1.5 to 6.0 D and by an "error index" indicating the extent to which the responses differed from the ideal 1:1 response/stimulus line. No significant differences were found between the mean accommodative behavior of the two refractive groups for any target. There were, however, substantial inter-subject differences. Some subjects in both groups showed more accurate responses with the higher spatial-frequency targets, while others showed optimal response at intermediate frequencies. Although it has been reported in the literature that, in comparison to emmetropes, myopes have reduced sensitivity to blur and response/stimulus curves of lower slope, the present study failed to demonstrate any reduction in their responses to gratings of relatively high spatial frequency. For each target the two refractive groups showed similar accommodative behavior. PMID:19271886

Taylor, John; Charman, W Neil; O'Donnell, Clare; Radhakrishnan, Hema

2009-01-15

410

Volcanic-related alteration and geochemistry of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyushu, SW Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satsuma-Iwojima is located near the northwestern margin of Kikai caldera, and active Mt. Iwodake is one of the post-caldera cones. Inside the summit crater of about 300 m diameter and 50 m depth, volcanic gas with maximum temperature >800°C is discharged. At Iwodake, the rhyolite is strongly altered by volcanic vapor and acid hydrothermal solution inside and around the summit crater. The main alteration mineral assemblages at surface include quartz-tridymite-cristobalite, tridymite-cristobalite-alunite and cristobalite-(alunite) inside the summit crater and on the flank. Molybdenum blue sublimates are forming at the surface around high-temperature fumaroles inside the summit crater. The ground surface is commonly cemented by amorphous silica or cristobalite. The original rhyolite with SiO2 = 71-72 wt% has been leached, resulting in a rock with maximum SiO2 = 97 wt%. All major elements are leached except for TiO2. Although LIL (large-ion lithophile) elements have leached, HFS (high field-strength) elements appear to be immobile. Rare earth elements are considered to have been soluble as a complex with sulfate mainly in the low pH hydrothermal fluid during the silicification of the rhyolite. There is abundant Mo, Pb, Zn, Bi, Sn and much lower As in the volcanic sublimates and altered rocks inside the summit crater. By contrast, the rocks near the acid springs at the foot of the cone are As-rich, but with lower Pb, Zn, Bi and little Mo in comparison with the summit. The fractures and fumarole locations around Iwodake summit and erosional ridges on the flanks reflects a NE-SW trend that is parallel to the trace of the outer ring of Kikai caldera. In addition, this is the same direction as the alignment of Shin-Iwojima, Iwodake and Inamuradake, all of which are post-caldera cones. Zones of structural weakness parallel to the caldera rim may exist, acting as pathways for the ascending volcanic gases and hydrothermal solutions. Fumarolic activity appears to be shifting gradually to the eastern part of the summit crater.

Hamasaki, S.

2002-03-01

411

Factors affecting the mobilization of DOC and metals in a peat soil under a warmer scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most climate change models predict an increase of temperature of 3-5°C in Southern Europe by the end of this century (IPCC 2007). However, changes in summer precipitations are more uncertain, and although a decrease in rainfall inputs is forecasted by most models, the magnitude of this effect has not been assessed properly (Rowell & Jones 2006). Peatland areas are very sensitive to climate change. In Galicia they survive in upland areas where cold temperatures and continuous moisture supply allow their presence. Besides abiotic factors, alterations in soil fauna activities can also affect peat turnover. Among them, enchytraeids are usually the most numerous invertebrate group in these systems and both temperature and moisture content regulate their abundances and vertical distribution. Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in their populations associated to increasing temperatures can significantly affect metal mobilization, namely iron and aluminium, together with an important decline in the acidity of the soil solution, which possibly eliminates one of the critical mechanisms restricting DOC release (Carrera et al., 2009). In this study we investigated whether changes in water content of the peat soil and soil invertebrate activities associated to increasing temperatures could alter the mobilization rates of Fe and Al and in turn, DOC. 72 undisturbed soil cores (6 cm diameter x 10 cm deep) with their associated vegetation were taken from a blanket bog in Galicia (NW Spain). Back at the laboratory they were sliced horizontally into two layers, (0-5cm and 5-10cm) which were defaunated by means of a wet extraction. Thereafter, the two soil layers derived from the same core were introduced in each microcosm by placing them in their original position but separated by a 1 mm nylon mesh to allow the vertical movements of the organisms. Half of the experimental units were adjusted to the used moisture values observed in the field (80% SWC, H1), whereas in the remaining half the moisture content was decreased to a lower value so that the activities of the soil organisms remained unaffected (60%, H2). Sixty enchytraeid individuals were inoculated into 18 units of each moisture treatment resulting in two animal treatments (+E and -E). Nine replicates of each treatment were incubated at 14°C and the rest were maintained at 19°C. Changes in enchytraeid populations during incubation were monitored by using a parallel series of 120 experimental units consisting of plastic containers which contained defaunated soil samples (two soil layers) separated by the nylon mesh and with the two moisture treatments as the microcosms (H1 and H2) following the same procedures as before. Next, the same number of enchytraeids was re-inoculated in half of these experimental units (+E and -E). The experiment run for 13 weeks; every 15 days, enchytraeid numbers, DOC, Fe and Al content in the leachates collected from each individual layer were determined. Results showed that both high temperature and moisture values promoted enchytraeid reproduction, with most individuals concentrated in the upper layer. This abundant enchytraeid population favoured the mobilization of DOC, Fe and Al to the soil solution. These findings suggest that modifications in soil faunal populations due to abiotic changes could enhance organic matter decomposition, contributing to the destabilization of these peatland systems. Increasing leaching of dissolved organic matter and metals could have negative implications, not only in terms of possible feed-backs to global warming but also as potential contaminants for aquatic ecosystems. References • Carrera N., Barreal M.E., Gallego P. & Briones M.J.I. (2009). Soil invertebrates control peatland C fluxes in response to warming. Functional Ecology 23: 637-648. • IPCC 2007. Climate change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M. & Miller H.L. (Eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. • Rowell D.P. & Jones R.G. (2006). Cause

Carrera, Noela; Barreal, María. Esther; Briones, María. Jesús I.

2010-05-01

412

Heterogeneous Accretion of the Earth and the Timing of Volatile Element Depletion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is depleted in moderately volatile elements relative to CI chondrites and thus average solar system material. The timing of this depletion has been a matter of debate. Isotopic constraints from the short-lived Pd-Ag, Mn-Cr and Hf-W decay systems can be used to model the accretion history of the Earth and the timing of moderately volatile element depletion [1]. While the Pd-Ag decay system provides evidence for the accretion of volatile-rich material, other systems like Mn-Cr and Rb-Sr require that the Earth accreted volatile-depleted material [2, 3]. As recently shown [1], the contrasting evidence from these decay systems can be reconciled by heterogeneous accretion, which implies that the composition of the material from which the Earth accreted changed over time. A continuous core formation model was used and the best match was obtained for the Earth mainly accreting volatile-depleted material in the beginning and more volatile-rich material towards the end, while core formation was still ongoing [1]. However, a different study proposed that the bulk of the moderately volatile elements was delivered in a volatile-rich late veneer after core formation ceased [4]. This is not supported by the Pd-Ag data (Ag is a moderately volatile element, while Pd is more refractory). A late veneer of volatile-rich CI material (Pd = 556 ppb and Ag = 197 ppb) after core formation is limited to a maximum of ~0.4 % of the Earth's mass by the Pd concentration of the Earth's mantle today (~3.3 ppb). This amount of CI material does not supply enough Ag to substantially modify the Ag isotope composition of the Earth's mantle. In a scenario where the Earth accretes exceedingly volatile depleted material, its high Pd/Ag ratio would lead to an extreme radiogenic Ag isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE), which cannot be counterbalanced by the late veneer to match the observed BSE composition. We also tested the heterogeneous accretion scenario using N-body accretion simulations [5] for the Pd-Ag decay system. Again the best results were obtained when materials with different degrees of volatile depletion (= different Pd/Ag ratios) were accreted. The simulations include early accretion of close-in material and later accretion of material from greater heliocentric distances, which is consistent with a transition from volatile-depleted to volatile-enriched material. Therefore, N-body accretion simulations and the continuous core formation model yield similar results, which demonstrates the robustness of the heterogeneous accretion scenario. [1] Schönbächler et al. (2010), Science 328, 884. [2] Carlson & Lugmair (1988), Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 90, 119. [3] Qin et al. (2009), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 1122. [4] Albarède (2009), Nature, 461, 1227.[5] O'Brien et al. (2006), Icarus 184, 36.

Schönbächler, M.; Nimmo, F.

2011-12-01

413

Quantification of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from various waste treatment facilities by tracer dilution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban activities generate solid and liquid waste, and the handling and aftercare of the waste results in the emission of various compounds into the surrounding environment. Some of these compounds are emitted as gasses into the atmosphere, including methane and nitrous oxide. Methane and nitrous oxide are strong greenhouse gases and are considered to have 25 and 298 times the greenhouse gas potential of carbon dioxide on a hundred years term (Solomon et al. 2007). Global observations of both gasses have shown increasing concentrations that significantly contribute to the greenhouse gas effect. Methane and nitrous oxide are emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources and inventories of source specific fugitive emissions from the anthropogenic sources of methane and nitrous oxide of are often estimated on the basis of modeling and mass balance. Though these methods are well-developed, actual measurements for quantification of the emissions is a very useful tool for verifying the modeling and mass balance as well as for validation initiatives done for lowering the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. One approach to performing such measurements is the tracer dilution method (Galle et al. 2001, Scheutz et al. 2011), where the exact location of the source is located and a tracer gas is released at this source location at a known flow. The ratio of downwind concentrations of the tracer gas and the methane and nitrous oxide gives the emissions rates of the greenhouse gases. This tracer dilution method can be performed using both stationary and mobile measurements and in both cases, real-time measurements of both tracer and quantified gas are required, placing high demands on the analytical detection method. To perform the methane and nitrous oxide measurements, two robust instruments capable of real-time measurements were used, based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy and operating in the near-infrared spectral region. One instrument measured the methane and tracer gas concentrations while another measured the nitrous oxide concentration. We present the performance of these instruments at different waste treatment facilities (waste water treatment plants, composting facilities, sludge mineralization beds, anaerobic digesters and landfills) in Denmark, and discuss the strengths and limitations of the method of the method for quantifying methane and nitrous oxide emissions from the different sources. Furthermore, we have measured the methane emissions from 10 landfills with emission rates ranging from 5 to 135 kg/h depending on the age, state, content and aftercare of the landfill. In addition, we have studied 3 waste water treatment plants, and found nitrous oxide emission of 200 to 700 g/h from the aeration tanks and a total methane emission ranging from 2 to 15 kg/h, with the primary emission coming from the sludge treatment. References Galle, B., Samuelsson, J., Svensson, B.H., and Börjesson, G. (2001). Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (1), 21-25 Scheutz, C., Samuelsson, J., Fredenslund, A. M., and Kjeldsen, P. (2011). Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique. Waste Management, 31(5), 1009-17 Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, R.B. Alley, T. Berntsen, N.L. Bindoff, Z. Chen, A. Chidthaisong, J.M. Gregory, G.C. Hegerl, M. Heimann, B. Hewitson, B.J. Hoskins, F. Joos, J. Jouzel, V. Kattsov, U. Lohmann, T.Matsuno, M. Molina, N. Nicholls, J.Overpeck, G. Raga, V. Ramaswamy, J. Ren, M. Rusticucci, R. Somerville, T.F. Stocker, P. Whetton, R.A.Wood and D. Wratt, 2007: Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Mønster, Jacob; Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

2013-04-01

414

Estimation of the spatial validity of local aerosol measurements in Europe using MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actual impact of atmospheric aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget is still associated to large uncertainties [IPCC, 2007]. Global monitoring of the aerosol properties and distribution in the atmosphere is needed to improve our knowledge of climate change. The instrumentation used for this purpose can be divided into two main groups: ground-based and satellite-based. Ground-based instruments, like lidars or Sun-photometers, are usually designed to measure accurate local properties of atmospheric aerosols throughout the day. However, the spatial validity of these measurements is conditioned by the aerosol variability within the atmosphere. Satellite-based sensors offer spatially resolved information about aerosols at a global scale, but generally with a worse temporal resolution and in a less detailed way. In this work, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm from MODIS Aqua, product MYD04 [Remer, 2005], is used to estimate the area of validity of local measurements at different reference points, corresponding to the AERONET [Holben, 1998] stations during the 2011-2012 period in Europe. For each case, the local AOD (AODloc) at each reference point is calculated as the averaged MODIS data within a radius of 15 km. Then, the AODloc is compared to the AOD obtained when a larger averaging radius is used (AOD(r)), up to 500 km. Only those cases where more than 50% of the pixels in each averaging area contain valid data are used. Four factors that could affect the spatial variability of aerosols are studied: proximity to the sea, human activity, aerosol load and geographical location (latitude and longitude). For the 76 reference points studied, which are sited in different regions of Europe, we have determined that the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between AODloc and AOD(r) , averaged for all cases, increases in a logarithmic way with the averaging radius (RMSD ? log(r)), while the linear correlation coefficient (R) decreases following a logarithmic trend (R ? -log(r)). Among all the factors studied, the aerosol load is the most influential one in the aerosol spatial variability: for averaging radii smaller than 40 km, the RMSD increases with AODloc. Another important factor is the latitude and longitude: the variation of the RMSD in the AOD with regard to the averaging radius can differ up to a 60%, depending on the location. On the contray, the proximity to the sea and the amount of population surrounding each reference point do not have a noticeable influence compared to the above mentioned factors. Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1-16, 1998. IPCC (2007). S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, USA. Remer, L. A., y co-authors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1

Marcos, Carlos; Gómez-Amo, J. Luis; Pedrós, Roberto; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

2013-04-01

415

Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be carefully monitored so that appropriate responses can be timely to mitigate the impacts from global change. References: Eisenreich, S.J. (2005). Climate Change and the European Water Dimension - A report to the European Water Directors. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, European Comission-Joint Research Centre. Ispra, Italy. 253pp. Kerr, R. (2008). Global warming throws some curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science, 322, 515. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K., Tignor, M., Miller, H. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996pp. Lloret, J., Marín, A., Marín-Guirao, L. (2008). Is coastal lagoon eutrophication likely to be aggravated by global climate change? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 78, 403-412. Snoussi, M., Ouchani, T., Niazi, S. (2008). Vulnerability assessment of the impact of sea-level rise and flooding on the Moroccan coast: The case of the Mediterranean eastern zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 77, 206-213.

Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

2009-04-01

416

Regional scenarios of mean and extreme precipitation regimes in the Basque Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to different regional projections of climate change for the 21st century, changes in the mean and extreme precipitation regimes are expected in most of Europe (Christensen et al., 2007). Precipitation extreme events, in particular, can generate important natural hazards and associated social impacts. such as increasing the probability of flooding events. The objective of this paper is to calibrate the regional models for mean and extreme precipitation regimes through a reference time series (1961-2000) in the Basque Country. The reference time series have been obtained previously from a spatially reconstruction with a Digital Terrain Model and a multiple regression model. In this study, we have used four regional climate models of ENSEMBLE project: METNO-HIRHAM, UCLM-PROMES, KNMI-RAKMO2 and CNRM-RM4.5, under A1B scenario and the ERA40 climate reanalysis. The analysis of extreme precipitation has been based on a relationship between the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves and the Main-Average-Intensity (MAI) curves (Moncho et al., 2009). The regional climate models showed no significant change in mean annual precipitation in the Basque Country for the period 1961-2000 (0 ± 3% decade-1). This result is consistent with the trend of the reference series, which was not significant (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.51). For the period of 2001 to 2050, the calibration of the model ensemble showed no significant change in trend (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.35). However, some models showed a significant change in mean precipitation from 1961-2000 to 2001-2050 (METNO-HIRHAM, -10 ± 5%, p-value = 0.019) and from 2051-2100 (KNMI-RAKMO2, -8 ± 3%, p-value = 0.007). The model that best fits the reference period 1961-2000 for extreme precipitation was the METNO-HIRHAM model, followed by the UCLM-PROMES and KNMI-RAKMO2 models, therefore, these models would best describe the possible changes in future regimes. After calibrating the projections of the heavy rainfall of the climate models, 2 out of 4 models (METNO-HIRHAM and UCLM-PROM) project an increase of 12 ± 1% of the maximum daily rainfall, with a return period of 50 years for a meteorological station on average, for the period 2001-2050 with respect to the period 1961-2000. However, the KNMI-RAKMO2 model delayed this increase for the period 2051-2100 (increase of 7.7 ± 0.7%), and the CNRM-RM4.5 model showed no significant change for the period 2001-2050. Since the CNRM-RM4.5 model was less reliable, the results of analysis of the other three models suggest that the extreme precipitation in the Basque Country will increase around 10% throughout the 21st century. CHRISTENSEN, J.H.; B. HEWITSON, A.; BUSUIOC, A.; CHEN, X.; GAO, I.; HELD, R.; JONES, R.K.; KOLLI, W.-T.; KWON, R.; LAPRISE, V. ; MAGAÑA RUEDA, L.; MEARNS, C.G.; MENÉNDEZ, J.; RÄISÄINEN, A. ;RINKE, A.; SARR y P. WHETTON: "Regional Climate Projections". In: Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [SOLOMON, S.; D. QIN; M. MANNING, Z.; CHEN, M.; MARQUIS, K.B.; AVERYT, M.; TIGNOR y H.L. MILLER (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom y New York, NY, USA. MONCHO, R.; BELDA, F. and CASELLES, V. (2009): "Climatic study of the exponent n of the IDF curves of the Iberian Peninsula", Tethys, n°6, 2009, 18 pp.

Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Caselles, Vicente

2010-05-01

417

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

418

Major types and time-space distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their geodynamic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ore deposits of the Mesozoic age in South China can be divided into three groups, each with different metal associations and spatial distributions and each related to major magmatic events. The first event occurred in the Late Triassic (230-210 Ma), the second in the Mid-Late Jurassic (170-150 Ma), and the third in the Early-Mid Cretaceous (120-80 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic event and associated mineralization is characterized by peraluminous granite-related W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineral deposits. The Triassic ore deposits are considerably disturbed or overprinted by the later Jurassic and Cretaceous tectono-thermal episodes. The Mid-Late Jurassic magmatic and mineralization events consist of 170-160 Ma porphyry-skarn Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits associated with I-type granites and 160-150 Ma metaluminous granite-related polymetallic W-Sn deposits. The Late Jurassic metaluminous granite-related W-Sn deposits occur in a NE-trending cluster in the interior of South China, such as in the Nanling area. In the Early-Mid Cretaceous, from about 120 to 80 Ma, but peaking at 100-90 Ma, subvolcanic-related Fe deposits developed and I-type calc-alkaline granitic intrusions formed porphyry Cu-Mo and porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au-Ag mineral systems, whereas S-type peraluminous and/or metaluminous granitic intrusions formed polymetallic Sn deposits. These Cretaceous mineral deposits cluster in distinct areas and are controlled by pull-apart basins along the South China continental margin. Based on mineral assemblage, age, and space-time distribution of these mineral systems, integrated with regional geological data and field observations, we suggest that the three magmatic-mineralization episodes are the result of distinct geodynamic regimes. The Triassic peraluminous granites and associated W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineralization formed during post-collisional processes involving the South China Block, the North China Craton, and the Indo-China Block, mostly along the Dabie-Sulu and Songma sutures. Jurassic events were initially related to the shallow oblique subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath the Eurasian continent at about 175 Ma, but I-type granitoids with porphyry Cu and vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits only began to form as a result of the breakup of the subducted plate at 170-160 Ma, along the NNE-trending Qinzhou-Hangzhou belt (also referred to as Qin-Hang or Shi-Hang belt), which is the Neoproterozoic suture that amalgamates the Yangtze Craton and Cathaysia Block. A large subduction slab window is assumed to have formed in the Nanling and adjacent areas in the interior of South China, triggering the uprise of asthenospheric mantle into the upper crust and leading to the emplacement of metaluminous granitic magma and associated polymetallic W-Sn mineralization. A relatively tectonically quiet period followed between 150 and 135 Ma in South China. From 135 Ma onward, the angle of convergence of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel to the coastline, resulting in continental extensional tectonics and reactivation of regional-scale NE-trending faults, such as the Tan-Lu fault. This widespread extension also promoted the development of NE-trending pull-apart basins and metamorphic core complexes, accompanied by volcanism and the formation of epithermal Cu-Au deposits, granite-related polymetallic Sn-(W) deposits and hydrothermal U deposits between 120 and 80 Ma (with a peak activity at 100-90 Ma).

Jingwen, Mao; Yanbo, Cheng; Maohong, Chen; Pirajno, Franco

2012-10-01

419

Major types and time-space distribution of Mesozoic ore deposits in South China and their geodynamic settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ore deposits of the Mesozoic age in South China can be divided into three groups, each with different metal associations and spatial distributions and each related to major magmatic events. The first event occurred in the Late Triassic (230-210 Ma), the second in the Mid-Late Jurassic (170-150 Ma), and the third in the Early-Mid Cretaceous (120-80 Ma). The Late Triassic magmatic event and associated mineralization is characterized by peraluminous granite-related W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineral deposits. The Triassic ore deposits are considerably disturbed or overprinted by the later Jurassic and Cretaceous tectono-thermal episodes. The Mid-Late Jurassic magmatic and mineralization events consist of 170-160 Ma porphyry-skarn Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits associated with I-type granites and 160-150 Ma metaluminous granite-related polymetallic W-Sn deposits. The Late Jurassic metaluminous granite-related W-Sn deposits occur in a NE-trending cluster in the interior of South China, such as in the Nanling area. In the Early-Mid Cretaceous, from about 120 to 80 Ma, but peaking at 100-90 Ma, subvolcanic-related Fe deposits developed and I-type calc-alkaline granitic intrusions formed porphyry Cu-Mo and porphyry-epithermal Cu-Au-Ag mineral systems, whereas S-type peraluminous and/or metaluminous granitic intrusions formed polymetallic Sn deposits. These Cretaceous mineral deposits cluster in distinct areas and are controlled by pull-apart basins along the South China continental margin. Based on mineral assemblage, age, and space-time distribution of these mineral systems, integrated with regional geological data and field observations, we suggest that the three magmatic-mineralization episodes are the result of distinct geodynamic regimes. The Triassic peraluminous granites and associated W-Sn-Nb-Ta mineralization formed during post-collisional processes involving the South China Block, the North China Craton, and the Indo-China Block, mostly along the Dabie-Sulu and Songma sutures. Jurassic events were initially related to the shallow oblique subduction of the Izanagi plate beneath the Eurasian continent at about 175 Ma, but I-type granitoids with porphyry Cu and vein-type Pb-Zn-Ag deposits only began to form as a result of the breakup of the subducted plate at 170-160 Ma, along the NNE-trending Qinzhou-Hangzhou belt (also referred to as Qin-Hang or Shi-Hang belt), which is the Neoproterozoic suture that amalgamates the Yangtze Craton and Cathaysia Block. A large subduction slab window is assumed to have formed in the Nanling and adjacent areas in the interior of South China, triggering the uprise of asthenospheric mantle into the upper crust and leading to the emplacement of metaluminous granitic magma and associated polymetallic W-Sn mineralization. A relatively tectonically quiet period followed between 150 and 135 Ma in South China. From 135 Ma onward, the angle of convergence of the Izanagi plate changed from oblique to parallel to the coastline, resulting in continental extensional tectonics and reactivation of regional-scale NE-trending faults, such as the Tan-Lu fault. This widespread extension also promoted the development of NE-trending pull-apart basins and metamorphic core complexes, accompanied by volcanism and the formation of epithermal Cu-Au deposits, granite-related polymetallic Sn-(W) deposits and hydrothermal U deposits between 120 and 80 Ma (with a peak activity at 100-90 Ma).

Jingwen, Mao; Yanbo, Cheng; Maohong, Chen; Pirajno, Franco

2013-03-01

420

Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

421

EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2006 Roberts Prize is awarded to: M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 2007 Prize for the Highest Cited Paper The annual prize for the most highly cited paper is awarded by the journal publishers (IOP Publishing) to the article published in PMB that has received the most citations1 in the previous 5 years (in this case for the period 2002 to 2006 inclusive). We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2007 prize is awarded to: S S Vedam, P J Keall, V R Kini, H Mostafavi, H P Shukla and R Mohan 2003 Acquiring a four-dimensional computed tomography dataset using an external respiratory signal Phys. Med. Biol. 48 45-62 Simon Harris, Publisher Steve Webb, Editor-in-Chief 1 Figures taken from Thomson/ISI

2007-07-01

422

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Extragalactic astronomy (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 October 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), "Extragalactic astronomy", was held in the Conference Hall of the Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, RAS, on 28 October 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Varshalovich D A, Ivanchik A V, Balashev S A (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS) "Big Bang nucleosynthesis of deuterium and HD/H2 molecular abundances in interstellar clouds of 12 Gyr ago"; (2) Aptekar R L, Golenetskii S V, Mazets E P (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS). "Studies of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and gamma repeaters with the Ioffe Institute Konus experiments"; (3) Beskin G M, Karpov S V (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS), Bondar S V (Scientific Research Institute of Precision Instrument Making) "Discovery of the fast