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1

QIN Newsletter 1  

Cancer.gov

MR techniques in the Quantita- tive Imaging Network. Dr. Nordstrom, pro- gram director at NCI for the QIN, has briefed Dr. Fennessy on the structure of the network and the need to begin selecting individuals to serve on the five working groups.

2

Shin splints - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... splints. Common activities that cause shin splints are: Running, especially on hills. If you are a new ... arches Work out on hard surfaces, such as running on the street or playing basketball or tennis ...

3

Shin splints--a literature review.  

PubMed Central

"Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately. Images p132-a

Bates, P

1985-01-01

4

Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late…

Deng, Lin

2011-01-01

5

FALL MIGRATION OF SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIS paper is an analysis of data on the migration of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striutus) recorded at the Cedar Grove Ornithological Station in the autumns of 1952 through 1%X. Particular emphasis is placed on: (1 j the time of occurrence of the migrations, (2) the temporal distribu- tion of age classes during migration, (3) weather correlations, including a discussion of

HELMUT C. MUELLER; DANIEL D. BERGER

6

[Characteristics of Qin Bowei's Teaching Material of Gynecology].  

PubMed

As the teaching work of gynecology, Qin Bowei's Teaching Material of Gynecology was used in the China Medical College in Shanghai in the Republican period. It is composed of 2 parts, the first part deals with the introduction to the characteristics of female physiology, pathology, principles of treatment based on differential diagnosis and treatment of women's disorders; the 2(nd) part discusses in details the pathogenesis, pathological mechanism, the system of theory-methodology-recipes-medicines. The whole book deals mainly with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined with the research results of TCM gynecology by western medical theory of gynecology to make mutual interpretation in a concise structure and clear analysis with uniqueness. It is a rather systematic and essential TCM gynecological teaching material, embodying the author's personal academic idea, with profound influence on the education and compilation of teaching materials of TCM gynecology. PMID:24774896

Ye, Xiao; Zhu, Jianping

2014-01-01

7

The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.  

PubMed

In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

2014-01-01

8

Lauriana Ren & Qin, a new genus of the tribe Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae) from China.  

PubMed

A new delphacid genus and species, Lauriana senticosa Ren & Qin, gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Tropidocephalini) is described from Sichuan, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the new species are given, and the differences between the new genus and its closely related genera are discussed. PMID:24872035

Ren, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Li-Fang; Huang, Yi-Xin; Qin, Dao-Zheng

2014-01-01

9

[Soil respiration characteristics in the clear-cutting site of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest in Xiaolong Mountain in Qinling Mountains].  

PubMed

By using Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system with soil chamber, the soil respiration rates (Rs) of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forest land (control site) and their clear-cutting site were measured in Xiaolong Mountain of Qinling Mountains from May 2011 to April 2012 to understand the diurnal and monthly dynamics of soil respiration rate and the influences from soil temperature, soil moisture, soil physical and chemical properties. The results showed that both diurnal and monthly dynamics of soil respiration rate presented a single-peak curve, similar to the variation of soil temperature at the clear-cutting and control sites. During the study period, the maximum monthly mean values of soil respiration rate at the clear-cutting and control sites occurred in July (4.63 and 4.01 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively) and the minimum values presented in February (0.10 and 0.30 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively). Soil respiration rate in 4-6 months after clear-cutting was higher than at the control site, and became lower afterwards. 89. 6% -90. 8% of soil respiration rate variation was interpreted by the multiple regression models of soil temperature, soil moisture and their interaction at the clear-cutting site, and 94.7%-95.5% at the control site. The Q10 values computed by exponential equations were 3.47-4.22 and 3.54-3.96 at the clear-cutting and control sites, respectively. The C fluxes at the clear-cutting and control sites were 344.8 and 512.9 g x m(-2) annually, and 24.2 and 40.9 g x m(-2) in winter, respectively. PMID:24830231

Kang, Yong-Xiang; Xia, Guo-Wei; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Guang-Ping

2014-02-01

10

[The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].  

PubMed

By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

2014-03-01

11

A metabolomic analysis of medicinal diversity in Huang-qin ( Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) genotypes: discovery of novel compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro manipulation of plant regeneration in the Chinese medicinal species Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin) resulted in 26 chemically distinct germplasm lines. Antioxidant potential, growth rate and concentration of baicalin, baicalein, melatonin, and wogonin were the selective markers used to identify elite lines. Metabolomic analysis of a subset of the most distinct lines revealed that Huang-qin extracts contained over 2,000

Susan J. Murch; H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; D. Goodenowe; Praveen K Saxena

2004-01-01

12

ANTI-PREDATOR RESPONSES OF SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) aggressively approached a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) model. Components of the approach included a silent flight devoid of wing motion, vocalizations, use of tarsi, multiple approaches and avoid- ance of the front of the model. These components were manifested in different com- binations and frequencies. It is suggested that the function of attacking by

Paul Kerlinger; Patricia H. Lehrer

13

Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Coopers hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Coopers Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC

Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

2009-01-01

14

COMPARISON OF NESTING HABITAT OF COEXISTING SHARP-SHINNED AND COOPER'S HAWKS IN MISSOURI  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the vegetative structure at nest sites of Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil) in two different habitats and of Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) in one habitat in Missouri. Sixteen Sharp-shinned Hawk nests occurred in pine (Pinus spp.) habitat and one in mixed pine-hardwood habitat. Thirty-three Cooper's Hawk nests occurred in pine habitat and 10 in oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) hardwood habitat. Sharp-shinned

ERNIE P. WIGGERS; KEVIN J. KRITZ

1991-01-01

15

Reconstructing social relationships in post-earthquake community: social work intervention in Qin Jian Ren Jia, Dujiangyan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a study of Qin Jian Ren Jia, a community consisting of mainly temporary dwellings in Dujiangyan, this paper illustrates how social work services should be carried out to assist the rebuilding of the community after it was devastated by an earthquake. It describes first the backdrop for social work intervention, the nature of the projects delivered, and the

Meiping Fei; Eliza K. P. Ip

2009-01-01

16

COMPARATIVE NEST SITE HABITATS IN SHARP-SHINNED AND COOPER'S HAWKS IN WISCONSIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an analysis of nest site habitat data at 24 Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipifer striatus) and 52 Cooper's Hawk (A. cooperii) nests in Wisconsin, we conclude that Cooper's Hawks tend to nest in stands with lower densities of taller and larger trees than do Sharp-shinned Hawks, and that Cooper's Hawks also tend to nest in sites with a greater proportion of

DALE R. TREXEL; ROBERT N. ROSENFIELD; JOHN BIELEFELDT; EUGENE A. JACOBS

17

Heterotypic piRNA Ping-Pong Requires Qin, a Protein with Both E3 ligase and Tudor Domains  

PubMed Central

Summary piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. Reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage—catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila melanogaster—expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate. We show that qin, a piRNA pathway gene whose protein product contains both E3 ligase and Tudor domains, co-localizes with Aub and Ago3 in nuage, a perinuclear structure implicated in transposon silencing. In qin mutants, less Ago3 binds Aub, futile Aub:Aub homotypic Ping-Pong prevails, antisense piRNAs decrease, many families of mobile genetic elements are reactivated, and DNA damage accumulates in nurse cells and oocytes. We propose that Qin enforces heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3, ensuring that transposons are silenced and maintaining the integrity of the germline genome.

Zhang, Zhao; Xu, Jia; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Wang, Jie; Tipping, Cindy; Ma, Shengmei; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.; Zamore, Phillip D.

2011-01-01

18

QIN. Promise and pitfalls of quantitative imaging in oncology clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Quantitative imaging using CT, MRI, and PET modalities will play an increasingly important role in the design of oncology trials addressing molecularly targeted, personalized therapies. The advent of molecularly targeted therapies, exemplified by antiangiogenic drugs, creates new complexities in the assessment of response. The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) addresses the need for imaging modalities which can accurately and reproducibly measure not just change in tumor size, but changes in relevant metabolic parameters, modulation of relevant signaling pathways, drug delivery to tumor, and differentiation of apoptotic cell death from other changes in tumor volume. This article provides an overview of the applications of quantitative imaging to phase 0 through phase 3 oncology trials. We describe the use of a range of quantitative imaging modalities in specific tumor types including malignant gliomas, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and sarcoma. In the concluding section, we discuss potential constraints on clinical trials using quantitative imaging, including complexity of trial conduct, impact on subject recruitment, incremental costs, and institutional barriers. Strategies for overcoming these constraints are presented.

Kurland, Brenda F.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Graham, Michael M.; Buatti, John M.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eikman, Edward A.; Kumar, Virendra; Forster, Kenneth M.; Wahl, Richard L.; Lieberman, Frank S.

2012-01-01

19

PRODUCTIVITY AND NESTING CHRONOLOGY OF THE COOPER'S HAWK AND SHARP-SHINNED  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTlCT.--Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's hawk (A. cooperii) nests were studied in Missouri during 1985 and 1986 to determine productivity and nesting chronology. The nesting season for Sharp-shinned hawks extended from May to August, with most young fledging by August. The Cooper's hawk nesting season extended from May to July. Mean clutch size and number of young reaching banding

ERNIE P. WIGGERS; KEVIN J. KRITZ

20

Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods : Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results : The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation. Conclusions : Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Lin, Jun-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Cheng, Fu-Chou

2014-01-01

21

Characterization of winter airborne particles at Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, China.  

PubMed

Daytime and nighttime total suspended particulate matters (TSP) were collected inside and outside Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Museum, the most popular on-site museum in China, in winter 2008. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of visitors to indoor airborne particles in two display halls with different architectural and ventilating conditions, including Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1. Morphological and elemental analyses of 7-day individual particle samples were performed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). Particle mass concentrations in Exhibition Hall and Pit No.1 were in a range of 54.7-291.7 microg m(-3) and 95.3-285.4 microg m(-3) with maximum diameters of 17.5 microm and 26.0 microm, respectively. In most sampling days, daytime/nighttime particle mass ratios in Exhibition Hall (1.30-3.12) were higher than those in Pit No.1 (0.96-2.59), indicating more contribution of the tourist flow in Exhibition Hall than in Pit No. 1. The maximum of particle size distributions were in a range of 0.5-1.0 microm, with the highest abundance (43.4%) occurred in Exhibition Hall at night. The majority of airborne particles at the Museum was composed of soil dust, S-containing particles, and low-Z particles like soot aggregate and biogenic particles. Both size distributions and particle types were found to be associated with visitor numbers in Exhibition Hall and with natural ventilation in Pit No.1. No significant influence of visitors on indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) was found in either display halls. Those baseline data on the nature of the airborne particles inside the Museum can be incorporated into the maintenance criteria, display management, and ventilation strategy by conservators of the museum. PMID:19640566

Hu, Tafeng; Lee, Shuncheng; Cao, Junji; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Ho, Kinfai; Ho, Wingkei; Rong, Bo; An, Zhisheng

2009-10-01

22

Comments on 'Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity' by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding  

PubMed Central

This work presents some comments concerning the paper entitled ‘Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity’ by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding which was published in Nanoscale Research Letters in 2011. The comments are related to the numerical parameters and the computed results of average Nusselt number.

2012-01-01

23

Comments on 'Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity' by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding.  

PubMed

This work presents some comments concerning the paper entitled 'Lattice Boltzmann simulation of alumina-water nanofluid in a square cavity' by Yurong He, Cong Qi, Yanwei Hu, Bin Qin, Fengchen Li and Yulong Ding which was published in Nanoscale Research Letters in 2011. The comments are related to the numerical parameters and the computed results of average Nusselt number. PMID:23176814

Sidik, Nor Azwadi Che; Safdari, Arman

2012-01-01

24

Sharp-shinned Hawks Nesting in the Pineywoods of Eastern Texas and Western Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

while monitoring the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides bo- realis) in eastern Texas and western Louisiana, the authors incidentally found nesting pairs of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus). All nesting pairs were located in similar stands with an overstory of either longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), or a mix of loblolly (P. tuedu) and shortleaf pine (P. echinatu). Most of these areas were maintained

Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

25

Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the

John E. Elliott; Laird Shutt

1993-01-01

26

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT USE OF SHARP-SHINNED AND COOPER'S HAWKS IN ARKANSAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and Sharp-shinned (A. stria- tus) Hawks are considered uncommon to rare residents of Arkansas by the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission (K. Rowe pers. coinin.). Only casual observations on nest- lng attempts by the two species have been reported in Arkansas (James and Neal 1986), and no recently-con- firreed nesting attempts have been reported (K. Rowe, T.

HEATH D. GARNER

27

Effect of Jin Shin Jyutsu Energy Medicine Treatments on Women Diagnosed With Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 10 weekly treatments of Jin Shin Jyutsu (JSJ), as practiced by a qualified practitioner, for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Design: A pretest, posttest exploratory evaluation project design was used. Twenty-nine women provided complete data. Method: Adaptation, social support, activities of daily living, helpfulness of JSJ, and project

Karen Searls; Jacqueline Fawcett

2011-01-01

28

A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis  

PubMed Central

Background Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. Results In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ?perR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ?perR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ?perR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (?dpr and ?dpr?perR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ?perR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoter–EGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. Conclusions These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis.

2012-01-01

29

DECREASES IN MIGRATING SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS (ACCIPITER STRIATUS) AT TRADITIONAL RAPTOR-MIGRATION WATCH SITES IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each fall, migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) are counted at traditional raptor-migration watch sites in eastern North America. During the 1980s and early 1990s, declines in the numbers of Sharp-shinned Hawks sighted at many of these sites raised concerns about the population status of the species. Using count data from Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Pennsylvania, and Cape May Point, New Jersey,

CATHERINE B. VIVERETTE; SUSANNA STRUVE; LAURIE J. GOODRICH; KEITH L. BILDSTEIN

30

ELEVATED LEAD LEVELS IN URBAN HOUSE SPARROWS: A THREAT TO SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS AND MERLINS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAGT.--In urban environments, lead (Pb) has been recognized as a health threat to humans as well as wildlife. Although this hazard has waned since the banning of leaded gasoline and paint in the 1970s, soil and atmospheric Pb concentrations have remained higher in disturbed habitats than in exurban habitats. Our study evaluated the threat of Pb exposure to Sharp-shinned Hawks

RICHARD B. CHANDLER; ALLAN M. STRONG; CARLIN C. KAUFMAN

31

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANT LEVELS IN SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS FROM THE EASTERN UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined contaminant levels in tissue samples of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) collected in the eastern U.S. from 1991-93. We report concentrations of aldrin, cis-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, mirex, oxychlordane, PCB, aluminum, lead, and mercury detected in 23 blood, 10 brain, and 31 liver samples. DDE, PCB's, and mercury were detected most often and in highest concen- trations. No

CATHERINE V; LAURIE GOODRICH; CYNTHIA TIBBOTT

32

Nest-site selection by Sharp-shinned Hawks in Kentucky  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) are the most secretive of North America's forest-breeding raptors, little is known about their breeding biology, including their preferred nesting habitat. In 2009 and 2010, I searched 248 forest stands in Kentucky and found 11 nests, all located in pines (Pinus spp.). Nests were at a mean height of 18.6 ± 1.4 m in trees

Tyler Edmonson Rankin

2011-01-01

33

Unknown: A middle-aged woman with a solitary targetoid lesion on her shin.  

PubMed

We report a 42-year-old woman with an asymptomatic solitary targetoid patch on her shin of 1 month duration. Histopathologic evaluation revealed intact epidermis with vascular proliferation in the papillary dermis. Vascular channels were irregular, thin walled, and dilated. They were lined by prominent endothelial cells having plumped protruding nuclei and scanty cytoplasm. There was a mild extravasation of red blood cells and mild lymphocytic infiltration around blood vessels in the upper and mid dermis. PMID:22863633

Jowkar, Farideh; Saki, Nasrin; Aslani, Fatemeh Sari; Motevalli, Dorna; Saki, Mohammed Reza

2012-07-01

34

Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect  

PubMed Central

Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap.

Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

2012-01-01

35

Bacillus bingmayongensis sp. nov., isolated from the pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta warriors in China.  

PubMed

A Bacillus-like isolate, strain FJAT-13831(T), isolated from the No. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Warriors in Xi'an City, China, was studied to determine its taxonomic status. Dominant fatty acids of this organism included iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, C16:0, iso-C13:0, anteiso-C15:0, and iso-C17:1?5c. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of this isolate to the genus Bacillus and indicated that it was closely related to Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) (99.72 % similarity). A phylogenetic analysis of the gyrB gene sequence similarities exhibited independent clustering of the isolate FJAT-13831(T) and showed 93.8 % (<95 %) sequence similarity with its closest phylogenetic neighbour B. pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T). Separate standing of the strain FJAT-13831(T) was supported by a whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis with an average nucleotide identity value of 91.47 (<95 %) between isolate FJAT-13831(T) and B. pseudomycoides DSM 12442(T) and was consistent with the results of DNA-DNA hybridization (69.1 % relatedness). These findings support the conclusion that the isolate FJAT-13831(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Bacillus bingmayongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-13831(T) (= CGMCC 1.12043(T) = DSM 25427(T)). PMID:24370979

Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Hu, Gui-Ping; Sengonca, Cetin; Cetin, Sengonca; Lin, Nai-Quan; Tang, Jian-Yang; Tang, Wei-Qi; Lin, Ying-Zhi

2014-03-01

36

Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes  

SciTech Connect

Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. (National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-02-01

37

A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction.

Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

2014-01-01

38

Suppression of Temporary Overvoltages Caused by Transformer and AC Filter Inrush Currents at the Shin-Shinano Frequency Converter Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporary overvoltage problem associated with ac-dc converter stations is caused by the converter transfornmer Mnagnetizing inrush currents. A damping resistor type suppressor is introduced into the AC filter of the Shin-Shinano Frequency Converter Station to supprets such overvoltages. A bonsiderable suppression effect is noted during the field testing, and the validity of the overvoltage prediction by calculation is also

T. Sakurai; K. Murotani; K. Oonishi

1981-01-01

39

A COMPARISON OF NONINVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATING TOTAL BODY FAT IN SHARP-SHINNED AND COOPER'S HAWKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of three direct methods (fat scoring, condition indices, and multiple regression of external morphological variables) to estimate total body fat (TBF) in Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii). All three methods explained more than 82% of the variation in actual TBF values, and all three methods required the use of multiple equations to

JOHN P. D ELONG; JAMES A. GESSAMAN

40

A Comparison between piano composition Mei Hua San Nong and qin qu Mei Hua San Nong-analysis of ethnic musical characteristic of piano composition Mei Hua San Nong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the comparative study between piano composition Mei Hua San Nong and qin qu Mei Hua San Nong, an inquiry into the ethnic musical characteristic of piano composition Mei Hua San Nong is made; thus this may assist performers in comprehending piano composition Mei Hua San Nong¿s technique, art treatment, style, etc, and also in performing well with a characteristic

Wu Dongpan

2008-01-01

41

Assessing migration patterns of sharp-shinned hawks Accipiter striatus using stable-isotope and band encounter analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific migration patterns in birds have both spatial and temporal components. Two commonly reported spatial patterns are leap-frog and chain migration. Tempo- ral migration patterns refer to the timing of migration of populations from different breeding latitudes. We investigated the spatial and temporal migration patterns of hatching-year (HY) sharp-shinned hawks Accipiter striatus of interior North America using stable-hydrogen isotope and

Ruth B. Smith; Timothy D. Meehan; Blair O. Wolf

2003-01-01

42

LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS IN RUNNING ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF MEDIAL SHIN PAIN  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Background: Medial shin pain (MSP) is a common complaint that may stop an athlete from running. No previous study has identified deficits in pelvic, hip or knee motion as potential contributing factors to MSP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics during running between uninjured athletes and those with MSP. Secondary analyses investigated differences in limbs between groups and differences between sexes. Methods: This case-control study investigated fourteen runners aged 18–40 years old with a history of unilateral MSP and fourteen runner controls. Three dimensional lower quarter kinematics were captured as runners ran on a treadmill. Specifically, peak hip internal rotation (IR), frontal plane pelvic tilt (PT) excursion, and knee flexion were examined. Results: Groups were similar in age, mass, height, and training mileage. Subjects with a history of MSP demonstrated significantly greater frontal plane PT (P = 0.002, Effect size = 0.55) and peak hip IR (P = 0.004, Effect size = 0.51); and less knee flexion (P = 0.02, Effect size = 0.46) than the control group. No significant difference was found in kinematics of the MSP group during their involved side stance phase as compared to their non-involved side. Conclusions: Runners with MSP displayed greater PT excursion, peak hip IR, and decreased knee flexion while running as compared to a control group. These results should help guide treatment for the running athlete that experiences MSP. Level of Evidence: 3b

Reiman, Michael P.

2012-01-01

43

New Directions for the Hokuriku-Shin?etsu Society for Engineering Education : Responding to New Developments in Engineering Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, I address the roles and responsibilities of the faculty members involved in the education of human resources in the engineering field at higher education facilities while briefly overviewing the trends in higher education carried out under the educational policy developed along the lines suggested in the recent report by the Central Council for Education. I give examples of actual practices carried out by the Japanese Society for Engineering Education, which leads engineering education and education for engineers in Japan. Moreover, the ideal directions of the Hokuriku-Shin?etsu Society for Engineering Education (more concretely, the integration of the membership system with that of the Japanese Society for Engineering Education and revision of the annual membership fee) are clarified considering the comments from individual members in the Hokuriku Shin?etsu area. Furthermore, the transition of accredited programs of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in response to the internationalization of engineering education and the status of education in this area are also presented.

Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi

44

Teaghrelins, unique acylated flavonoid tetraglycosides in Chin-shin oolong tea, are putative oral agonists of the ghrelin receptor.  

PubMed

Chin-shin oolong tea, a popular tea in Taiwan, was empirically perceived to induce hunger and accelerate gastric emptying in a manner similar to the physiological effects of ghrelin, an endogenous acylated peptide known as the hunger hormone. Two unique acylated flavonoid tetraglycosides previously identified in Chin-shin oolong tea were demonstrated to induce hunger of rats in a food intake assay and, thus, named teaghrelin-1 and teaghrelin-2. Similar to GHRP-6, a synthetic analogue of ghrelin, teaghrelin-1 stimulated growth hormone secretion of rat primary anterior pituitary cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the stimulation was inhibited by [D-Arg(1),D-Phe(5),D-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor. While teaghrelin-2 remained unmodified, a meta-O-methylated metabolite of teaghrelin-1 was detected in bile of rats after intravenous injection. Presumably, teaghrelins are promising oral agonists of the ghrelin receptor. PMID:24832927

Lo, Yuan-Hao; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chang, Chi-I; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chen, Chung-Yu; Lee, Maw-Rong; Lee, Viola S Y; Tzen, Jason T C

2014-06-01

45

Effects of Holocene climate change on the historical demography of migrating sharp-shinned hawks ( Accipiter striatus velox ) in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region were analysed from 298 individual sharp- shinned hawks ( Accipiter striatus velox ) sampled at 12 different migration study sites across North America. The control region proved to be an appropriate genetic marker for identi- fication of continental-scale population genetic structure and for determining the historical demography of population units. These data suggest

JOSHUA M. H ULL; DEREK J. G IRMAN

46

HEMOGRAMS AND HEMATOZOA OF SHARP-SHINNED (ACCIPITER STRIATUS) AND COOPER'S HAWKS (ACCIPITER COOPER!!) CAPTURED DURING SPRING MIGRATION IN NORTHERN NEW YORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemograms were determined for 26 Cooper's (Accipiter cooperli) and 55 sharp- shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) captured during spring migration (27 March to 12 May 1987) on the south shore of Lake Ontario, New York (USA). No significant differences were noted in packed cellvolume and estimatedtotal solids between the species. However, Cooper's hawks had significantly higher total white blood cell counts

David N. Phalen; Clayton Taylor; Susan W. Phalen; Gordon F. BennetV

47

Effects of Holocene climate change on the historical demography of migrating sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus velox) in North America.  

PubMed

DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region were analysed from 298 individual sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus velox) sampled at 12 different migration study sites across North America. The control region proved to be an appropriate genetic marker for identification of continental-scale population genetic structure and for determining the historical demography of population units. These data suggest that sharp-shinned hawks sampled at migration sites in North America are divided into distinct eastern and western groups. The eastern group appears to have recently expanded in response to the retreat of glacial ice at the end of the last glacial maximum. The western group appears to have been strongly effected by the Holocene Hypsithermal dry period, with molecular evidence indicating the most recent expansion following this mid-Holocene climatic event 7000-5000 years before present. PMID:15643959

Hull, Joshua M; Girman, Derek J

2005-01-01

48

Lactococcus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from yan-tsai-shin (fermented broccoli stems).  

PubMed

A coccal-shaped organism, designated 516(T), was isolated from yan-tsai-shin (fermented broccoli stems), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain 516(T) had 98.9?% sequence similarity to that of the type strain Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T). Comparison of three housekeeping genes, rpoA, rpoB and pheS, revealed that strain 516(T) was well separated from Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T). DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain 516(T) had low DNA relatedness with Lactococcus garvieae NBRC 100934(T) (46.1?%). The DNA G+C content of strain 516(T) was 38.1 mol% and the major fatty acids were C16?:?0 (22.7?%), C19?:?0 cyclo ?8c (17.9?%) and summed feature 7 (29.0?%). Based on the evidence, strain 516(T) represents a novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the name Lactococcus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 516(T) (?=?NBRC 109475(T)?=?BCRC 80576(T)). PMID:24067730

Chen, Yi-sheng; Otoguro, Misa; Lin, Yu-hsuan; Pan, Shwu-fen; Ji, Si-hua; Yu, Chi-rong; Liou, Min-shiuan; Chang, Yu-chung; Wu, Hui-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

2014-01-01

49

[The application of modern module hip and knee endoprostheses "mati-cito" in patients with tumors and postresectional femur and shin bone defects].  

PubMed

In the paper data concerning the use of new module hip and knee endoprostheses "MATI-CITO" in the course of conservative surgery in patients with large defects of femur and proximal shin-bone, arising during removal of tumors or developing as a result of side effects of preceding management, are presented. In given category of patients the causes of high-risk of complications diminishing an efficiency of operations are discussed. It was shown that sophistication of fabrication technologies and practical application of new endoprostheses gives an opportunity to significantly improve the functional results of treatment and to decrease of number of complications. The development such new medical technologies, as X-ray endovascular surgery, intraoperational reinfusion of own blood allows to decrease operational lethality, improve the performance status of patients and accelerate their rehabilitation PMID:18819356

Balberkin, A V; Il'in, A A; Mironov, S P; Kolondaev, A F; Snetkov, D A; Shavyrin, D A

2008-01-01

50

Blisters on the Anterior Shin in 3 Research Subjects After a 1-MHz, 1.5-W/cm 2, Continuous Ultrasound Treatment: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Context: Clinicians should consider multiple factors when estimating tissue-heating rates. Objective: To report 3 separate occurrences of blisters during an ultrasound treatment experiment. Background: While we were conducting a research experiment comparing the measurement capabilities of 2 different intramuscular temperature devices, 3 female participants (age = 26.33 ± 3.79 years, height = 169.34 ± 3.89 cm, mass = 63.39 ± 3.81 kg) out of 16 healthy volunteers (7 men: age = 22.83 ± 1.17 years, height = 170.61 ± 7.77 cm, mass = 74.62 ± 19.24 kg; 9 women: age = 24.22 ± 2.73 years, height = 171.88 ± 6.35 cm, mass = 73.99 ± 18.55 kg) developed blisters on the anterior shin after a 1-MHz, 1.5-W/cm 2 continuous ultrasound treatment delivered to the triceps surae muscle. Differential Diagnosis: Allergies; chemical reaction with cleaning agents; sunburn; negative interaction between the temperature measurement instruments and the ultrasound field; the ultrasound transducer not being calibrated properly, producing a nonuniform field and creating a hot spot or heating differently when compared with other ultrasound devices; the smaller anatomy of our female subjects; or a confounding interaction among these factors. Treatment: Participants were given standard minor burn care by a physician. Uniqueness: (1) The development of blisters on the anterior aspect of the shin as a result of an ultrasound treatment to the posterior aspect of the triceps surae muscle and (2) muscle tissue heating rates ranging from 0.19°C to 1.1°C/min, when ultrasound researchers have suggested tissue heating in the range of 0.3°C/min with these settings. Conclusions: These adverse events raise important questions regarding treatment application and potential differences in heating and quality control among different ultrasound devices from different manufacturers.

Frye, Jamie L; Johns, Lennart D; Tom, James A; Ingersoll, Christopher D

2007-01-01

51

QIN F2F 2014 Agenda  

Cancer.gov

Exploratory: International Forum for Quantitative Imaging (QI) in Cancer Thursday 27th March: Room 2E908 8:00 Welcome by NCI Paula Jacobs, PhD, Associate Director, DCTD Ted Trimble, MD, Director NCI Center for Global health (CGH) or designee Larry

52

Shin Clearance in the Hawk Mk115.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2006, the Canadian Forces (CF) transitioned to a new anthropometric selection standard for pilots. The new standard bases acceptance and rejection on whether individuals are physically compatible with the cockpits of all current aircraft; the previous ...

P. Meunier

2008-01-01

53

Reasoning with the Fuzzy Description Logic f- SHIN \\\\mathcal{SHIN} : Theory, Practice and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last couple of years it is widely acknowledged that uncertainty and fuzzy extensions to ontology languages, like Description\\u000a Logics (DLs) and OWL, could play a significant role in the improvement of many Semantic Web (SW) applications. Many of the\\u000a tasks of SW like trust, matching, merging, ranking usually involve confidence or truth degrees that one requires to represent\\u000a and

Giorgos Stoilos; Giorgos Stamou; Jeff Pan; Nick Simou; Vassilis Tzouvaras

54

QIN: Practical Considerations in T1 Mapping of Prostate for Dynamic Contrast Enhancement Pharmacokinetic Analyses  

PubMed Central

There are many challenges in developing robust imaging biomarkers that can be reliably applied in a clinical trial setting. In the case of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI, one such challenge is to obtain accurate pre-contrast T1 maps for subsequent use in two-compartment pharmacokinetic models commonly used to fit the MR enhancement time courses. In the prostate, a convenient and common approach for this task has been to use the same 3D SPGR sequence used to collect the DCE data, but with variable flip angles (VFA’s) to collect data suitable for T1 mapping prior to contrast injection. However, inhomogeneous radiofrequency conditions within the prostate have been found to adversely affect the accuracy of this technique. Herein we demonstrate the sensitivity of DCE pharmacokinetic parameters to pre-contrast T1 values and examine methods to improve the accuracy of T1 mapping with flip angle corrected VFA SPGR methods, comparing T1 maps from such methods with reference T1 maps generated with saturation recovery experiments performed with fast spin echo (FSE) sequences.

Fennessy, Fiona M; Fedorov, Andriy; Gupta, Sandeep N; Schmidt, Ehud J; Tempany, Clare M; Mulkern, Robert V

2012-01-01

55

A Chromosome 13q+in a patient with characteristics of the trisomy 13 syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a patient with moderate multiple congenital anomalies, a chromosome 13q+was consistently present in lymphocytes and fibroblast cells. The additional segment replicates its DNA synchronously with the distal late replicating portion of chromosome 13. The patient exhibits several features common in the trisomy 13 syndrome, among others increased HbF and low HbA2 values as compared to age matched controls. From

H. Hoehn; U. Wolf; H. Schumacher; H. Wehinger

1971-01-01

56

IPN localizations of Konus short GRBs (Pal'shin+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between the launch of the Global Geospace Science Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 296 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 23 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the Interplanetary Network (IPN) consisted of up to 11 spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 271 bursts were obtained. We present the most comprehensive IPN localization data on these events. The short burst detection rate, ~18/yr, exceeds that of many individual experiments. (3 data files).

Pal'Shin, V. D.; Hurley, K.; Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, P. P.; Ulanov, M. V.; Cline, T.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Boynton, W.; Fellows, C.; Harshman, K.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.; Gold, R.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Savchenko, V.; Smith, D. M.; Hajdas, W.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Palmer, D.; Yamaoka, K.; Ohno, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hanabata, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tashiro, M.; Terada, Y.; Murakami, T.; Makishima, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Fishman, G.; Connaughton, V.; Boer, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Frontera, F.; Montanari, E.; Rossi, F.; Feroci, M.; Amati, L.; Nicastro, L.; Orlandini, M.; Del, Monte E.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Atteia, J.-L.; Vanderspek, R.; Ricker, G.

2013-09-01

57

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF SHARP-SHINNED HAWKS NESTING IN DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding ecology of 11 Sharp-skinned Hawk (Accipiter striates) pairs nesting in aspen (Populus tremuloides), conifer (Abies, Picea spp.), and mixed aspen-conifer habitats in southwest Colorado was investigated during 1988-1989. Small birds (x= 20.9 g, SE = 0.8 g) and mammals (X = 41.1 g, SE = 3.3 g) comprised 91 and 9% of 5 13 prey identified at nests that

RICHARD T. REYNOLDS; RICHARD L. KNIGHT; RICHARD W. HOFFMAN

1994-01-01

58

FuQin Huo NanXing CanYu ErTong ZaoQi Jiao Yu (Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs). ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the support for increased involvement of parents in their children's schooling and the positive contribution men can make to children's development, it is important to reach out specifically to fathers or other significant males in parent involvement efforts for pre-kindergarten and early childhood programs. This digest discusses barriers to…

McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.

59

QIN. Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio, and pharmacokinetic modeling considerations in Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

With advances in MRI technology, Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI is approaching the capability to simultaneously deliver both high spatial- and temporal-resolutions for clinical applications. However, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) considerations, and their impacts regarding pharmacokinetic modeling of the time-course data continue to represent challenges in the design of DCE-MRI acquisitions. Given that many acquisition parameters can affect the nature of DCE-MRI data, minimizing tissue-specific data acquisition discrepancy (among sites and scanner models) is as important as synchronizing pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. For cancer related DCE-MRI studies where rapid contrast reagent (CR) extravasation is expected, current DCE-MRI protocols often adopt a 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence to achieve spatial-temporal resolution requirements. Based on breast and prostate DCE-MRI data acquired with different FLASH sequence parameters, this paper elucidates a number of SNR and CNR considerations for acquisition optimization and pharmacokinetic modeling implications therein. Simulations based on ROI data further indicate that the effects of intercompartmental water exchange often play an important role in DCE time-course data modeling, especially for protocols optimized for post-CR SNR.

Li, Xin; Huang, Wei; Rooney, William D.

2012-01-01

60

Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu. Sonota shin energy oyobi odanteki theme. (Collection of data related to new energy technology development. Other new energy, and-sectional themes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To effectively enhance the introduction of new energy, it is necessary to collect and arrange various datas on new energy, comprehensively and systematically, and to compile them into a basic data. Among the technological fields related to new energy, fou...

1995-01-01

61

EXPLORING ISSUES AND STRATEGIES OF DEVELOPING SKYWAY SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY OF THE TAIPEI SHIN-YI DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an urban setting, the development of a skyway system has been seen as an important facility to improve local environment, create the urban image, and enhance the prosperity of the area. Furthermore, skyways can offer vantage points for pedestrians to observe the city and enjoy the unique view of the urban streetscape. This paper therefore argues that skyway systems

Jen Te PAI; Chia-Ping LEE; Jon-Jye CHENG

2007-01-01

62

Prevalence of depigmentation of the shins: a simple and cheap way to screen for severe endemic onchocerciasis in Africa.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of skin depigmentation in the pretibial region is closely correlated in the adult Congolese population with conventional indices (microfilarial index, mean microfilarial density, cyst index) for the evaluation of endemic onchocerciasis. Individuals over 15 years of age in endemic villages who had a microfilarial index of 80-90%, had a cystic index of 60-70% and a pretibial depigmentation index about 20% (30-40% for individuals aged > 50 years). Thus, in Africa, this new evaluation index offers a simple, noninvasive, quick and cheap way to identify areas where the level of endemic onchocerciasis is probably high and which are likely to benefit from an anti-onchocerciasis campaign. Images Fig. 1

Carme, B.; Ntsoumou-Madzou, V.; Samba, Y.; Yebakima, A.

1993-01-01

63

Identification and quantification of eight flavones in root and shoot tissues of the medicinal plant Huang-qin ( Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of analysis of eight flavones using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS) in root and aerial tissues of the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis was developed. The identity of the analytes was confirmed using retention time, UV–vis and mass spectral comparisons to commercial standards. Both UV–vis and mass spectral patterns were characterized for glycosylated flavones. Two

Christopher R. Horvath; Perry A. Martos; Praveen K. Saxena

2005-01-01

64

TheOncogeneqin Codesfor a Transcriptional Repressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retroviral oncogene qin codes for a protein that belongs to the winged helix family of transcriptional regulators. The Qin protein is localized in the nucleus and binds to the same DNAconsensus sequence as rat brain factor 1 (BF-1). Cellular Qin shows greater affinity to DNAthan does viral Qin. Alone or fused to the DNA-binding domain of the yeast GAlA

Jian Li; Hwai Wen Chang; Eseng Lai; Elizabeth J. Parker; Peter K. Vogt

65

Shin energy no local energy to shite no tekio kanosei chosa. 2. (Feasibility study on applicability of new energy as local energy. 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on importance of energy supply-demand environment and development of alternative energy, an proposal is made on construction of the system enhancing the feasibility of local energy, grasping the outline of a local energy related plan in Japan. Cited...

1991-01-01

66

How to Select the Right Athletic Shoes  

MedlinePLUS

... a running shoe may help prevent shin splints, tendinitis, heel pain, stress fractures and other overuse syndromes. ... a running/sports shoe help prevent shin splints, tendinitis, heel pain, stress fractures and other overuse syndromes. ...

67

1991 nendo ASEAN (Tai Indonesia) ni okeru shin energy gijutsu jissho kenkyu kanosei chosa. 4. (Basic investigation on feasibility of verification researches for new energy technologies in ASEAN countries (Thailand and Indonesia). Part 4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on the results of the investigations carried out by NEDO with Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, this paper summarizes the contents of the consultations at the NEDO's visits to the countries in March 1992. The consultations have been given on the imp...

1993-01-01

68

Chemical and physical properties of rhizosphere and bulk soils of three tea plants cultivated in Ultisols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate the physical and chemical properties of rhizosphere and bulk soils of three tea plants cultivated at two different elevations for direct comparison each cultivar planted in different soil environments. The three tea plants are Camellia sinensis CV Chin-Shin Dahpan (CSD), Camellia sinensis CV Chin-Shin Oolong (CSO), and Camellia sinensis CV TTES, No. 12 (TTE). The

Yue Ming Chen; Ming Kuang Wang; Shun Yao Zhuang; Po Neng Chiang

2006-01-01

69

Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

Pavela, Gary

2005-01-01

70

Motivating Bilingual and Semibilingual University Students of Japanese: An Analysis of Language Learning Persistence and Intensity Among Students from Immigrant Backgrounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with "Shin Nisei," new second-generation Japanese, university students reveal how strongly motivation influences persistence in taking Japanese courses and the intensity with which these students use Japanese outside the classroom. The discussion stresses problems facing Shin Nisei students in traditional college foreign-language…

Kondo, Kimi

1999-01-01

71

News and Announcements 2011 Archive  

Cancer.gov

December 27, 2011 Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) adds three members: UCSF, OHSU, and John Hopkins University Source: CIP Specialized Initiatives June 29, 2011 National Lung Screening Trial shows 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality Source: NCI Press

72

The Quantitative Imaging Network: NCI's Historical Perspective and Planned Goals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief history of National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute (NCI) workshops as related to quantitative imaging within the oncology setting. The editorial will then focus on the recently supported NCI initiatives, including the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative and its organizational structure, including planned research goals and deliverables. The publications in this issue of Translational Oncology come from many of the current members of this QIN research network. PMID:24772201

Clarke, Laurence P; Nordstrom, Robert J; Zhang, Huiming; Tandon, Pushpa; Zhang, Yantian; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kelloff, Gary; Henderson, Lori; Shankar, Lalitha; Deye, James; Capala, Jacek; Jacobs, Paula

2014-02-01

73

The Quantitative Imaging Network: NCI's Historical Perspective and Planned Goals  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief history of National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute (NCI) workshops as related to quantitative imaging within the oncology setting. The editorial will then focus on the recently supported NCI initiatives, including the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative and its organizational structure, including planned research goals and deliverables. The publications in this issue of Translational Oncology come from many of the current members of this QIN research network.

Clarke, Laurence P; Nordstrom, Robert J; Zhang, Huiming; Tandon, Pushpa; Zhang, Yantian; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kelloff, Gary; Henderson, Lori; Shankar, Lalitha; Deye, James; Capala, Jacek; Jacobs, Paula

2014-01-01

74

Quantitative Imaging Network: Data Sharing and Competitive AlgorithmValidation Leveraging The Cancer Imaging Archive1  

PubMed Central

The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), supported by the National Cancer Institute, is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods and candidate biomarkers for the measurement of tumor response in clinical trial settings. An integral aspect of the QIN mission is to facilitate collaborative activities that seek to develop best practices for the analysis of cancer imaging data. The QIN working groups and teams are developing new algorithms for image analysis and novel biomarkers for the assessment of response to therapy. To validate these algorithms and biomarkers and translate them into clinical practice, algorithms need to be compared and evaluated on large and diverse data sets. Analysis competitions, or “challenges,” are being conducted within the QIN as a means to accomplish this goal. The QIN has demonstrated, through its leveraging of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), that data sharing of clinical images across multiple sites is feasible and that it can enable and support these challenges. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) imaging data, many TCIA collections provide linked clinical, pathology, and “ground truth” data generated by readers that could be used for further challenges. The TCIA-QIN partnership is a successful model that provides resources for multisite sharing of clinical imaging data and the implementation of challenges to support algorithm and biomarker validation.

Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Freymann, John Blake; Kirby, Justin Stephen; Kinahan, Paul Eugene; Prior, Fred William

2014-01-01

75

Quantitative Imaging Network: Data Sharing and Competitive AlgorithmValidation Leveraging The Cancer Imaging Archive.  

PubMed

The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN), supported by the National Cancer Institute, is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods and candidate biomarkers for the measurement of tumor response in clinical trial settings. An integral aspect of the QIN mission is to facilitate collaborative activities that seek to develop best practices for the analysis of cancer imaging data. The QIN working groups and teams are developing new algorithms for image analysis and novel biomarkers for the assessment of response to therapy. To validate these algorithms and biomarkers and translate them into clinical practice, algorithms need to be compared and evaluated on large and diverse data sets. Analysis competitions, or "challenges," are being conducted within the QIN as a means to accomplish this goal. The QIN has demonstrated, through its leveraging of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), that data sharing of clinical images across multiple sites is feasible and that it can enable and support these challenges. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) imaging data, many TCIA collections provide linked clinical, pathology, and "ground truth" data generated by readers that could be used for further challenges. The TCIA-QIN partnership is a successful model that provides resources for multisite sharing of clinical imaging data and the implementation of challenges to support algorithm and biomarker validation. PMID:24772218

Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Freymann, John Blake; Kirby, Justin Stephen; Kinahan, Paul Eugene; Prior, Fred William

2014-02-01

76

We describe a patient with a history of asthma and remote use of steroids the development of necrotizing fascitis due to Vibrio alginolyticus after an injury from a coral reef during bathing in the Caribbean Sea off Colombia. The patient recovered with aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE REPORT A 48-year-old female nurse suffered a blunt and penetrating trauma to the lower shin after contact with a coral reef while bathing in the Colombian coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea. A \\

Juan M. Gomez; Roosevelt Fajardo; Jose F. Patino; Cesar A. Arias

2003-01-01

77

Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics  

MedlinePLUS

... to treat injuries such as shin splints or tendinitis. Functional orthotics are usually crafted of a semi- ... treat foot problems such as plantar fasciitis, bursitis, tendinitis, diabetic foot ulcers, and foot, ankle, and heel ...

78

Overuse Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis), swimmer’s shoulder (rotator cuff tendinitis and impingement), Little League elbow, runner’s knee, jumper’s knee (infrapatellar tendinitis), Achilles tendinitis and shin splints. In most sports ...

79

Re-Use of Integrated Dictionary Components for C4ISR Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The C4ISR Architecture Framework Products can be developed using mapping between Structured Analysis products and the Framework products and also based on mapping between Object Orientation and Framework products (Levis and Wagenhals, Bienvenue, Shin and ...

A. T. Ali

2003-01-01

80

Accipiter Use of Pinyon-Juniper Habitats for Nesting in Northwestern Colorado. BLM Technical Note 435.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three accipiter species breed in North America, the Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), Coopers Hawk (A. cooperii), and Northern Goshawk (A. gentilis). Accipiters are known to use a variety of habitats for nesting throughout the United States, but in...

J. P. Smith S. J. Slater

2007-01-01

81

Erythema Nodosum  

MedlinePLUS

... Erythema Nodosum Information for adults A A A Tender, deep lesions are typically found on the legs ... skin condition characterized by the sudden eruption of tender, red bumps, particularly on the shins. It represents ...

82

Diabetic Dermopathy  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Diabetic Dermopathy Information for adults A A A Brown, scar-like, slightly elevated lesions on the legs are typical in long-standing diabetics. Overview Diabetic dermopathy, also known as shin spots ...

83

The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine the relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output, as well as employment, in the United States using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach developed by Pesaran and Pesaran [Pesaran, M.H., Pesaran, B., 1997. Working with Microfit 4.0. Camfit Data Ltd, Cambridge] and Pesaran, Shin and Smith [Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., Smith, R.J., 2001. Bounds testing approaches to

Ramazan Sari; Bradley T. Ewing; Ugur Soytas

2008-01-01

84

Leaf micromorphology and sugar may contribute to differences in drought tolerance for two apple cultivars.  

PubMed

Apple trees (Malus domestica L.) are often exposed to severe water stress in the summertime. We determined how levels of nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) changed in the leaves of two cultivars - drought-tolerant 'QinGuan' and drought-sensitive 'NaganoFuji' - when plants were subjected for 10 d to a sudden water deficit. Photosynthetic performance was investigated in terms of gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme activity. Two separate irrigation scenarios were tested with one-year-old plants grafted onto Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. rootstock: 1) water applied to 75% field capacity (FC) (Control, CK) and 2) irrigation withheld to achieve <75% FC ranging from 30 to 75% (Treatment, T). At Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 of the experiment, we recorded net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rates, and intercellular CO2 concentrations. All of those parameters showed decreases in plants from both stress scenarios, although those declines were not as dramatic in 'QinGuan'. The photosynthetic rate reduced primarily because of stomatal closure. In both cultivars, water stress induced the accumulation of NC, especially sorbitol, suggesting that this polyol has a role in osmoregulation. The rise in sorbitol levels was much steeper in 'QinGuan'. Likewise, the interaction between superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities varied between cultivars. In 'QinGuan', the malondialdehyde concentration was much lower and more closely correlated with a high Suc/NC ratio when compared with 'NaganoFuji'. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a drought-resisting apparent structure in 'QinGuan'. Overall, our results from both external and internal examinations demonstrated that 'QinGuan' is more drought-tolerant than 'NaganoFuji'. PMID:24811680

Wu, Shan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Fengwang

2014-07-01

85

Integration of bacteriophage lambda into the cryptic lambdoid prophages of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophage lambda missing its chromosomal attachment site will integrate into recA+ Escherichia coli K-12 and C at the sites of cryptic prophages. The specific regions in which these recombination events occur were identified in both lambda and the bacterial chromosomes. A NotI restriction site on the prophage allowed its physical mapping. This allowed us to identify the locations of Rac, Qin, and Qsr' cryptic prophages on the NotI map of E. coli K-12 and, by analogy, to identify the cryptic prophage in E. coli C as Qin. No new cryptic prophages were detected in E. coli K-12. Images

Lichens-Park, A; Smith, C L; Syvanen, M

1990-01-01

86

The hotspot effect in heterogeneous vegetation canopies and performances of various hotspot models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper (Qin and Goel, 1995), we reviewed various analytical hotspot models and evaluated them for homogeneous vegetation canopies by comparing them against Diana—a computer graphics, radiosity based, model. In this paper, we complete their evaluation by studying the hotspot effect of heterogeneous canopies (trees and crops). For this purpose, we first describe a computer graphics based method

Wenhan Qin; Narendra S. Goel; Bingquan Wang

1996-01-01

87

Gauge properties of the guiding center variational symplectic integrator  

SciTech Connect

Variational symplectic algorithms have recently been developed for carrying out long-time simulation of charged particles in magnetic fields [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008); H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. Tang, Phys. Plasmas (2009); J. Li, H. Qin, Z. Pu, L. Xie, and S. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052902 (2011)]. As a direct consequence of their derivation from a discrete variational principle, these algorithms have very good long-time energy conservation, as well as exactly preserving discrete momenta. We present stability results for these algorithms, focusing on understanding how explicit variational integrators can be designed for this type of system. It is found that for explicit algorithms, an instability arises because the discrete symplectic structure does not become the continuous structure in the t{yields}0 limit. We examine how a generalized gauge transformation can be used to put the Lagrangian in the 'antisymmetric discretization gauge,' in which the discrete symplectic structure has the correct form, thus eliminating the numerical instability. Finally, it is noted that the variational guiding center algorithms are not electromagnetically gauge invariant. By designing a model discrete Lagrangian, we show that the algorithms are approximately gauge invariant as long as A and {phi} are relatively smooth. A gauge invariant discrete Lagrangian is very important in a variational particle-in-cell algorithm where it ensures current continuity and preservation of Gauss's law [J. Squire, H. Qin, and W. Tang (to be published)].

Squire, J.; Tang, W. M. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Qin, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2012-05-15

88

Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in semiconductor superlattices has been investigated theoretically. It is shown that the attenuation coefficient depends on the phonon wave vector qin an oscillatory manner and that from this oscillation the band width ? of the superlattice can be found.

Mensah, S. Y.; Allotey, F. K.; Adjepong, S. K.; Mensah, N. G.

1997-12-01

89

The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scutellaria (HUANG QIN) (Lamiaceae), which includes about 350 species commonly known as skullcaps, is widespread in Europe, the United States and East Asia. Some species are taken to clear away the heat-evil and expel superficial evils in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The present paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, the biological activities and the correlated chemical compounds of Scutellaria species. More than

Xiaofei Shang; Xirui He; Xiaoying He; Maoxing Li; Ruxue Zhang; Pengcheng Fan; Quanlong Zhang; Zhengping Jia

2010-01-01

90

Rock magnetic and grain size evidence for intensified Asian atmospheric circulation since 800,000 years B.P. related to Tibetan uplift  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and grain size studies of a thick loess sequence in the West Qin Ling (mountain range) show that loess deposition there began about 800 ka. The data reveal a progressively increasing coarse grain size fraction upwards into the Holocene. The averages of these coarse size fractions are higher than in the central Loess Plateau, which was apparently

Xiao-Min Fang; Ji-Jun Li; Rob Van der Voo

1999-01-01

91

China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

92

Nonlinear data-f Simulation Studies of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Temperature Anisotropy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, a 3-D nonlinear perturbative particle simulation code (BEST) (H. Qin, R.C. Davidson and W.W. Lee, Physical Review Special Topics on Accelerators and Beams 3 (2000) 084401) is used to systematically study the stability properties of intense ...

E. A. Startsev R. C. Davidson H. Qin

2002-01-01

93

Why Coins Turned Round the World Over? A Critical Analysis of the Origins and Transmission of Ancient Metallic Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inspiration behind the pre-modern bronze round coinage standardised across China by the First Emperor of Qin in the 3rd century BC have remained fairly obscure and are still a contentious issue. We demonstrate in this article that the various theories arguing for an exclusively endogenous impetus behind the spread and development of Chinese round coinage vouched for by many

Niv Horesh; Hyun Jin Kim

2011-01-01

94

15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 748 - Authorization Validated End-User (VEU): List of Validated End-Users, Respective Items Eligible...  

...Xi Qin Road, Wuxi Export Processing Zone, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China...Xi'an High Tech Park, Export Processing Zone, Xi'an, Shaanxi...technology specific to digital signal processors and digital array...Gaolang East Road, Export Processing Zone, Wuxi, China...

2014-01-01

95

A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women 1 1 No commercial party having a direct financial interest in the results of the research supporting this article has or will confer a benefit upon the authors(s) or upon any organization with which the author(s) is\\/are associated  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chan K, Qin L, Lau M, Woo J, Au S, Choy W, Lee K, Lee S. A randomized, prospective study of the effects of Tai Chi Chun exercise on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:717–22.

Kaiming Chan; Ling Qin; Mingchu Lau; Jean Woo; Szeki Au; Wingyee Choy; Kwongman Lee; Shiuhung Lee

2004-01-01

96

Gauge properties of the guiding center variational symplectic integrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variational symplectic algorithms have recently been developed for carrying out long-time simulation of charged particles in magnetic fields [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008); H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. Tang, Phys. Plasmas (2009); J. Li, H. Qin, Z. Pu, L. Xie, and S. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052902 (2011)]. As a direct consequence of their derivation from a discrete variational principle, these algorithms have very good long-time energy conservation, as well as exactly preserving discrete momenta. We present stability results for these algorithms, focusing on understanding how explicit variational integrators can be designed for this type of system. It is found that for explicit algorithms, an instability arises because the discrete symplectic structure does not become the continuous structure in the t-->0 limit. We examine how a generalized gauge transformation can be used to put the Lagrangian in the ``antisymmetric discretization gauge,'' in which the discrete symplectic structure has the correct form, thus eliminating the numerical instability. Finally, it is noted that the variational guiding center algorithms are not electromagnetically gauge invariant. By designing a model discrete Lagrangian, we show that the algorithms are approximately gauge invariant as long as A and J are relatively smooth. A gauge invariant discrete Lagrangian is very important in a variational particle-in-cell algorithm where it ensures current continuity and preservation of Gauss's law [J. Squire, H. Qin, and W. Tang (to be published)].

Squire, J.; Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.

2012-05-01

97

Measurement of the 109Cd half-life.  

PubMed

The half-life of (109)Cd was measured by following the decay of sources from a radiochemically pure solution with two different measuring systems: an ionisation chamber and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The measurements were performed over a period of 3.6 years, i.e. about 2.8 half-lives of (109)Cd. The resulting half-life values and detailed uncertainty budgets (k=1) are presented for both systems. The result obtained with the ionisation chamber, 462.36 (33) days, and the one obtained with the HPGe detector, 461.92 (76) days, are mutually consistent. The weighted mean of our measured values, T(1/2)((109)Cd)=462.29 (30) days, is consistent with the currently recommended values of 461.4 (12) days (Schönfeld and Dersch, 2004; IAEA, 2007) and 462.0 (3) days (Xiaolong et al., 2010). From a set of selected experimental values published after 1970, a "partially weighted mean" (Pommé and Spasova, 2008) of T(1/2)((109)Cd)=462.36 (39) days was calculated. More measurements are needed to resolve the discrepancies among literature data and to reduce the final uncertainty on the (109)Cd half-life. PMID:21342765

Van Ammel, R; Pommé, S; Paepen, J; Sibbens, G

2011-05-01

98

Statement of Facts for 1975 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Georgia Floyd, Individually and as Parent and Next Friend of Minor, Nelson Floyd v. Fix-It Home Remodeling, Inc. and Sam Baldwin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil trial over a claim for damages. During an argument, a friend pushed Nelson Floyd against the railing of a porch. Falling onto the concrete below, Nelson was injured with a broken shin

National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

99

Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

Glass, Gene V., Ed.

2002-01-01

100

Multiple-target tracking and identity management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper involves the development of an algorithm which can simultaneously track and manage identities of multiple targets in a sensor network, for the purpose of air traffic control. We propose a logical integration of joint probabilistic data association (JPDA) (Bar-Shalom and Fortmann, 1988), used for associating measurements with targets, and the identity management (IM) (Shin et al., 2003) algorithm

Inseok Hwang; H. Balakrishnan; K. Roy; Jaewon Shin; L. Guibas; C. Tomlin

2003-01-01

101

Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens: Further delineation of the phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a third family affected with ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens, and we further delineate the clinical spectrum of this mild type of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Erythroderma had never been present in any of the affected individuals. All of them exhibited a brownish, rimpled hyperkeratosis, the main characteristic sites being the joints, the shins and the periumbilical region. Blistering occurred after

P. M. Steijlen; C. M. Perret; J. H. Schuurmans Stekhoven; D. J. Ruiter; R. Happle

1990-01-01

102

The Periodicity of the Microfilariae of 'Brugia malayi' in Cheju Island, Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The periodicity of the microfilariae of Brugia malayi was studied in 9 human carriers from Shin-san Ri, Seong-san Myon, Cheju Island. The periodicity pattern was markedly nocturnal and the peaks were observed between 21:30 p.m. and 5:30 a.m. The average p...

B. S. Seo

1974-01-01

103

Granulomatous pigmented purpuric dermatoses: report of three cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpuric pigmented dermatoses represent a form of chronic, recurrent capillaritis characterized by petechiae and purpuric macules over the lower limbs. We report three female cases who presented with clinical features of purpuric pigmented dermatosis with unusual histopathologic features. The first patient had golden-brown pigmented purpura over bilateral knees, shins and dorsal feet. The second patient showed purpuric papules on the

Jen-Yu Wang; Yu-Hung Wu; Pa-Fan Hsiao; Chi-Fu Kao

2010-01-01

104

Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis.

Hwain Shin; Manuela Mally; Salome Meyer; Chantal Fiechter; C. Paroz; U. Zaehringer; G. R. Cornelis

2009-01-01

105

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H. A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

106

1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus

D. T. Sinton; P. L. Kennedy

1995-01-01

107

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM AND FOOD HABITS IN THREE  

Microsoft Academic Search

studies on weight, wing area, and skeletal proportions of these three species (Storer, 1955), it became apparent that although the females of all three species average larger than the males, the sexual difference in size was greatest in the smallest species, the Sharp-shinned Hawk, and least in the largest species, the Goshawk. To determine more precisely the degree of sexual

108

DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY, AND PRODUCTIVITY OF ACCIPITER HAWKS BREEDING IN OREGON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density of nests and productivity of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii), and Goshawks (A. gent&s) within Oregon are of interest because of recent declines of accipiter hawks in the east- ern United States (Schriver 1969, Hackman and Henny 1971, Henny and Wight 1972). One factor implicated in this decline was contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons (Ratcliffe 1970, Cade

RICHARD T. REYNOLDS; HOWARD M. WIGHT

1978-01-01

109

PARTITIONING OF FOOD AND NICHE CHARACTERISTICS OF COEXISTING ACCIPITER DURING BREEDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of resources and their use by Accipiter in two areas within Oregon from 1969 through 1974 are presented. In the coastal mountains of northwestern Oregon only Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nest- ed. In the remainder of the state, A. striatus, A. cooperiL and Northern Goshawks (A. gentilis) were syntopic during the nesting season.

RICHARD T. REYNOLDS; E. CHARLES MESLOW

1984-01-01

110

WIND DRIFT, LEADING LINES, AND DIURNAL MIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERSONAL discussions with a number of North American students of bird migration indicate that there is considerable confusion and misunder- standing of the concepts of wind drift and leading lines. Recently, Murray (1964) published a review in which he refutes wind drift, at least insofar as it applies to the migration of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) in the northeastern United

HELMUT C. MUELLER; DANIEL D. BERGER

111

A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE OF ACCIPITER STRIATUS PEROBSCURUS, WITH A REPORT OF SPECIMENS FROM CALIFORNIA, COLORADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snyder (1938) described a dark, rainforest subspecies of the Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus perobscurus) from Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. This subspecies is darker dorsally and ventrally in all plumages than the widespread North American subspecies A. s. velox (Figures 1 and 2). Snyder gave its summer range as from southeastern Alaska (Yakutat Bay) south on the islands

2004-01-01

112

EFFECTS OF WEATHER ON ACCIPITER MIGRATION IN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus) and Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) were observed along a forested ridge surrounded by desert in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada from 31 August until 17 October 1980. Greatest numbers of accipiters were counted on days cold fronts passed through our study area; however, fronts typically separated relatively homogeneous air masses, and passage produced no

Brian A. Millsapand; James R. Zook

113

Quarterly Reports: Railway Technical Research Institute, Volume 12, Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ground vibration due to running trains on an elevated railroad bridge; Measurement of local stress on outer rail head; Investigation on arc-proof characteristics of prototype long-stem insulator for San-yo Shin Kansen; Examination of instantaneo...

1971-01-01

114

The Paradox of US Language Policy and Japanese Language Education in Hawaii.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how principles of U.S. language policy affect Japanese-language education in Hawaii. These principles are particularly relevant to Hawaii's "Shin Nisei" students. The state does not have a formal bilingual-education program that supports Japanese-language maintenance, but it provides extensive educational opportunities for learning…

Kondo, Kimi

1998-01-01

115

Correction: Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS.  

PubMed

This is a correction to the following paper: Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, Wen-Hsin Chung, Chung-Shin Lu, Wan-Yu Lin, Jian-Xun Wang, Chia-Wei Wu, Chiing-Chang Chen, Chemistry Central Journal 2012, 6:63 (30 June 2012). PMID:24735461

Lu, Chung-Shin; Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Jian-Xun; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chiing-Chang

2014-01-01

116

76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in Figure 4 of a manuscript submitted to the journal Infection and Immunity (Shin, J.J., Godfrey, H.P., & Cabello, F.C. ``Expression and localization of BmpC...

2011-04-27

117

A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

118

Instructional Design Issues Facing E-Learning: East Meets West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid emergence of e-learning in business and industry has been accompanied by a number of problems when instructional design concerns are incorporated into the overall curriculum development. This paper examines two companies in two distinct geographical extremes of Shin-Ju, Taiwan and Central Florida to see if, when comparisons are made,…

Tsai, Ping-Yeh; Rendon, Betty; Cornell, Richard

119

Decision making in the absence of successful fact finding: theory and experimental evidence on adversarial versus inquisitorial systems of adjudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use experimental data to test theoretical predictions concerning the differences in decisional treatment between adversarial and inquisitorial systems where the proceedings fail to achieve explicit revelation of decisive facts, and suggest new directions for future research. In particular, we use our data: (1) to test the hypothesis of Shin [RAND J. Econ. 26 (2) (1998) 378

Michael K. Block; Jeffrey S. Parker

2004-01-01

120

DTP | Toxicology and Pharmacology Branch (TPB)  

Cancer.gov

Young Geun Shin, Xun Cheng, Richard B. van Breemen, Adaline C. Smith, Joseph E. Tomaszewski, and Barry S. Levine, 2001. Quantitative Analysis of Betulinic Acid in Mouse, Rat and Dog Plasma Using Electrospray LC-MS. 49th American Society for Mass Spectrometry Conference, Chicago, IL.

121

Using a multiple-attribute approach for measuring customer satisfaction with retail banking services in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to attempt to identify the most salient attributes that influence customer satisfaction with retail banks in Kuwait and to determine the level of the overall satisfaction of the customers of these banks. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multiple-attribute approach proposed by Shin and Elliott in 2001 was employed. This approach was applied in the

Abdulkarim S. Al-Eisa; Abdulla M. Alhemoud

2009-01-01

122

Field Programmable Stateful Logic Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyosun Kim, Sangho Shin, Member, IEEE, and Sung-Mo Kang, Fellow, IEEE Abstract—Recently, researchers have demonstrated that mem- ristive switches can be used to implement logic and latches as well as memory and programmable interconnects. In this paper, we propose a novel stateful logic pipeline architecture based on memristive switches. The proposed architecture mapped to the field programmable nanowire interconnect fabric

Kyosun Kim; Sangho Shin; Sung-Mo Kang

2011-01-01

123

The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

Bogdan, Richard

124

Sphingosine and the transient receptor potential channel kinase(s)  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a multifunctional ion channel playing crucial roles during development. TRPM7 is a member of the highly diverse TRP ion channel family. Most TRP channels are regulated by membrane phospholipids, especially phosphoinositides. In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Qin et al. describes the regulation of TRPM7 and its close homologue TRPM6 by a different kind of membrane lipid: sphingosine. The study finds that sphingosine is a potent and specific inhibitor of TRPM7 and TRPM6 channels. This commentary briefly summarizes the findings of the study, their potential significance and discusses open question and future directions. Linked Article This article is a commentary on Xin Qin et al., pp. 1294–1312 of this issue. To view this paper visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12012

Rohacs, Tibor

2013-01-01

125

Relative Stability of Adatom Pairs and Ad-dimers on Si/Si(100 Via a Local Analysis of Electronic Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total energy and local analysis of electronic properties of chain-like structures of Si adatoms on Si(100) are performed using the order(N) non-orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics. These chain-like structures have been observed in the STM studies of Si/Si(100) (J. van Wingerden, et al, Phys. Rev. B,55), 4723 (1997). and Ge/Si(100) ( X.R.Qin and M.G.Lagally, Science, 278), 1444 (1997)., and have recently been interpreted by Qin and Lagally as composed of adatom pairs rather than ad-dimers. To make a direct comparison with these experiments, we calculate the local electronic densities of adatom pairs and ad-dimers, especially the charge distribution between the two adatoms. This work will further our understanding of the early stage of epitaxial growth for these systems.

Jayanthi, Chakram S.; Liu, Shudun; John, George C.; Wu, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Lagally, Max G.

1998-03-01

126

Biomimetics: flexible fabrication of biomimetic bamboo-like hybrid microfibers (adv. Mater. 16/2014).  

PubMed

Biomimetic and flexible bamboo-like hybrid fibers are fabricated by J. Qin and co-workers as described on page 2494 using a novel one-step strategy combining a droplet microfluidic technique with a wet-spinning process. The polymer spheres and multicellular spheroids can be incorporated into the biocompatible microfibers in a controllable way, which has extensive applications in materials science and tissue engineering. PMID:24740915

Yu, Yue; Wen, Hui; Ma, Jingyun; Lykkemark, Simon; Xu, Hui; Qin, Jianhua

2014-04-01

127

Chromosome 8p deletion is associated with metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma when high and low metastatic models are compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we found that chromosome 8p deletion might be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis by analyzing\\u000a the differences in chromosomal alterations between primary tumors and their matched metastatic lesions of HCC with comparative\\u000a genomic hybridization (CGH) (Qin et?al. 1999). To further confirm this interesting finding, the genomic changes of two models\\u000a bearing human HCC with different metastatic potentials (LCI-D20

L.-X. Qin; Z.-Y. Tang; S.-L. Ye; Y.-K. Liu; Z.-C. Ma; X.-D. Zhou; Z.-Q. Wu; Z.-Y. Lin; F.-X. Sun; J. Tian; X.-Y. Guan; S. D. Pack; Z.-P. Zhuang

2001-01-01

128

Programs & Resources | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

The Radiation Research Program has a strong commitment to promoting the highest standards in radiotherapy delivery and evaluation. The Advanced Technology Consortium (ATC) and Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) address these issues. RRP is also committed to promoting equal access to healthcare for underserved populations. These efforts include the Cancer Disparities Research Partnership initiated in 202 and current efforts to develop a "Cancer Experts Corps" to provide mentoring to physicians in under-developed areas.

129

Steady state analysis of unsaturated flow above a shallow water-table aquifer drained by ditches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The one-dimensional pressure head profile above a fixed water-table was studied for different steady infiltration rates. As shown in previous studies, when the infiltration rate (qin) is less than the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), this profile can be divided into two parts: (1) from the water-table surface (z0) to an elevation z?, the pressure head varies from 0 to

C. Kao; S. Bouarfa; D. Zimmer

2001-01-01

130

Response to Comment on "Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field  

SciTech Connect

The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

Jian Liu and Hong Qin

2012-08-22

131

An ERDAS image processing method for retrieving LST and describing urban heat evolution: a case study in the Pearl River Delta Region in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatial-temporal model with Model Maker tool is designed to retrieve Land Surface Temperature (LST) and to describe the\\u000a changes of urban heat island, as well as urban development. Spectral Radiance, Brightness Temperature, NDVI, and Emissivity\\u000a are first calculated from TM and ETM+, which are then used to compute LST by using Qin et al.’s mono-window algorithm. The\\u000a LST is

Qinqin Sun; Jianjun Tan; Yonghang Xu

2010-01-01

132

Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field'[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)  

SciTech Connect

The geometric analysis of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field by Liu and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] is reformulated in terms of the spatial angles that represent the instantaneous orientation of the magnetic field. This new formulation, which includes the equation of motion for the pitch angle, clarifies the decomposition of the gyroangle-averaged equation of motion for the gyrophase into its dynamic and geometric contributions.

Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Guillebon, Loiec de [Centre de Physique Theorique Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS (UMR 7332), 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2012-09-15

133

Reply to “Comment on ‘Mechanics of tidally driven fractures in Europa's ice shell’?”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Lee et al. and Qin et al. consider propagation of a surface initiated tensile crack oriented vertically in an ice sheet of finite thickness with gravitational overburden. Lee et al. assume the crack walls are always in contact and bear normal stress from overburden. In this closed crack scenario, overburden stress increases linearly with depth just as in an ice half-space. Crack walls cannot sustain tension, so the effect of far field tension is concentrated in the material below the crack walls. This leads to the deep crack penetrations of Lee et al. Qin et al., however, assume an open crack scenario. They inappropriately apply normal stress to open crack walls which are exposed to vacuum and so physically cannot sustain a normal stress [Timoshenko, S.P., Goodier, J.N., 1970. Theory of Elasticity, third ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 191]. Since this inappropriate normal stress is horizontally oriented it has the effect of artificially concentrating compressive stress in the material below the open crack. The severely limited crack propagation depths of Qin et al. result from this inappropriate boundary condition on an open crack wall.

Lee, Sunwoong; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Makris, Nicholas C.

2007-08-01

134

Electrolyte effects on charge, polarization, and conduction in thin anodic Al2O3 films. I. Initial charge and temperature-dependent polarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of three current-voltage (I-V) curves of Al-Al2O3-Au capacitors has been used to study the effect of anodizing electrolyte on Qin, the initial charge introduced into Al2O3 during anodization and the temperature dependence of polarization of anodic Al2O3. The first I-V curve, with VA<0 V, polarizes the Al2O3 film; the difference between the next two I-V curves is a measure of polarization induced by the negative voltage. Two aqueous electrolytes, 0.1M ammonium pentaborate (bor-H2O) and 0.1M ammonium citrate (citrate), and one nonaqueous electrolyte, 0.1M ammonium pentaborate per liter of ethylene glycol (bor-gly), are used for anodizing; Al2O3 thicknesses are between 12 and 54 nm. The galvanostatic anodizing rate is the same for anodizing in bor-H2O and bor-gly electrolytes after initial transients. The anodizing rate in citrate electrolyte is constant but is 0.7 times the rate in the other two electrolytes. Qin for Al2O3 films formed in bor-H2O and bor-gly is proportional to Al2O3 thickness; it is distributed throughout the film. The magnitude of Qin is ~100 times greater for Al2O3 films formed in the aqueous electrolyte. Qin for Al2O3 films formed in citrate is nearly constant with thickness. Qin anneals out when I-V curves are measured. Two quantities are measured that depend on polarization of anodic Al2O3, QPK, and Qmax. QPK is due solely to polarization produced by negative bias. Both polarization and conduction currents contribute to Qmax. Both QPK and Qmax depend exponentially on the polarizing field. Maximum values of QPK for samples anodized in bor-H2O or citrate are ~13 times larger than for Al2O3 formed in bor-gly; maximum values of Qmax are more than 100 times larger for anodic Al2O3 formed in aqueous electrolytes. The temperature dependence of Qmax is also less for Al2O3 films formed in bor-gly than for Al2O3 formed in bor-H2O or citrate.

Hickmott, T. W.

2007-11-01

135

China seeks Korean partners  

SciTech Connect

In mid-February an eight-member Chinese delegation from the Ministry of Chemicals visited South Korea in search of petrochemicals joint venture partners. The delegation opened negotiations with Seoul-based Lucky (polyacetal resins, polymethacrylates, and polyvinyl chloride [PVC]); Hanyang Chemical (PVC); Samsung Petrochemical (aromatics); Korea Steel Chemical (carbon black); Il Shin Chemical (film for agricultural use); Shinsung Chemical (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene); Shin-A Chemical (expanded polystyrene). Meanwhile, Daelim (Seoul) is negotiating on a project to build 70,000-m.t./year octanol and butanol plants at Zhenjiang, China, plus shore tanks for its ethylene and propylene exports at Zhangbei and Liu Jiang. Daelim officials will visit China again in May.

Hyoungjin Kim

1993-03-03

136

The Role of Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry in Reactor Vessel Surveillance in South Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) is the sole nuclear utility in South Korea. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power plants. This fleet consists of 16 PWRs and four PHWRs. Of the PWRs, two are Westinghouse-design two-loop plants, four are Westinghouse-design three-loop plants, two are Framatome-design three-loop plants, and the remainder are the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP), similar to CE-design plants where the reactor was supplied by CE and DOOSAN. In addition, KHNP has six new reactors under construction at the Shin-Kori and Shin-Wolsong sites. This large and diverse reactor fleet introduces significant challenges to the task of reactor vessel surveillance and of measuring the neutron exposure of the reactor vessel.

Kim, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Choon Sung; Anderson, Stanwood L.; Fero, Arnold H.; Kim, Charles C.

2009-08-01

137

Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses  

PubMed Central

The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Cercospora coniogrammes Crous & R.G. Shivas, Cercospora delaireae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora euphorbiae-sieboldianae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora pileicola C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora vignigena C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin. Typifications: epitypifications - Cercospora alchemillicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Cercospora althaeina Sacc., Cercospora armoraciae Sacc., Cercospora corchori Sawada, Cercospora mercurialis Pass., Cercospora olivascens Sacc., Cercospora violae Sacc.; neotypifications - Cercospora fagopyri N. Nakata & S. Takim., Cercospora sojina Hara.

Groenewald, J.Z.; Nakashima, C.; Nishikawa, J.; Shin, H.-D.; Park, J.-H.; Jama, A.N.; Groenewald, M.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

138

In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between

L J Somervaille; D R Chettle; M C Scott; D R Tennant; M J McKiernan; A Skilbeck; W N Trethowan

1988-01-01

139

?4-integrin-mediated cytotoxic activity of AexU in human prostate cancer PC3 cells  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to characterize the cytotoxic activity of AexU, an effector-mediating type three secretion system (TTSS) of gram-negative bacteria, in human prostate cancer cells, focusing on the association with ?4-integrin expression. The cytotoxic effects of AexU either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated using several human prostate cancer cell lines. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which an expression vector containing siRNA targeting ?4-integrin had been introduced, were established (PC3/sh-In), and the cytotoxic effects of AexU on the PC3/sh-In cells were compared with the PC3 cells that were transfected with a control vector (PC3/C). The expression levels of ?4-integrin in the PC3 cells were markedly higher compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells, and the cytotoxic effects of AexU in the PC3 cells were more pronounced compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells. The sensitivity of the PC3 cells to docetaxel and cisplatin was significantly enhanced following treatment with AexU, resulting in a decrease in the IC50 of the two agents by ~90%. The cytotoxic effect of AexU in the PC3/C cells was more marked compared with that in the PC3/sh-In cells, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the PC3/C cells appeared to be significantly more inhibited by the treatment with AexU compared with the PC3/sh-In cells. In conclusion, treatment with AexU may be a useful therapeutic option for prostate cancer when ?4-integrin is overexpressed. The treatment appears to exert its effects through growth inhibition and by enhancing the sensitivity of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.

KUMANO, MASAFUMI; MIYAKE, HIDEAKI; ABOLGHAIT, SAID K.; BEHNSAWY, HOSNY M.; FUJISAWA, MASATO

2013-01-01

140

Review of the genus Cratyna Winnertz (Diptera: Sciaridae) in Korea, including the description of a new species.  

PubMed

The genus Cratyna Winnertz, 1867 (Diptera: Sciaridae) is studied in the Korean peninsula. Cratyna (s. str.) suwonensis Shin, Menzel & Lee sp. nov. is described as new to science. Additionally, three species are redescribed and illustrated as new to Korea: C. (s. str.) ambigua (Lengersdorf, 1934), C. (s. str.) nigerrima (Mohrig & Krivosheina, 1979), and C. (Peyerimhoffia) vagabunda (Winnertz, 1867). A key to the Korean species is given.  PMID:24870329

Shin, Seunggwan; Menzel, Frank; Heller, Kai; Lee, Heungsik; Lee, Seunghwan

2014-01-01

141

Putting the clamps on membrane fusion: How complexin sets the stage for calcium-mediated exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three recent papers have addressed a long-standing question in exocytosis: how does a sudden calcium influx trigger a coordinated synchronous release in regulated exocytosis [Giraudo, C.G., Eng, W.S., Melia, T.J. and Rothman, J.E. (2006) A clamping mechanism involved in SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Science 313, 676–680; Schaub, J.R., Lu, X., Doneske, B., Shin, Y.K. and McNew, J.A. (2006) Hemifusion arrest by complexin

Thomas J. Melia

2007-01-01

142

Os Trigonum Syndrome on Bone SPECT/CT.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

2014-08-01

143

ROAD TRANSECT COUNTS FOR RAPTORS: HOW RELIABLE ARE THEY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biases in roadside counts of randomly placed three-dimensional models of perched Red- tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperil), and Sharp-shinned Hawks (A. striatus) were investigated. Counts were performed by seven, two-person survey teams in five vegetation types in September 1983 and March 1984 at Dulles International Airport in Fairfax and Loudoun counties, Virginia. Larger models were consistently seen

BRIAN A. MILLSAP; MAURICE N. LEFRANC

144

(Accipiter striatus) DURING FALL MIGRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTP, ACT.--Packed cell volume (%), total solids (g\\/dl), white blood cell count (cells\\/tl), differential and absolute white blood cell counts, and prevalence of hemoparasites were determined for 85 healthy sharp- shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) during the 1991 fall migration. The packed cell volume (47.6 + 6.73%), total solids (2.83 _+ 0.58 g\\/dl) and white blood cell count (12 900 +

LAUREN V. POWERS; MARK POKRAS; KIM RIO; CATHY VIVERETTE; LAURIE GOODRICH

145

Trends in Autumn Counts of Migratory Raptors in Western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed counts from 10 watchsites in western North America. Average counts at watchsites ranged from 2,000 to 15,000 migrants each autumn, with as many as 21 species represented. Five species consistently made up more than 80% of the annual combined- site count totals: Sharp-shinned Hawk ( Accipiter striatus), 25-30% of the total in a given year; Cooper's Hawk (

Jeff P. Smith; Christopher J. Farmer; Stephen W. Hoffman; Gregory S. Kaltenecker; Kent Z. Woodruff; Peter F. Sherrington

146

VARIATION IN MITOCHONDRIAL DNA OF FOUR SPECIES OF MIGRATORY RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of North American raptors, the Sharp-shinned Hawk (Acdpiter striatus), Coo- per's Hawk (A. cotperil), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamaicensis), and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) are migratory and utilize established flyways for summer and fall migrations. I used restriction-fragment analysis of mitochondrial DNA from individuals from each of these four species on two western and one eastern migratory flyway to test

ELISE V. PEARLSTINE

147

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN MORPHOLOGY OF FOUR SPECIES OF MIGRATORY RAPTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied geographic variation in morphology of four species of migratory raptor to test large-scale hypotheses of adaptive divergence in quantitative characters among migratory flyways. The Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteojamai- cersis), and American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) are co-distributed throughout North America. We ex- amined patterns of morphological variation among raptors migrating along two

ELISE VERNON PEARLSTINE; DANIEL B. THOMPSON

148

Experimental approach on the collapse mechanism of CFRP composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to investigate the energy absorption characteristics of CFRP(Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tubes on static and dynamic tests. Axial static compression tests have been carried out using the static testing machine(Shin-gang buckling testing machine) and dynamic compression tests have been utilized using an vertical crushing testing machine. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex

Y. N. Kim; K. H. Im; J. W. Park; I. Y. Yang

2001-01-01

149

Behavioral responses to phasic nociceptive stimulation occurring on the background of a tonic pain focus in ontogeny of the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a focus of tonic pain (a subcutaneous injection of formalin into the dorsal field of the shin) on the thresholds\\u000a of a defense reaction, an attempt to jump out of the chamber in response to a nociceptive electrocutaneous stimulation of\\u000a the hindpaw1, was studied in the 20– 25-day-old and adult rabbits. The tonic pain produces a biphasic

I. P. Butkevich; V. A. Mikhailenko; V. G. Kassil’

2000-01-01

150

Design and type test of a light-triggered thyristor valve for back-to-back systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct light-triggered, water-cooled thyristor valve was designed and manufactured as an extension for the Shin-Shinano frequency converter station (back-to-back system, 300MW, 125kV-2400A) of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) This valve incorporates the following features: (1) the world's first commercial light-triggered thyristor (LTT) valve; (2) a light-triggering system, which has long-life and high reliability; (3) a gate pulse system with

F. Nakajima; T. Yamazaki; K. Itoh; T. Matsumoto; Tetsuya Sakai

1993-01-01

151

Incremental Approach to Error Explanations in Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanations of modeling errors in ontologies are of crucial importance both when creating and maintaining the ontology. This\\u000a work presents two novel incremental methods for error explanations in semantic web ontologies and shows their advantages w.r.t.\\u000a the state of the art black-box techniques. Both promising techniques together with our implementation of a tableau reasoner\\u000a for an important OWL-DL subset SHIN

Petr K?emen; Zden?k Kouba

152

Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields and Electric Appliances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Exposure of Workers to Extremely Low Frequency,Magnetic ,Fields and ,Electric Appliances: Yoon Shin KIM, et al. Institute of Environmental and Industrial Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Korea—The purpose of this study was to investigate personal exposure to extremely low frequency,magnetic fields. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. Thirty-seven subjects in occupational ,and 65 subjects in non- occupational

Yoon Shin KIM; Yong Sung CHO

2001-01-01

153

3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future directions that can further facilitate development and validation of imaging biomarkers using 3D Slicer.

Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

2012-01-01

154

Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production. This plan calls for commercial-scale production only, with the QIN being the first “customer” for the product. This plan favors employing the pyrolysis technology to produce bio-oil, heat, and char. We favor this approach and technology because it is the most cost effective way to use the available resource. Its main product, bio-oil, has proven utility for the production of heat and electricity. It has promise for use as an alternative fuel, which is a much higher value than present uses of wood and it meets the QIN need for flexibility, scalability, and portability. Char, the secondary product from the pyrolysis process, has proven value-added uses. In addition to these direct benefits, the use of biomass in pyrolysis technology has significant indirect benefits. These benefits include the fact that the technology is a good fit with the Nation’s cultural values, i.e., environmental protection and the holistic use of a resource. It fits well with current QIN enterprises. For example, char could be processed into a charcoal co-product for QIN fish. Finally, the QIN can become a leader in developing and demonstrating this innovative approach to the use of wood. This plan proposes key organization steps to insure both excellent implementation of the plan and taking the best advantage of the processes and facilities put in place. This plan calls for two new QIN organizations: an energy production/distribution corporation and a community development corporation. The production/distribution corporation can be either a utility or a business enterprise that develops and markets renewable energy. The community development corporation can be a not-for-profit to support the QIN in taking best advantage of its energy opportunities. The production and distribution corporation is the subject of a further business planning effort now underway. This plan envisions a community development corporation that works directly with the Business Committee on research, education, and project development. Specifically, this corporation can seek grant funding to research energy m

Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

2006-11-28

155

On the valence bond solid in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the stability of the valence bond solid (VBS) phase against the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in the bipartite lattice. We consider the VBS states in the AKLT model as well as the one in the Sandvik model in the 4× L lattice. We found that the VBS is very stable against the DM interaction qin the AKLT model. There is no quantum phase transition in the AKLT+DM case. However, the VBS spin gap closes in the Sandvik model due to the DM interaction.

Liao, Chen-Nan; Chern, Chyh-Hong

2011-01-01

156

Three new species of Coecobrya (Collembola: Entomobryidae)
from southern and northwest China.
 

PubMed

Three new species of Coecobrya are described from southern and northwest China. C. draconis sp. nov. from Guangxi cave shows some troglomorphic features, such as the inner ungual teeth inserted basally. C. xui sp. nov. is similar to C. huangi and differs from the latter by head and tergal chaetotaxy. C. qin sp. nov. is the second member of the genus with 3+3 eyes, but cannot be assigned to either the tenebricosa- or boneti-groups because it has eyes and a large outer tooth on unguiculus. PMID:24870081

Zhang, Feng; Dong, Rui-Rui

2014-01-01

157

Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin Hong [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Heifei 230026 (China)

2011-05-15

158

Electromagnetic Darwin Model for High Intensity Beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the advantages of using the canonical momentum, P ? p + q A/c, in the laboratory frame for the electromagnetic Darwin model of the Maxwell-Vlasov system, for which the transverse displacement current is neglected in Ampere's law. Here, A is the vector potential and p is the mechanical momentum. With the new formulation, we not only can eliminate the high-frequency transverse electromagnetic effects from the system as intended by the Darwin model, but also can get rid of the numerically troublesome partial A / partial t term for particle pushing. (C. W. Nielson and H. R. Lewis, Methods in Computational Physics) (Academic Press, New York, 1976), Vol. 16, p. 976. The formulation is most useful for studying space-charge effects in high-intensity multi-species beams using perturbative particle simulation methods, (W. W. Lee, Q. Qin and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Lett. A 230), 347 (1997). such as two-stream (H. Qin, R. C. Davidson and W. W. Lee, Phys. Rev. Special Topics on Accelerators amd beams 3), 08441 (2000); 3, 109901 (2000). and filamentation instabilities, that may cause deterioration of the beam quality in heavy ion fusion drivers and the fusion chamber. Moreover, the new formulation provides an easy link to the electrostatic model for a single-species beam in the beam frame. Initial numerical results will be reported.

Lee, W. W.; Davidson, R. C.; Startsev, E.; Qin, H.

2001-10-01

159

Dynamics and Energetics of Si Adatoms on Si(100)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent STM study of Ge on Si(100), Qin and Lagally ( X.R.Qin and M.G.Lagally, Science, 278), 1444 (1997). demonstrated that Ge adatoms form chain-like structures consisting of paired adatoms, rather than dimers. They conclude that the same is true for Si/Si(100) (J. van Wingerden, et al, Phys. Rev. B,55), 4723 (1997). and Si/Ge(100) (W. Wulfhekel, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 79),2494 (1997). , and suggest that such pairing structures play a key role in the initial stage of epitaxial growth. In this theoretical study, we provide direct evidence that M-M pairs are the easiest to form among all structures consisting of two adatoms. We will also discuss dynamics and energetics of larger adatom clusters and give a complete picture of the early stage of epitaxial growth from monomer adsorption to the formation of dense dimer rows. This study is based on total energy calculations using the recently developed techinique of Order(N) Non-Orthogonal Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics (C.S. Jayanthi, et al, Phys. Rev. B, in press).

Liu, Shudun; Jayanthi, Chakram; John, George C.; Wu, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Lagally, Max G.

1998-03-01

160

PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the invited speakers, all the participants and organizing committee of the ICC3. I am pleased to publish the Proceedings of the Symposium 1 of ICC3. I hope that the papers contained in these Proceedings will prove helpful to Professors, researchers and students in improving the fields of Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials. Masatomo Yashima April 2011 Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

Yashima, Masatomo

2011-05-01

161

Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, 167 Samseong-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Research Institute of Applied Physics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R. [GeoSystem Research Corporation, 306 Hanlim Human Town, 1-40 Geumjeong-Dong, Gunpo-City, Gyeonggi-Do 435-050 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

162

In Vivo Stable Tumor-Specific Painting in Various Colors Using Dehalogenase-Based Protein-Tag Fluorescent Ligands  

PubMed Central

In vivo fluorescence cancer imaging is an important tool in understanding tumor growth and therapeutic monitoring and can be performed either with endogenously produced fluorescent proteins or exogenously introduced fluorescent probes bound to targeting molecules. However, endogenous fluorescence proteins cannot be altered after transfection, thus requiring rederivation of cell lines for each desired color, while exogenously targeted fluorescence probes are limited by the heterogeneous expression of naturally occurring cellular targets. In this study, we adapted the dehalogenase-based protein-Tag (HaloTag) system to in vivo cancer imaging. By introducing highly expressed HaloTag receptors (HaloTagR) in cancer cells coupled with an externally injected a range of fluorophore-conjugated dehalogenase-reactive sequences. Tumor nodules arising from a single transfected cell line were stably labeled with fluorescence varying in emission spectra from green to near infrared. After establishing and validating a SHIN3 cell line stably transfected with HaloTagR (HaloTagR-SHIN3), in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging studies were performed in live animals using a peritoneal dissemination model. The tumor nodules arising from HaloTagR-SHIN3 could be successfully labeled by 4 different fluorophore-conjugated HaloTag-ligands each emitting light at different wavelengths. These fluorophores could be alternated on serial imaging sessions permitting assessment of interval growth. Fluorescence was retained in histological specimens after fixation. Thus, this tagging system proves versatile both for in vivo and in vitro imaging without requiring modification of the underlying cell line. Thus, this strategy can overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of endogenous fluorescent proteins and exogenous targeted optical agents in current use.

Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L.; Karassina, Natasha; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Lynch, David; Hoyt, Clifford; Levenson, Richard; Los, Georgyi V.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2010-01-01

163

In vivo stable tumor-specific painting in various colors using dehalogenase-based protein-tag fluorescent ligands.  

PubMed

In vivo fluorescence cancer imaging is an important tool in understanding tumor growth and therapeutic monitoring and can be performed either with endogenously produced fluorescent proteins or with exogenously introduced fluorescent probes bound to targeting molecules. However, endogenous fluorescence proteins cannot be altered after transfection, thus requiring rederivation of cell lines for each desired color, while exogenously targeted fluorescence probes are limited by the heterogeneous expression of naturally occurring cellular targets. In this study, we adapted the dehalogenase-based protein-Tag (HaloTag) system to in vivo cancer imaging, by introducing highly expressed HaloTag receptors (HaloTagR) in cancer cells coupled with a range of externally injected fluorophore-conjugated dehalogenase-reactive reactive linkers. Tumor nodules arising from a single transfected cell line were stably labeled with fluorescence varying in emission spectra from green to near-infrared. After establishing and validating a SHIN3 cell line stably transfected with HaloTagR (HaloTagR-SHIN3), in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging studies were performed in live animals using a peritoneal dissemination model. The tumor nodules arising from HaloTagR-SHIN3 could be successfully labeled by four different fluorophore-conjugated HaloTag-ligands each emitting light at different wavelengths. These fluorophores could be alternated on serial imaging sessions permitting assessment of interval growth. Fluorescence was retained in histological specimens after fixation. Thus, this tagging system proves versatile both for in vivo and in vitro imaging without requiring modification of the underlying cell line. Thus, this strategy can overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of endogenous fluorescent proteins and exogenous targeted optical agents in current use. PMID:19514716

Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L; Karassina, Natasha; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Lynch, David T; Hoyt, Clifford C; Levenson, Richard M; Los, Georgyi V; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2009-07-01

164

Stationarity stopping criterion for matching pursuit-framework and encephalographic illustration.  

PubMed

We present a new stopping criterion for the matching pursuit (MP) algorithm, based on evaluating stationarity of the residua of the consecutive MP iterations. The new stopping criterion is based on a model of a nonstationary signal, which assumes that the part of the signal that is of interest is nonstationary and contaminated by a weakly stationary noise. Mean- and variance-stationarity of the residua obtained from each step of MP is evaluated by means of dedicated statistical tests-the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test and the White test, respectively. We illustrate the proposed concept by an example in which we analyse magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data. PMID:22095172

Kipi?ski, Lech

2011-12-01

165

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

166

Lower extremity injuries in runners. Helping athletic patients return to form.  

PubMed

Running injuries are primarily musculoskeletal, usually the result of a change in training regimen or technique. A sudden increase in mileage is the most common cause. Athletes who run more than 40 miles a week have an increased risk of injury. Most injuries affect the knee, but the shin, ankle, and foot are also common sites. The RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) is useful in most cases, although more aggressive treatment, including surgery, is sometimes indicated. Primary care physicians should be familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of common running injuries and be aware of conditions requiring referral. PMID:7567719

Wexler, R K

1995-10-01

167

Radio sociology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A work was conducted, using radio telemetry, to locate a migrating, radio-tagged, sharp-shinned hawk. The hawk was monitored through the noise radiation it created. The hawk was found. During this study, it was found that the concentration of population corresponds with areas of increased noise temperature. Through this study, a bigger study was planned. The study would involved the relationship between a place's radiation signature and its other attributes, such as economic type, population, geographic concentration. The method of radio sociology would be used to track the sources of radio noise.

Swenson, George W., Jr.

1996-04-01

168

Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease): a possible misdiagnosis as physical abuse.  

PubMed

Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) is a rare self-limiting inflammatory bony disease of early infancy. We report a 1-month-old Chinese boy with Caffey disease who presented with painful swelling over his shins bilaterally. Physical abuse was initially suspected, but the radiological findings of periosteal thickening over multiple bones (particularly the mandible), symmetrical involvement, diaphyseal involvement with sparing of the epiphysis, made Caffey disease a likely diagnosis. This report highlights that infantile cortical hyperostosis is an important differential diagnosis for children suspected of being abused, and clinicians should have a high index of suspicion to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:20890006

Lo, Henny P W; Lau, H Y; Li, C H; So, K T

2010-10-01

169

The identification of a novel Pleurotus ostreatus dsRNA virus and determination of the distribution of viruses in mushroom spores.  

PubMed

Double-stranded RNAs and virus particles were identified in Pleurotus ostreatus strain Shin-Nong in Korea. Isometric virus particles with a diameter of 33 nm were purified, which are similar to other Pleurotus viruses reported previously. This strain contains 5 dsRNAs, 8.0, 2.5, 2.4, 2.0, and 1.8 kb in size. The virus particles contain 2 dsRNAs, designated RNA-1 (2.5 kb), and RNA-2 (2.4 kb) which is a typical pattern of Partitiviridae. A non-encapsidated dsRNA of about 8.0 kb also was identified. Partial cDNA from RNA-1 was cloned, and sequence analysis revealed that this gene codes for RdRp. The comparison of the sequence from partial cDNA clone showed 35% amino acid homology with the C-terminal end of the RdRp gene of Helicobasidum mompa virus and Rosalinia necatrix virus. Specific primers designed from the partial sequences successfully amplified RT-PCR product from the infected mycelium and a single spore culture. We used these primers to determine the pattern of distribution of viruses in spores. Of the 96 different single spore cultures generated from Shin-Nong strain, a specific RT-PCR product was identified in 25 cultures, indicating that about 26% of basidiospores contain viruses. PMID:18337700

Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoon, Seon Mee; Yoo, Young-Bok; Yie, Se Won

2008-02-01

170

[Behavioral pharmacology of berberine-type alkaloids. (1) Central depressive action of Coptidis rhizoma and its constituents].  

PubMed

Coptis root is frequently utilized as a sedative in Chinese medicines, however, the central depressant action of this compound has not been reported. Such being the case, the central depressant actions of methanol extract of coptis root, its active ingredients such as non-alkaloids fraction, tertiary base fraction, quarternary base fraction, magnoflorine fraction, berberine hydrochloride, coptisine hydrochloride and the extract from SAN O SHA SHIN TO being one of the preparations which contain coptis root were investigated in mice. The antigastric ulcer action of these substances was also examined in rats. All substances were given orally. Sontaneous movement and coordinative motor activity were not depressed by methanol extract, non-alkaloid fraction quarternary base fraction, magnoflorine fraction, berberine hydrochloride, coptisine hhdrochloride and the extract from SAN O SHA SHIN TO. There was no inhibition of chemical- and electro-shock-induced convulsion, morphine induced Straub's tail reaction, apomorphine-induced masticating motion and aggressive behavior induced by electrical stimulation. A loss of righting reflex due to hypnotics was not potentiated by the substances. The quarternary base fraction did not elicit central depression, while the tertiary base fraction slightly depressed the function of the central nervous system. Quarternary base alkaloids such as berberine exerted a slight antiulcer effect. PMID:1035191

Yamahara, J

1976-10-01

171

Putting the clamps on membrane fusion: how complexin sets the stage for calcium-mediated exocytosis.  

PubMed

Three recent papers have addressed a long-standing question in exocytosis: how does a sudden calcium influx trigger a coordinated synchronous release in regulated exocytosis [Giraudo, C.G., Eng, W.S., Melia, T.J. and Rothman, J.E. (2006) A clamping mechanism involved in SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Science 313, 676-680; Schaub, J.R., Lu, X., Doneske, B., Shin, Y.K. and McNew, J.A. (2006) Hemifusion arrest by complexin is relieved by Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin I. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 748-750; Tang, J., Maximov, A., Shin, O.H., Dai, H., Rizo, J. and Sudhof, T.C. (2006) A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Cell 126, 1175-1187]? Using diverse approaches that include cell-free reconstitution of the membrane fusion machinery and in vivo manipulation of fusogenic proteins, these groups have established that the complexin proteins are fusion clamps. By arresting vesicle secretion just prior to fusion, complexin primes select vesicles for a fast, synchronous response to calcium. PMID:17350005

Melia, Thomas J

2007-05-22

172

Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.  

PubMed

Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (p<0.05) in TVCs were observed at the flank, shin, brisket and neck. These differences can be attributed to possible deficiencies in the implementation of the HACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se. PMID:24769148

Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

2014-08-01

173

Necrobiosis lipoidica: A clinicopathological study in the Indian scenario  

PubMed Central

Context: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic granulomatous dermatitis that is commonly associated with diabetes mellitus. Most of the current knowledge about this entity is from western literature. Aims: This study evaluates the clinicohistological features of NL in an Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical features, associated comorbidities, and biopsies of all patients with NL over a period of one year. Results: Five cases of NL were seen during the duration of the study. The preliminary clinical diagnosis ranged from sarcoidosis to tinea incognito. The commonest clinical presentation in the Indian scenario was of asymptomatic erythematous to skin-colored plaques and nodules on the shins with or without central atrophy. The most common site of involvement was the shin (3 of 5 patients). NL was associated with Diabetes mellitus in only two cases, both of whom were male patients. On histology, various patterns of inflammation were seen including the palisading, interstitial, and mixed granulomatous infiltrates. One patient had sarcoidal granulomas in association with an interstitial pattern. Features seen consistently in all cases include perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates, and fibroplasia. Interstitial mucin deposition was not observed in any of the biopsies. Conclusion: The diagnosis of NL was missed in most cases due to the rarity of the disease, absence of concomitant diabetes, and atypical presentations. Histology was a useful tool in clinching the diagnosis.

Thomas, Mary; Khopkar, Uday Sharadchandra

2013-01-01

174

Implicit Runge-Kutta methods to simulate unsteady incompressible flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical method (SIMPLE DIRK Method) for unsteady incompressible viscous flow simulation is presented. The proposed method can be used to achieve arbitrarily high order of accuracy in time-discretization which is otherwise limited to second order in majority of the currently used simulation techniques. A special class of implicit Runge-Kutta methods is used for time discretization in conjunction with finite volume based SIMPLE algorithm. The algorithm was tested by solving for velocity field in a lid-driven square cavity. In the test case calculations, power law scheme was used in spatial discretization and time discretization was performed using a second-order implicit Runge-Kutta method. Time evolution of velocity profile along the cavity centerline was obtained from the proposed method and compared with that obtained from a commercial computational fluid dynamics software program, FLUENT 6.2.16. Also, steady state solution from the present method was compared with the numerical solution of Ghia, Ghia, and Shin and that of Erturk, Corke, and Gookcol. Good agreement of the solution of the proposed method with the solutions of FLUENT; Ghia, Ghia, and Shin; and Erturk, Corke, and Gookcol establishes the feasibility of the proposed method.

Ijaz, Muhammad

175

Reconstruction of gaps in the past history of solar wind parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical (1972-2013) gaps of the solar wind parameters are filled-in by smooth modes of covariability using the continuous geomagnetic indices with Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). A systematic study using experiments with synthetic gaps has been performed to determine optimal SSA parameters for reconstruction of gaps over full solar cycle and to assess the reconstruction skill. We assessed the accuracy of the SSA gap-filling for solar wind reconstruction in T96 and TS05 empirical magnetic field models by using GOES measurements at geostationary orbit, and compared it to the results based on parameters from existing Qin and Denton interpolation. The SSA gap-filling method does improve accuracy of empirical magnetic field models, especially when gaps are large and in particular for the TS05 magnetic field model.

Kondrashov, D.; Denton, R.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Singer, H. J.

2014-04-01

176

A C++ program for retrieving land surface temperature from the data of Landsat TM/ETM+ band6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A C++ language-based software tool for retrieving land surface temperature (LST) from the data of Landsat TM/ETM+ band6 is developed. It has two main functional modules: (1) Three methods to compute the ground emissivity based on land use/cover classification image, NDVI image and the ratio values of vegetation and bare ground and (2) Converting digital numbers (DNs) from TM/ETM+ band6 to LST. In the software tool, Qin et al.'s mono-window algorithm and Jiménez-Mu?oz and Sobrino's single channel algorithm are programmed to retrieve LST. It will be a useful software tool to study the thermal environment of ground surface or the energy balance between the ground and the bottom atmosphere by using the thermal band of Landsat TM/ETM+.

Zhang, Jinqu; Wang, Yunpeng; Li, Yan

2006-12-01

177

The prevalence of mind-body dualism in early China.  

PubMed

We present the first large-scale, quantitative examination of mind and body concepts in a set of historical sources by measuring the predictions of folk mind-body dualism against the surviving textual corpus of pre-Qin (pre-221 BCE) China. Our textual analysis found clear patterns in the historically evolving reference of the word xin (heart/heart-mind): It alone of the organs was regularly contrasted with the physical body, and during the Warring States period it became less associated with emotions and increasingly portrayed as the unique locus of "higher" cognitive abilities. We interpret this as a semantic shift toward a shared cognitive bias in response to a vast and rapid expansion of literacy. Our study helps test the proposed universality of folk dualism, adds a new quantitative approach to the methods used in the humanities, and opens up a new and valuable data source for cognitive scientists: the record of dead minds. PMID:21658101

Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

2011-07-01

178

Using Tryptophan as a Probe for Studying Protein Hydration Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although tryptophan has been used as a probe to study solvation dynamics for decades, a few questions still remain unclear, such as missing of the initial fast component. We proposed a solvation model for construction of the response function of tryptophan probe and carefully investigated the possible initial loss of the ultrafast component with established time-zero emission spectrum and femtosecond-resolved emission spectra (FRES). With mutation of GB1 protein, we demonstrated that tryptophan is a powerful probe for protein solvation dynamics and show significant slowdown of the dynamics of hydration shell at protein-water interface. Y. Qin, C.-W. Chang, L. Wang and D. Zhong, J. Phys. Chem. B. {116}, 13320, (2012).

Qin, Yangzhong; Chang, Chih-Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

2013-06-01

179

[Analysis on length of meridians and ebb-flow of ying-qi based on ancient Shushu].  

PubMed

The theories of Shushu in the literature of Qin and Han periods are reorganized and expositions of foreigner scholars about ancient way of thought are consulted, and compared with the recordation about the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians in ancient medical books to probe into the relationship between Shushu and these recordation. It is found that the ebb-flow of ying-qi and the length of meridians are completely conform with the principle of Shushu, i. e. the ebb-flow degrees of ying-qi and the length of meridians all are deduced from Shushu for building the close inseparable response relation between nature and humans. Because Shushu can not be verified, modern scientific methods are not suitable to the study on the ebb-flow of ying-qi. PMID:18767585

Zhuo, Lian-Shi

2008-08-01

180

Platelet Mediated Complement Activation  

PubMed Central

The complement system comprises a series of proteases and inhibitors that are activated in cascade-like fashion during host defense (Makrides 1998). A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that immune mechanisms, including complement activation, are involved in inflammatory conditions associated with vascular injury (Acostan, Qin, and Halperin 2004; Giannakopoulos, Passam, Rahgozar, and Krillis 2007), and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with massive trauma (Huber-Lang, this volume). We propose that platelets and platelet derived microparticles focus complement to sites of vascular injury where regulated complement activation participates in clearing terminally activated platelets and microparticles from the circulation, and dysregulated complement activation contributes to inflammation and thrombosis. Given the central role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, it is not surprising that activated complement components have been demonstrated in many types of atherosclerotic and thrombotic vascular lesions (Torzewsjki, Bowher, Wlatenberger, and Fitzsimmons 2007; Niculescu, Niculescu, and Rus 2004).

Peerschke, Ellinor I. B.; Yin, Wei; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane

2009-01-01

181

LANDSAT monitoring of Lake Erie for phycocyanin content in cyanobacteria blooms from 06/2006-10/2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm for mapping phycocyanin content (PC) in lake water from LANDSAT TM satellite data was derived in the past from Western Lake Erie data for July 1, 2000, and found to be robust when applied to a withheld LANDSAT TM and in situ water data set for September 27, 2000 (Vincent et al, 2004). This same algorithm was applied to LANDSAT 5 data of Path 20 Row 31 (Toledo Frame) and Path 19 Row 31 (Cleveland Frame) in Western Lake Erie on overpass dates with less than 30 This work was funded by NOAA Contract Award NA06OAR4600197. Reference Vincent, R.K., X. Qin, R. M. L. McKay, J.Miner, K. Czajkowski, J. Savino, and T. Bridgeman, Phycocyanin Detection from LANDSAT TM Data for Mapping Cyanobacterial Blooms in Lake Erie, Remote Sensing of Environment, Vol. 89, No. 3, pp 381-392, 2004.

Vincent, Robert

182

Space based remote sensing applications for archaeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing is the science of gathering information about objects from measurements, made at a distance, without coming into physical contact with the objects under study. Remote sensing whether from ground, aerial and space platform has indeed brought a whole new persepective to archaeological research. They have made possible to "see" the evidences that are not observable otherwise. Usage and interpretations of imagery taken from aerial or space platform for archaeological purposes have been explored in many parts of the world. This paper explores applications of space based stereo imaging for archaeological prospection with three case studies: Badami and Mahabalipuram in India and Qin's Mausolium in china. 3D visualization and virtual reconstructions of landscape is a valuable tool for archaeological study. This papers also explores how 3D models can be further extended to study visibility in a landscape and also analyse topography and flooding dynamics.

Rajani, M. B.

2009-12-01

183

Conformational analysis of quinine and its pseudo enantiomer quinidine: a combined jet-cooled spectroscopy and vibrational circular dichroism study.  

PubMed

Laser-desorbed quinine and quinidine have been studied in the gas phase by combining supersonic expansion with laser spectroscopy, namely, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), and IR-UV double resonance experiments. Density funtional theory (DFT) calculations have been done in conjunction with the experimental work. The first electronic transition of quinine and quinidine is of ?-?* nature, and the studied molecules weakly fluoresce in the gas phase, in contrast to what was observed in solution (Qin, W. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 11790). The two pseudo enantiomers quinine and quinidine show limited differences in the gas phase; their main conformation is of open type as it is in solution. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments in solution show that additional conformers exist in condensed phase for quinidine, which are not observed for quinine. This difference in behavior between the two pseudo enantiomers is discussed. PMID:22839100

Sen, Ananya; Bouchet, Aude; Lepère, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Scuderi, D; Piuzzi, F; Zehnacker-Rentien, A

2012-08-16

184

[A historical survey of international migration of China population].  

PubMed

Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education. PMID:12159296

Zhu, G

1987-07-01

185

[King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].  

PubMed

King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken important as a means of finding the origin of disease, while deploring how doctors then neglected to study. PMID:20098054

Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

2009-12-01

186

Cutaneous anthrax in a school teacher.  

PubMed

Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin caused by Bacillus anthracis. This is a report of a case of cutaneous anthrax attending outpatients of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital in October, 2010. The infected person was a retired school teacher with a very good body build. He reported to handle cow flesh about 4-5 days ago, developed few painless papules over shin of right leg, which gradually became large bullae and blackish eschar developed over the lesion. Smears from the lesions were investigated which confirmed the causative agent B. anthracis. The patient was treated with oral Ciprofloxacin (500mg) twice daily for seven days which cured the infection as observed on his subsequent follow up visits on 7 and 14 days later. Oral Ciprofloxacin is found effective as recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:24858169

Nandi, A K; Kamal, M M; Alam, M A; Rahman, F; Uddin, M J; Baidya, N R; Mostafa, S M

2014-04-01

187

Planar Organic Photovoltaics for more Opportunities of Efficiency Enhancement and Parameters Controlling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic photovoltaics have been intensively studied as a cheap, easy processed and reliable source of energy that will eventually substitute the inorganic photovoltaics. Commonly, PV devices are made in vertical geometry where the BHJ active material is sandwiched between two electrodes one of them must be transparent to shin the light through. This vertical geometry created some challenges such as requirement of transparent ITO electrode as well as tying up the active material film thickness and electrodes separation. As an approach to overcome these challenges, we utilize the planar geometry to fabricate PV device where the poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (P3HT/PCBM) blend is deposited between two asymmetric metallic electrodes. We investigated the PV behavior for different metal electrodes which is an advantage provided by planar structure. Also, we discuss the behavior of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) with independently varying the active material film thickness and electrodes separation.

Alzubi, Feras G.; Khondaker, Saiful I.

2012-02-01

188

Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed.

Nakagawa, Y.

1980-01-01

189

p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.  

PubMed

: p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical. PMID:22653125

Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

2012-01-01

190

Making a case for systematic integration of theory-based tobacco education into graduate psychiatric/mental health nursing curriculum.  

PubMed

Tobacco use and dependence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects the mentally ill client population. Mental health professionals, including psychiatric/mental health advanced practice nurses (PMHAPNs), are disinclined to integrate tobacco cessation interventions into their practice, due in part, to a general lack of tobacco-related knowledge (C. Essenmacher, C. Karvonen-Gutierrez, J. Lynch-Sauer, & S. A., Duffy, 2008; A. J. Molina, T. Fernandez, D. Fernandez, M. Delgado, S. de Abajo, & V. Martin, 2012; L. Sarna, L. L. Danao, S. Chan, S. Shin, L. Baldago, E. Endo, & M. E. Wewers, 2006); D. Sharp, S. Blaakman, R. Cole, & J. Evinger, 2009). This paper provides an in-depth literature review of tobacco education in nursing curricula and proposes the systematic integration of theory-based tobacco content into psychiatric/mental health graduate nursing programs. PMID:23915693

Schwindt, Rhonda G; Sharp, Daryl

2013-08-01

191

Application of the fuzzy ART/MAP and MINMAX/MAP neural network models to radiographic image classification.  

PubMed

This paper concerns the classification analysis of exercise-induced lower leg pain by applying competitive neural network clustering and mapping techniques to type 1 and type 2 fuzzy descriptions of bone scan images of the tibia. The clusters are described and compared with each other and with the experts known classes that would be expected from medical findings. The discovered clusters provide training sets for supervised learning by an ARTMAP and similar neural network. These were used to classify the previously unclassified images and hence improve the classification process. The overall conclusion is that the use of the neural clustering methods has improved the classification process of the shin images despite the paucity of data and its inherent uncertainty. PMID:9413608

Innocent, P R; Barnes, M; John, R

1997-11-01

192

Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has many extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. Anyone presenting with IBD should be examined for cutaneous manifestations. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a severe painful ulcerating disease that requires moist wound management and, in the absence of secondary infection, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or both. Infliximab may also be used. Erythema nodosum is a common cause of tender red nodules of the shins. Management includes leg elevation, NSAIDs, and potassium iodide. Oral manifestations of IBD include aphthous stomatitis, mucosal nodularity (cobblestoning), and pyostomatitis vegetans. Treatment should be directed both at the cutaneous lesions and at the underlying systemic condition.

Trost, L; McDonnell, J

2005-01-01

193

Two-dimensional dynamics of expansion of a degenerate Bose gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Expansion of a degenerate Bose gas released from a pancakelike trap is numerically simulated under the assumption of separation of the motion in the plane of the loose initial trapping and the motion in the direction of the initial tight trapping. The initial conditions for the phase fluctuations are generated using the extension to the two-dimensional case of the description of the phase noise by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. The numerical simulations, taking into account both the finite size of the two-dimensional system and the atomic interactions, which cannot be neglected on the early stage of expansion, did not reproduce the scaling law for the peaks in the density fluctuation spectra experimentally observed by Choi, Seo, Kwon, and Shin [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.125301 109, 125301 (2012)]. The latter experimental results may thus require an explanation beyond our current assumptions.

Mazets, Igor E.

2012-11-01

194

Observation of Topologically Stable 2D Skyrmions in an Antiferromagnetic Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the creation and time evolution of two-dimensional (2D) skyrmion excitations in quasi-2D polar Bose-Einstein condensate of F=1 23Na atoms, where the 2D skyrmion is topologically protected.ootnotetextJ. Choi, W. J. Kwon, and Y. Shin, Physical Review Letters 108, 035301 (2012). Spin rotation method was used for imprinting the skyrmion spin textures in a controllable manner. The skyrmion was observed to be stable on a short time scale of a few tens of ms but to dynamically deform its shape and eventually decay to a uniform spin texture. The decay dynamics involves breaking the polar phase inside the condensate without having topological charge density flow through the boundary of the finite-sized sample. We discuss the possible formation of half-quantum vortices in the deformation process.

Choi, Jaeyoon; Kwon, Woo Jin; Seo, Sang Won; Shin, Yong-Il

2012-06-01

195

Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults: Part II. Melanoma, seborrheic keratoses, acanthosis nigricans, melasma, diabetic dermopathy, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.  

PubMed

Nevi, or moles, are localized nevocytic tumors. The American Cancer Society's "ABCD" rules are useful for differentiating a benign nevus from malignant melanoma. While acanthosis nigricans may signal an underlying malignancy (e.g., gastrointestinal tumor), it more often is associated with insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome) or obesity. Melasma is a facial hyperpigmentation resulting from the stimulation of melanocytes by endogenous or exogenous estrogen. Treatments for melasma include bleaching agents, laser therapy, and a new medication that combines hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide. Lesions that develop on the shins of patients with diabetic dermopathy often resolve spontaneously; no treatment is effective or recommended. Tinea versicolor responds to treatment with selenium sulfide shampoo and topical or oral antifungal agents. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation can occur in persons of any age after trauma, skin irritation, or dermatoses. PMID:14655805

Stulberg, Daniel L; Clark, Nicole; Tovey, Daniel

2003-11-15

196

Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology  

SciTech Connect

Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

1987-01-01

197

[Genesis of great saphenous vein obliteration and its clinical manifestations after endovenous laser coagulation combined with crossectomy during the varicose vein treatment].  

PubMed

An analysis of results of the endovenous laser coagulation combined with crossectomy was made in 170 patients with varicose veins of lower extremities (C(VI), C(II)-C(V)). Clinical and ultrasonic data were investigated during a period of 3-5 days (45 lower extremities) and followed up in 1-3 years after operation (194 lower extremities). Three years later the absence of reflux was observed in 95.9% of cases. In 51.1% of cases, 1-2 zones of parietal and segmental hemodynamical insignificant bloodstream were detected. A recanalization of the great saphenous vein along the whole length was revealed in 8 cases out of 194 (4.1%) patients. The bloodstream was provided by affluxes in the area of a shin and a wellhead afflux of the stump of the great suphenous vein. The ultrasonic picture of recanalization was similar to that observed in post-thrombophlebitic occlusion. PMID:23808221

Vakhitov, M Sh; Ulimbasheva, Z M; Ryzhov, A N; Bykov, M A; Danil'chenko, O V; Tsibin, A Iu; Semenov, D Iu

2013-01-01

198

Reactivation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A 45-year-old man with reactivation of previously existing and subsiding cutaneous leishmaniasis on his wrist and lower leg (shin) after renal transplantation was admitted to our dermatology service on March 2008. He presented to us with two huge tumoral and cauliflower-like lesions. Skin smear and histopathology of skin showed leishman bodies and confirmed the diagnosis. After renal transplantation, he received cyclosporine plus prednisolone to induce immunosuppression and reduce the probability of transplant rejection. After immunosuppressive therapy, reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis with the above presentation took place. The patient responded to 800?mg/day intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 3 weeks plus local cryotherapy. Systemic plus local therapy along with reducing the doses of immunosuppressive drugs led to improvement of lesions. Reactivation of leishmaniasis after immunosuppression has been rarely reported.

Salehi, Mehrnaz; Kamyab, Kambiz

2014-01-01

199

Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.

Ha, Taeyoung [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo [School of Civil, Urban and Geosystem Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr

2007-07-01

200

Painless Livedoid Vasculopathy in a Patient with G20210A Prothrombin Gene Mutation  

PubMed Central

87 year old Caucasian female with chronic painless non-healing ulcers over malleoli was admitted to the hospital. On a physical examination, there were two bilateral and laterally located malleoli ulcers with no discharge. A thorough work up was done: lower extremities venous and arterial Doppler ultrasound did not show any evidence of venous and arterial disease respectively. Heterozygous G20210A Prothrombin gene mutation was found, and the patient was started on anticoagulation. This case reports highlights a possibility of a painless livedoid vasculopathy presentation in a patient without significant past thrombotic events. Therefore, it is important to consider livedoid vasculopathy in the differential in a patient with painless ulcerative, atrophic and/or nodular skin lesions over the shins and malleoli.

Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Velasquez Kho, Erwin; Ali, Alaa

2012-01-01

201

Painless Livedoid Vasculopathy in a Patient with G20210A Prothrombin Gene Mutation.  

PubMed

87 year old Caucasian female with chronic painless non-healing ulcers over malleoli was admitted to the hospital. On a physical examination, there were two bilateral and laterally located malleoli ulcers with no discharge. A thorough work up was done: lower extremities venous and arterial Doppler ultrasound did not show any evidence of venous and arterial disease respectively. Heterozygous G20210A Prothrombin gene mutation was found, and the patient was started on anticoagulation. This case reports highlights a possibility of a painless livedoid vasculopathy presentation in a patient without significant past thrombotic events. Therefore, it is important to consider livedoid vasculopathy in the differential in a patient with painless ulcerative, atrophic and/or nodular skin lesions over the shins and malleoli. PMID:22988463

Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Velasquez Kho, Erwin; Ali, Alaa

2012-01-01

202

Pentazocine-induced leg ulcers and fibrous papules.  

PubMed

We herein describe a case of 55-year-old farmer, who presented with chronic non-healing ulcers over both shins of 4 years duration. Intravenous drug abuse was suspected due to inability to find any venous access and all peripheral veins being found thickened and fibrosed. There were multiple atrophic scars in linear distribution in all limbs as well as in both groins. In addition there were multiple discrete fibrous papules in linear distribution on both hands, which were more obvious on the left side. The patient denied abusing intravenous drugs. However, his relatives confirmed that he abused pentazocine for almost one year before his chronic pain in abdomen was treated by appendicectomy. With subsequent counseling, it was found that he continued to abuse pentazocine at times even after surgery leading to the non-healing of ulcers. PMID:17456919

De, Dipankar; Dogra, Sunil; Kanwar, Amrinder J

2007-01-01

203

Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

2013-04-01

204

Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

205

Design and type test of a light-triggered thyristor valve for back-to-back systems  

SciTech Connect

A direct light-triggered, water-cooled thyristor valve was designed and manufactured as an extension for the Shin-Shinano frequency converter station (back-to-back system, 300MW, 125kV-2400A) of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) This valve incorporates the following features: (1) the world's first commercial light-triggered thyristor (LTT) valve; (2) a light-triggering system, which has long-life and high reliability; (3) a gate pulse system with high-speed response; and (4) a small size achieved by using water-cooled components which have high cooling efficiencies. This paper introduces various type tests conducted in the factory and also a seismic test on an actual size valve model. The facility is scheduled to start operation in May 1992.

Nakajima, F.; Yamazaki, T. (Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)); Itoh, K.; Sakai, T. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

206

[Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].  

PubMed

Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

2012-08-01

207

Botulinum toxin type A injection in the treatment of lichen simplex: an open pilot study.  

PubMed

Recalcitrant pruritus is a hallmark of lichen simplex, a localized variant of atopic dermatitis. Acetylcholine has been demonstrated to mediate pruritus in atopic dermatitis. This open pilot study was done to determine the therapeutic effect of blocking acetylcholine release with botulinum toxin A in highly pruritic lichen simplex. Botulinum toxin A (Dysport) was injected intradermally into 5 circumscribed lichenoid lesions in 3 patients suffering from recalcitrant pruritus. No corticosteroids or any other specific topical therapy was administered. Pruritus subsided within 3 to 7 days in all 3 patients. Within 2 to 4 weeks all lesions cleared completely. No recurrences were noted over a 4-month follow-up. In one patient lichen simplex developed on the contralateral shin, which responded equally to a subsequent injection. We concluded that lichen simplex-associated pruritus can be overcome by intradermal botulinum toxin A injection. Acetylcholine appears to be a dominant pruritic mediator in this condition. PMID:11907521

Heckmann, Marc; Heyer, Gisela; Brunner, Birgit; Plewig, Gerd

2002-04-01

208

Childhood erythema nodosum associated with kerion celsi: a case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Erythema nodosum (EN) in association with kerion celsi is a rare condition in children, with only 11 cases having been reported in the English literature. We describe a new case in a 7-year-old boy in whom the disorder had begun 2 months before. He had many inflamed, boggy, suppurative nodules over the left occipitoparietal area of the scalp and, 2 weeks later, developed multiple painful, erythematous subcutaneous nodules of the shins, thighs, and upper limbs. EN was confirmed by histologic examination. Our review of the literature of all cases of EN during kerion showed that it usually occurs at or slightly after the height of infection or after drug introduction. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was involved in the majority of cases, and improvement of EN usually occurs with griseofulvin. PMID:21692840

Zaraa, Ines; Trojjet, Sondes; El Guellali, Nadia; El Euch, Dalenda; Chelly, Ines; Mokni, Mourad; Zitouna, Mohamed; Osman, Amel Ben

2012-01-01

209

Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control  

PubMed Central

Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity.

Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

2012-01-01

210

[Treatment of ununited fractures and pseudarthrosis of long bones of the lower limbs complicated by osteomyelitis].  

PubMed

123 patients with ununited diaphyseal fractures and false joints of the shin bones (93) and the hip (30), complicated by purulent infection, were treated in the clinic for pyogenic complications and consequences of locomotor traumas of the CITO from 1988 to 1994 years. Most patients were men (110 patients). The posttraumatic period varied from several months to 12 years. Many patients before their admittance to the clinic were not once unsuccessfully operated 69 (56.1%) patients had osseous defects of the thigh and the shin, all patients contractures of joints of the lower extremities as well as substantial trophic disturbances and atrophy of the muscles. 12 patients underwent closed transosseous osteosynthesis by the apparatus of an external fixation. One stage surgery was carried out in 111 patients, which included radical fistulosequestrenecretomy (and when indicated--extended segmental sequestrectomy) and transosseous osteosynthesis by the apparatus of external fixation with the use of the needles, rods, or their combination. The feature of the osteosynthesis depended on the extent of bone defect, which has been developed after sequestrectomy, in the defect up to 4 cm monolocal osteosynthesis was used, in the defect from 5 to 8 cm--bilocal and if it were over 8 cm--multilocal osteosynthesis was preferable. One stage treatment resulted in favourable outcomes in 95.9% of patients: the osteomyelitis was eliminated, the integrity of the bone was restored and in a great majority of cases--the length of the extremity was preserved. The treatment duration was 1.5-2 times less than in commonly used methods. PMID:10533372

Urazgil'deev, Z I; Roskida?lo, A S

1999-01-01

211

Radial diffusion comparing a THEMIS statistical model with geosynchronous measurements as the outer boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outer boundary energetic electron flux is used as a driver in radial diffusion calculations, and its precise determination is critical to the solution. A new model was proposed recently based on THEMIS measurements to express the boundary flux as three fit functions of solar wind parameters in a response window, that depend on energy and which solar parameter is used: speed, density, or both (Shin and Lee, 2013). The Dartmouth radial diffusion model has been run using LANL geosynchronous satellite measurements as the outer boundary for a one-month interval in July to August 2004 and the calculated phase space density (PSD) is compared with GPS measurements at the GPS orbit (L=4.16), at magnetic equatorial plane crossings, as a test of the model. We also used the outer boundary generated from the Shin and Lee model and examined this boundary condition by computing the error relative to the simulation using a LANL geosynchronous spacecraft data-driven outer boundary. The calculation shows that there is overestimation and underestimation at different times, however the new boundary condition can be used to drive the radial diffusion model generally, producing the phase space density increase and dropout during a storm with a relatively small error. Having this new method based on a solar wind parametrized data set, we can run the radial diffusion model for storms when particle measurements are not available at the outer boundary. We chose the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) as an example and compared the result with MHD/test-particle simulations (Hudson et al., 2012), obtaining much better agreement with PSD based on GPS measurements at L=4.16 using the diffusion model, which incorporates atmospheric losses.

Li, Z.; Hudson, M. K.; Chen, Y.

2013-12-01

212

Mating disruption of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): effect of pheromone formulations and concentrations.  

PubMed

The reluctance of Israeli vine growers to adopt the mating disruption technique to control the moth Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. has been attributed to the high cost of this method compared with that of traditional insecticide control. In this study, we tested the possibility of reducing the cost, first by testing different pheromone formulations (and thus open the market for competition) and second by reducing the pheromone concentration used in vineyards. Comparisons were made between two pheromone formulations--Shin-Etsu (Tokyo, Japan) at 165 g/ha and Concep (Sutera, Bend, OR) at 150 g/ha--and between two concentrations of Shin-Etsu, 165 and 110 g/ha. Pheromone dispensers were placed at the onset of the second moth generation. Comparison of the numbers of clusters infested with eggs and larvae of L. botrana showed no significant differences in the performance, either between the two formulations, or between the two tested concentrations. The results suggest that 1) the two formulations are equally effective, and 2) a low pheromone concentration is sufficient to maintain good control of small populations of L. botrana. However, when the population is high, pest control efficacy is not improved by increasing the pheromone concentration. Therefore, in the interest of reducing the relatively high cost of mating disruption, we emphasize that increasing the pheromone concentration does not provide improved control of high populations of L. botrana. The cost of mating disruption can be diminished by reducing the applied pheromone concentration and by using the least expensive pheromone formulations PMID:15765675

Gordon, Dvora; Zahavi, Tirtza; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Harari, Ally Rachel

2005-02-01

213

Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control.  

PubMed

Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

Wright, W G; Ivanenko, Y P; Gurfinkel, V S

2012-03-01

214

Effect of Subject Restraint and Resistance Pad Placement on Isokinetic Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength  

PubMed Central

Background: In clinical practice, several subject restraint and resistance pad placement variations are used when an isokinetic knee flexion/extension test is performed. However, it is unknown if these variations affect the outcome measures. The aims of this study were to determine if these setup variations affect isokinetic outcomes and to establish the smallest detectable difference for these setup variations. Hypothesis: Variation in isokinetic setup affects outcome measures. Study Design: Cross-sectional repeated-measures crossover study. Methods: Ten recreationally active adult men were examined with isokinetic dynamometry on 4 separate days. In the first 3 days, fully strapped and trunk-unstrapped testing was conducted with the resistance pad placed distally on the shin. On days 1 and 3, the unstrapped condition was performed first, followed by the strapped condition. On day 4, the resistance pad was placed proximal on the shin (anterior cruciate ligament testing). Results: There were no within-condition differences for days 1, 2, or 3 for the strapped and unstrapped conditions (P > 0.05). Between-condition comparisons were significant (eg, quadriceps peak torque, P < 0.001; hamstring peak torque, P = 0.043) for the strapped, unstrapped, and proximal resistance pad placement conditions. The strapped condition generally showed the largest torques, and the unstrapped, the least. The smallest detectable differences were relatively large (eg, quadriceps peak torque strapped = 20.6%). The greatest intraclass correlation values were found when strapped. Conclusions: Subject setup significantly influences isokinetic outcome measures at the knee. Since the strapped condition demonstrated the greatest repeatability, it is recommended. The smallest detectable differences were relatively high for all variables and should be considered in the interpretation of the effect size of interventions. Clinical Relevance: Subject setup strapping must be considered when investigating test-retest values or when comparing subjects after isokinetic testing at the knee. The fully strapped condition has the best repeatability and highest torque values.

Otten, Roald; Whiteley, Rod; Mitchell, Tim

2013-01-01

215

Coherent control and detection of spin qubits in semiconductor with magnetic field engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical control and detection of the spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are among the major rapidly progressing fields for possible implementation of scalable quantum information processing. Coherent control of one-[1-3] and two-[4,5] spin qubits by electrical means had been demonstrated with various approaches. We have used an engineered magnetic field structure realized with proximal micro-magnets to transduce the spin and charge degrees of freedom and to selectively address one of the two spins [3]. We have demonstrated an all-electrical two-qubit gate consisting of single-spin rotations and interdot spin exchange in double QDs. A partially entangled output state is obtained by the application of the two-qubit gate to an initial, uncorrelated state. Our calculations taking into account of the nuclear spin fluctuation show the degree of entanglement. Non-uniform magnetic field also enables spin selective photon-assisted tunneling in double QDs, which then constitutes non-demolition spin read-out system in combination with a near-by charge detector [6]. [4pt] In collaboration with R. Brunner, Inst. of Phys., Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700, Austria, M. Pioro-Ladrière, D'ep. de Phys., Universit'e de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Qu'ebec, J1K-2R1, Canada, T. Kubo, Y. -S. Shin, T. Obata, and S. Tarucha, ICORP-JST and Dep. of Appl. Phys., Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656, Japan.[4pt] [1] F. H. Koppens, et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006).[0pt] [2] K. C. Nowack, et al., Science 318, 1430 (2007).[0pt] [3] M. Pioro-Ladrière, et al., Nature Physics 4, 776 (2008).[0pt] [4] J. R. Petta, et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005).[0pt] [5] R. Brunner, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 146801 (2011).[0pt] [6] Y. -S. Shin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 046802 (2010).

Tokura, Yasuhiro

2012-02-01

216

LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) with analytical results, ideal MHD codes, drift-kinetic codes and other codes based on kinetic models are reported.

Lauber, Ph. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.lauber@ipp.mpg.de; Guenter, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koenies, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM-Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Pinches, S.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2007-09-10

217

LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfvén physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU München, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Günter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfvén regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) and kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) with analytical results, ideal MHD codes, drift-kinetic codes and other codes based on kinetic models are reported.

Lauber, Ph.; Günter, S.; Könies, A.; Pinches, S. D.

2007-09-01

218

Existence of mild solutions for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are concerned with nonlocal problem for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term of the form ^CDq_tu(t) + Au(t) = f(t, u(t), u(t)),quad t in J = [0, a],u(0) = g(u, u),. where E is an infinite-dimensional Banach space, {^CDq_t} is the Caputo fractional derivative of order {qin (0, 1)}, A : D(A) ? E ? E is a closed linear operator and -A generates a uniformly bounded C 0-semigroup T(t) (t ? 0) in E, {f in C(J× E × E, E)}, and g is appropriate continuous function so that it constitutes a nonlocal condition. Under a new concept of coupled lower and upper mild L-quasi-solutions, we construct a new monotone iterative method for nonlocal problem of fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term and obtain the existence of coupled extremal mild L-quasi-solutions and the mild solution between them. The results obtained generalize the recent conclusions on this topic. Finally, we present two applications to illustrate the feasibility of our abstract results.

Chen, Pengyu; Li, Yongxiang

2013-08-01

219

An extension of tribimaximal lepton mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harrison, Perkins and Scott have proposed simple charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices that lead to the tribimaximal mixing UTBM. We consider in this work an extension of the mass matrices so that the leptonic mixing matrix becomes UPMNS=VL?†UTBMW, where VL? is a unitary matrix needed to diagonalize the charged lepton mass matrix and W measures the deviation of the neutrino mixing matrix from the bimaximal form. Hence, corrections to UTBM arise from both charged lepton and neutrino sectors. Following our previous work to assume a Qin-Ma-like parametrization VQM for the charged lepton mixing matrix VL? in which the CP-odd phase is approximately maximal, we study the phenomenological implications in two different scenarios: VL?=VQM† and VL?=VQM. We find that the latter is more preferable, though both scenarios are consistent with the data within 3? ranges. The predicted reactor neutrino mixing angle ?13 in both scenarios is consistent with the recent T2K and MINOS data. The leptonic CP violation characterized by the Jarlskog invariant J is generally of order 10-2.

Ahn, Y. H.; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Oh, Sechul

2011-12-01

220

Research on history of Chinese seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of Chinese seismology can be traced back to four thousand years before and divided into four stages, i.e., primitive knowledge, worship of nature, perceptual knowledge and scientific research. The second stage ran in the whole Qin-Han dynasties, and the fourth stage began from Emperor Kangxi in Qing Dynasty and continued to the present. So far China has made four great contributions to seismological development of the world, i.e., the invention of Heng Zhang’s seismoscope, great amount of historical records of earthquakes of four thousand years, most abundant anomaly data before earthquakes, and successful practice of earthquake prediction in Haicheng. However, the seismological research in China at present is still on the junior and developing stage. Now we have been carrying on some recessively historical load in our mind such as the subconsciousness of absolute obedience, habit of phenomenological study as well as the methods of philosophical analysis without sincerity. For constructing a high-level Chinese culture in seismological research, we need to pay attention to combining the phenomenological research with experiment, observation and theory study. It is also suggested to take the appropriated measures matched with the present research level in seismology, as well as to promote coexisting and merging of multi-cultures.

Feng, Rui; Wu, Yuxia

2010-06-01

221

Analysis of acid rain effects on vegetation in eco-regions in China based on AVHRR/NDVI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vegetation, as the main component of the ecosystems, is the main receptor of acid rain pollution. Because of the discrepancy of the vegetation characteristics and environment, the responses of the different types of vegetation to acid rain in different regions are different. In this paper, we chose 9 eco-regions in southern China as study area, based on the acid rain and NOAA/NDVI data from 1992 to 2006, and revealed the impact of acid rain on the vegetation by using spatial interpolation, cluster analysis and curve fitting. The result shows that the most tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests were positively correlated with the acidity of precipitation and the growth was inhibited obviously. On the contrary, the growth of temperate coniferous forests was promoted by acid rain to some extent. In generally, the vegetation in the condition of the weak acid rain grew better, especially the Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests and the Changjiang Plain evergreen forests. For South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forest, Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests and Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests, the significant difference of NDVI between the different gradients of acid rain lasted almost the whole year, while that of the other eco-regions only appeared most obviously in Winter.

Jin, Jiaxin; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiuying; Xu, Xiaobin

2010-09-01

222

Diapause and implications for control of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed

Blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and redlegged earth mites, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) are major winter pests of a variety of crops and pastures. In southern Australia earth mites exhibit a facultative egg diapause to survive unfavorable summer conditions. The initiation of diapause egg production in earth mites was investigated using field and shade-house experiments. Species differed in their timing of diapause. H. destructor mainly produced diapausing eggs towards the end of the active mite season in spring, although small numbers were also produced in winter. In contrast, Penthaleus major (Dugés) produced diapause eggs almost immediately after emergence in autumn and continued producing these eggs throughout the season. Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday) also produced diapause eggs in early winter, although the first appearance of these eggs was slightly later in the season than for P. major. The diapause response of an undescribed species was also somewhat later than in P. major and P. falcatus, but earlier than in H. destructor. Electrophoresis of P. major samples indicated that clones of this parthenogenic species may differ in their timing of diapause egg production, providing another potential selective factor contributing to the maintenance of clonal diversity within this group. The results highlight the importance of determining species composition when devising control strategies for earth mite outbreaks. PMID:14974687

Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

2003-01-01

223

RNA Clamping by Vasa Assembles a piRNA Amplifier Complex on Transposon Transcripts.  

PubMed

Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex that mediates biogenesis of secondary piRNAs in insect cells. Amplifier is nucleated by the DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa and contains the two Piwi proteins participating in the ping-pong loop, the Tudor protein Qin/Kumo and antisense piRNA guides. These components assemble on the surface of Vasa's helicase domain, which functions as an RNA clamp to anchor Amplifier onto transposon transcripts. We show that ATP-dependent RNP remodeling by Vasa facilitates transfer of 5' sliced piRNA precursors between ping-pong partners, and loss of this activity causes sterility in Drosophila. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the small RNA amplification that confers adaptive immunity against transposons. PMID:24910301

Xiol, Jordi; Spinelli, Pietro; Laussmann, Maike A; Homolka, David; Yang, Zhaolin; Cora, Elisa; Couté, Yohann; Conn, Simon; Kadlec, Jan; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kaksonen, Marko; Cusack, Stephen; Ephrussi, Anne; Pillai, Ramesh S

2014-06-19

224

An Efficient Implementation Scheme for the Moving Grid Method Based on Delaunay Graph Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic grid algorithm is essential for numerical simulation of fluid-structure interaction problems with moving boundaries that require the mesh to be movable or deformable. This paper investigates the computational cost of the dynamic grid deformation method proposed by X. Q. Liu, N. Qin et al. (see Journal of Computational Physics, 211, 2006, pp.405-423). This method can deal with the large dynamical deformation of a mesh with any given topology based on the Delaunay graph mapping of the original mesh. Facing to the most time consuming parts of the Liu's approach, a high efficient algorithm and implementation scheme are presented to speed up the method. We have two main improvements. First, a fast locating technique is developed to locate the background element for the mesh points. Second, an efficient scheme is proposed that avoids most of repeated calculations in relocating the mesh points in the graph. Time complexity analysis indicates that the proposed algorithm and implementation scheme has gained substantial speedup compared with the Liu's original approach, while the memory requirement is even decreased. Several testing examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Sun, Shuli; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jianfei; Yuan, Mingwu

2010-05-01

225

Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis disease in sweet orange. There is evidence that X. fastidiosa interacts with endophytic bacteria present in the xylem of sweet orange, and that these interactions, particularly with Methylobacterium mesophilicum, may affect disease progress. However, these interactions cannot be evaluated in detail until efficient methods for detection and enumeration of these bacteria in planta are developed. We have previously developed standard and quantitative PCR-based assays specific for X. fastidiosa using the LightCycler system [Li, W.B., Pria Jr., L.P.M.W.D., X. Qin, and J.S. Hartung, 2003. Presence of Xylella fastidiosa in sweet orange fruit and seeds and its transmission to seedlings. Phytopathology 93:953-958.], and now report the development of both standard and quantitative PCR assays for M. mesophilicum. The assays are specific for M. mesophilicum and do not amplify DNA from other species of Methylobacterium or other bacteria commonly associated with citrus or plant tissue. Other bacteria tested included Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus sp., X. fastidiosa, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We have demonstrated that with these methods we can quantitatively monitor the colonization of xylem by M. mesophilicum during the course of disease development in plants artificially inoculated with both bacteria. PMID:16266765

Lacava, P T; Li, W B; Araújo, W L; Azevedo, J L; Hartung, J S

2006-06-01

226

Spatial profiles of methane at the Swiss Plateau: A confrontation between measurements and emission inventories.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane and carbon dioxide are the two most prominent greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and a detailed knowledge about their sources is essential for climate predictions (Solomon et al., 2007). The knowledge about greenhouse gas fluxes is usually merged, albeit including considerable uncertainties, to emission inventories. To increase the quality of the inventories a comparison with measurements is necessary. We evaluate the values given by a Swiss emission inventory with regard to atmospheric measurements of methane in Switzerland. Spatial profiles of carbon dioxide and methane were investigated at the Swiss Plateau during two consecutive warm and sunny summer days in July 2012. For the mobile methane and carbon dioxide measurements a LGR methane analyser and a LI-COR closed-path infrared gas analyser (IRGA) were mounted on a car together with an AIRMAR WeatherStation to track geodetic-coordinates and meteorological parameters. First results of the measurements including aerial profiles of the greenhouse gases and bin-averaged elevation profiles of methane and temperature will be presented and a highly-resolved methane emission inventory will be evaluated in comparison with the spatial profiles of atmospheric methane at the Swiss Plateau. References: Solomon, S., Qin D., et al. (Eds.) (2007) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 996 S. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Buchmann, Nina

2013-04-01

227

Impact of successive lightning strokes on the initiation and propagation of sprite streamers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical multi-stroke lightning event that was observed by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL spectrometer and Duke magnetometer at 06:32:28 (UT) on 13 August 2006 involved three successive stokes, during which the first stroke associated with ~364 C km charge moment change produced a sprite halo, and approximately 60 ms later the second stroke associated with ~301 C km charge moment change initiated sprite streamers [Adachi et al., GRL, 36, L18808, 2009]. In the present work, we use these experimental data on the lightning current waveform associated with the sprite-producing lightning event and a quasi-static electric model [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011] to simulate the dynamics of a real sprite-halo event. An improved avalanche-to-streamer transition criterion is used to monitor the possible streamer initiation in the high electric field region of the sprite halo in order to study the triggering mechanisms of sprite streamers. We show that the first stroke produced only a halo due to high electron density in the upper atmosphere. Our results show that attachment processes due to the electric field of the first stroke reduce the electron density in the upper atmosphere and enable streamer initiation in the field produced by the second stroke.

Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.; Li, J.; Cummer, S. A.

2011-12-01

228

The theory of shell-based Q-mappings in geometric function theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open, discrete Q-mappings in {\\mathbb R}^n, n\\ge2, Q\\in L^1_{\\mathrm{loc}}, are proved to be absolutely continuous on lines, to belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1}, to be differentiable almost everywhere and to have the N^{-1}-property (converse to the Luzin N-property). It is shown that a family of open, discrete shell-based Q-mappings leaving out a subset of positive capacity is normal, provided that either Q has finite mean oscillation at each point or Q has only logarithmic singularities of order at most n-1. Under the same assumptions on Q it is proved that an isolated singularity x_0\\in D of an open discrete shell-based Q-map f\\colon D\\setminus\\{x_0\\}\\to\\overline{\\mathbb R}{}^n is removable; moreover, the extended map is open and discrete. On the basis of these results analogues of the well-known Liouville, Sokhotskii-Weierstrass and Picard theorems are obtained. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Salimov, Ruslan R.; Sevost'yanov, Evgenii A.

2010-08-01

229

L_{1/2} Regularization: Convergence of Iterative Half Thresholding Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent studies on sparse modeling, the nonconvex regularization approaches (particularly, $L_{q}$ regularization with $q\\in(0,1)$) have been demonstrated to possess capability of gaining much benefit in sparsity-inducing and efficiency. As compared with the convex regularization approaches (say, $L_{1}$ regularization), however, the convergence issue of the corresponding algorithms are more difficult to tackle. In this paper, we deal with this difficult issue for a specific but typical nonconvex regularization scheme, the $L_{1/2}$ regularization, which has been successfully used to many applications. More specifically, we study the convergence of the iterative \\textit{half} thresholding algorithm (the \\textit{half} algorithm for short), one of the most efficient and important algorithms for solution to the $L_{1/2}$ regularization. As the main result, we show that under certain conditions, the \\textit{half} algorithm converges to a local minimizer of the $L_{1/2}$ regularization, with an eventually linear convergence rate. The established result provides a theoretical guarantee for a wide range of applications of the \\textit{half} algorithm. We provide also a set of simulations to support the correctness of theoretical assertions and compare the time efficiency of the \\textit{half} algorithm with other known typical algorithms for $L_{1/2}$ regularization like the iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) algorithm and the iteratively reweighted $l_{1}$ minimization (IRL1) algorithm.

Zeng, Jinshan; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben

2014-05-01

230

Can aerosol loading explain the solar dimming over the Tibetan Plateau?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation over the Tibetan Plateau has declined over recent three decades, whereas total cloud cover has a decreasing trend. A likely explanation to this paradox is the increase in aerosols over this clean region. However, this study shows that the radiation extinction due to aerosol loading is of one order lower in magnitude than the observed dimming, and the solar dimming is also seen in a satellite product that was produced without considering temporal variations of aerosols. Instead, the inter-annual variability and decadal change in solar radiation is contrasting to that in water vapor amount and deep cloud cover (but not total cloud cover). Therefore, we suggest that the solar dimming over the Plateau is mainly due to the increase in water vapor amount and deep cloud cover, which in turn are related to the rapid warming and the increase in convective available potential energy. Publication: Yang, K., B. Ding, J. Qin, W. Tang, N. Lu, and C. Lin (2012), Can aerosol loading explain the solar dimming over the Tibetan Plateau?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20710, doi:10.1029/2012GL053733.

Yang, Kun; Ding, Baohong; Qin, Jun; Tang, Wenjun; Lv, Ning; Lin, Changgui

2013-04-01

231

Renormalized one-loop theory of correlations in disordered diblock copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A renormalized one-loop (ROL) theory developed in previous work [P. Grzywacz, J. Qin, and D. C. Morse, Phys. Rev E. 76, 061802 (2007)] is used to calculate corrections to the random phase approximation (RPA) for the structure factor S(q) in disordered diblock copolymer melts. Predictions are given for the peak intensity S(q*), peak position q*, and single-chain statistics for symmetric and asymmetric copolymers as functions of ?eN, where ?e is an effective Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and N is the degree of polymerization. The ROL and Fredrickson-Helfand (FH) theories are found to yield asymptotically equivalent results for the dependence of the peak intensity S(q*) upon ?eN for symmetric diblock copolymers in the limit of strong scattering, or large ?eN, but to yield qualitatively different predictions for symmetric copolymers far from the ODT and for asymmetric copolymers. The ROL theory predicts a suppression of S(q*) and a decrease of q* for large values of ?eN, relative to the RPA predictions, but an enhancement of S(q*) and an increase in q* for small ?eN. The decrease in q* near the ODT is shown to be unrelated to any change in single-chain statistics, and to be a result of inter-molecular correlations. Conversely, the predicted increase in q* at small values of ?eN is a direct result of non-Gaussian single-chain statistics.

Qin, Jian; Grzywacz, Piotr; Morse, David C.

2011-08-01

232

Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.  

PubMed

Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant ?-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area. PMID:24103096

Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

2013-11-15

233

Seismic activity of the East Sea, Korea offshore earthquake sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity in Korea is known to be relatively low compared to China and Japan. But it seems to be more active historically, according to historical documents on earthquake. The magnitudes of historical earthquakes were estimated to be about 4 - 6 by previous studies and there were several events with magnitude over 6. Instrumental earthquakes recorded in 1978 - 2012 seem to be smaller than historical earthquakes, according to the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) catalog. Their magnitudes are smaller than 4 in general. Although epicenters of instrumental earthquakes seem to be randomly distributed on the entire Korean Peninsula, some earthquakes occur intensively in several specific areas in the East Sea and the eastern region of Jeju Island. The areas having intensive seismic activity in the East Sea are offshore regions of Uljin (Region A), Yeongdeok (Region B), and Ulsan (Region C) from north to south. Eleven earthquakes of ML 2.0 - 3.2 occurred in Region A on April 2006. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 0.7 km. And the focal depths were in the range of 1.6 - 13.0 km (Kang and Shin, 2006). Kang and Shin (2006) propose that the sequence is closely related to the marginal geometry of the Ulleung Basin and the regional stress regime. Seven events with ML 2.1 - 3.0 occurred between September 12 and October 17 in 2007, and four events with ML 2.3 - 3.5 did between 07 December 2008 and 13 January 2009 in Region B. The relocations of eleven events greatly improved the epicenter locations that fall within an area with a radius of about 4 km. The relocated depths are in a range of 8 km to 14 km. According to Shin et al. (2012), the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution of the largest earthquake in the sequences implied that the earthquake sequences are closely related to the Hupo fault at the eastern margin of Hupo basin. The sequences have been considered to have swarm seismicity pattern. In this study, we analyzed the source parameters of 6 earthquakes occurred in Region C on February 19 - March 27, 2012. For analysis of this sequence, we used various data sets, including permanent stations of KMA and Broadband Seismograph Network (F-net) of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). For the hypocenter determination, 1D velocity structure (Chang and Baag, 2006) and HYPOELLIPSE (Lahr, 1980) were used. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 1.5 km. And the focal depths of earthquakes were in the range of 13 - 17 km, indicating shallow events. Using the equation of Tsuboi (1954), magnitudes were estimated to be 2.0 - 3.2. To understand fault movement of earthquake sequence, focal mechanism for the largest earthquake (ML 3.2) was analyzed. According to the result, this earthquake was a oblique strike-slip fault event along either a failure plane of strike 294°, dip 84° and rake 38°, or that of strike 202°, dip 51° and rake 169°. Considering the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution, the sequence in 2012 seems to be related to the Dolgorae Thrust Belt of complex structure. In these regions of A - C, micro earthquakes are observed persistently. Continuous monitoring and researches on these micro seismic events may be needed to understand the characteristics of seismic activity and fault movement in the margin of Ulleung Basin of the East Sea.

PARK, E.; Park, S.; Hahm, I.; Kim, Y.

2013-12-01

234

Galactosyl human serum albumin-NMP1 conjugate: a near infrared (NIR)-activatable fluorescence imaging agent to detect peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases.  

PubMed

Patient survival depends on the completeness of resection of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases (POCM), and therefore, it is important to develop methods to enhance detection. Previous probe designs based on activatable galactosyl human serum albumin (hGSA)-fluorophore pairs, which target lectin receptors expressed on POCM, have used only visible range dyes conjugated to hGSA. However, imaging probes emitting fluorescence in the NIR range are advantageous because NIR photons have deeper in vivo tissue penetration and result in lower background autofluorescence than those emitting in the visible range. A NIR-activatable hGSA fluorophore was synthesized using a bacteriochlorin-based dye, NMP1. NMP1 has two unique absorption peaks, one in the green range and the other in the NIR range, but emits at a NIR peak of 780 nm. NMP1, thus, has two different Stokes shifts that have the potential to allow imaging of POCM both at the peritoneal surface and just below it. hGSA was conjugated with 2 NMP1 molecules to create a self-quenching complex (hGSA-NMP1). The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was measured by the fluorescence intensity before and after exposure to 10% SDS. The activation ratio of hGSA-NMP1 was ~100-fold in vitro. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo spectral fluorescence imaging were carried out to compare hGSA-NMP1 with hGSA-IR800 and hGSA-ICG (two always-on control agents with similar emission to NMP1) in terms of comparative fluorescence signal and the ability to detect POCM in mice models. The sensitivity and specificity of hGSA-NMP1 for POCM implant detection were determined by colocalizing NMP1 emission spectra with red fluorescent protein (RFP) expressed constitutively in SHIN3 tumor implants at different depths below the peritoneal surface. In vitro, SHIN3 cells were easily detectable after 3 h of incubation with hGSA-NMP1. In vivo submillimeter POCM foci were clearly detectable with spectral fluorescence imaging using hGSA-NMP1. Among 555 peritoneal lesions, hGSA-NMP, using NIR and green excitation light, respectively, detect 75% of all lesions and 91% of lesions ~0.8 mm or greater in diameter. Few false positives were encountered. Nodules located at a depth below the small bowel surface were only depicted with hGSA-NMP1. We conclude that hGSA-NMP1 is useful in imaging peritoneal ovarian cancer metastases, located both superficially and deep in the abdominal cavity. PMID:22799539

Alexander, Vinita M; Sano, Kohei; Yu, Zhanqian; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L; Ptaszek, Marcin; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2012-08-15

235

Ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica to a teenager with diabetes mellitus and obesity.  

PubMed

Many skin lesions are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2, due to the use of antidiabetics or to metabolic and endocrine disorders caused by this disease. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) occurs more frequently in patients with DM. Painful ulcerations may occur on NL areas in about 20-25% of the cases and usually they are related to trauma. We present the case of a teenager, male, 17-year-old, having NL with multiple plaques, some of them spontaneously ulcerated after about 33 months of onset. He is known with type 1 DM from 2.5 years and the NL preceding the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with about six months, presented erythematous-infiltrative skin plaques, some ulcerated for about three months, interesting both shins. Based on clinical, histopathological and paraclinical examinations, we established the following diagnoses: ulcerated NL, type 1 DM, moderate mixed dyslipidemia, class I obesity; commissural candidiasis, juvenile acne. Under treatment with Pentoxifyllinum, Sulodexidum, Ketotifenum and topical therapy with 0.2% Hyaluronic acid two months later, we have managed to heal two of the three ulcerated plaques and of the third has become superficial. We applied 0.5% Fluocortolonum on non-ulcerated plaques recording an improvement after two weeks of treatment. NL is a skin disease with a predilection for the shins, more frequent in patients with diabetes and is a part of palisading granulomatous dermatitis, which leads to skin atrophy. NL is found in the 0.3-1.2% of diabetic patients and is rare in children with diabetes (0.006%). It is more common in the patients with type 1 DM. The onset is in the third decade in diabetic patients and in the fourth decade in non-diabetics. There is no consensus concerning the treatment of NL, and the results are often modest. Antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids (local and general), immunomodulatory drugs, cyclins, wide synthetic antipaludics, heparin, Thalidomide are used. NL treatment is very difficult, especially in the ulcerated forms. Many of the drugs listed have proven efficacy only in isolated cases. Studies are necessary on large series of patients to determine the optimal therapy of NL. PMID:24715184

P?tra?cu, Virgil; Giurc?, Claudia; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

2014-01-01

236

Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related phenomena, J. Fluid Mech. 31, 209-248. Shin, J.O., Dalziel, S.B. and Linden, P.F. 2004 Gravity currents produced by lock exchange, J. Fluid Mech. 521, 1-34.

Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.

2013-05-01

237

Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.  

PubMed

During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U. Braun (new for Germany) on Pastinaca sativa L., Podosphaera tridactyla (WalIr.) de Bary on Prunus laurocerasus L., Septoria cornicola Desm. on Cornus sanguinea L., Stigmina tinea (Sacc.) M.B.Ellis on Viburnum opulus L., Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link on Potentilla argentea L., etc. All species are located in the herbarium Mycotheca parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:20222564

Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

2009-01-01

238

[Medical doctor Lee Hyeon Yang's writings in Gokcheongsago].  

PubMed

Medical doctors in the Chosun Dynasty read Chinese literature of high level in order to take the medical civil service examination, but there are not many extant writings of theirs except some medical books. Middle class people's selections of poems such as Haedongyuju, Sodaepungyo, Pungyosokseon and Pungyosamseon were published, and among the list of the writers, those who were identified as medical doctors were Park Gun, Baek Heung jeon, Shin Myeong hee, Shin Hee myeong, Oh Chang ryeol, Yoo Dong yeok, etc. Even their works are not many, and this suggests that doctors' writing was not active except for medical books. Lee Hyeon yang (1783-1852), the author of Gokcheongsago, was born the only son of Lee Jaewoo (1750-1808), an acupuncturist at the Lee family from Ansan, which was an influential middleclass family. His pen name was changed from Gokcheong to Anrakwa, Yongheon and Gyeongsudang, and for each pen name, he wrote a foreword explaining the origin of the name and his resolution. The Lee family from Ansan produced 20 medical officials through eight generations from Lee Yoon yeong in the 7th generation to Lee Myeong ryun in the 15th generation. He learned medicine, his family occupation, diligently and passed the medical civil service examination in 1803 when he was 21. In addition, he studied Confucian scriptures enthusiastically and left many writing along with medical books. Based on the forewords in his anthology Gokcheongsago, there are eight writings of his as follows in chronological order: Suseongpyeongam (1798), Cheongimiyo (1799), Euihakjeongwon (1801), Gwangjebiyo(five volumes, 1810), Wonbyeonggiyo (1819), Bonchojeongeui(1826), Euiyakcheongji (1838), and Yeonghwaji (1843). He wrote not only medical books but also traditional Chinese texts in different styles. In the 180pages transcription, he as a medical doctor showed various writing styles based on Confucianism including 22 prologues and epilogues, 9 diaries, discussions and opinions, 2 biographies, 5 letters, 10 memorial addresses and condolence messages, and 8 miscellaneous writings. His writing attitude was different among the periods when preparing for the medical civil service examination, when acting as a medical doctor, and when working as a magistrate, and it shows medical doctors' life in the 18th and 19th centuries. PMID:19174624

Hur, Kyoungjin

2008-12-01

239

The Integration of Bacteriorhodopsin Proteins with Semiconductor Heterostructure Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioelectronics has emerged as one of the most rapidly developing fields among the active frontiers of interdisciplinary research. A major thrust in this field is aimed at the coupling of the technologically-unmatched performance of biological systems, such as neural and sensing functions, with the well developed technology of microelectronics and optoelectronics. To this end we have studied the integration of a suitably engineered protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), with semiconductor optoelectronic devices and circuits. Successful integration will potentially lead to ultrasensitive sensors with polarization selectivity and built-in preprocessing capabilities that will be useful for high speed tracking, motion and edge detection, biological detection, and artificial vision systems. In this presentation we will summarize our progresses in this area, which include fundamental studies on the transient dynamics of photo-induced charge shift in BR and the coupling mechanism at protein-semiconductor interface for effective immobilizing and selectively integrating light sensitive proteins with microelectronic devices and circuits, and the device engineering of BR-transistor-integrated optical sensors as well as their applications in phototransceiver circuits. Work done in collaboration with Pallab Bhattacharya, Jonghyun Shin, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Robert R. Birge, Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269; and György V'ar'o, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Science, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary.

Xu, Jian

2008-03-01

240

PREFACE: Eucas '09: The 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity (Dresden, Germany, 13-17 September 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 9th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity 6 plenary, 22 invited, 206 oral and 429 poster contributions were presented on recent developments in the field of applied superconductivity. This issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains all contributed papers that were accepted for the Conference Proceedings. The Dresden EUCAS conference with 712 participants from 43 countries continued the tradition of preceding EUCAS conferences of combining basic superconductivity research contributions with the discussion of recent material advances and new developments in large scale and electronic applications. In Dresden, contributions on the recently discovered Fe based superconductors were presented for the first time during a EUCAS conference and their potential for applications was intensively discussed. Finally we want to acknowledge the help of the International Advisory and National Committees in setting up the scientific program and especially we would like to express our gratitude to all members of the Local Organization Committee. Their enthusiastic and well organized work made this Dresden EUCAS conference a memorable event for all participants. Last but not least we are very grateful to W. Goldacker , S. Haindl, J. Hänisch, R. Hühne, M. Noe, P. Seidel and M. Siegel for their extraordinary help during the proceedings review process. Bernhard Holzapfel Ludwig Schultz Conference Chairmen The IW-SMI 2010 Organizing Committee: Masato Okada (University of Tokyo) Yoshiyuki Kabashima, General Chair (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Shin Ishii (Kyoto University) Jun-ichi Inoue, Publications Chair (Hokkaido University) Kazuyuki Tanaka (Tohoku University) Toshiyuki Tanaka, Vice-General Chair (Kyoto University)

Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

2010-04-01

241

Unilateral hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a patient with a vascular graft infection.  

PubMed

We report a patient who presented with high fever; a unilateral, palpable tender swelling along the right shin; and effusions in knee and ankle joints leading to the diagnosis of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA). The diagnostic workup revealed an infected vascular graft that had been implanted 2 years before because of a ruptured infrarenal aortic aneurysm as the cause of HOA. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics and surgically replacing the infected graft. Hypertrophic osteoarthritis is a clinical entity characterized by digital clubbing, periostitis, and synovial effusions. Primary and secondary forms have been described. Secondary HOA develops as a consequence of various diseases, mainly intrathoracic malignancies. Vascular graft infection, as reported here, is a rare cause of HOA. This case underlines the typical clinical features of HOA and the importance of a prompt and comprehensive diagnostic workup in cases of HOA. Our aim is to sharpen the awareness of its multiple underlying causes. Unilateral HOA is a rare but strong and important sign of infection of vascular prosthesis. PMID:23120763

Ahrenstorf, Gerrit; Rihl, Markus; Pichlmaier, Maximilian A; Rosenthal, Herbert; Witte, Torsten; Schmidt, Reinhold E

2012-09-01

242

Wet autoclave pretreatment for antigen retrieval in diagnostic immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Interest has recently been shown in adapting the microwave oven heating technique for antigen retrieval to routine diagnostic immunocytochemical practice. Although it has proved effective as a specialist method for individual antigen localization in many laboratories, it has certain drawbacks which have hampered its wider routine application. These include the need to monitor the sections during the microwave treatment to prevent damage or drying, the limited number of sections that can be accommodated in the microwave oven, and the inevitable alteration in nuclear morphology induced by the microwaves. In order to obviate these difficulties, we have modified the wet autoclave method of Shin et al. (Lab Invest 1991; 64: 693-702) as a routine technique for retrieval of a variety of cell surface, cytoplasmic, and nuclear antigens in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. The technique produces even enhancement of several refractory antigens in anatomically different sites and has the potential to handle reliably up to 200 sections at a time without significant damage to the section or to nuclear morphology. PMID:7529834

Bankfalvi, A; Navabi, H; Bier, B; Böcker, W; Jasani, B; Schmid, K W

1994-11-01

243

Evaluation of Nanoporous Gold with Controlled Surface Structures for Laser Desorption Ionization (LDI) Analysis: Surface Area Versus LDI Signal Intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural effect of a nanoporous gold (NPG) surface on the signal intensities of laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) were investigated using NPG surfaces with controlled structures. The relationship between surface area and LDI efficiency was compared and evaluated. Comparisons between bare flat gold and NPG surfaces show that nanostructures increased LDI efficiency. We also found that the LDI signal decreased with increasing depth of nanoporous layers, thus increasing the surface area. This result agrees with a previous report (Shin J. A. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2010, 21, 989) in which the LDI efficiency of small molecules decreased for ZnO wires with longer lengths. This observation was explained by the penetration and deposition of samples into locations inaccessible to photons because of structural screening. The LDI-MS analysis of oils with NPG surfaces (but without matrix) showed the same trend whereby the NPG with about a 200 nm depth of porous area showed the highest sensitivity. This study clearly shows that the active surface area for solution chemistry can differ from LDI-MS and that NPGs can function as a substrate for LDI oil analysis.

Jin, Jang Mi; Choi, Suhee; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Man Ho; Kim, Jongwon; Kim, Sunghwan

2012-09-01

244

[The specific features of present-day children's physical development in the estimation of the functional sizes of furniture for pupils].  

PubMed

The authors made mass anthropometric surveys in 923 first-to-fourth-form pupils and determined the values of 5 variables for height groups 2, 3, and 4, used to justify the functional sizes of furniture for pupils: the length of a shoulder slope above the seat, that of an elbow slope above the seat, that of a popliteal space slope above the floor, the distance from the chair hack to the popliteal space, and the highest pelvic width. Differences were found in the anthropometric values in the present-day junior pupils and the equals in age of the early 1970s. The present-day children are characterized by changes in body proportions (a decrease in height and an increase in the length of the shin and femur), which should be kept in mind on optimizing the working place of pupils. It is suggested that popliteal space length rather than the currently applied height should be used as a fitting ratio of anthropometric characteristics to the functional sizes of furniture for pupils. PMID:19514284

Khramtsov, P I; Strokina, A N; Sotnikova, E N; Butareva, I I; Moldovanov, V V

2009-01-01

245

Development and Test of a Travelling Wave Tube mm-wave Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the fabrication and test of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier designed for operation over a 40 GHz bandwidth centered on 220 GHz, and producing 50 W output power. The TWT amplifier uses a slow wave structure with staggered interdigitated vanes within a waveguide [1]. Each vane is 110 micron wide situated inside a 770 micron wide waveguide, and was directly machined into copper using a 100 micron wide end mill. This structure slows radiation down to group velocity of 8.16 x 10^7 ms-1 where the velocity matches the speed of electrons from a 20 keV source. The TWT uses a sheet electron beam of 7:1 aspect ratio and 400 A/cm^2 charge density stabilized by a Brillouin flow magnetic field provided by an external permanent magnet. RF vacuum windows were designed and built using brazed diamond windows, providing less than 1 dB insertion loss across the full 40 GHz bandwidth. Solid state preamplifiers have been developed which provide 20 dB gain and 50 mW output power over the full bandwidth to the input of the TWT. [4pt] [1] Y-M. Shin & L.R. Barnett, Appl.Phys. Lett. 2008, 92 pp. 091501.

Field, Mark; Kimura, Takuji; Atkinson, John; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry; Zhao, Jinfeng; Luhmann, Neville; Griffith, Zachary; Reed, Thomas; Rodwell, Mark

2013-03-01

246

The great medical imitator: a case of syphilitic osteitis in the setting of HIV infection.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old man with well-controlled HIV presented with low-grade fever, pharyngitis, frontal headache, abdominal and shin pain, and abnormal liver function tests 8 weeks after switching from zidovudine to abacavir (while continuing nevirapine and lamivudine). An abacavir reaction was the working diagnosis and thus his antiretroviral regimen was returned to the previously tolerated combination and he received 10 days of oral penicillin (500mg twice daily) for presumptive tonsillitis with significant improvement. A whole-body bone scan demonstrated multiple foci of increased patchy osteoblastic activity of the long bones and skull. Six months later during routine screening, a syphilis rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre of 128 was detected. Retrospective testing on stored samples demonstrated a first positive RPR at the time of symptomatic presentation. He received three injections of 1.8g benzathine penicillin on a weekly basis with a subsequent decrease in RPR titre and normalisation of the bone scan. Although syphilitic osteitis is rare, this case re-emphasises the importance of considering syphilis when HIV-infected patients present with unusual symptoms. The use of bone scan in this setting and treatment options are discussed. PMID:23557690

Trevillyan, Janine M; Yap, Kenneth S; Hoy, Jennifer

2013-07-01

247

A study on in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of HA/45S5 composite films by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HA/45S5 composite films were deposited by pulsed laser, the crystalline phases, microstructure and bonding configurations of the films were studied by XRD, SEM and FTIR respectively, and the film-to-substrate adhesion was investigated by micro-scratch testing. In addition, the in vitro and in vivo assays were carried out. The results showed that the crystallinity and the adhesive strength of the films increased with the increase of the substrate temperature. The film deposited with the substrate temperature of 200 °C is amorphous, while crystalline HA and ?-TCP were detected in the film deposited at 600 °C. The in vitro test indicates that the amorphous film has faster dissolution rate and reprecipitation rate, which implies that this film has better bioactivity than the crystalline film. However, the in vivo test suggested that the 600 °C film was more suitable to serve as clinical application than the 200 °C film, because new bone tissue grew better onto the 600 °C film surface than onto the 200 °C film surface when they were implanted in the rabbit shin bones.

Wang, D. G.; Chen, C. Z.; Ma, Q. S.; Jin, Q. P.; Li, H. C.

2013-04-01

248

Factors influencing teaching style in block-scheduled science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This survey study sought to determine the extent to which teachers' personal belief systems, the leadership practices of the principal, and the nature of the organization as a professional learning community influence their teaching methodologies. The data were contributed by 172 South Carolina science teachers from 65 4 x 4 block-scheduled high schools. The teachers were pre-identified by teaching style as predominantly constructivist or traditional. The online survey consisted of two parts. Part I was the CTBA (Torff & Warburton 2005), which examined teacher beliefs regarding critical-thinking classroom strategies. Part II was the short form of the LOLSO Project Questionnaires (Shins et al., 2002), which examined teacher perceptions of their principal as a transformational leader and of their school as a learning organization. Logistic regression analysis identified two significant factors differentiating constructivist and traditional teachers. Traditional teachers were more likely to believe that low critical-thinking strategies were appropriate strategies for use in the classroom and constructivist teachers were more likely to perceive their schools as learning organizations. These two factors, when entered into the logistic regression predictive equation, could predict group membership with a 61% accuracy level. While not a differentiating factor, there was also a strong correlation between leadership and organizational learning (r = .86). These findings are consistent with other research that has found that schools which are learning organizations support more constructivist pedagogy and student-centered classrooms and are dependent upon strong support from school leadership.

Schoen Giddings, Linda

249

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16

250

Use of prey hotspots by an avian predator: purposeful unpredictability?  

PubMed

The use of space by predators in relation to their prey is a poorly understood aspect of predator-prey interactions. Classic theory suggests that predators should focus their efforts on areas of abundant prey, that is, prey hotspots, whereas game-theoretical models of predator and prey movement suggest that the distribution of predators should match that of their prey's resources. If, however, prey are spatially anchored to one location and these prey have particularly strong antipredator responses that make them difficult to capture with frequent attacks, then predators may be forced to adopt alternative movement strategies to hunt behaviorally responsive prey. We examined the movement patterns of bird-eating sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) in an attempt to shed light on hotspot use by predators. Our results suggest that these hawks do not focus on prey hotspots such as bird feeders but instead maintain much spatial and temporal unpredictability in their movements. Hawks seldom revisited the same area, and the few frequently used areas were revisited in a manner consistent with unpredictable returns, giving prey little additional information about risk. PMID:17211809

Roth, Timothy C; Lima, Steven L

2007-02-01

251

Coherent coupling of a superconducting flux qubit to an electron spin ensemble in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have experimentally demonstrated coherent strong coupling between a single macroscopic superconducting artificial atom (a gap tunable flux qubit [1]) and an ensemble of electron spins in the form of nitrogen--vacancy color centres in diamond. We have observed coherent exchange of a single quantum of energy between a flux qubit and a macroscopic ensemble consisting of about 3.0*10^7 NV- centers [2]. This is the first step towards the realization of a long-lived quantum memory and hybrid devices coupling microwave and optical systems. [1] Coherent operation of a gap-tunable flux qubit X. B. Zhu, A. Kemp, S. Saito, K. Semba, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Volume: 97, Issue: 10 pp. 102503 (2010) [2] Coherent coupling of a superconducting flux qubit to an electron spin ensemble in diamond Xiaobo Zhu, Shiro Saito, Alexander Kemp, Kosuke Kakuyanagi, Shin-ichi Karimoto, Hayato Nakano, William J. Munro, Yasuhiro Tokura, Mark S. Everitt, Kae Nemoto, Makoto Kasu, Norikazu Mizuochi, and Kouichi Semba, Nature, Volume: 478, 221-224 (2011)

Zhu, Xiaobo; Saito, Shiro; Kemp, Alexander; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke; Karimoto, Shin-Ichi; Nakano, Hayato; Munro, William J.; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Everitt, Mark S.; Nemoto, Kae; Kasu, Makoto; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Semba, Kouichi

2012-02-01

252

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

PubMed Central

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an ‘inverted pendulum’, with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic ‘M’-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse–vault–impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the ‘M’-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel–sole–toe stance; it is maintained in tip–toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure—with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front—enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel–sole–toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all—largely avoiding the ‘cost of muscle force’—during the passive vaulting phase.

Usherwood, J. R.; Channon, A. J.; Myatt, J. P.; Rankin, J. W.; Hubel, T. Y.

2012-01-01

253

Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24?h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER? protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER? protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies.

Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

2014-01-01

254

Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

255

Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.04). Mann-Whitney’s U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage ( p < 0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

2008-03-01

256

Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II.  

PubMed

After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan. PMID:24880421

Hwang, I; Huang, J Y; Kim, M; Lee, B-J; Kim, C; Choi, J-Y; Kim, M-H; Lee, H S; Moon, D; Lee, E H; Kim, D-E; Nam, S H; Shin, S; Cho, Moohyun

2014-05-01

257

SHSST Cyclodextrin Complex Prevents the Fibrosis Effect on CCl4-Induced Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy in Rats through TGF-? Pathway Inhibition Effects  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver cirrhosis also have subtle cardiac structure or function abnormalities. This cardiac dysfunction commonly occurs in 56% of waiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients and is defined as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). Up to now, there is no standard treatment because CCM does not have a solidly established diagnosis and is based on high clinical suspicion. The liver function of CCM is particularly limited, making patients vulnerable to more drug treatments. Here, we use silymarin (100 mg/kg/day), baicalein (30 mg/kg/day), San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST, 30 mg/kg/day) and ?-cyclodextrin modified SHSST (SHSSTc, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day) treatments for a CCl4-induced CCM rat model. The results show that silymarin, baicalein and SHSST treatments can only slightly reduce the collagen accumulation in CCM rat hearts. However, SHSSTc treatment protects the heart in CCM and significantly inhibits collagen acumination and the fibrosis regulating transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway expression. SHSSTc treatments further reduced the heart weight and the ratio between left ventricular weight (LVW) and tibia length (TL). This experimental data show that water solubility improved ?-cyclodextrin modified Chinese herbal medicine formula (SHSSTc) can provide an excellent heart protection effect through TGF-? pathway inhibition.

Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Ju, Da-Tong; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chung, Li-Chin; Tsai, Fu-Jenn; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

2014-01-01

258

Study of fine sediments for making lightweight aggregate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the recycling of the fine sediments of Shih-Men Reservoir to manufacture lightweight aggregate. By qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fine sediment and sintered aggregate through soil test, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, a strategy of recycling fine sediment as aggregate for other similar material is proposed. The test results indicate that such fine sediment can be classified as low plastic clay, and clay of such chemical composition is located in the Riley's 'area of bloating'. The particle density of sintered lightweight aggregate decreases when the sintering temperature increases especially above 1200 degrees C due to phase transformation and formation of a vitrified layer on the surface through subsequent dehydration, bloating and collapsing stages. Our findings show that the fine sediment of Shin-Men Reservoir could be a suitable raw material for making expanded lightweight aggregate sintered at 1200 to 1300 degrees C for 10 to 12 min by a programmable furnace and a diffusion process. PMID:17985670

Hung, Meng-Feng; Hwang, Chao-Lung

2007-10-01

259

Heterologous production, purification, and immunodetection of Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence protein AVR-Pia.  

PubMed

The avirulence gene AVR-Pia of Magnaporthe oryzae, which induces a hypersensitive reaction in rice cultivars containing the resistance gene Pia, was expressed in Escherichia coli. AVR-Pia protein was collected as inclusion bodies, denatured, and refolded. Finally, recombinant AVR-Pia (rAVR-Pia) protein was purified by column chromatography. Infiltration of rAVR-Pia triggered cell browning in the leaves of rice cultivar Aichiasahi (Pia), with accumulation of H2O2 and induction of PR1a expression in rice. On the other hand, these reactions were not observed in Shin-2 (pia) leaves after the same treatment. This observation indicated that rAVR-Pia had the function of an avirulence protein. rAVR-Pia was used for immunization of a rabbit, and anti-AVR-Pia antiserum was prepared. The specificity of this antibody was appraised by detecting native AVR-Pia in the inoculated leaf sheath extract using Western blotting in combination with immunoprecipitation. Native AVR-Pia was successfully detected, and its molecular weight was estimated to be 7.4?kDa, indicating signal peptide cleavage. Additionally, secreted native AVR-Pia was quantified as 3.7?ng/g rice sheath. PMID:25036967

Satoh, Yuki; Miki, Shinsuke; Ose, Toyoyuki; Oikawa, Azusa; Maenaka, Katsumi; Terauchi, Ryouhei; Asano, Kozo; Sone, Teruo

2014-04-01

260

Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles coated with ultrathin and chemically inert dielectric shells for SHINERS applications.  

PubMed

We very recently reported a new spectroscopic application for expanding the versatility of surface Raman called "shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" or "SHINERS". The most important and most difficult part of the SHINERS experiment is the effective transfer of the strong electromagnetic field from a gold core through the isolating silica or alumina shell to the probed surface. For this it is essential that the chemically inert dielectric shell be ultrathin (2-5 nm) yet pinhole-free. Herein we describe experimental and theoretical aspects of our SHINERS method in more detail. We provide a protocol for the synthesis and characterization of optimized shell-isolated nanoparticles (SHINs), and we examine the advantages of SHINERS nanoparticles over bare gold nanoparticles. We also present high-quality Raman spectra obtained from gold and platinum single-crystal surfaces in an electrochemical environment by our SHINERS technique. SHINERS is a simple and cost-effective approach that expands the flexibility of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for an unprecedented diversity of applications in materials and surface sciences. PMID:21639983

Li, Jian-Feng; Li, Song-Bo; Anema, Jason R; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan; Ding, Yong; Wu, Yuan-Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Shun; Wu, De-Yin; Ren, Bin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Tian, Zhong-Qun

2011-06-01

261

Top-up operation at Pohang Light Source-II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After three years of upgrading work, PLS-II (S. Shin, Commissioning of the PLS-II, JINST, January 2013) is now successfully operating. The top-up operation of the 3 GeV linear accelerator had to be delayed because of some challenges encountered, and PLS-II was run in decay mode at the beginning in March 2012. The main difficulties encountered in the top-up operation of PLS-II are different levels between the linear accelerator and the storage ring, the 14 narrow gap in-vacuum undulators in operation, and the full energy injection by 3 GeV linear accelerator. Large vertical emittance and energy jitter of the linac were the major obstacles that called for careful control of injected beam to reduce beam loss in the storage ring during injection. The following measures were taken to resolve these problems: (1) The high resolution Libera BPM (see http://www.i-tech.si) was implemented to measure the beam trajectory and energy. (2) Three slit systems were installed to filter the beam edge. (3) De-Qing circuit was applied to the modulator system to improve the energy stability of injected beam. As a result, the radiation by beam loss during injection is reduced drastically, and the top-up mode has been successfully operating since 19th March 2013. In this paper, we describe the experimental results of the PLS-II top-up operation and the improvement plan.

Hwang, I.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Kim, M.-H.; Lee, H. S.; Moon, D.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, D.-E.; Nam, S. H.; Shin, S.; Cho, Moohyun

2014-05-01

262

Dynamic regulation of SCG10 in regenerating axons after injury.  

PubMed

Peripheral axons can re-extend robustly after nerve injury. Soon after a nerve crush regenerating axons grow through the nerve segment distal to the lesion in close proximity to distal axons that are still morphologically and molecularly preserved. Hence, following the progress of regenerating axons necessitates markers that can distinguish between regenerating and degenerating axons. Here, we show that axonal levels of superior cervical ganglion 10 (SCG10) are dynamically regulated after axonal injury and provide an efficient method to label regenerating axons. In contrast to the rapid loss of SCG10 in distal axons (Shin et al., 2012b), we report that SCG10 accumulates in the proximal axons within an hour after injury, leading to a rapid identification of the lesion site. The increase in SCG10 levels is maintained during axon regeneration after nerve crush or nerve repair and allows for more selective labeling of regenerating axons than the commonly used markers growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and YFP. SCG10 is preferentially expressed in regenerating sensory axons rather than motor axons in the sciatic nerve. In a mouse model of slow Wallerian degeneration, SCG10 labeling remains selective for regenerating axons and allows for a quantitative analysis of delayed regeneration in this mutant. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of SCG10 as an efficient and selective marker of sensory axon regeneration. PMID:24246279

Shin, Jung Eun; Geisler, Stefanie; DiAntonio, Aaron

2014-02-01

263

Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873): His work as a medical missionary and influence on the practice of medicine and knowledge of anatomy in China and Japan.  

PubMed

Benjamin Hobson was a British missionary and physician who lived in China for twenty years. He founded multiple hospitals in Southern China and used his knowledge of Western medicine to educate Chinese doctors. He wrote several medical textbooks in Chinese of which the first was the A New Theory of the Body (1851). The illustrations from his book were renditions and originals from William Cheselden's Anatomical Tables (1730) and Osteographia (1733).The Japanese version of Hobson's work appeared in Japan during the bakumatsu period (1853-1867), when Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy and began opening itself to the West. During this time, many books from Europe were translated into Chinese to then find their way into Japan. The Chinese anatomy textbook by Hobson (Quanti Xinlun) was instrumental in introducing Western anatomic knowledge to the Chinese and thereby catalyzing a significant change in the practice of medicine in China. A Japanese translation (Zen Tai Shin Ron) of this text published in the 19th century is reviewed. PMID:23553744

Bosmia, Anand N; Patel, Toral R; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

2014-03-01

264

SHSST Cyclodextrin Complex Prevents the Fibrosis Effect on CCl4-Induced Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy in Rats through TGF-? Pathway Inhibition Effects.  

PubMed

Patients with liver cirrhosis also have subtle cardiac structure or function abnormalities. This cardiac dysfunction commonly occurs in 56% of waiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients and is defined as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). Up to now, there is no standard treatment because CCM does not have a solidly established diagnosis and is based on high clinical suspicion. The liver function of CCM is particularly limited, making patients vulnerable to more drug treatments. Here, we use silymarin (100 mg/kg/day), baicalein (30 mg/kg/day), San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST, 30 mg/kg/day) and ?-cyclodextrin modified SHSST (SHSSTc, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day) treatments for a CCl4-induced CCM rat model. The results show that silymarin, baicalein and SHSST treatments can only slightly reduce the collagen accumulation in CCM rat hearts. However, SHSSTc treatment protects the heart in CCM and significantly inhibits collagen acumination and the fibrosis regulating transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) pathway expression. SHSSTc treatments further reduced the heart weight and the ratio between left ventricular weight (LVW) and tibia length (TL). This experimental data show that water solubility improved ?-cyclodextrin modified Chinese herbal medicine formula (SHSSTc) can provide an excellent heart protection effect through TGF-? pathway inhibition. PMID:24815066

Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Ju, Da-Tong; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chung, Li-Chin; Tsai, Fu-Jenn; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

2014-01-01

265

Discontinuous Double Power Law Scaling of Magnetic Hysteresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency(?), applied field(H), and temperature(T) -dependent hysteresis loops of ultrathin Fe films on flat and stepped W(001) surface are measured using the magneto-optic Kerr effect. Power law scaling of the loop area A ~ H^??^? is observed over five decades in ? with exponents similar to those observed for Fe on W(110)^1. In cases where the dynamic coercivity H_c(?) exceeds the applied field, an abrupt collapse of the loop occurs leading to a double-power-law scaling behavior similar to that reported by Luse and Zangwill^2 based on a periodically driven kinetic Ising model. The exponent ?' describing the abrupt loop collapse above the amplitude dependent critical frequency is very large compared to the low frequency range value ?, and ?' is much more sensitive to film thickness than the low frequency regime ?. Supported by DMR-9623494 ^1 Jih-Shin Suen and J. L. Erskine, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41, B22 7 (1996) (and submitted to PRL) ^2 C. N. Luse and A. Zangwill, Phys. Rev. E50, 224 (1994)

Suen, Jih-Shin; Erskine, J. L.

1997-03-01

266

Comparison of sheath thickness obtained from the theories of ion correction in the floating potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the cold plasmas, when the cylindrical probe is used to measure the ion density, an expansion of the sheath thickness related to the sheath voltage increases the ion current. The expansion of the sheath thickness results in an incorrect measurement of ion current. To measure ion density correctly, the sheath thickness should be considered. In the collisionless sheath, the sheath thickness can be calculated by the Child- Langmuir (CL) theory or the Allen-Boyd-Reynolds(ABR) theory. We measured the sheath thicknesses using the floating harmonics method [1] and the cut-off method by the microwave [2], and the results compared with the CL theory [3] and ABR theory [4] in the floating potential. The sheath thicknesses obtained from the ABR theory were in good agreement with the experimental results. [4pt] [1] M. H. Lee, S. H. Jang and C. W. Chung, J. Appl. Phys., 101, 033305 (2007)[0pt] [2] J.H. Kim, S.C. Choi, Y.H. Shin, and K. H. Chung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2706 (2004)[0pt] [3] FF Chen, JD Evans, D Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1449 (2002)[0pt] [4] F. F. Chen and D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 8, 5051 (2001)

Han, Hyeong Sik; Hwang, Kwang Tae; Choe, Ik Jin; Chung, Chin Wook

2009-10-01

267

Participation in sports clubs is a strong predictor of injury hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence. PMID:18435690

Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A

2009-04-01

268

Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

1994-01-01

269

Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

1993-12-01

270

Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare chronic granulomatous dermatitis that usually appears in the lower extremities. It affects about 0.3–1.2% of diabetic patients, the majority of whom have type 1 diabetes. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are still unclear. NL is characterized by skin rash that usually affects the shins. The average onset is 30 years, with females being affected more commonly. There are very few reported cases of necrobiosis lipoidica in children. Case report: We report a case of a 16 year old girl affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus (15 years disease duration) who developed an erythematous nodular rash on the lower extremities and interscapular area. In the suspect of necrobiosis lipoidica, a skin biopsy was performed (lower extremities and interscapular area). The microscopic evaluation of the pretibial lesions was suggestive of necrobiosis lipoidica. The smaller lesions in the interscapular area showed signs of perivascular dermatitis which could be consistent with early stages of necrobiosis lipoidica. Local treatment with tacrolimus determined a progressive improvement of the lesions. Conclusion: In patients with T1DM, diagnosis of NL of the lower legs is usually unequivocal. However, diagnosis may be more challenging in the presence of lesions with recent onset and/or atypical clinical presentation and unusual site. In these cases, NL must always be taken in consideration in order to avoid misdiagnosis, wrong/late treatment decisions and progression to ulceration.

Bonura, Clara; Frontino, Giulio; Rigamonti, Andrea; Battaglino, Roseila; Favalli, Valeria; Ferro, Giusy; Rubino, Chiara; Del Barba, Paolo; Pesapane, Filippo; Nazzaro, Gianluca; Gianotti, Raffaele; Bonfanti, Riccardo; Meschi, Franco; Chiumello, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

271

Conference Committees: Conference Committees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Günther Schmahl University Göttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

2009-09-01

272

Influence of cutting parameters on diamond turning titanium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and its alloy have wider application prospects in such engineering fields as aerospace and nuclear energy. Presently, most of the ordinary cutting tools couldn't meet the requirement when machining those materials, even if cubic boron nitride and precision ceramics tools as their limitation of physics performance. But natural single crystal diamond tool can be applied to lens manufacture with high accuracy and surface quality as its sharp enough knife-edge used to extremely shin cutting. However, its easily wearing disadvantage limits its application to Titanium and its alloy machining. Ultrasonic vibration is applied to diamond turning of Titanium and its alloy to decrease diamond tool wear and improve the surface quality of work-piece. Under given experimental conditions, when cutting distance is less than 2000 meters, the work-piece surface roughness(Ra) is lower than 0.25?m and the wear width of rear sides of cutting tools less than 8?m. If increasing the amplitude, surface quality of titanium alloy will be improved a lot. With amplitude increasing, diamond tools wear alleviates obviously. Experiment reveals that the effect of cutting depth on surface roughness is distinct. Roughness increases with the increase of cutting depth.. The effect of feed rate on surface roughness(Ra) is obvious. Surface roughness(Ra) increases with the increase of feed rate.

Zhang, Yuan-liang; Zhou, Zhi-min; Xiu, Wei; Xia, Zhi-hui

2007-12-01

273

Validation of a quasi real-time global aberrometer: the EyeMapper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in measuring peripheral refraction rapidly and accurately has been stimulated by increasing evidence that the eye's peripheral refractive state can influence axial growth. In response to this, a new clinical instrument, the EyeMapper, was developed which performs quasi real-time global (central and peripheral) refraction measurements of the human eye. The EyeMapper is an aberrometer comprising a unique deflection system to permit an extremely rapid visual field scan. Refraction measurements are taken from -50° to +50° in 10° steps within 0.45 seconds. Multiple pupil imaging paths through the deflection system provide improved lateral and axial pupil alignment, and by rotating the instrument around its main optical axis, global power maps of the eye can be generated. Using a model eye with a pivoting and translating reflective surface to simulate the peripheral and central retina, the EyeMapper was cross-validated against a conventional aberrometer (COAS-HD, Wavefront Sciences, USA) and an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon NVision K5001, Japan). In addition, the right eyes of ten participants were measured across the horizontal visual field and in one eye, refraction measurements were performed globally. Overall, the EyeMapper showed good agreement and improved repeatability when compared to the other two instruments.

Fedtke, C.; Ehrmann, K.; Falk, D.; Holden, B.

2012-02-01

274

[Clinical-genetic characteristics of limb girdle-muscular dystrophy type 2A].  

PubMed

We present the results of the molecular genetic study of 26 patients, aged from 12 to 60 years, from 24 unrelated families with limb girdle-muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A. The disease duration varied from 6 months to 30 years. The diagnosis of LGMD 2capital A, Cyrillic was confirmed by molecular genetic methods basing on the presence of a CAPN3 mutation in homozygous, compound-heterozygous and heterozygous state. The Leyden-Moebius variant that is characterized by the primary affection of muscles of pelvic girdle and shin with the gradual progression of the pathological process in shoulder girdle muscles was the most frequent in the Russian population. Tip-toe walking or difficulties in walking upstairs and running were the first symptoms reported by patients. In contrast to criteria of the European Neuromuscular Center, the characteristic symptoms of the disease were early contractures of ankle joints and pseudohypertrophy of gastrocnemius muscles. The major c.550delA mutation in the CAPN3 gene was identified in 70% of Russian patients. PMID:20517216

Dadali, E L; Shagina, O A; Ryzhkova, O P; Rudenskaia, G E; Fedotov, V P; Poliakov, A V

2010-01-01

275

The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?  

PubMed

Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y

2012-10-01

276

Platelet and growth factor concentrations in activated platelet-rich plasma: a comparison of seven commercial separation systems.  

PubMed

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. It holds promise for clinical use in areas such as wound healing and regenerative medicine, including bone regeneration. This study characterized the composition of PRP produced by seven commercially available separation systems (JP200, GLO PRP, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, SELPHYL, MyCells, and Dr. Shin's System THROMBO KIT) to evaluate the platelet, white blood cell, red blood cell, and growth factor concentrations, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-?1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations. PRP prepared using the Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System and the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit contained the highest platelet concentrations. The mean PDGF-AB concentration of activated PRP was the highest from JP200, followed by the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, MyCells, and GLO PRP. TGF-?1 and VEGF concentrations varied greatly among individual samples, and there was almost no significant difference among the different systems, unlike for PDGF. The SELPHYL system produced PRP with low concentrations of both platelets and growth factors. Commercial PRP separation systems vary widely, and familiarity with their individual advantages is important to extend their clinical application to a wide variety of conditions. PMID:24748436

Kushida, Satoshi; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Hara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kusumoto, Kenji

2014-06-01

277

Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa of elderly onset.  

PubMed

A 71-year-old man with no family history of skin diseases presented with a 4 month history of recalcitrant pruritic papules and nodules on the lower extremities. He had prurigo-like eruptions with tense bullae on the extensor aspect of his lower extremities with multiple adjacent milia. Toenail dystrophy was observed. Mucous membranes were not affected. Skin biopsy from the shin showed a subepidermal blister with milium. Electron microscopy from lesional and perilesional skin of the leg showed scanty, hypoplastic anchoring fibrils. We detected a heterozygous mutation in the COL7A1 gene, a G-to-A substitution in exon 87 (c.6859G>A; p.Gly2287Arg). Thus, the clinicopathological and molecular findings supported a diagnosis of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa. Assessment of other relatives was not feasible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest clinical onset of this unusual variant of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa reported to date. Why the onset of skin fragility should have occurred so late is not known, but the case serves as a reminder that this particular mechanobullous disease can have a delayed presentation. PMID:21269315

Hayashi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Hozumi, Yutaka; Nakano, Hajime; Sawamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tamio

2011-02-01

278

Partially irreversible paresis of the deep peroneal nerve caused by osteocartilaginous exostosis of the fibula without affecting the tibialis anterior muscle.  

PubMed

Dysfunction of the lower limb's muscles can cause severe impairment and immobilisation of the patient. As one of the leg's major motor and sensory nerves, the deep peroneal nerve (synonym: deep fibular nerve) plays a very important role in muscle innervation in the lower extremities. We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who suffered from a brace-like exostosis 6-cm underneath her left fibular head causing a partially irreversible paresis of her deep peroneal nerve. This nerve damage resulted in complete atrophy of her extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus muscle, and in painful sensory disturbance at her left shin and first web space. The tibialis anterior muscle stayed intact because its motor branch left the deep peroneal nerve proximal to the nerve lesion. Diagnosis was first verified 6 years after the onset of symptoms by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of her complete left lower leg. Subsequently, the patient was operated on in our clinic, where a neurolysis was performed and the 4-cm-long osteocartilaginous exostosis was removed. Paralysis was already irreversible but sensibility returned completely after neurolysis. The presented case shows that an osteocartilaginous exostosis can be the cause for partial deep peroneal nerve paresis. If this disorder is diagnosed at an early stage, nerve damage is reversible. Typical for an exostosis is its first appearance during the juvenile growth phase. PMID:22495012

Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

2012-08-01

279

Morphological characteristics, formation and glaciological significance of Rogen moraine in northern Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rogen moraine are enigmatic landforms whose exact origin is still debated. We use NEXTMap digital surface models and aerial photographs to map the distribution of previously unreported fields of Rogen moraine in the vicinity of Loch Shin, northern Scotland. Existing models of formation are tested against detailed morphological Rogen moraine characteristics obtained from the remote sensing data and field observations. Detailed morphometric analyses combined with their geographical setting lead us to postulate a likely mechanism of formation. Rogen moraine appear to have formed in areas where there were strong basal ice-flow velocity gradients. Thrusting by compression, or fracturing by extension of preexisting partially frozen sediment probably occurred in these areas, resulting in Rogen moraine formation. A general down-ice increase in ridge crest spacing suggests that the latter process may have been dominant, and is consistent with the location of Rogen moraine in the lee of topographic obstructions, in areas that experienced overall extensional ice flow. We also suggest that at least one field of Rogen moraine formed where lateral basal ice-flow velocity gradients were strongest — possibly in a subglacial shear margin setting. Given their location, the landforms may be consistent with formation during headward scavenging of the Moray Firth palaeo-ice stream into a shrinking core of cold-based ice.

Finlayson, Andrew G.; Bradwell, Tom

2008-11-01

280

Effect of soy sauce on the antioxidative capacity of the gelatin gel food 'Nikogori' measured using the chemiluminescence method.  

PubMed

Oxygen-related free radicals have been suggested as a cause of aging and various diseases, for example, various cancers and rheumatoid arthritis. Because of this a radical scavenger as an antioxidant has been sought in many foods. 'Nikogori' gelatin gel from cooked fish is a traditional food in Japan. Recently, 'Nikogori' has been noted as a readily consumed food for the elderly and those with medical problems associated with swallowing. In this study we report that the 'Nikogori' gelatin gels made from the collagen in various meats have a high peroxyl radical scavenging capability as the antioxidative capacity using the chemiluminescence method and the order of the strength of antioxidative capacity (IC(50) value) was the Japanese common squid mantle meat (0.163%) > flatfish (marbled sole) meat (0.534%) > chicken wing meat (0.585%) > beef shin meat (0.655%) > yellowtail meat (0.659%) > chub mackerel meat (0.789%). Furthermore, when soy sauce was added to the 'Nikogori' gelatin gel, the antioxidative capacity increased markedly to 0.098% of IC(50) value of yellowtail, 0.165% of chicken, 0.182% of flatfish and 0.252% of chub mackerel. PMID:16077950

Nagatsuka, Norie; Harada, Kazuki; Ando, Mami; Nagao, Keiko

2005-09-01

281

Trace-Element Diffusion Coefficients in Olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken chemical diffusion experiments at 1300°C to determine both crystal/melt partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients for a wide range of trace elements in forsteritic olivine. Experiments were conducted at 1 atm under controlled fO2 for up to 25 days using synthetic melts made to a composition in equilibrium with olivine for major elements, and doped with selected trace elements. The melt was put into a 5 mm diameter cylindrical hole in gem quality San Carlos olivine crystals drilled paralell to the a axis. Diffusion profiles were obtained both for trace elements that were added to the starting material and diffuse into the olivine, and also for several trace elements present at natural abundances in the olivine that diffuse out. The profiles were measured across sections perpendicular to crystal/melt boundary at a variety of crystallographic orientations (confirmed by EBSD) by laser-ablation ICP-MS. A thin laser slit oriented parallel to the crystal/melt interface was traversed from the melt through the crystal. Element concentrations were fitted to the diffusion equation to obtain both diffusion coefficients and concentrations at the crystal/melt interface, and hence partition coefficients. Calculated diffusivities for many trace elements (Ca, REE, Y, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, Na, Li, Be, Ti) are relatively fast (D = 10-16 to 10^{-13 m2/s at 1300°C). The diffusion of Li in olivine (approx. D = 10^{-15} m2/s) is only slightly slower than REEs and similar to divalent cations, in good agreement with inferences from zoning profiles in natural olivine [1]. This rate is considerably slower than for plagioclase and clinopyroxene [2], a result which has important implications for interpreting Li isotopic data from mantle-derived rocks. The fastest diffusing trace element we observe is Be. Applying our diffusion and partition coefficients to the model of Qin et al. [3], we calculate that the REEs of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the mantle will extensively re-equilibrate with external magma in weeks (heavy REEs) to a few years (light REEs). These timescales are significantly shorter than the times estimated for the production and extraction of magma from the mantle or magma residence in the lower crust, implying anomalous melt inclusions are probably not a direct result of melting of heterogeneities in the mantle. Instead, anomalous melt inclusions likely form by assimilation processes shortly before eruption [4] and so may be useful monitors of such processes. Refs: [1] Parkinson et al., Abstract, Goldschmidt Conference 2006; [2] Coogan et al., EPSL 240, 415-424 (2005); [3] Qin et al. Am. Min. 77, 565-576 (1992); [4] Danyushevsky et al., J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553 (2004).

Spandler, C.; O'Neill, H. S.

2006-12-01

282

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater recharge simulation under the steady-state and transient climate conditions Diffusive groundwater recharge is a vertical water flux through the water table, i.e. through the boundary between the unsaturated and saturated zones. This flux features temporal and spatial changes due to variations in the climatic conditions, landscape the state of vegetation, and the spatial variability of vadoze zone characteristics. In a changing climate the non-steady state series of climatic characteristics will affect on the groundwater recharge.. A well-tested approach to calculating water flux through the vadoze zone is the application of Richard’s equations for a heterogeneous one-domain porosity continuum with specially formulated atmospheric boundary conditions at the ground surface. In this approach the climatic parameters are reflected in upper boundary conditions, while the recharge series is the flux through the low boundary. In this work developed by authors code Surfbal that simulates water cycle at surface of topsoil to take into account the various condition of precipitation transformation at the surface in different seasons under different vegetation cover including snow accumulation in winter and melting in spring is used to generate upper boundary condition at surface of topsoil for world-wide known Hydrus-1D code (Simunek et al, 2008). To estimate the proposal climate change effect we performed Surfbal and Hydrus simulation using the steady state climatic condition and transient condition due to global warming on example of Moscow region, Russia. The following scenario of climate change in 21 century in Moscow region was selected: the annual temperature will increase on 4C during 100 year and annual precipitation will increase on 10% (Solomon et al, 2007). Within the year the maximum increasing of temperature and precipitation falls on winter time, while in middle of summer temperature will remain almost the same as observed now and monthly precipitation. For simulating climate input the weather generator LARSWG (Semenov and Barrow 1997) was trained for generation daily meteorological records for both steady state and transient climatic conditions and two 100 year of meteorological series of minimum and maximum of air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation were generated. The numerical experiment for studying of transient climate on groundwater was performed for typical vadoze zone parameters of western part of Moscow Artesian basin. As the result, the 100 years series of recharge were simulated. Examination of stochastic properties of simulated time-series and comparative analysis series for the transient and for the steady state conditions shows the trend of increasing of recharge in this region in transient climate. Analysis of daily and monthly simulated water balance shows that this increasing is result of winter snow melting and winter infiltration into thaw topsoil. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research via grant 08-05-00720a REFERENCES Semenov M.A and Barrow E.M., 1997. Use of a stochastic weather generator in the development of climate change scenarios. Climatic Change, 35:397-414 Šim?nek, J., M. Th. van Genuchten, and M. Šejna, 2008. Development and applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD software packages, and related codes, Vadose Zone Journal, doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0077, Special Issue "Vadose Zone Modeling", 7(2), 587-600. Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Technical Summary. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

Pozdniakov, S.; Lykhina, N.

2010-03-01

283

Design and characterization of core-shell mPEG-PLGA composite microparticles for development of cell-scaffold constructs.  

PubMed

Appropriate scaffolds capable of providing suitable biological and structural guidance are of great importance to generate cell-scaffold constructs for cell-based tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop composite microparticles with a structure to provide functionality as a combined drug delivery/scaffold system. Composite microparticles were produced by incorporating either alginate/dermatan sulfate (Alg/DS) or alginate/chitosan/dermatan sulfate (Alg/CS/DS) particles in mPEG-PLGA microparticles using coaxial ultrasonic atomization. The encapsulation and distribution of Alg/DS or Alg/CS/DS particles in the mPEG-PLGA microparticles were significantly dependent on the operating conditions, including the flow rate ratio (Qout/Qin) and the viscosity of the polymer solutions (Vout, Vin) between the outer and the inner feeding channels. The core-shell composite microparticles containing the Alg/DS particles or the Alg/CS/DS particles displayed 40% and 65% DS release in 10 days, respectively, as compared to the DS directly loaded microparticles showing 90% DS release during the same time interval. The release profiles of DS correlate with the cell proliferation of fibroblasts, i.e. more sustainable cell growth was induced by the DS released from the core-shell composite microparticles comprising Alg/CS/DS particles. After seeding fibroblasts onto the composite microparticles, excellent cell adhesion was observed, and a successful assembly of the cell-scaffold constructs was induced within 7 days. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a novel strategy for fabrication of core-shell composite microparticles comprising additional particulate drug carriers in the core, which provides controlled delivery of DS and favorable cell biocompatibility; an approach to potentially achieve cell-based tissue regeneration. PMID:23958320

Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Jorgensen, Lene; Møller, Eva Horn; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

2013-09-01

284

The Stat3/Socs3a Pathway is a Key Regulator of Hair Cell Regeneration in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors, i.e. hair cells (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals only possess a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals suffer from permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique, Digital Gene Expression (DGE), which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological up-regulation of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without over-producing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Zhu et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Dierssen et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing.

Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Burgess, Shawn M.

2012-01-01

285

Radiation disorder and aperiodicity in irradiated ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Three lines of research have been pursued over the 18-month period since program funding began on 22 June 1989. These are (1) providing computer graphic representation of the physical models of tetrahedral network glass structure that Dr. Carol Marians had developed during a previous DOE-funded program, to assign coordinates to the tetrahedron vertices, and to minimize the energies of these configurations in order to provide a relaxed set of coordinates which could be compared to diffraction data; (2) establishing an ion implantation facility at MIT in order to initiate ion implantation into pyrophosphates in order to investigate radiation-induced disorder of partial network structures; and (3) exploring information about amorphization and glass network structure that can be adduced from energy-filtered electron diffraction patterns of silica polymorphs rendered progressively metamict by electron irradiation. These avenues have been explored by Professor Hobbs, Dr. Uma Jain, a physicist from University of Delhi, and Professor Amitabh Jain, head of the ion implantation facility at IIT Delhi (both of whom spent the 1989-90 academic year on sabbatical stays at MIT); Mr. Adam Clayton Powell IV, an MIT undergraduate research assistant who has worked with Dr. Uma Jain; and Messrs. A.N. Sreeram, a talented experimental ceramist who has just received his M.S. degree from Alfred University under the direction of Professor Arun Varshneya, and L.C. Qin, an experienced electron microscopist who has just completed his M.S. work at Northwestern University under the guidance of Professor Laurie Marks.

Hobbs, L.W.

1991-01-01

286

Nonlinear ? f simulations of collective effects in intense charged particle beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear ?f particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R. C. Davidson, and W. W. Lee, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 3, 084401 (2000); 3, 109901 (2000)], the nonlinear ?f method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high intensity charged particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

Qin, Hong

2003-05-01

287

[Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].  

PubMed

Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions. PMID:24175515

Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

2013-07-01

288

Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2003-10-20

289

An Introduction to the Major NSFC Program 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed about 250 million years ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. So far, most Pangea reconstructions assume that continental blocks in East Asia had never become parts of Pangea before its breakup. In these reconstruction models, configurations of East Asian blocks in Pangea were mainly based on geological and paleomagnetic data before the 1990's but did not fully consider recent data produced by Chinese researchers about collisional mountain belts between continental blocks in East Asia. To precisely reconstruct the East Asian blocks in Pangea, the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) recently set up a Major NSFC Program entitled 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'. On the basis of summarizing and integrating previous data, this major program will carry out detailed field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological, paleomagnetic and paleontonological investigations on key segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Central China Orogenic Belt and Paleo-Tethys Belt, which assembled major continental blocks in East Asia, in order to determine the timing and processes of opening and closuring of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, Proto-Tethyan Ocean (Qin-Qi-Kun Ocean) and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The program will not only answer where, when and how continental blocks in East Asia were assembled and whether or not they had become parts of Pangea before the breakup of the supercontinent, but will also improve and develop the theory of plate tectonics. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41190070, 41190075)

Zhao, G.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, S.; Xiao, W.

2013-12-01

290

Xinyinqin: a computer-based heart sound simulator.  

PubMed

"Xinyinqin" is the Chinese phoneticized name of the Heart Sound Simulator (HSS). The "qin" in "Xinyinqin" is the Chinese name of a category of musical instruments, which means that the operation of HSS is very convenient--like playing an electric piano with the keys. HSS is connected to the GAME I/O of an Apple microcomputer. The generation of sound is controlled by a program. Xinyinqin is used as a teaching aid of Diagnostics. It has been applied in teaching for three years. In this demonstration we will introduce the following functions of HSS: 1) The main program has two modules. The first one is the heart auscultation training module. HSS can output a heart sound selected by the student. Another program module is used to test the student's learning condition. The computer can randomly simulate a certain heart sound and ask the student to name it. The computer gives the student's answer an assessment: "correct" or "incorrect." When the answer is incorrect, the computer will output that heart sound again for the student to listen to; this process is repeated until she correctly identifies it. 2) The program is convenient to use and easy to control. By pressing the S key, it is able to output a slow heart rate until the student can clearly identify the rhythm. The heart rate, like the actual rate of a patient, can then be restored by hitting any key. By pressing the SPACE BAR, the heart sound output can be stopped to allow the teacher to explain something to the student. The teacher can resume playing the heart sound again by hitting any key; she can also change the content of the training by hitting RETURN key. In the future, we plan to simulate more heart sounds and incorporate relevant graphs. PMID:8591549

Zhan, X X; Pei, J H; Xiao, Y H

1995-01-01

291

Pharmacokinetic modeling of P-glycoprotein function at the rat and human blood-brain barriers studied with (R)-[11C]verapamil positron emission tomography  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated the influence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar on the pharmacokinetics of P-gp substrate radiotracer (R)-[11C]verapamil in plasma and brain of rats and humans by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Methods Data obtained from a preclinical and clinical study, in which paired (R)-[11C]verapamil PET scans were performed before, during, and after tariquidar administration, were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Administration of tariquidar was included as a covariate on the influx and efflux parameters (Qin and Qout) in order to investigate if tariquidar increased influx or decreased outflux of radiotracer across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, the influence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was tested on all model parameters, and the brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (VT-NLME) was calculated. Results Our model indicated that tariquidar enhances brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil by decreasing Qout. The reduction in Qout in rats during and immediately after tariquidar administration (sevenfold) was more pronounced than in the second PET scan acquired 2 h after tariquidar administration (fivefold). The effect of tariquidar on Qout in humans was apparent during and immediately after tariquidar administration (twofold reduction in Qout) but was negligible in the second PET scan. SE was found to influence the pharmacological volume of distribution of the central brain compartment Vbr1. Tariquidar treatment lead to an increase in VT-NLME, and pilocarpine-induced SE lead to increased (R)-[11C]verapamil distribution to the peripheral brain compartment. Conclusions Using NLME modeling, we were able to provide mechanistic insight into the effects of tariquidar and SE on (R)-[11C]verapamil transport across the BBB in control and 48 h post SE rats as well as in humans.

2012-01-01

292

An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper  

SciTech Connect

Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

1997-07-01

293

The hypergeometric connectivity hypothesis: divergent performance of brain circuits with different synaptic connectivity distributions.  

PubMed

The development of connectivity among brain networks (e.g., thalamocortical, cortico-thalamic, cortico-cortical) proceeds via a combination of axon and dendrite growth followed by a later process of synaptic pruning [Purves, D., Lichtman, J.W., 1980. Elimination of synapses in the developing nervous system. Science, 210, 153-157; Oppenheim, R.W., 1991. Cell death during development of the nervous system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 14(1), 453-501.; Oppenheim, R., Qin-Wei Y., Prevette D., Yan Q., 1992. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rescues developing avian motoneurons from cell death. Nature, 360, 755-757]. Sparse synaptic distribution (i.e., the low probability (<0.1) of contact among neurons; [Braitenberg, V., Schüz, A., 1998. Cortex: Statistics and geometry of neuronal connectivity: Springer Berlin.] can conform to any of a range of connectivity patterns with different distributional characteristics; and different distribution patterns can yield networks with very different functional properties. We rigorously investigate a range of different connectivity characteristics, and show that different synaptic distributions can substantially affect the functional capabilities of the resulting networks. In particular, we provide formal measures of information loss in transmission from one set of neurons to another as a function of synaptic distribution, and show a set of empirical cases with different information-theoretic utility. We characterize the trade-offs among utility and costs, and their dependence on different classes of developmental strategies by which axons from one cell group are "assigned" to synapses on dendrites from a target cell group. It is shown that hypergeometric distributions minimize a range of measured costs, compared to competing synaptic distributions. It is also found that the divergent performance among differently organized brain circuits expands with brain size, rendering the effects increasingly consequential for big brains. In summary, we propose that the characteristics of hypergeometric connectivity provide a coherent explanatory hypothesis of a range of developmental and anatomical data. PMID:17719016

Felch, Andrew C; Granger, Richard H

2008-04-01

294

An NMR metabolomics investigation of perturbations after treatment with Chinese herbal medicine formula in an experimental model of sepsis.  

PubMed

Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. OMICS and systems pharmacology approaches offer the promise of new therapeutic candidates for the treatment of patients with sepsis. Qin-Re-Jie-Du (QRJD) and Liang-Xue-Huo-Xue (LXHX) are two traditional Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas with putative effects in sepsis treatment. The present study aimed to assess their efficacy in an experimental model of sepsis in rats (cecal ligation and punctures) and investigate their mechanism of action using a 1H-NMR metabolomics approach. Rats were randomly divided into four groups (i.e., model group, sham control group, and two CHM treatment groups). Water extracts of QRJD and LXHX were orally administered to the two CHM treatment groups at a dose of 24?g/kg of body weight, once daily for 3 consecutive days. The same volume of 0.9% saline solution was orally administered to the model and sham surgery groups. Plasma samples were collected and measured using 600?MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As a result, 18 potential metabolite biomarkers involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including increased energy metabolism, fat mobilization, and disrupted amino acid metabolism, were identified in septic rats. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant (PLS-DA) plots of the metabolic state correlated well with the mortality and clinical biochemistry results. An analysis of potential biomarkers verified the holistic effects of the two CHM formulas. The Cori cycle was positively regulated in the QRJD-treated formulas treatment group but also inhibited in the LXHX-treated group, which demonstrates the different efficacies of these solutions in septic rats. PMID:23594183

Li, Yunzhi; Liu, Hongbin; Wu, Xianzhong; Li, Donghua; Huang, Jing

2013-05-01

295

Method To Detect Only Live Bacteria during PCR Amplification ?  

PubMed Central

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) is a DNA cross-linking agent and eukaryotic topoisomerase II poison. We previously reported that the treatment of EMA with visible light irradiation (EMA + Light) directly cleaved chromosomal DNA of Escherichia coli (T. Soejima, K. Iida, T. Qin, H. Taniai, M. Seki, A. Takade, and S. Yoshida, Microbiol. Immunol. 51:763-775, 2007). Herein, we report that EMA + Light randomly cleaved chromosomal DNA of heat-treated, but not live, Listeria monocytogenes cells within 10 min of treatment. When PCR amplified DNA that was 894 bp in size, PCR final products from 108 heat-treated L. monocytogenes were completely suppressed by EMA + Light. When target DNA was short (113 bp), like the hly gene of L. monocytogenes, DNA amplification was not completely suppressed by EMA + Light only. Thus, we used DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV and mammalian topoisomerase poisons (here abbreviated as T-poisons) together with EMA + Light. T-poisons could penetrate heat-treated, but not live, L. monocytogenes cells within 30 min to cleave chromosomal DNA by poisoning activity. The PCR product of the hly gene from 108 heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells was inhibited by a combination of EMA + Light and T-poisons (EMA + Light + T-poisons), but those from live bacteria were not suppressed. As a model for clinical application to bacteremia, we tried to discriminate live and antibiotic-treated L. monocytogenes cells present in human blood. EMA + Light + T-poisons completely suppressed the PCR product from 103 to 107 antibiotic-treated L. monocytogenes cells but could detect 102 live bacteria. Considering the prevention and control of food poisoning, this method was applied to discriminate live and heat-treated L. monocytogenes cells spiked into pasteurized milk. EMA + Light + T-poisons inhibited the PCR product from 103 to 107 heat-treated cells but could detect 101 live L. monocytogenes cells. Our method is useful in clinical as well as food hygiene tests.

Soejima, Takashi; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Qin, Tian; Taniai, Hiroaki; Seki, Masanori; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2008-01-01

296

A Multi-Scale Soil Moisture and Freeze-Thaw Monitoring Network on the Third Pole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-sphere interactions over the Tibetan Plateau directly impact its surrounding climate and environment at a variety of spatial/temporal scales. Remote sensing and modeling are expected to provide hydro-meteorological data needed for these process studies, but in situ observations are required to support their calibration and validation. For this purpose, we established a dense monitoring network on central Tibetan Plateau to measure two state variables (soil moisture and temperature) at three spatial scales (1.0, 0.3, 0.1 degree) and four soil depths (0~5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 40cm). The experimental area is characterized by low biomass, large soil moisture dynamic range and typical freeze-thaw cycle. The network consists of 56 stations with their elevation varying over 4470 ~ 4950 m. Soil texture and soil organic matters are measured at each station, as auxiliary parameters of this network. In order to guarantee continuous and high-quality data, tremendous efforts have been made to protect the data logger from soil water intrusion, to calibrate soil moisture sensors, and to upscale the point measurements. As the highest soil moisture network in the world, our network meets the requirement for evaluating a variety of soil moisture products and for soil moisture scaling. It also directly contributes to the "water-ice-air-ecosystem-human" interaction theme of the "Third Pole Environment" Program. The data will be publicized via the International Soil Moisture Network. Publication: Zhao, L., K. Yang, J. Qin, Y-Y Chen, W-J Tang, C. Montzka, H. Wu, C-G Lin, M-L Han, and H. Vereecken., 2012: Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture observations within a Tibetan mesoscale area and its implication to regional soil moisture measurements, Journal of Hydrology DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.033.

Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Zhao, Long; Chen, Yingying; Han, Menglei

2013-04-01

297

Achieving higher TC superconductivity in dense cuprates, iron selenides, and hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure plays an essential role in inducing or tuning superconductivity as well as shedding insight on the mechanism of superconductivity. There are much rich phase diagrams in unconventional superconductors under pressure. Finding ways to control the quantum coherence properties to have a higher critical temperature TC than the material has remains a challenge. Here we will talk about our recent experimental efforts in achieving higher temperature superconductivity in cuprates, iron selenides, and hydrocarbons. We will show how to enhance remarkably TC through the pressure tuning of competing electronic order in multilayer cuprates [1] and how to have superconductivity in two distinct regimes in iron selenides [2,3]. We will present a discovery of an enhancement of TC at more than doubled ambient value in a highly compressed aromatic hydrocarbon [4]. Our results have important implications for designing and engineering superconductors with much higher TCs at ambient conditions.[4pt] [1] X. J. Chen, V. V. Struzhkin, Y. Yu, A. F. Goncharov, C. T. Lin, H. K. Mao, and R. J. Hemley, Nature 466, 950-953 (2010).[0pt] [2] L. L. Sun, X. J. Chen, J. Guo, P. W. Gao, H. D. Wang, M. H. Fang, X. L. Chen, G. F. Chen, Q. Wu, C. Zhang, D. C. Gu, X. L. Dong, K. Yang, A. G. Li, X. Dai, H. K. Mao, and Z. X. Zhao, Nature 483, 67-69 (2012) .[0pt] [3] X. J. Chen, Q. Huang, S. B. Wang, J. X. Zhu, W. Bao, M. H. Fang, J. B. Zhang, L. Y. Tang, Y. M. Xiao, P. Chaw, J. Shu, W. L. Mao, V. V. Struzhkin, R. J. Hemley, and H. K. Mao, unpublished.[0pt] [4] X. J. Chen, X. F. Wang, Z. X. Qin, H. Wu, Q. Z. Huang, T. Muramatsu, J. J. Ying, P. Cheng, Z. J. Xiang, X. H. Chen, W. G. Yang, V. V. Struzhkin, and H. K. Mao, unpublished.

Chen, Xiao-Jia

2013-03-01

298

Dynamic Source Parameters of the 2008 Wenchuan 8.0, China, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On May 12, 2008, a huge earthquake with magnitude Ms 8.0 occurred in the Wenchuan, Sichuan Province of China. This event was the most devastating earthquake in the mainland of China since the Great 1976 M7.8 Tangshan earthquake. It resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. This earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, as the result of motion on a northeast striking reverse fault or thrust fault on the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin. The earthquake's epicenter and focal-mechanism are consistent with it having occurred as the result of movement on the Longmenshan fault or a tectonically related fault. The earthquake reflects tectonic stresses resulting from the convergence of crustal material slowly moving from the high Tibetan Plateau, to the west, against strong crust underlying the Sichuan Basin and southeastern China. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of the stress on the fault plane of this great earthquake is estimated from the inversion results (Qin & Zhang, 2013) by solving the elastodynamic equations. Then, the dynamic source parameters are determined and the relations between the shear stress and the slip, the shear stress and the slip-rate for all grid positions on the fault are investigated. Finally, the frictional law for the source rupture is inferred from the dynamic source parameters. Based on the obtained dynamic source parameters, we try to rebuild the dynamic rupture process of this event and discuss the characteristics of this great earthquake.

Yu, X.; Zhang, W.

2013-12-01

299

Dependence of Positive and Negative Sprite Morphology on Lightning Characteristics and Upper Atmospheric Ambient Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carrot sprites, exhibiting both upward and downward propagating streamers, and columniform sprites, characterized by predominantly vertical downward streamers, represent two distinct morphological classes of lightning driven transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere. In the present work, a two-dimensional cylindrically symmetric plasma fluid model is applied in framework of a two-step technique, in which we couple the large-scale halo dynamics and development of small-scale streamers [Qin et al., GRL, 39, L05810, 2012]. The modeling is used to simulate sprite-halo events over a timescale of 5 ms in order to study the dependence of sprite morphology on lightning characteristics and upper atmospheric ambient conditions. The most significant associative detachment process O-+N2?e+N2O [e.g., Liu, JGR, 117, A03308, 2012] in sprite chemistry has been taken into account. It is found that lightning characteristics, namely the total charge moment change, the impulsiveness of the initial lightning pulse, the continuing current, and the lightning polarity, have a significant impact on sprite morphology. For example, it is found that columniform sprites are produced in sub-breakdown conditions, and that continuing current is of essential importance to the development of the upper diffuse region of carrot sprites. Most interestingly, we suggest that negative sprites should be necessarily carrot sprites produced by large charge moment changes. We also find different charge moment change thresholds for the initiation of positive and negative sprites, which are 320 C km and 500 C km, respectively, under typical nighttime conditions assumed in this study. This difference represents one of the major factors in the polarity asymmetry between +CGs and -CGs in producing sprite streamers. We further demonstrate that lower magnitude of ambient mesospheric conductivity leads to smaller threshold charge moment changes required for the production of carrot sprites.

Qin, J.; Celestin, S. J.; Pasko, V. P.

2012-12-01

300

Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

2012-04-01

301

Genetic associations between daily BW gain and live fleshiness of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate genetic relationships between beef traits of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits (MQ) of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle. Phenotypes for daily gain (DG) and live fleshiness traits (width at withers: WW; shoulder muscularity: SM; loin width: LW; loin thickness: LT; thigh muscularity: TM; thigh profile: TP) and thinness of the shin bone (BT) were available for 3,109 and 2,183 performance-tested young bulls, respectively. Carcass daily gain (CDG), carcass conformation (SEUS), pH at 24 h (pH24h) and 8 d after slaughter (pH8d), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (HA), saturation index (SI), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF) were assessed for 1,208 commercial intact males. (Co) variance components were estimated in a set of twelve 9-traits analyses using REML and linear animal models including all performance-test traits and 1 carcass or MQ trait at a time. Heritabilities ± SE of beef traits ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (LW) to 0.47 ± 0.01 (DG), whereas those of carcass traits and MQ from 0.06 ± 0.03 (CL) to 0.63 ± 0.04 (HA). The genetic correlation (rg) between DG and CDG was 0.75 ± 0.10, indicating that DG, as measured at the test station, is a good indicator of the carcass gain achieved by commercial animals under farms conditions. Daily BW gain of station-tested bulls correlated positively with color traits (from 0.11 ± 0.12 to 0.54 ± 0.09), ph8d (rg ± SE = 0.31 ± 0.11), DL (rg ± SE = 0.29 ± 0.17), and CL (rg ± SE = 0.27 ± 0.18). Live fleshiness of station-tested bulls exhibited genetic correlations with MQ of commercial animals that were positive for L* and b* (from 0.13 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.14) and negative for pH (from -0.27 ± 0.15 to -0.57 ± 0.11), CL (from -0.16 ± 0.23 to -0.43 ± 0.22), and SF (TM: rg ± SE = -0.31 ± 0.15; TP: rg ± SE = -0.41 ± 0.17). The thinness of the shin bone correlated unfavorably with CDG (rg ± SE = -0.74 ± 0.07) and favorably with SEUS (rg ± SE = 0.65 ± 0.17), CL (rg ± SE = -0.39 ± 0.13), and SF (rg ± SE = -0.32 ± 0.17). The estimated genetic correlations indicate that selection to increase DG, as measured at the test station, exerts moderate adverse effects on MQ. Because selection emphasis is greater for live fleshiness than for DG, the correlated response in MQ and carcass traits is expected to be influenced to a greater extent by selection for muscularity, even though these traits are less heritable than DG. PMID:23463552

Bonfatti, V; Albera, A; Carnier, P

2013-05-01

302

Determining the fate of seeded cells in venous tissue-engineered vascular grafts using serial MRI  

PubMed Central

A major limitation of tissue engineering research is the lack of noninvasive monitoring techniques for observations of dynamic changes in single tissue-engineered constructs. We use cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track the fate of cells seeded onto functional tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) through serial imaging. After in vitro optimization, murine macrophages were labeled with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles and seeded onto scaffolds that were surgically implanted as inferior vena cava interposition grafts in SCID/bg mice. Serial MRI showed the transverse relaxation times (T2) were significantly lower immediately following implantation of USPIO-labeled scaffolds (T2=44±6.8 vs. 71±10.2 ms) but increased rapidly at 2 h to values identical to control implants seeded with unlabeled macrophages (T2=63±12 vs. 63±14 ms). This strongly indicates the rapid loss of seeded cells from the scaffolds, a finding verified using Prussian blue staining for iron containing macrophages on explanted TEVGs. Our results support a novel paradigm where seeded cells are rapidly lost from implanted scaffolds instead of developing into cells of the neovessel, as traditionally thought. Our findings confirm and validate this paradigm shift while demonstrating the first successful application of noninvasive MRI for serial study of cellular-level processes in tissue engineering.—Harrington, J. K., Chahboune, H., Criscione, J. M., Li, A. Y., Hibino, N., Yi, T., Villalona, G. A., Kobsa, S., Meijas, D., Duncan, D. R., Devine, L., Papademetri, X., Shin'oka, T., Fahmy, T. M., Breuer, C. K. Determining the fate of seeded cells in venous tissue engineered vascular grafts using serial MRI.

Harrington, Jamie K.; Chahboune, Halima; Criscione, Jason M.; Li, Alice Y.; Hibino, Narutoshi; Yi, Tai; Villalona, Gustavo A.; Kobsa, Serge; Meijas, Dane; Duncan, Daniel R.; Devine, Lesley; Papademetri, Xenophon; Shin'oka, Toshiharu; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Breuer, Christopher K.

2011-01-01

303

Catalytic activity of methanol in all-vapor subsecond clathrate-hydrate formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol's property as a catalyst in the formation of gas clathrate hydrates has been recognized for several years and was recently employed in a broad ranging study [K. Shin, K. A. Udachin, I. L. Moudrakovski, D. M. Leek, S. Alavi, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 8437 (2013)]. A new measure of that activity is offered here from comparative rates of formation of methanol (MeOH) clathrate hydrates within our all-vapor aerosol methodology for which tetrahydrofuran (THF) and other small ethers have set a standard for catalytic action. We have previously described numerous examples of the complete conversion of warm all-vapor mixtures to aerosols of gas clathrate hydrates on a sub-second time scale, generally with the catalyst confined primarily to the large cage of either structure-I (s-I) or structure-II (s-II) hydrates. THF has proven to be the most versatile catalyst for the complete subsecond conversion of water to s-II hydrate nanocrystals that follows pulsing of appropriate warm vapor mixtures into a cold chamber held in the 140-220 K range. Here, the comparative ability of MeOH to catalyze the formation of s-I hydrates in the presence of a small-cage help-gas, CO2 or acetylene, is examined. The surprising result is that, in the presence of either help gas, CH-formation rates appear largely unchanged by a complete replacement of THF by MeOH in the vapor mixtures for a chamber temperature of 170 K. However, as that temperature is increased, the dependence of effective catalysis by MeOH on the partial pressure of help gases also increases. Nevertheless, added MeOH is shown to markedly accelerate the s-II THF-CO2 CH formation rate at 220 K.

Devlin, J. Paul

2014-04-01

304

Attack pattern of Platypus koryoensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae) in relation to crown dieback of Mongolian oak in Korea.  

PubMed

The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis (Murayama), vectors the Korean oak wilt (KOW) pathogen, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae K.H. Kim, Y.J. Choi, & H.D. Shin, in Korea, which is highly lethal to Mongolian oak, Quercus mongolica Fisch., and is considered a major threat to forest ecosystem health. We characterized the attack pattern of P. koryoensis along the lower trunk of 240 Mongolian oaks in relation to tree decline symptoms on Mt. Uam in Gyeonggi-Do Province, Korea during June-July 2009. For each tree, we recorded diameter at breast height (dbh) (DBH) and P. koryoensis entrance hole density at two heights along the lower trunk (near groundline and at 1.5 m above groundline) and on opposite sides (downslope side and upslope side). Trees were assigned to one of three dieback classes: 1) apparently healthy, no or practically no wilted foliage, and no obvious platypodine frass near the base of the tree; 2) no or only partial wilting with obvious frass near the base of the tree; and 3) apparently recently killed by KOW with all foliage wilted and mostly retained with obvious frass near the base of the tree. As dieback class increased from 1 to 3, P. koryoensis entrance hole density increased at all four trunk locations. Attack density was highest on the downslope side of the trunk near groundline, and principal component analysis indicated that this trunk location was the best indicator of tree dieback. In addition, DBH tended to increase with dieback class suggesting that larger trees were infested first. PMID:22217750

Lee, Jung-Su; Haack, Robert A; Choi, Won Il

2011-12-01

305

Astronomical Orientation of Pyramid Tombs in North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ancient Chinese texts, the Chou Bei Suan Ching and Chou Li (Western Han Dynasty, ca. 100 BC), record that the Imperial Astronomer (Feng Hsian Shin) made solar observations to determine the solstices and equinoxes, and for determining the cardinal directions with a circle and gnomon. By combining the techniques of astro-archaeology (G. S. Hawkins, 1968) with both overhead imagery and ground survey, the present study seeks to link historical Chinese descriptions of astronomical phenomena with contemporary architectural orientation. In the process, several unexpected astronomical orientation patterns emerged which apparently do not appear in the surviving historical record. For example, at the imperial Western Han capital of Ch'ang-an (N 34° latitude), the diagonals of cardinally oriented square pyramid mounds (ling) align to zenith (+34° declination) and nadir (-34° declination) star rise and set points on the skyline. This is in accord with the Chou (Zhou) Dynasty's name of Chung-Kuo, meaning Central Country or Middle Kingdom. That is, the imperial capital is centered both politico-geographically with respect to its vassal states of the Eastern Yi, Southern Man, Western Rong, and Northern Di, as well as astro-geomantically regarding the color-coded Five Sacred Directions East-South-West-North-Zenith/Nadir in the Cosmos. Our ground survey also confirmed pyramid orientation to the lunar standstills (+28°, +18° and +5° declination) that we reported from overhead imagery in 1980 (155th AAS Meeting, HAD 18.CE.12, Lunar and Solar Alignments of Ancient Chinese Pyramids). Grateful acknowledgment is given to the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the invitation to conduct an astro-archaeological survey of the Wei-ho valley, Shensi (Shaanxi) Province.

Rusell Tiede, Vance

2010-01-01

306

Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the avirulence gene PRE1, a gene for host-species specificity in the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea.  

PubMed

We analyzed host-species specificity of Magnaporthe grisea on rice using 110 F1 progeny derived from a cross between the Oryza isolate CH87 (pathogenic to rice) and the Digitaria isolate 6023 (pathogenic to crabgrass). To elucidate the genetic mechanisms controlling species specificity in M. grisea, we performed a genetic analysis of species-specific avirulence on this rice population. Avirulent and virulent progeny segregated in a 1:1 ratio on the 2 rice cultivars 'Lijiangxintuanheigu' (LTH) and 'Shin2', suggesting that a single locus, designated PRE1, was involved in the specificity. In a combination between 'Kusabue' and 'Tsuyuake', the segregation of the 4 possible phenotypes of F1 progeny was significantly different from the expected 3:1:3:1 and instead fit a ratio of 2:0:1:1. This indicated that 2 loci, PRE1 and AVR2, were involved in specific parasitism on rice. These results suggest that the species specificity of M. grisea on rice is governed by species-dependent genetic mechanisms that are similar to the gene-for-gene interactions controlling cultivar specificity. Pathogenicity tests with various plant species revealed that the Digitaria isolate 6023 was exclusively parasitic on crabgrass. Genetic linkage analysis showed that PRE1 was mapped on chromosome 3 with respect to RAPD and SSR markers. RAPD marker S361 was linked to the avirulence gene at a distance of ~6.4 cM. Two SSR markers, m677-678 and m77-78, were linked to the PRE1 gene on M. grisea chromosome 3 at distances of 5.9 and 7.1 cM, respectively. Our results will facilitate positional cloning and functional studies of this gene. PMID:17036061

Chen, Q H; Wang, Y C; Zheng, X B

2006-08-01

307

Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

2013-06-01

308

Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness  

PubMed Central

Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents, which are found at varying densities over the body. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s?1), known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile (CT) afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1–10 cm s?1), where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with central processing.

Ackerley, Rochelle; Carlsson, Ida; Wester, Henric; Olausson, Hakan; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

309

Meteorological factors and ambient bacterial levels in a subtropical urban environment.  

PubMed

We conducted a study to investigate the characteristics and determinants of ambient bacteria in Taipei, Taiwan from August 2004 to March 2005. We monitored ambient culturable bacteria in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area in the Taipei metropolitan areas, using duplicate Burkard Portable Air Samplers with R2A agar. The average concentration of total bacteria was 1,986 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3)) (median?=?780 CFU/m(3)) over the study period, with the highest level in autumn. Most bacterial taxa had similar seasonal variation, with higher concentrations in autumn and winter. During the study period, Gram negative rods and cocci were predominant. Multivariate analyses indicated that wind speed and wind direction significantly influenced ambient bacterial distribution. Temperature and relative humidity were also important environmental factors positively associated with ambient bacterial concentrations. We observed statistically significant relationships between ambient bacteria and air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone, particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ?10 ?m (PM(10))), methane and total hydrocarbons. The concentrations of methane and total hydrocarbons during the previous day were positively associated with total bacteria and Gram negative rods, respectively. Ozone level on the previous day had a negative relationship with Gram negative cocci. SO(2) level with a 3-day lag was positively correlated with concentrations of both total bacteria and Gram negative cocci. In the future, more longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the relationships and possible mechanisms between ambient bacteria and meteorological factors, as well as to evaluate the ecological and health impacts of ambient bacteria. PMID:22219040

Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chew, Ginger L; Shih, Po-Wen; Lee, Chung-Te; Chao, H Jasmine

2012-11-01

310

Potential Magma Chambers beneath the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan: Results from Magnetotelluric Survey and Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous earthquakes analysis indicated existing seismicity anomaly beneath Tatun volcano, Taiwan, possibly caused by the fluid activity of the volcano. Helium isotope studies also indicated that over 60% of the fumarolic gases and vapors originated from deep mantle in the Tatun volcano area. The chemistry of the fumarolic gases and vapors and seismicity anomaly are important issues in view of possible magma chamber in the Tatun volcano, where is in the vicinity of metropolitan Taipei, only 15 km north of the capital city. In this study magnetotelluric (MT) soundings and monitoring were deployed to understand the geoelectric structures in the Tatun volcano as Electromagnetic methods are sensitive to conductivity contrasts and can be used as a supplementary tool to delineate reservoir boundaries. An anticline extending more than 10 km beneath the Chih-Shin-Shan and Da-You-Kan areas was recognized. Low resistivity at a shallow and highly porous layer 500m thick might indicate circulation of heated water. However, a high resistivity layer at depth between 2 and 6 km was detected. This layer could be associated with high micro-earthquakes zone. The characteristics of this layer produced by either the magma chamber or other geothermal activity were similar to that of some other active volcanic areas in the world. At 6 km underground was a dome structure of medium resistivity. This structure could be interpreted as a magma chamber in which the magma is possibly cooling down, as judged by its relatively high resistivity. The exact attributes of the magma chamber were not precisely determined from the limited MT soundings. At present, a joint monitors including seismic activity, ground deformation, volcanic gases, and changes in water levels and chemistry are conducted by universities and government agencies. When unusual activity is detected, a response team may do more ground surveys to better determine if an eruption is likely.

Chen, C.

2013-12-01

311

Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.  

PubMed

No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 ± 7.1 to 12.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials. PMID:23835634

Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

2013-10-01

312

Fluorescence-lifetime molecular imaging can detect invisible peritoneal ovarian tumors in bloody ascites.  

PubMed

Blood contamination, such as bloody ascites or hemorrhages during surgery, is a potential hazard for clinical application of fluorescence imaging. In order to overcome this problem, we investigate if fluorescence-lifetime imaging helps to overcome this problem. Samples were prepared at concentrations ranging 0.3-2.4 ?m and mixed with 0-10% of blood. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of samples were measured using a time-domain fluorescence imager. Ovarian cancer SHIN3 cells overexpressing the D-galactose receptor were injected into the peritoneal cavity 2.5 weeks before the experiments. Galactosyl serum albumin-rhodamine green (GSA-RhodG), which bound to the D-galactose receptor and was internalized thereafter, was administered intraperitoneally to peritoneal ovarian cancer-bearing mice with various degrees of bloody ascites. In vitro study showed a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and probe concentration (r(2) > 0.99), whereas the fluorescence lifetime was consistent (range, 3.33 ± 0.15-3.75 ± 0.04 ns). By adding 10% of blood to samples, fluorescence intensities decreased to <1%, while fluorescence lifetimes were consistent. In vivo fluorescence lifetime of GSA-RhodG stained tumors was longer than the autofluorescence lifetime (threshold, 2.87 ns). Tumor lesions under hemorrhagic peritonitis were not depicted using fluorescence intensity imaging; however, fluorescence-lifetime imaging clearly detected tumor lesions by prolonged lifetimes. In conclusion, fluorescence-lifetime imaging with GSA-RhodG depicted ovarian cancer lesions, which were invisible in intensity images, in hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:24479901

Nakajima, Takahito; Sano, Kohei; Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Rira; Harada, Toshiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2014-03-01

313

In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.  

PubMed Central

In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images

Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

1988-01-01

314

Monitoring Sound To Quantify Snoring and Sleep Apnea Severity Using a Smartphone: Proof of Concept  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Habitual snoring is a prevalent condition that is not only a marker of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but can also lead to vascular risk. However, it is not easy to check snoring status at home. We attempted to develop a snoring sound monitor consisting of a smartphone alone, which is aimed to quantify snoring and OSA severity. Methods: The subjects included 50 patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), of which the data of 10 patients were used for developing the program and that of 40 patients were used for validating the program. A smartphone was attached to the anterior chest wall over the sternum. It acquired ambient sound from the built-in microphone and analyzed it using a fast Fourier transform on a real-time basis. Results: Snoring time measured by the smartphone highly correlated with snoring time measured by PSG (r = 0.93). The top 1 percentile value of sound pressure level (L1) determined by the smartphone correlated with the ambient sound L1 during sleep determined by PSG (r = 0.92). Moreover, the respiratory disturbance index estimated by the smartphone (smart-RDI) highly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) obtained by PSG (r = 0.94). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the smart-RDI for diagnosing OSA (AHI ? 15) were 0.70 and 0.94, respectively. Conclusions: A smartphone can be used for effectively monitoring snoring and OSA in a controlled laboratory setting. Use of this technology in a noisy home environment remains unproven, and further investigation is needed. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 79. Citation: Nakano H; Hirayama K; Sadamitsu Y; Toshimitsu A; Fujita H; Shin S; Tanigawa T. Monitoring sound to quantify snoring and sleep apnea severity using a smartphone: proof of concept. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(1):73-78.

Nakano, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kenji; Sadamitsu, Yumiko; Toshimitsu, Ayaka; Fujita, Hisayuki; Shin, Shizue; Tanigawa, Takeshi

2014-01-01

315

Radial diffusion comparing a THEMIS statistical model with geosynchronous measurements as input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outer boundary energetic electron flux is used as a driver in radial diffusion calculations, and its precise determination is critical to the solution. A new model was proposed recently based on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) measurements to express the boundary flux as three fit functions of solar wind parameters in a response window that depend on energy and which solar wind parameter is used: speed, density, or both. The Dartmouth radial diffusion model has been run using Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) geosynchronous satellite measurements as the constraint for a one-month interval in July to August 2004, and the calculated phase space density (PSD) is compared with GPS measurements, at magnetic equatorial plane crossings, as a test of the model. We also used the PSD generated from the Shin and Lee model as constraint and examined it by computing the error relative to the LANL geosynchronous spacecraft data-driven run. The calculation shows that there is overestimation and underestimation at different times; however, the direct insertion of the statistical model can be used to drive the radial diffusion model generally, producing the phase space density dropout and increase during a storm. Having this model based on a solar wind parameterized data set, we can run the radial diffusion model for storms when particle measurements are not available as input. We chose the Whole Heliosphere Interval as an example and compared the result with MHD/test-particle simulations, obtaining better agreement with GPS measurement using the diffusion model, which incorporates atmospheric losses and an initial equilibrium radial profile.

Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Chen, Yue

2014-03-01

316

Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans.  

PubMed

Mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a potent glucosidase inhibitor, has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the suppression of abnormally high blood glucose levels and thereby prevention of diabetes mellitus. However, DNJ contents in commercial mulberry products were as low as about 0.1% (100 mg/100 g of dry product), implying that the bioavailability of DNJ might not be expected. We carried out studies in two directions: (1) production of food-grade mulberry powder containing a maximally high DNJ content; (2) determination of the optimal dose of the DNJ-enriched powder for the suppression of the postprandial blood glucose through clinical trials. The following method was used: (1) DNJ concentrations in mulberry leaves from different cultivars, harvest seasons, and leaf locations were determined using hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. (2) Healthy volunteers received 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder (corresponding to 0, 6, 12, and 18 mg of DNJ, respectively), followed by 50 g of sucrose. Before and 30-180 min after the DNJ/sucrose administration, plasma glucose and insulin were determined. The following results were obtained: (1) Young mulberry leaves taken from the top part of the branches in summer contained the highest amount of DNJ. After optimization of the harvesting and drying processes for young mulberry leaves (Morus alba L. var. Shin ichinose), DNJ-enriched powder (1.5%) was produced. (2) A human study indicated that the single oral administration of 0.8 and 1.2 g of DNJ-enriched powder significantly suppressed the elevation of postprandial blood glucose and secretion of insulin, revealing the physiological impact of mulberry DNJ (effective dose and efficacy in humans). This study suggests that the newly developed DNJ-enriched powder can be used as a dietary supplement for preventing diabetes mellitus. PMID:17555327

Kimura, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Yoshihiro; Goto, Yuko; Yamagishi, Kenji; Oita, Shigeru; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

2007-07-11

317

Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green  

PubMed Central

Near infrared fluoresce-guidance can be used for the detection of small cancer metastases and can aid in the endoscopic management of cancer. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved fluorescence agent. Through non-specific interactions with serum proteins, ICG achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. Yet, ICG demonstrates rapid clearance from the circulation. Therefore, ICG may be an ideal contrast agent for real-time fluorescence imaging of tumors. To evaluate the usefulness of real-time dual fluorescence and white light endoscopic optical imaging to detect tumor implants using the contrast agent ICG, fluorescence-guided laparoscopic procedures were performed in mouse models of peritoneally disseminated ovarian cancers. Animals were administered intravenous ICG or a control contrast agent, IR800-conjugated to albumin. The ability to detect small ovarian cancer implants was then compared. Using the dual view microendoscope, ICG clearly enabled visualization of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastatic nodules derived from SHIN3 and OVCAR5 cells at 6 and 24 h after injection with significantly higher tumor-to-background ratio than the control agent, (IR800-albumin p<0.001). In conclusion, ICG has the desirable properties of having both EPR effects and rapid clearance for the real-time endoscopic detection of tiny ovarian cancer peritoneal implants compared to a control macromolecular agent with theoretically better EPR effects but longer circulatory retention. Given that ICG is already FDA-approved and has a long track record of human use, this method could be easily translated to the clinic as a robust tool for fluorescence-guided endoscopic procedures for the management and treatment of cancer.

Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Longmire, Michelle R.; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

2011-01-01

318

Dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans.  

PubMed

Dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans (DCPA) is a distinctive type of chronic superficial folliculitis, primarily affecting the lower limbs. It is characterized by symmetrical follicular pustules of both legs, with cutaneous edema, resulting in alopecia, atrophy and scarring. It was first described by Clarke, from West Nigeria, in 1952 and well illustrated in his book "Skin diseases in the African," under the initial label of "Nigerian shin disease." Subsequently, it was described in India as well, in 1964, and continues to be a problem in dermatology clinics across the country. It is predominantly a disease of men and has a high prevalence in some geographical regions; up to 3-4% in Madras, South India. Some unique features that distinguish DCPA from banal pustular folliculitis include its peculiar localization to the legs, extreme chronicity, resistance to therapy and inevitable alopecia and atrophy of the involved skin, with little postinflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation. Further, even in the presence of extensive lesions, there are no systemic features. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is known to have a role in the etiology of DCPA, but the exact etiopathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Immunological postulates such as hypergammaglobulinemia have been put forward to explain the chronicity of the condition. A number of therapeutic agents have been tried in various studies, including cotrimoxazole, psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy, ciprofloxacin, pentoxifylline, rifampicin, dapsone, minocycline and mupirocin (topical) with variable success rates. Although a well-recognized entity in dermatology clinics in tropical countries, DCPA has received little attention in the dermatological literature and has only a few studies to its credit. Its unique clinical picture, unclear etiopathogenesis and resistance to therapy afford a vast scope for further investigation and study. PMID:19584458

Kaimal, Sowmya; D'Souza, Mariette; Kumari, Rashmi

2009-01-01

319

Catalytic activity of methanol in all-vapor subsecond clathrate-hydrate formation.  

PubMed

Methanol's property as a catalyst in the formation of gas clathrate hydrates has been recognized for several years and was recently employed in a broad ranging study [K. Shin, K. A. Udachin, I. L. Moudrakovski, D. M. Leek, S. Alavi, C. I. Ratcliffe, and J. A. Ripmeester, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 8437 (2013)]. A new measure of that activity is offered here from comparative rates of formation of methanol (MeOH) clathrate hydrates within our all-vapor aerosol methodology for which tetrahydrofuran (THF) and other small ethers have set a standard for catalytic action. We have previously described numerous examples of the complete conversion of warm all-vapor mixtures to aerosols of gas clathrate hydrates on a sub-second time scale, generally with the catalyst confined primarily to the large cage of either structure-I (s-I) or structure-II (s-II) hydrates. THF has proven to be the most versatile catalyst for the complete subsecond conversion of water to s-II hydrate nanocrystals that follows pulsing of appropriate warm vapor mixtures into a cold chamber held in the 140-220 K range. Here, the comparative ability of MeOH to catalyze the formation of s-I hydrates in the presence of a small-cage help-gas, CO2 or acetylene, is examined. The surprising result is that, in the presence of either help gas, CH-formation rates appear largely unchanged by a complete replacement of THF by MeOH in the vapor mixtures for a chamber temperature of 170 K. However, as that temperature is increased, the dependence of effective catalysis by MeOH on the partial pressure of help gases also increases. Nevertheless, added MeOH is shown to markedly accelerate the s-II THF-CO2 CH formation rate at 220 K. PMID:24784285

Devlin, J Paul

2014-04-28

320

Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes?  

PubMed Central

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs.

Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cecile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R.

2009-01-01

321

1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM  

SciTech Connect

Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-01-01

322

GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool.

Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

2006-01-01

323

High air-bearing stiffness slider design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the approach to design air bearing surface (ABS), which can achieve high air bearing (AB) stiffness and high air pressure (AP). Generally, in order to reduce flying height variation and improve the slider's flying stability, high AB stiffness and high AP are preferred. AB stiffness and AP is very sensitive to the slider's ABS design. The flying height and flying attitude of slider is realized by ABS design. According to our study, flying stability of slider is also affected by ABS design. The slider has higher AB stiffness and higher air pressure; it is going to fly more stable. [E.M. Jayson, J. Murphy, P.W. Smith, F.E. Talke. J. Tribol. 125 (2003) 343; W.C. Choi, Y.H. Shin, J.H. Choi. JSME Int. J. 44 (2001) 470.] In order to increase highly the AB stiffness and AP, a dual shallow step structure in a slider is explored. It proved that the dual shallow step structure-increases the air bearing stiffness and the AP on the head area significantly. The structure of central trailing pad is found to have much higher influences on the AB stiffness and AP than the other pads. Optimizing the structure of central trailing pad in the dual shallow step structure slider can further increase the AB stiffness and AP. Finally, the optimized dual shallow step structure slider has much higher AB stiffness and much greater AP on the head area than the normal single shallow step slider. Therefore, the flying stability of the slider with optimized dual shallow step structure should be better.

Han, Y. F.; Liu, B.; Huang, X. Y.

2006-08-01

324

Etanercept treatment of erythema nodosum.  

PubMed

A 22-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented to the Vanderbilt University Dermatology Clinics with a 5-year history of painful, red plaques and nodules on her shins and tops of her feet. She had initially been seen by a rheumatologist, who diagnosed her with erythema nodosum (EN) and prescribed oral prednisone. After 1 month of therapy, the condition had not improved and she discontinued the treatment. She had undertaken no additional therapy in the interim. At the onset of her condition, she was taking no medications, using only etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring for contraception. Her condition did not change after beginning this hormonal contraception. Her lesions were constant, with variable waxing and waning and without any discernible precipitants. They were tender to palpation but were otherwise without symptoms. She denied any history of fever, joint pain, fatigue, cough, gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, mucosal ulcerations, foreign travel, infectious exposures, or illicit drug use. Clinically, her anterior legs displayed moderately well demarcated patches and nodules with dusky erythema. The lesions were tender to palpation but were not present on the feet or above the knees. Darkened, bruise-like areas were also appreciated and corresponded to older, quiescent lesions. Results from a chest x-ray, complete blood cell count, and metabolic panel were normal. She declined a biopsy. She was treated with supersaturated solution of potassium iodide, indomethacin, methotrexate, and dapsone, all without benefit. She was then begun on etanercept 25 mg administered subcutaneously twice weekly. After 1 month she noticed the lesions beginning to fade with a concomitant decrease in their discomfort, and by 4 months she was clear of her disease. Results of all monitoring blood work were normal. At 6 months, her disease had resolved and her etanercept dose was reduced by half without any flare of her condition. She has continued 25 mg weekly for 12 months without developing any new lesions. PMID:17618179

Boyd, Alan S

2007-01-01

325

PCR detection of Babesia ovata from questing ticks in Japan.  

PubMed

Babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite of cattle. In the present study, we analyzed tick DNA samples (n=1459) prepared from questing ticks collected from various cattle pastures in Hokkaido (Shibecha, Taiki, Otofuke, Memuro, and Shin-Hidaka districts) and Okinawa (Yonaguni Island) prefectures of Japan for B. ovata. When all the tick DNA samples were screened by a previously described B. ovata-specific apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, none of the DNA samples was positive. Therefore, we developed a PCR assay based on the protozoan beta-tubulin (?-tubulin) gene to detect B. ovata from ticks in Japan. In the specificity test, the PCR assay amplified the expected 444-bp target gene fragment from B. ovata DNA. No PCR products were amplified from DNA samples from other blood pathogens, bovine blood, or ticks. In addition, the PCR assay detected 100 fg of B. ovata-genomic DNA extracted from an in vitro culture of the parasites. Subsequently, when all the tick DNA samples were screened by this new PCR assay, 18 were positive for B. ovata. Positive samples were found only in the Yonaguni and Memuro areas. In Okinawa, where all the ticks were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis, 9.7% of the samples were PCR-positive, while a single tick (Ixodes ovatus) from Memuro was infected with B. ovata. When the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons were phylogenetically analyzed, they formed a separate clade containing a previously described ?-tubulin gene sequence from B. ovata (Miyake strain), confirming that the PCR assay had detected only B. ovata from the tick DNA samples. This is the first report that describes the PCR detection of B. ovata in ticks. The findings warrant transmission experiments to evaluate I. ovatus as a potential vector of B. ovata. PMID:24572609

Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Hayashida, Kyoko; Igarashi, Ikuo; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2014-04-01

326

The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors.  

PubMed

A small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. Gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. The tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. Two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the humeroscapular bone to the proximal humerus: one passes to the proximal edge of the pectoral crest of the humerus, and the other passes to the ventral tubercle of the humerus. The bone was described as the humeroscapular bone in reference to a similar fibrocartilaginous structure possessed by some birds. The humeroscapular bone is present in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), the screech owl (Otus asio), the barred owl (Strix varia), the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicencis), the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and the sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). The bone is absent in the barn owl (Tyto alba), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the golden eagle (Aquila chysaetos), and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), though some of these species possessed a similar fibrocartilaginous structure. Whether the humeroscapular structure develops as bone or cartilage in a given species may be related to other morphological features of the wing, and/or to characteristics of the predatory behavior of the species. Clinicians and anatomists dealing with birds of prey must be aware of the presence of the humeroscapular bone to avoid misinterpreting it as a fracture fragment. PMID:1585989

Smith, B J; Smith, S A

1992-03-01

327

Stress fracture in military recruits: gender differences in muscle and bone susceptibility factors.  

PubMed

A total of 693 female U.S. Marine Corps recruits were studied with anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the midthigh and distal third of the lower leg prior to a 12 week physical training program. In this group, 37 incident stress fracture cases were radiologically confirmed. Female data were compared with male data from an earlier study of 626 Marine recruits extended with additional cases for a total of 38 stress fracture cases. Using DXA data, bone structural geometry and cortical dimensions were derived at scan locations and muscle cross-sectional area was computed at the midthigh. Measurements were compared within gender between pooled fracture cases and controls after excluding subjects diagnosed with shin splints. In both genders, fracture cases were less physically fit, and had smaller thigh muscles compared with controls. After correction for height and weight, section moduli (Z) and bone strength indices (Z/bone length) of the femur and tibia were significantly smaller in fracture cases of both genders, but patterns differed. Female cases had thinner cortices and lower areal bone mineral density (BMD), whereas male cases had externally narrower bones but similar cortical thicknesses and areal BMDs compared with controls. In both genders, differences in fitness, muscle, and bone parameters suggest poor skeletal adaptation in fracture cases due to inadequate physical conditioning prior to training. To determine whether bone and muscle strength parameters differed between genders, all data were pooled and adjusted for height and weight. In both the tibia and femur, men had significantly larger section moduli and bone strength indices than women, although women had higher tibia but lower femur areal BMDs. Female bones, on average, were narrower and had thinner cortices (not significant in the femur, p = 0.07). Unlike the bone geometry differences, thigh muscle cross-sectional areas were virtually identical to those of the men, suggesting that the muscles of the women were not relatively weaker. PMID:10962357

Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Shaffer, R A; Betsinger, K; Trone, D W; Brodine, S K

2000-09-01

328

Deterministic versus stochastic trends: Detection and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of a trend in a time series and the evaluation of its magnitude and statistical significance is an important task in geophysical research. This importance is amplified in climate change contexts, since trends are often used to characterize long-term climate variability and to quantify the magnitude and the statistical significance of changes in climate time series, both at global and local scales. Recent studies have demonstrated that the stochastic behavior of a time series can change the statistical significance of a trend, especially if the time series exhibits long-range dependence. The present study examines the trends in time series of daily average temperature recorded in 26 stations in the Tuscany region (Italy). In this study a new framework for trend detection is proposed. First two parametric statistical tests, the Phillips-Perron test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, are applied in order to test for trend stationary and difference stationary behavior in the temperature time series. Then long-range dependence is assessed using different approaches, including wavelet analysis, heuristic methods and by fitting fractionally integrated autoregressive moving average models. The trend detection results are further compared with the results obtained using nonparametric trend detection methods: Mann-Kendall, Cox-Stuart and Spearman's ? tests. This study confirms an increase in uncertainty when pronounced stochastic behaviors are present in the data. Nevertheless, for approximately one third of the analyzed records, the stochastic behavior itself cannot explain the long-term features of the time series, and a deterministic positive trend is the most likely explanation.

Fatichi, S.; Barbosa, S. M.; Caporali, E.; Silva, M. E.

2009-09-01

329

A biomechanical comparison of the traditional squat, powerlifting squat, and box squat.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanics of the traditional squat with 2 popular exercise variations commonly referred to as the powerlifting squat and box squat. Twelve male powerlifters performed the exercises with 30, 50, and 70% of their measured 1 repetition maximum (1RM), with instruction to lift the loads as fast as possible. Inverse dynamics and spatial tracking of the external resistance were used to quantify biomechanical variables. A range of significant kinematic and kinetic differences (p < 0.05) emerged between the exercises. The traditional squat was performed with a narrow stance, whereas the powerlifting squat and box squat were performed with similar wide stances (48.3 ± 3.8, 89.6 ± 4.9, 92.1 ± 5.1 cm, respectively). During the eccentric phase of the traditional squat, the knee traveled past the toes resulting in anterior displacement of the system center of mass (COM). In contrast, during the powerlifting squat and box squat, a more vertical shin position was maintained, resulting in posterior displacements of the system COM. These differences in linear displacements had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on a number of peak joint moments, with the greatest effects measured at the spine and ankle. For both joints, the largest peak moment was produced during the traditional squat, followed by the powerlifting squat, then box squat. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also noted at the hip joint where the largest moment in all 3 planes were produced during the powerlifting squat. Coaches and athletes should be aware of the biomechanical differences between the squatting variations and select according to the kinematic and kinetic profile that best match the training goals. PMID:22505136

Swinton, Paul A; Lloyd, Ray; Keogh, Justin W L; Agouris, Ioannis; Stewart, Arthur D

2012-07-01

330

List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J Zagrodzinski, Alexei Zhedanov

2001-12-01

331

Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure. PMID:24698386

Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

2014-07-01

332

[A case of phenytoin intoxication induced by hypothyroidism].  

PubMed

A 42-year-old woman who presented phenytoin intoxication induced by acute hypothyroidism was reported. She had a 29-year history of hypothyroidism and a 18-year history of epilepsy. She was treated with phenytoin (PHT) 100 mg, mephobarbital (MPB) 200 mg, valproic acid (VPA) 400 mg and thyroid powder 100 mg daily for 2 years. She had no medical problem until she noticed gait disturbance and diplopia which appeared 1 month after sudden withdrawal of thyroid powder. On admission, she was somnolent and somewhat disoriented. She had nystagmus in horizontal direction of gaze. Her speech was slurred and she could not sit nor stand due to trunkal ataxia. There was prominent intentional tremor in finger-nose test and heel-shin test showed severe ataxia. Blood cell count and blood chemistry examinations were normal. Serum PHT, phenobarbital (PB) levels were elevated as to 26.4, 36.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. VPA level was low. The endocrinological examinations revealed primary hypothyroidism. EEG showed generalized slow background, but cranial MRI, EMG, SEP and ECG were normal. Thyroxine (T4) administration was started soon, and in the course of thyroid hormone replacement, her cerebellar symptoms gradually improved and serum PHT level decreased even to the subtherapeutical level with the same amount of antiepileptic drugs treatment. By the 40th day of admission, thyroid function became normal and cerebellar signs disappeared, however, she needed 200 mg PHT daily to obtain good control of epilepsy. Cerebellar symptoms of this patient were thought to be PHT intoxication rather than ataxia caused by hypothyroidism itself from the viewpoint of clinical manifestations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1934766

Horii, K; Fujitake, J; Tatsuoka, Y; Ishikawa, K; Shimbo, S

1991-05-01

333

Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

2011-11-18

334

Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.  

PubMed

Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

2007-04-01

335

New data on the Late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in Syria, applied to its origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New data on geology and 21 K-Ar dates of the Late Oligocene-Quaternary basalts in Syria, combined with analysis of the new and previous data are used to reconstruct the volcanic history and relations between it and tectonic events. Volcanism began at the end of Oligocene (26-24 Ma) and was concentrated in the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene along a N-trending band, which stretches from the Jebel Arab (Harrat Ash Shaam) up to Kurd Dagh and southern Turkey. Activity waned in the Middle Miocene (17-12 Ma), but was resumed in the same band in the Tortonian and increased in the Messinian and Early Pliocene (6.3-4 Ma), when volcanism spread to the Shin Plateau and its coastal extension. After a brief hiatus ˜ 4-3.5 Ma, volcanism became still more intensive and spread from the N-trending band to the east into the northern margin of the Mesopotamian Foredeep and to the west into the Dead Sea Transform zone. Additional eruptions continued into the Holocene. Volcanism lasted > 25 million years in the Jebel Arab Highland and > 15 million years in the Aleppo Plateau. The long duration of volcanism in the same parts of the moving Arabian plate and absence of records of one-way migration of the activity mean that the magmatic sources moved together with the plate, i.e., they were situated within the lithosphere mantle. Coincidence of the tectonic and volcanic stages of the Arabian plate development proves that volcanic activity depended on the geodynamic situation, caused by the plate motion. Situated within the lithosphere, magmatic sources within this transverse band were possibly caused by thermal and deforming influences of the asthenospheric lateral flow, moved laterally from the Ethiopia-Afar deep superplume.

Trifonov, V. G.; Dodonov, A. E.; Sharkov, E. V.; Golovin, D. I.; Chernyshev, I. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Ivanova, T. P.; Bachmanov, D. M.; Rukieh, M.; Ammar, O.; Minini, H.; Al Kafri, A.-M.; Ali, O.

2011-01-01

336

Serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults.  

PubMed

A positive association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome has been reported, but little information is available about the association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of 2085 men and 1557 women. All of the participants underwent a health screening during the period from January 2005 to December 2005 at a health center of the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The results showed that hyperuricemia was significantly associated with increased risk for hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and high blood pressure in men and women. The risk of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the fourth quartile than in the first quartile of uric acid level in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14) and women (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.39-3.93). In addition, uric acid level was inversely associated with hyperglycemia in men. The ORs of hyperglycemia for the second, third, and fourth quartile of uric acid were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.46-1.03), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile of uric acid. The results demonstrate that there is a positive association between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and an inverse association between uric acid and fasting plasma glucose in Taiwanese adults. PMID:20005536

Liu, Pei-Wen; Chang, Tsui-Yen; Chen, Jong-Dar

2010-06-01

337

Cleaning aspects of material choice for high end mask manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After decades of binary mask manufacturing using Cr absorber the material spectrum was extended by phase shift material in late 90's during introduction of Half Tone Phase Shift Masks (HT-PSM). This change had strong impact on manufacturing flow as well as several unit processes. A consequences of phase shifter introduction was the necessity of introducing a second level litho process, as well as introducing of dry etch processes due to poor etch properties of MoSi using wet chemistry. Less obvious and rather unremarkable was the impact of this change to clean processes, except the impact of the clean process on the phase shift. In recent years we've seen several new materials based on varying chemical composition as well as thickness of the absorber developed by various mask blank vendors namely Hoya and ShinEtsu. These materials are improving resolution, pattern fidelity and to some degree also mask lifetime. Adding the EUV mask blank materials increases further the spectrum of materials, taking into account all the absorber stacks available today on market. Thorough investigation of the clean process performance as a function of surface material shows significant variation in the critical parameters as defectivity, susceptibility to recontamination and relative cleaning efficiency. Goal of this work is to 1) Compare the already mentioned clean related properties together with feature damage and impact on the critical dimension (CD) shift for different materials. 2) Find a compromise between the technology requirements and process limitations resulting from the combination of available processes with material properties. Some aspects of the new materials such as stack height and interface between absorber and substrate are making this task easier, especially with respect to feature damage. On the other hand the most critical parameter - the cleaning efficiency, dropped due to the introduction of the new materials, mainly due to unfavorable sticking coefficients of these materials.

Nesladek, Pavel; Osborne, Steve; Rümmelin, Stefan

2012-02-01

338

Airflow structures and nano-particle deposition in a human upper airway model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering a human upper airway model, or equivalently complex internal flow conduits, the transport and deposition of nano-particles in the 1-150 nm diameter range are simulated and analyzed for cyclic and steady flow conditions. Specifically, using a commercial finite-volume software with user-supplied programs as a solver, the Euler-Euler approach for the fluid-particle dynamics is employed with a low-Reynolds-number k- ? model for laminar-to-turbulent airflow and the mass transfer equation for dispersion of nano-particles or vapors. Presently, the upper respiratory system consists of two connected segments of a simplified human cast replica, i.e., the oral airways from the mouth to the trachea (Generation G0) and an upper tracheobronchial tree model of G0-G3. Experimentally validated computational fluid-particle dynamics results show the following: (i) transient effects in the oral airways appear most prominently during the decelerating phase of the inspiratory cycle; (ii) selecting matching flow rates, total deposition fractions of nano-size particles for cyclic inspiratory flow are not significantly different from those for steady flow; (iii) turbulent fluctuations which occur after the throat can persist downstream to at least Generation G3 at medium and high inspiratory flow rates (i.e., Qin?30 l/min) due to the enhancement of flow instabilities just upstream of the flow dividers; however, the effects of turbulent fluctuations on nano-particle deposition are quite minor in the human upper airways; (iv) deposition of nano-particles occurs to a relatively greater extent around the carinal ridges when compared to the straight tubular segments in the bronchial airways; (v) deposition distributions of nano-particles vary with airway segment, particle size, and inhalation flow rate, where the local deposition is more uniformly distributed for large-size particles (say, dp=100 nm) than for small-size particles (say, dp=1 nm); (vi) dilute 1 nm particle suspensions behave like certain (fuel) vapors which have the same diffusivities; and (vii) new correlations for particle deposition as a function of a diffusion parameter are most useful for global lung modeling.

Zhang, Z.; Kleinstreuer, C.

2004-07-01

339

PREFACE: The International Cryogenic Materials Conference (ICMC 2004)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Cryogenic Materials Conference entitled `Materials Processing, Microstructures and Critical Current of Superconductors' was hosted by the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia, on 10-13 February 2004. The objective of this ICMC topical conference was to bring together world experts in materials processing, characterization and microstructure control of modern superconductors, to discuss the critical issues in superconductor technology and application. Topics of the conference included: processing of wires, tapes, coated conductors, melt textured bulk forms and thin films; synthesis of new materials; microstructure control; critical current density and current-limiting mechanisms; flux pinning, flux dynamics and AC loss; and applications of superconductors. The scientific challenges in the development of high field and high temperature superconductors (HTS) are interdisciplinary in nature, a characteristic very well reflected by the wide spectrum of participants at the conference. The workshop attracted 90 participants from 20 countries. These researchers were from the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, electrical engineering and electronics. Applied superconductivity has developed to the stage where a range of valuable materials have been identified and characterized, and many of the problems of fabrication into long lengths or thin films have been overcome. The conference programme covered BSCCO, YBCO, MgB2 and other related materials, and characterization of their electromagnetic properties. As is well known, applications of Nb-Ti and Nb3Sn wires are well advanced for MRI, NMR and many accelerator magnets. Bi-2223 wires from a number of companies have reached the level required for initial introduction into commercial applications. Bringing HTS and MgB2 wires to large-scale commercial application depends critically on understanding and further exploiting the full potential of these complex nanomaterials. The workshop was lively, informative and successful with many high quality oral and poster presentations. The papers selected for this issue after review represent a good cross-section of the work presented at the conference. The members of the workshop organizing committee contributed much of their spare time to the organization of the conference. In particular, we would like to acknowledge Dr Alex Pan and Dr Meng Jun Qin for their excellent work on the workshop programme and Mrs Babs Allen for her assistance in all aspects of the workshop. We would also like to thank the ICMC board and ISEM at the University of Wollongong for their financial support.

Larbalestier, David; Xue Dou, Shi

2004-09-01

340

Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These data are combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities in the regions. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin that can be attributed to natural gas fugitive emissions has been determined to be 71 +/- 9%. References: 1. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis of the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2. R.W. Howarth, R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. "Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations." Climate Change, 106, 679 (2011).

Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

2013-04-01

341

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) exosomes contain signaling phosphoproteins affected by oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness among the elderly population in the industrialized world. One of the typical features of this pathology is the gradual death of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which are essential for maintaining photoreceptor functions and survival. The etiology is multifactorial, and oxidative stress is clearly one of the key factors involved in disease pathogenesis (Plafker, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 664 (2010) 447-56; Qin, Drug Dev. Res. 68 (2007) 213-225). Recent work has revealed the presence of phosphorylated signaling proteins in the vitreous humour of patients affected by AMD or other retinal diseases. While the location of these signaling proteins is typically the cell membrane or intracellular compartments, vitreous samples were proven to be cell-free (Davuluri et al., Arch. Ophthalmol. 127 (2009) 613-21). To gain a better understanding of how these proteins can be shed into the vitreous, we used reverse phase protein arrays (RPMA) to analyze the protein and phosphoprotein content of exosomes shed by cultured ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress conditions. Seventy two proteins were shown to be released by ARPE-19 cells and compartmentalized within exosomes. Forty one of them were selectively detected in their post-translationally modified form (i.e., phosphorylated or cleaved) for the first time in exosomes. Sets of these proteins were linked together reflecting activation of pathway units within exosomes. A subset of (phospho)proteins were altered in exosomes secreted by ARPE-19 cells subjected to oxidative stress, compared to that secreted by control/non stressed cells. Stress-altered exosome proteins were found to be involved in pathways regulating apoptosis/survival (i.e, Bak, Smac/Diablo, PDK1 (S241), Akt (T308), Src (Y416), Elk1 (S383), ERK 1/2 (T202/Y204)) and cell metabolism (i.e., AMPK?1 (S485), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (S79), LDHA). Exosomes may thus represent the conduit through which membrane and intracellular signaling proteins are released into the vitreous. Changes in their (phospho)protein content upon stress conditions suggest their possible role in mediating cell-cell signaling during physio-pathological events; furthermore, exosomes may represent a potential source of biomarkers. PMID:23669273

Biasutto, Lucia; Chiechi, Antonella; Couch, Robin; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia

2013-08-01

342

Numerical modeling of initiation of lightning leaders from tall structures by sprite-producing lightning discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established by now that large charge transfers between cloud and ground in positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) can lead to transient electric field enhancements at mesospheric and lower ionospheric altitudes. In these events the electric field can exceed the conventional breakdown field and lead to formation of transient luminous events referred to as sprites and sprite halos [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011, and references therein]. Stanley and Heavner [Proc. 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Versailles, France, 2003] reported that the large and rapid charge transfer of +CGs producing sprites can also initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures. These authors also presented data analysis indicating that structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders that may culminate in a -CG return stroke to the structure. The effect can be understood by considering the field intensification at the top of the tall structure combined with fast application of the field preventing formation and shielding effects of ion corona [Brook et al., JGR, 66, 3967, 1961]. In the present work we utilize the most recent modeling approaches developed at Penn State [e.g., Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] to quantify the conditions leading to initiation of positive leaders from tall structures following sprite-producing +CGs. Experiments show that the streamer zone transforms into leader when voltage drop along the streamer zone exceeds 400 kV [e.g., Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005]. For a formed leader half of the voltage drops in the streamer zone, and another half in free space ahead of the streamer zone [Bazelyan and Raizer, Lightning physics and lightning protection, p. 62, 2000]. In our analysis therefore we assume that minimum voltage at the tip of the tower should exceed 800 kV for sustainment of upward propagating leader. The results indicate, in particular, that a charge moment change of 390 C km in a +CG can lead to leader initiation from a 457 m tower approximately 15 km from the +CG, in good agreement with observations reported in [Stanley and Heavner, 2003]. We report detailed relationships, including analytical estimates and numerical modeling results, providing information on the charge moment charges versus tower height and radial position with respect to +CG required for initiation of upward leaders.

Pasko, V. P.

2011-12-01

343

ZipA is required for targeting of DMinC/DicB, but not DMinC/MinD, complexes to septal ring assemblies in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The MinC division inhibitor is required for accurate placement of the septal ring at the middle of the Escherichia coli cell. The N-terminal domain of MinC ((Z)MinC) interferes with FtsZ assembly, while the C-terminal domain ((D)MinC) mediates both dimerization and complex formation with either MinD or DicB. Binding to either of these activators greatly enhances the division-inhibitory activity of MinC in the cell. The MinD ATPase plays a crucial role in the rapid pole-to-pole oscillation of MinC that is proposed to force FtsZ ring formation to midcell. DicB is encoded by one of the cryptic prophages on the E. coli chromosome (Qin) and is normally not synthesized. Binding of MinD or DicB to (D)MinC produces complexes that have high affinities for one or more septal ring-associated targets. Here we show that the FtsZ-binding protein ZipA is required for both recruitment of the (D)MinC/DicB complex to FtsZ rings and the DicB-inducible division block normally seen in MinC(+) cells. In contrast, none of the known FtsZ-associated factors, including ZipA, FtsA, and ZapA, appear to be specifically required for targeting of the (D)MinC/MinD complex to rings, implying that the two MinC/activator complexes must recognize distinct features of FtsZ assemblies. MinD-dependent targeting of MinC may occur in two steps of increasing topological specificity: (i) recruitment of MinC from the cytoplasm to the membrane, and (ii) specific targeting of the MinC/MinD complex to nascent septal ring assemblies on the membrane. Using membrane-tethered derivatives of MinC, we obtained evidence that both of these steps contribute to the efficiency of MinC/MinD-mediated division inhibition. PMID:15060045

Johnson, Jay E; Lackner, Laura L; Hale, Cynthia A; de Boer, Piet A J

2004-04-01

344

On the application of the genetic algorithm to the predictability problems involving "on-off" switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the application of the genetic algorithm to the predictability problems involving "on-off" switches ZHENG Qin(1,2), DAI Yi(1), ZHANG Lu(1)and LU Xiaoqing(1) (1)Institute of Science, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 211101, China; (2)State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China Abstract The lower bound of maximum predictable time can be formulated into a constrained nonlinear optimization problem, and the traditional solution to this problem is the filtering method and the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method. Usually, the CNOP method is implemented with the help of a gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint method, which is named as the ADJ-CNOP, hereinafter. However, with the increasing improvement of actual prediction models, more and more physical processes are taken into consideration in models in the form of parameterization, thus giving rise to the "on-off" switch problem, which affects tremendously the effectiveness of the conventional gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint method. This paper attempts to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) to the CNOP method, named as the GA-CNOP, to solve the predictability problems involving the "on-off" switches. As the precision of the filtering method depends uniquely on the division of the constraint region, its results are taken as benchmarks and a series of comparisons between the ADJ-CNOP and the GA-CNOP are performed. It is revealed that the GA-CNOP can always figure out the accurate lower bound of maximum predictable time even in discontinuous cases, while the ADJ-CNOP, owing to the effect of "on-off" switches, often yields the incorrect lower bound of maximum predictable time. This would suggest that in non-smooth cases, using a GA to solve the predictability problems is more effective than using the conventional optimization algorithm based on gradients, as long as the genetic operators are properly configured.

Zheng, Q.

2011-12-01

345

Selecting age-related functional characteristics in the human gut microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background Human gut microbial functions are often associated with various diseases and host physiologies. Aging, a less explored factor, is also suspected to affect or be affected by microbiome alterations. By combining functional feature selection with supervised classification, we aim to facilitate identification of age-related functional characteristics in metagenomes from several human gut microbiome studies (MetaHIT, MicroAge, MicroObes, Kurokawa et al.’s and Gill et al.’s dataset). Results We apply two feature selection methods, term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-iDF) and minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR), to identify functional signatures that differentiate metagenomes by age. After features are reduced, we use a support vector machine (SVM) to predict host age of new metagenomes. Functional features are from protein families (Pfams), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, KEGG ontologies and the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Initial investigations demonstrate that ordination of the functional principal components shows great overlap between different age groups. However, when feature selection is applied, mRMR tightens the ordination cluster for each age group, and TF-iDF offers better linear separation. Both TF-iDF and mRMR were used in conjunction with a SVM classifier and achieved areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) 10 to 15% above chance to classify individuals above/below mid-ages (about 38 to 43?years old) using Pfams. Better performance around mid-ages is also observed when using other functional categories and age-balanced dataset. We also identified some age-related Pfams that improved age discrimination at age 65 with another feature selection method called LEfSe, on an age-balanced dataset. The selected functional characteristics identify a broad range of age-relevant metabolisms, such as reduced vitamin B12 synthesis, reduced activity of reductases, increased DNA damage, occurrences of stress responses and immune system compromise, and upregulated glycosyltransferases in the aging population. Conclusions Feature selection can yield biologically meaningful results when used in conjunction with classification, and makes age classification of new human gut metagenomes feasible. While we demonstrate the promise of this approach, the data-dependent prediction performance could be further improved. We hypothesize that while the Qin et al. dataset is the most comprehensive to date, even deeper sampling is needed to better characterize and predict the microbiomes’ functional content.

2013-01-01

346

Characterizing Woody Vegetation Spectral and Structural Parameters with a 3-D Scene Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of structural and biophysical parameters of woody vegetation is of great significance in understanding vegetation condition, dynamics and functionality. Such information over a landscape scale is crucial for global and regional land cover characterization, global carbon-cycle research, forest resource inventories, and fire fuel estimation. While great efforts and progress have been made in mapping general land cover types over large area, at present, the ability to quantify regional woody vegetation structural and biophysical parameters is limited. One approach to address this research issue is through an integration of physically based 3-D scene model with multiangle and multispectral remote sensing data and in-situ measurements. The first step of this work is to model woody vegetation structure and its radiation regime using a physically based 3-D scene model and field data, before a robust operational algorithm can be developed for retrieval of important woody vegetation structural/biophysical parameters. In this study, we use an advanced 3-D scene model recently developed by Qin and Gerstl (2000), based on L-systems and radiosity theories. This 3-D scene model has been successfully applied to semi-arid shrubland to study structure and radiation regime at a regional scale. We apply this 3-D scene model to a more complicated and heterogeneous forest environment dominated by deciduous and coniferous trees. The data used in this study are from a field campaign conducted by NASA in a portion of the Superior National Forest (SNF) near Ely, Minnesota during the summers of 1983 and 1984, and supplement data collected during our revisit to the same area of SNF in summer of 2003. The model is first validated with reflectance measurements at different scales (ground observations, helicopter, aircraft, and satellite). Then its ability to characterize the structural and spectral parameters of the forest scene is evaluated. Based on the results from this study and the current multi-spectral and multi-angular satellite data (MODIS, MISR), a robust retrieval system to estimate woody vegetation structural/biophysical parameters is proposed.

Qin, W.; Yang, L.

2004-05-01

347

Delineation of flood-prone areas and the identification of residential hotspots for two African cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessing the environmental performance of land cover types for urban planning. Landscape and Urban Planning, 52 (1): 1-20. Gill, S.E., Handley, J.F., Ennos, A.R. Pauleit, S., Theuray, N., and Lindley, S.J. (2008). Characterising the urban environment of UK cities and towns: a template for landscape planning in a changing climate. Landscape and Urban Planning, 87: 210-222. Cavan, G., Lindley, S., Yeshitela, K., Nebebe, A., Woldegerima, T., Shemdoe, R., Kibassa, D., Pauleit, S., Renner, R., Printz, A., Buc

De Risi, Raffaele; Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Renner, Florian; Printz, Andreas

2013-04-01

348

GIS-based Identification of Urban Residential Hotspots to Flooding and the Quantification of the Uncertainties for two African Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot spots in an urban setting can be defined as the zones exposed to significant risk due to climate-related extreme events such as flooding. Arguably, identifying the urban hot spots to flooding is one of the first steps in an integrated methodology for urban flood risk assessment and mitigation. The delineation of urban hotspots not only can provide useful information for the policy makers but also it can be useful as support information for indicating future urban dynamics and trends. This work employs two GIS-based frameworks for identifying the urban residential hot spots. This is done by overlaying a map of potentially flood prone areas (the topographic wetness index, TWI) and a map of urban morphology types (UMT) classified as residential. The topographic wetness index (TWI, Beven Qin et al. 2011) allows for the delineation of a portion of a hydrographic basin potentially exposed to flood inundation by identifying all the areas characterized by a topographic index that exceeds a given threshold. The urban morphological types (Pauleit and Duhme 2000, Gill et al. 2008, Cavan et al. 2012) form the foundation of a classification scheme which brings together facets of urban form and function. The application of the UMTs allows the delineation of geographical units. The distinction of UMTs at a 'meso'-scale (i.e. between the city level and that of the individual units) makes a suitable basis for the spatial analysis of cities. The TWI threshold value depends on the resolution of the digital elevation model (DEM), topology of the hydrographic basin (i.e. urban, peri-urban or rural) and the constructed infrastructure (Manfreda et al. 2011). This threshold value is usually calibrated based on the results of detailed delineation of the inundation profile for selected zones. In this study, the TWI threshold is calibrated based on the calculated inundation profiles for various return periods for selected zones within the basin through a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian framework enables the probabilistic characterization of the threshold value by calculating the complementary probability of false delineation of flood prone zones as a function of various threshold values. For a given return period, the probability of false delineation is calculated as the sum of the probability of indicating a zone flood prone which is not indicated as such by the inundation profile and the probability that a zone is indicated as not flood prone but indicated as flood prone by the inundation profile. Applying the above-mentioned procedure, taking into account all available information on the inundation profiles for various zones within the basin, leads to a probability distribution for the TWI threshold value. In the next step, the urban residential hot spots to flooding are delineated in the GIS environment by overlaying the map of TWI and the UMT units classified as residential for various percentiles of the TWI threshold. Differences in exposure characteristics can be assessed for a range of different residential types, including for example between condominium/multi-storey, single storey stone/concrete and areas predominantly associated with mud/wood construction. For each percentile value considered, the delineated flood-prone residential areas and the number of people potentially affected to flooding are calculated. Moreover, the potential dependence of the estimated threshold percentiles on the flooding return period is investigated. As a demonstration, the urban residential hotspots to flooding are delineated for 16th, 50th and 84th percentiles of the TWI value for the cities of Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa. References Qin C.Z., Zhu A.X., Pei T., Li B.L., Scholten T., Behrens T., Zhou C.H.. An approach to computing topographic wetness index based on maximum downslope gradient. Precision Agric, 12:32-43, DOI 10.1007/s11119-009-9152-y, 2011. Manfreda S., Di Leo M., Sole A. Detection of Flood-Prone Areas Using Digital Elevation Models. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16 (10):781-790, 2011. Pauleit, S. and Duhme, F. (2000). Assessi

Jalayer, Fatemeh; De Risi, Raffaele; De Paola, Francesco; Iervolino, Iunio; Giugni, Maurizio; Topa, Maria Elena; Yonas, Nebyou; Nebebe, Alemu; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Cavan, Gina; Renner, Florian; Lindley, Sarah

2013-04-01

349

Full waveform elastic inversion in a space frequency domain formulation: a powerful geotechnical tool for superficial reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superficial weathered zone, few hundreds meters thick, presents high variable and complex near-surface structures. This leads to an energetic seismic ground roll and therefore hide information coming from deeper areas. Moreover near-surface anomalies may characterize potentially dangerous structures as cavities or their surrounding altered media. Therefore detecting heterogeneities in near-surface areas and quantifying their physical properties will be of great help for seismic imaging and for natural hazard assessment. Since heterogeneities are located in near-surface areas, both surface and body waves induce complex footprints in seismic data. The propagation of 2D P-SV is performed thanks to a frequency domain modeling. This frequency formulation takes into account attenuating behavior and efficiently takes benefit of multisource and multireceiver configurations. A new finite-difference stencil of second order using rotated derivatives axes (Saenger et al., 2000) simulates surface waves very precisely and remains stable nearby the free surface and/or rapidly-varying zones. It will be the forward problem kernel of our approach. We follow the matrix formalism of Pratt et al. (1998) and perform a linearized inversion in the least-square sense, since heterogeneities of reasonable amplitudes towards the surrounding medium are considered, leading us to resort to the Born approximation. We use the gradient method to perform the full waveform inversion for elastic waves. In this formulation we take only the Hessian diagonal part and use a parabolic approximation to find the stepping in the gradient direction. Our selected inversion takes into account kinematic and amplitude information for waves coming from various reflection angles at different offsets. This allows to recover local parameters as P wave and S wave velocities from dense seismic experiments. Applications to realistic synthetic configurations illustrate the potentiality of the method when both backward and forward scatterings are encountered. Influences of data sampling, data geometry and data redundancy are, of course, critical but the initial model is a very sensitive key input for successful convergence to the minimum of our misfit function, taking into account the complexity of waves interaction and propagation. From these illustrations, we highlight the importance of data introduction into the inversion tool in order to avoid non-global minimum. Saenger E. H., Gold N. & Shapiro S. A., 2000. Modeling the propagation of elastic waves using a modified finite-difference grid. Wave Motion, 31, 77-92. Pratt G., Shin C. & Hicks G.J., 1998. Gauss-Newton and full Newton methods in frequence space seismic waveform inversion. Geophys. J. Int., 133, 341-362.

Gelis, C.; Virieux, J.; Grandjean, G.; Leparoux, D.; Operto, S.

2004-12-01

350

2D Elastic Full Waveform Inversion in a space frequency domain formulation: application to near surface areas characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superficial weathered zone, few hundreds meters thick, presents highly variable and complex near-surface structures. Energetic seismic surface waves, often called ground roll, may hide information coming from deeper areas. Moreover near-surface anomalies (cavities, overthrusts) are quite important and, therefore, detecting heterogeneities in near-surface areas and quantifying their physical properties is still a challenge for seismic imaging. Since heterogeneities are located in near-surface areas, both surface and body waves induce complex footprints in seismic data. The propagation of 2D P-SV is performed in a frequency domain modeling. This frequency formulation takes into account attenuating behavior and efficiently takes benefit of multisource and multireceiver configurations. A new finite-difference stencil of second order using rotated derivatives axes (Saenger et al., 2000) simulates surface waves precisely and remains stable nearby the free surface and/or rapidly-varying zones. It will be the forward problem kernel of our approach. We follow the matrix formalism of Pratt et al. (1998) and perform a linearized inversion in the least-square sense, since heterogeneities of reasonable amplitudes towards the surrounding medium are considered. We use the gradient method to perform the full waveform inversion for elastic waves. In this formulation we take only the Hessian diagonal part and use a parabolic approximation to find the stepping in the gradient direction. To compute Fréchet derivatives, we resort to the Born and the Rytov approximations and evaluate their performances in transmission and reflection acquisitions geometries. We test as well the influence of the inverted parameters choice. Moreover we highlight the influence of data preconditioning that must be particularly efficient to deal with both body and surface waves. We apply this elastic full waveform inversion to near-surface data, containing strong surface waves and acquired just above a cavity that has to be characterized. We highlight the potentiality and limits of this method in this real example to reconstruct near surface areas and determine the cavity parameters and geometrical properties. Saenger E. H., Gold N. & Shapiro S. A., 2000. Modeling the propagation of elastic waves using a modified finite-difference grid. Wave Motion, 31, 77-92. Pratt G., Shin C. & Hicks G.J., 1998. Gauss-Newton and full Newton methods in frequence space seismic waveform inversion. Geophys. J. Int., 133, 341-362.

Gelis, C.; Virieux, J.; Grandjean, G.; Operto, S.

2005-12-01

351

Attenuation imaging of cross-well data using waveform inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waveforms contain the information not only about velocity, but also various parameters, such as attenuation (or Q factor), density, and anisotropic parameters. The Q values can provide the useful information about rheology, pore fluid, and fluid flow information. Attenuation has conventionally been imaged from the first arrival waveforms (amplitudes and/or spectra) using with ray theoretical methods. Although these methods are simple and fast, the method does not use the full record of observed waves, and the resolution is limited. By using a greater portion of the waveforms, frequency domain full waveform inversion has resulted in the improved velocity and attenuation images (Hicks and Pratt, 2001). Challenges remain regarding attenuation imaging, including the estimation of source signatures, source and receiver coupling effects, geometrical spreading, etc. Our previous work with synthetic data showed that it is critical to obtain accurate velocity images prior to attenuation imaging, in order to enhance parameter resolution (Kamei and Pratt, 2008). Inaccurate velocity structures lead to instable attenuation imaging. However the work focused on parameter separation between attenuation and velocity, and the results were limited to noise-free synthetic data. In this study we first investigate the tradeoff between the amplitudes of estimated source signatures, and attenuation models. There is inverse proportionality between Q values and source amplitudes.. Apparently waveform inversion provides relative attenuation images, and some other information is required to obtain absolute Q values. We also compare two objective function; the standard and the logarithmic L2 objective function proposed by Shin and Min (2006). The logarithmic L2 objective function enabled to recover higher wavenumber components of the attenuation model, than the standar L2 objective function, since the logarithmic function enhanced the contribution from small-valued data. Then, the waveform inversion technique is applied to the synthetic data contaminated with Gaussian noise. The attenuation imaging is severely affected by inadequate amplitude information at low and middle frequencies, although the standard L2 function showed more robustness. The noise test revealed that it is essential to use a group of frequencies to stabilize the inversion.

Kamei, R.; Pratt, R. G.

2009-12-01

352

Analysis of pupil and corneal wave aberration data supplied by the SN CT 1000 topography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocular aberrations depend on pupil size and centring and the retinal image quality under natural conditions differs from that corresponding to laboratory ones. In the present article, pupil and wave aberration data supplied by the Shin Nippon CT 1000 (SN CT 1000) topography system are analysed. Two groups of eyes under natural viewing conditions are considered ((260+/-20) lux at the eye under study). The first group consists of 10 normal eyes (-1.25 to 3 D sphere; 0 to -1.75 D cylinder) of five young subjects (age between 18 and 33 years). For this group, five determinations per eye are performed and the repeatability of results is analysed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal region, the largest displacement being (0.5+/-0.1) mm. The variation of pupil diameter in each eye is less than 21% while the inter-subject variability is large since diameters are between (3+/-0.3) and (5.3+/-0.6) mm. Aberrations are evaluated for two different pupil sizes, the natural one and a fictitious one of 6 mm. The corneal higher-order root-mean square wavefront error (RMSHO) for a 6 mm pupil centred in the corneal vertex, averaged across all eyes, is (0.37+/-0.06) [mu]m while, considering the natural pupil diameter, the average in each eye is significantly lower, up to eight times smaller. The fourth-order spherical aberration is an important aberration in the considered eyes, its maximum value for a 6 mm pupil being (0.38+/-0.02) [mu]m. The second group consists of 24 eyes of 12 subjects (age between 25 and 68 years) such that four eyes are of normal adults (1.25 to +6 D sphere; 0 to -0.5 D cylinder), eight have astigmatisms (-5.5 to +3.25 D sphere; -1.5 to -4.5 D cylinder), six have post-refractive surgery (+0.5 to +3.5 D sphere; -0.5 to -4 D cylinder) and six have keratoconus (-9.5 to +1 D sphere; -1 to -4.5 D cylinder). For this group only one determination per eye is performed. Pupil centre is displaced from corneal vertex towards the temporal region except in cases of keratoconus, where there can be a dominant upwards displacement. Pupil diameters are between 2.7 and 5.6 mm. The corneal higher order root mean square wavefront error for a 6 mm pupil ranges between 0.3 (normal eye) and 5.3 [mu]m (keratoconus).

Comastri, S. A.; Martin, G.; Pfortner, T.

2006-11-01

353

An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure.  

PubMed

Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking.Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age.Methods: We fit an integrated exposure-response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations.Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI.Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass-based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available.Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR, Smith KR, Balmes JR, Bruce NG, Kan H, Laden F, Prüss-Ustün A, Turner MC, Gapstur SM, Diver WR, Cohen A. 2014. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:397-403;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307049. PMID:24518036

Burnett, Richard T; Pope, C Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Smith, Kirk R; Balmes, John R; Bruce, Nigel G; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

2014-04-01

354

- and Mesoscopic Patterns on Semiconductor Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs d -doped heterostructures [4]. These structures can be considered as regular arrays of mesoscopic cells or 2-D photonic band gap crystals. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets, Magnetotransport in mesoscopic carbon networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.319-323, 2001. 2. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, L.V. Govor, V.K. Ksenevich, I.A. Bashmakov, I.M. Grigorieva, L.V. Solovjova, Fabrication of regular mesoscopic networks of GaAs wires, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.127-130, 1999. 3. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, V.K. Ksenevich, G. Kiss, G. Remenyi, Observation of transport in mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped networks, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.197-202, 1999 4. J. Galibert, V.A. Samuilov, V.K. Ksenevich, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, Magnetoresistance of low dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shape GaAs networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.314-318, 2001. 5. S. Zhu, R.J. Gambino, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, S.A. Schwarz, and R.D. Gomez, "Microscopic Magnetic Characterization of Submicron Cobalt Islands Prepared Using Self-Assembled Polymer Masking Technique," IEEE Trans. Magn., 33, 3022, 1997. 6. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85, p.p.5651-5654, 2000.

Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam

2002-03-01

355

Association of Restless Legs Syndrome Variants in Korean Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Caucasians identified several allelic variants associated with increased risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease. Although the pathogenic mechanisms of RLS are not entirely understood, it is becoming increasingly evident that many diseases such as RLS can be attributed to an epistasis. The study objectives were to evaluate whether the associations of RLS with all loci determined in previous GWAS for Caucasians can be replicated significantly for the Korean population and to elucidate whether an epistasis plays a role in the pathogenesis of RLS. Design, Setting, and Participants: DNA from 320 patients with RLS and 320 age- and sex-matched controls were genotyped for variants in the RLS loci. Measurements and Results: A significant association was found for rs3923809 and rs9296249 in BTBD9 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively); the odds ratio (OR) for rs3923809 was 1.61 (P < 0.0001) to 1.88 (P < 0.0001) and the OR for rs9296249 was 1.44 (P = 0.001) to 1.73 (P = 0.002), according to the model of inheritance. The OR for the interaction between rs3923809 in BTBD9 and rs4626664 in PTPRD was 2.05 (P < 0.0001) in the additive model, 1.80 (P = 0.002) in the dominant model and 2.47 (P = 0.004) in the recessive model. There was no significant association between genotypes of all tested single nucleotide polymorphisms and the mean value of serum iron parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the role of BTBD9 in the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome is more universal across populations than previously reported and more efforts should be focused on the role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of restless legs syndrome. Citation: Kim MK; Cho YW; Shin WC; Cho JW; Shon YM; Kim JH; Yang KI; Earley CJ; Allen RP. Association of restless legs syndrome variants in Korean patients with restless legs syndrome. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1787-1791.

Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Cho, Yong Won; Shin, Won Chul; Cho, Jae Wook; Shon, Young Min; Kim, Jee Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.

2013-01-01

356

Concentration Field of Reactants and Products Species in a Reacting Vortex Ring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposed paper will present experimental and numerical results on the concentration fields of both reactants and products species in a reacting vortex ring that is generated from the interaction between a diffusion flame and a laminar vortex ring. Flame-vortex interactions are canonical configurations used to study the underlying processes occurring in complicated turbulent reacting flows. This type of configuration contains many of the fundamental aspects of the coupling between fluid dynamics and combustion that could be investigated with more controllable conditions than are possible under direct investigations of turbulent flames. The current configuration has been studied experimentally by Chen and Dahm and Chen et al. under microgravity conditions, and by Park and Shin, and You et al. under normal gravity conditions. This configuration is similar to that used in the analyses of Karagozian and Manda of their 2-D vortex pair in which both fuel and entrained oxidizer are present. The vortex ring used in this study is generated by issuing methane into an air environment through the exit of an axisymmetric nozzle. The experiments were conducted under microgravity conditions in order to remove the undesirable effects of buoyancy that can affect both the flame structure and ring dynamics resulting in possibly asymmetric and nonrepeatable interactions. The experimental technique of diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) is used to measure concentration fields of reactants, CH4 and O2, products, H2O, CO2, OH, and temperature fields which can be inferred from either line pairs of O2 or OH lines. This technique has been investigated previously by Silver and Bomse et al. This is the first time that the technique has been applied to reacting vortex rings under microgravity conditions. The effect of ring circulation and fuel volume on the species concentration fields will be investigated. The experimental results will be compared to the current numerical results, and used to validate the numerical studies. In addition, the existence of burned cores during the interactions will be determined, and the increase in reactant consumption with increased ring circulation will be examined. Numerical studies were also conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes and mixture fraction equations with the assumptions of unity Lewis and Schmidt numbers. Equilibrium chemistry and flamelet libraries were used to obtain the temperature and species mass fraction fields. The numerical results will serve as guidelines in conducting the experimental studies. Ring circulation and fuel volume effects on the interactions and species concentration fields will be investigated and compared to experimental results.

Chen, Shin-Juh; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Silver, Joel A.; Tryggvason, Gretar; Brooker, J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

357

Precipitation response to the current ENSO variability in a warming world  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major triggers of past and recent droughts include large modes of variability, such as ENSO, as well as specific and persistent patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs; Hoerling and Kumar, 2003, Shin et al. 2010, Schubert et al. 2009). However, alternative drought initiators are also anticipated in response to increasing greenhouse gases, potentially changing the relative contribution of ocean variability as drought initiator. They include the intensification of the current zonal wet-dry patterns (the thermodynamic mechanism, Held and Soden, 2006), a latitudinal redistribution of global precipitation (the dynamical mechanism, Seager et al. 2007, Seidel et al. 2008, Scheff and Frierson 2008) and a reduction of local soil moisture and precipitation recycling (the land-atmosphere argument). Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether the relative contribution of those mechanisms change over time in response to global warming. In this study, we first perform an EOF analysis of the 1900-1999 time series of observed global SST field and identify a simple ENSO-like (ENSOL) mode of SST variability. We show that this mode is well spatially and temporally correlated with observed worldwide regional precipitation and drought variability. We then develop concise metrics to examine the fidelity with which the CMIP5 coupled global climate models (CGCMs) capture this particular ENSO-like mode in the current climate, and their ability to replicate the observed teleconnections with precipitation. Based on the CMIP5 model projections of future climate change, we finally analyze the potential temporal variations in ENSOL to be anticipated under further global warming, as well as their associated teleconnections with precipitation (pattern, amplitude, and total response). Overall, our approach allows us to determine what will be the effect of the current ENSO-like variability (i.e., as measured with instrumental observations) on precipitation in a warming world. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and is supported, among others, by C.B. Early Career Research Program award.

Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Marvel, K.; Leung, L.

2013-12-01

358

The power of tests for weak stationary time series in finite samples: An empirical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether or not a time series is weakly stationary has long been a question of major interest in the field of time series analysis related to different scientific disciplines. A time series is considered as weakly stationary if the associated mean and covariance function do not vary with respect to time. That is to say, the original time series has statistical properties similar to those of the 'time-shifted' series. Weak stationary time series can be sufficiently modelled, e.g. by means of so-called autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes. In the case of non-stationary time series appropriate detrending procedures have to be performed prior to the analysis in order to transform the data to weakly stationary form. According to the properties that weakly stationary processes exhibit homogenous variances, statistical inferences for weak stationarity can be carried out using variance homogeneity tests (e.g. two-sample ?-test, multiple-sample Bartlett test). In addition, regarding a time series as an autoregressive (AR) process, the weak stationarity can be assessed by revising the existence of unit roots of the associated characteristic equation of the AR process. In the presence of unit roots, the analysed data are considered as non-stationary. The most famous autoregressive unit root tests are the augmented Dickey-Fuller test, the Phillips-Perron test, and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test. In this paper the power of stationarity tests is empirically investigated using a large amount of representative data simulated by means of autoregressive (integrated) moving average (AR(I)MA) processes. The test results are analysed based on statistical measures characterising the performance of a binary classification test, e.g. specificity (proportion of correctly identified null hypothesis) and sensitivity (proportion of correctly identified alternative hypothesis). The statistical analysis illustrates that the sensitivity of all investigated stationarity tests increases with increasing sample sizes. In comparison with the employed homogeneity tests whose specificity decreases with growing data volume, the specificity of the applied unit root tests remains at a high and constant level which corresponds very well to the specified probability of type I error ?.

Luo, Xiaoguang; Mayer, Michael; Heck, Bernhard

2010-05-01

359

Correction to lai et Al. (2014).  

PubMed

Reports an error in "Reducing Implicit Racial Preferences: I. A Comparative Investigation of 17 Interventions" by Calvin K. Lai, Maddalena Marini, Steven A. Lehr, Carlo Cerruti, Jiyun-Elizabeth L. Shin, Jennifer A. Joy-Gaba, Arnold K. Ho, Bethany A. Teachman, Sean P. Wojcik, Spassena P. Koleva, Rebecca S. Frazier, Larisa Heiphetz, Eva E. Chen, Rhiannon N. Turner, Jonathan Haidt, Selin Kesebir, Carlee Beth Hawkins, Hillary S. Schaefer, Sandro Rubichi, Giuseppe Sartori, Christopher M. Dial, N. Sriram, Mahzarin R. Banaji and Brian A. Nosek (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 24, 2014, np). The Methods section did not mention an exploratory measure that was included in Study 4 but was not analyzed. The information is provided. The article also includes discrepancies in the ranking of interventions between the first two paragraphs in General Discussion and Figure 1. Figure 1 was correct; the General Discussion was not. Revised text provides the corrected rankings and analyses to include data from Study 4. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-10299-001.) Many methods for reducing implicit prejudice have been identified, but little is known about their relative effectiveness. We held a research contest to experimentally compare interventions for reducing the expression of implicit racial prejudice. Teams submitted 17 interventions that were tested an average of 3.70 times each in 4 studies (total N = 17,021), with rules for revising interventions between studies. Eight of 17 interventions were effective at reducing implicit preferences for Whites compared with Blacks, particularly ones that provided experience with counterstereotypical exemplars, used evaluative conditioning methods, and provided strategies to override biases. The other 9 interventions were ineffective, particularly ones that engaged participants with others' perspectives, asked participants to consider egalitarian values, or induced a positive emotion. The most potent interventions were ones that invoked high self-involvement or linked Black people with positivity and White people with negativity. No intervention consistently reduced explicit racial preferences. Furthermore, intervention effectiveness only weakly extended to implicit preferences for Asians and Hispanics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25068537

2014-08-01

360

Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

2012-12-01

361

Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit with non-equilibrium crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling magma flow in volcanic conduit including with non -equilibrium crystallization There is a set of models of magma flow in volcanic conduits which predicts oscillations in magma discharge during extrusion of lava domes. These models neglect heating of surrounding rocks and use 1D approximation of the flow in the conduit. Here magma flow is investigated with an account of heat exchange between surrounding rocks and magma and different dependences viscosity on temperature and crystal concentration. Stick-slip conditions were applied at the wall. The flow is assumed to be quasi-static and quasi 1D. Only vertical component of velocity vector is present, thus, we do not consider horizontal momentum balance. At the top of the conduit the pressure is assumed to be fixed, chamber pressure changes according with magma influx and outflux. First set of simulation was made for the viscosity that depends on cross-section average crystal concentration and parabolic velocity profile. In earlier models that account for crystal growth kinetics the temperature was allowed to change only due to the release of latent heat of crystallization. Heat transfer leads to cooling of the outer parts of the conduit leading to high crystal contents and high magma viscosities. Changes in viscosity result in changes in discharge rate. For the non-isothermal case there is no motion during most part of the cycle and a portion of magma solidifies at the top of the conduit forming a plug. During repose period chamber pressure is growing due to influx of fresh magma, and magma discharge rate starts to increase. Influx of hot magma into the conduit leads to decrease in friction resulting in a jump in discharge rate that lead to depressurization of magma chamber. Discharge rate decreases and magma solidifies again. For isothermal model with the same parameters discharge rate monotonically tends to the value of Qin. Simulation reveal that crystal content changes significantly across the conduit, and thus viscosity variations across the conduit are large. A more comprehensive model was developed to account for cross-conduit parameter distributions. It shows that velocity profile significantly differ from parabolic especially near the top of the conduit where slip condition s occurs. References 1. A.Barmin, O.Melnik, R.S.J.Sparks, Periodoc behavior in lava dome eruptions, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199(2002) 173-184 2. P.M.Bruce, H.E.Huppert, Thermal control of basaltic fissure eruptions, 1989, Letters To Nature, VOL 342 3. I.Maeda, Nonlinaer visco-elastic volcanic model and its application to the recent eruption of Mt.Unzen, 2000, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 95, 35-47 4. J.A.Whitehead, K.R.Helfrich, Instability of flow with temperature dependent viscosity: a model of magma dynamics, 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL 96, No B3, pages 4145-4155 5. A.Costa, G.Macedonio, Nonlinear phenomena in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: an hysteresis model for magma flow in conduits, 2002, Geophysical Research Letters, VOL 29, No 10, 1402 6. Richard Iverson Dynamics of Seismogenic Volcanic Extrusion Re¬sisted by a Solid Surface Plug, Mount St. Helens, 2004-2005, A Volcano Rekindled: The First Year of Renewed Eruption at Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006. 7. Couch, S., C. L. Harford, R. S. J. Sparks, and M. R. Carroll (2003),Experimental constraints on the conditions of formation of highly calcic plagioclase microlites at the Soufrie`re Hills Volcano, Montserrat, J. Petrol.,44, 1455- 1475.

Yulia, Tsvetkova

2010-05-01

362

Towards depth profiling of organic aerosols in real time using aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow mass spectrometry (AeroFAPA-MS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosol accounts for a substantial fraction of tropospheric aerosol and has implications on the earth's climate and human health. However, the characterization of its chemical composition and transformations remain a major challenge and is still connected to large uncertainties (IPCC, 2013). Recent measurements revealed that organic aerosol particles may reside in an amorphous or semi-solid phase state which impedes the diffusion within the particles (Virtanen et al., 2010; Shiraiwa et al., 2011). This means that reaction products which are formed on the surface of a particle, e.g. by OH, NO3 or ozone chemistry, cannot diffuse into the particle's core and remain at the surface. Eventually, this leads to particles with a core/shell structure. In the particles' cores the initial compounds are preserved whereas the shells contain mainly the oxidation products. By analyzing the particles' cores and shells separately, thus, it is possible to obtain valuable information on the formation and evolution of the aerosols' particle and gas phase. Here we present the development of the aerosol flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (AeroFAPA) technique which allows the mass spectrometric analysis of organic aerosols in real time. The AeroFAPA is an ion source based on a helium glow discharge at atmospheric pressure. The plasma produces excited helium species and primary reagent ions which are transferred into the afterglow region where the ionization of the analytes takes place. Due to temperatures of only 80 ° C to 150 ° C and ambient pressure in the afterglow region, the ionization is very soft and almost no fragmentation of organic molecules is observed. Thus, the obtained mass spectra are easy to interpret and no extensive data analysis procedure is necessary. Additionally, first results of a combination of the AeroFAPA-MS with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) suggest that it is not only possible to analyze the entire particle phase but rather that a separate analysis of the particles' shells and cores is feasible by adjusting flow rates and temperatures in the ionization region. References: IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press. A. Virtanen; J. Joutsensaari; T. Koop; J. Kannosto; P. Yli-Pirila; J. Leskinen; J. M. Makela; J. K. Holopainen; U. Pöschl; M. Kulmala; D. R. Worsnop; A. Laaksonen, "An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles", Nature 7317, 824-827 [2010]. M. Shiraiwa; M. Ammann; T. Koop; U. Pöschl, "Gas uptake and chemical aging of semisolid organic aerosol particles", P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 27, 11003-11008 [2011].

Brüggemann, Martin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

2014-05-01

363

Updating soil CO2 emission experiments to assess climate change effects and extracellular soil respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental work is an essential component in training future soil scientists. Soil CO2 emission is a key issue because of the potential impacts of this process on the greenhouse effect. The amount of organic carbon stored in soils worldwide is about 1600 gigatons (Gt) compared to 750 Gt in the atmosphere mostly in the form of CO2. Thus, if soil respiration increased slightly so that just 10% of the soil carbon pool was converted to CO2, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere could increase by one-fifth. General circulation model predictions indicate atmosphere warming between 2 and 5°C (IPCC 2007) and precipitation changes ranging from about -15 to +30%. Traditionally, release of CO2 was thought to occur only in an intracellular environment; however, recently CO2 emissions have been in irradiated soil, in the absence of microorganisms (Maire et al., 2013). Moreover, soil plays a role in the stabilization of respiration enzymes promoting CO2 release after microorganism death. Here, we propose to improve CO2 emission experiments commonly used in soil biology to investigate: 1) effects of climatic factors on soil CO2 emissions, and 2) rates of extracellular respiration in soils and how these rates are affected by environmental factors. Experiment designed to assess the effect of climate change can be conducted either in field conditions under different ecosystems (forest, grassland, cropland) or in a greenhouse using simple soil chambers. The interactions of climate change in CO2 emissions are investigated using climate-manipulation experiment that can be adapted to field or greenhouse conditions (e.g. Mc Daniel et al., 2013). The experimental design includes a control plot (without soil temperature and rain manipulation) a warming treatment as well as wetting and/or drying treatments. Plots are warmed to the target temperature by procedures such as infrared heaters (field) or radiant cable (greenhouse). To analyze extracellular respiration, rates of CO2 emissions from sterilized soils and their unsterilized counterparts are compared. Moreover, different pH treatments are compared to analyze how soil pH affects extracellular CO2 release. Students benefit from experimental learning. Practical courses, being either in the field or indoors are of vital importance to bring soil processes to life and to evaluate implications for environment and climate change. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 996 pp. Maire, V., G. Alvarez, J. Colombet, A. Comby, R. Despinasse, E. Dubreucq, M. Joly, A.-C. Lehours, V. Perrier, T. Shahzad, and S. Fontaine. 2013. An unknown oxidative metabolism substantially contributes to soil CO2 emissions. Biogeochemistry, 10, 1155-1167, 2013

Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

2014-05-01

364

TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the doubly reflected rays define the leading term in the angular region around the boresight direction. The validity of the approach is well assessed by comparisons with experimental results, and its formulation is computer time inexpensive since in closed form. Moreover it is preferable to the model using near-field PO integrations for describing the interactions between the internal TCR's faces since this last requires the evaluation of multi-dimensional integrals, i.e., the expression of the final incident field contains a two-dimensional integral for each previous interaction. [1] Y. Qin, D. Perissin, and L. Lei, "The Design and Experiments on Corner Reflectors for Urban Ground Deformation Monitoring in Hong Kong," Int. J. Antennas Propagat., vol. 2013, pp. 1-8. [2] T. A. Stabile, A. Perrone, M. R. Gallipoli, R. Ditommaso, and F. C. Ponzo, "Dynamic Survey of the Musmeci Bridge by Joint Application of Ground-Based Microwave Radar Interferometry and Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio Techniques," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 870-874, 2013.

Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

2014-05-01

365

Past, Present, and Future Sea Level Change Assessments of Storm Surge: A Case Study Using Hurricane Katrina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major Gulf hurricanes have a high probability of impacting the northern Gulf of Mexico, especially coastal Mississippi (Resio, 2007). Due to the wide and flat continental shelf, this area provides near-perfect geometry for high water levels under tropical cyclonic conditions. Further, it is generally agreed that global sea levels due to climate change will rise anywhere from 18 to 100 cm by the year 2100 (Donoghue, 2011, IPCC, 2007) with some projecting even higher. Further, it is recognized that coastal Mississippi is highly susceptible to a retreating shoreline from sea level rise coupled with predictions for less frequent, more intense tropical storms from an increase in sea surface temperature (SST) (Trenberth, 2005, Webster, et al., 2005). A fully-validated, state-of-the-art ADCIRC+UnSWAN hydrodynamic model of coastal Mississippi was utilized to simulate Hurricane Katrina with present day sea level conditions. Using present day as a base scenario, past and future sea level changes were simulated. A regression was performed at local tide gauges to estimate past and project future sea levels. Also, surface roughness (i.e. Manning's n and wind reduction factors) was adjusted to reflect past landcover conditions as well as estimate future landcover change. Here, past, present and future sea level scenarios are modeled using a dynamic approach, along with Hurricane Katrina, and compared to present dynamic responses to sea level rise. The dynamic results will be compared and contrasted with a simpler bathtub model (static) approach. It will be demonstrated that water levels do not change linearly with modeled sea level cases (i.e. a 50 cm rise in sea level will not result in an additional 50 cm of water level at a given location) and are highly variable to changes in local conditions (e.g. topography, bathymetry, and surface roughness). Further, nearshore wind-wave conditions are affected by changes in local sea level due to the changes in momentum transfer from the waves to the water column. The results will be used to gain insight into possible morphological changes given several sea level scenarios coupled with an intense tropical cyclone. References Donoghue, J. (2011). "Sea Level History of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast and Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the near Future." Climatic Change, 107(1-2), 17-33. IPCC (2007). "The Physical Sceince Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." Climate Change 2007, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Avery, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds., Cambridge Univesity Press, Cambridge. Resio, D. T. (2007). "White Paper on Estimating Hurricane Inundation Probabilities." U.S. Army Engineering Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, 125. Trenberth, K. (2005). "Uncertainty in Hurricanes and Global Warming." Science, 308(5729), 1753-1754. Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A., and Chang, H.-R. (2005). "Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment." Science, 309(5742), 1844-1846.

Bilskie, M. V.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hagen, S. C.

2012-12-01

366

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

367

Regional scenarios of mean and extreme precipitation regimes in the Basque Country  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to different regional projections of climate change for the 21st century, changes in the mean and extreme precipitation regimes are expected in most of Europe (Christensen et al., 2007). Precipitation extreme events, in particular, can generate important natural hazards and associated social impacts. such as increasing the probability of flooding events. The objective of this paper is to calibrate the regional models for mean and extreme precipitation regimes through a reference time series (1961-2000) in the Basque Country. The reference time series have been obtained previously from a spatially reconstruction with a Digital Terrain Model and a multiple regression model. In this study, we have used four regional climate models of ENSEMBLE project: METNO-HIRHAM, UCLM-PROMES, KNMI-RAKMO2 and CNRM-RM4.5, under A1B scenario and the ERA40 climate reanalysis. The analysis of extreme precipitation has been based on a relationship between the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves and the Main-Average-Intensity (MAI) curves (Moncho et al., 2009). The regional climate models showed no significant change in mean annual precipitation in the Basque Country for the period 1961-2000 (0 ± 3% decade-1). This result is consistent with the trend of the reference series, which was not significant (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.51). For the period of 2001 to 2050, the calibration of the model ensemble showed no significant change in trend (-1 ± 3% decade-1, p-value = 0.35). However, some models showed a significant change in mean precipitation from 1961-2000 to 2001-2050 (METNO-HIRHAM, -10 ± 5%, p-value = 0.019) and from 2051-2100 (KNMI-RAKMO2, -8 ± 3%, p-value = 0.007). The model that best fits the reference period 1961-2000 for extreme precipitation was the METNO-HIRHAM model, followed by the UCLM-PROMES and KNMI-RAKMO2 models, therefore, these models would best describe the possible changes in future regimes. After calibrating the projections of the heavy rainfall of the climate models, 2 out of 4 models (METNO-HIRHAM and UCLM-PROM) project an increase of 12 ± 1% of the maximum daily rainfall, with a return period of 50 years for a meteorological station on average, for the period 2001-2050 with respect to the period 1961-2000. However, the KNMI-RAKMO2 model delayed this increase for the period 2051-2100 (increase of 7.7 ± 0.7%), and the CNRM-RM4.5 model showed no significant change for the period 2001-2050. Since the CNRM-RM4.5 model was less reliable, the results of analysis of the other three models suggest that the extreme precipitation in the Basque Country will increase around 10% throughout the 21st century. CHRISTENSEN, J.H.; B. HEWITSON, A.; BUSUIOC, A.; CHEN, X.; GAO, I.; HELD, R.; JONES, R.K.; KOLLI, W.-T.; KWON, R.; LAPRISE, V. ; MAGAÑA RUEDA, L.; MEARNS, C.G.; MENÉNDEZ, J.; RÄISÄINEN, A. ;RINKE, A.; SARR y P. WHETTON: "Regional Climate Projections". In: Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [SOLOMON, S.; D. QIN; M. MANNING, Z.; CHEN, M.; MARQUIS, K.B.; AVERYT, M.; TIGNOR y H.L. MILLER (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom y New York, NY, USA. MONCHO, R.; BELDA, F. and CASELLES, V. (2009): "Climatic study of the exponent n of the IDF curves of the Iberian Peninsula", Tethys, n°6, 2009, 18 pp.

Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Caselles, Vicente

2010-05-01

368

Morphology and Chemical composition of Atmospheric Particles over Semi-Arid region (Jaipur, Rajasthan) of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties associated with the radiative forcing of atmospheric dust particles is highest, owing to lack of region-specific dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy (chemical composition) database, needed for modeling their optical properties (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008). To fill this gap for the Indian region, we collected atmospheric particles (with aerodynamic size <5um, PM5 and a few bulk particles; TSP) from seven sites of Jaipur and nearby locales (semi-arid region, in the vicinity of Thar Desert of Rajasthan) at varying altitude, during late winters of ca. 2012. PM5 particles were collected on Teflon filters (for bulk chemical analyses), while pure Tin substrates (~1×1 mm2) were used for investigating individual particle morphology. Using Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X ray (SEM-EDX) facility at NPL, images of individual particles were recorded and the morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001), whereas chemical compositions of individual particles were determined by EDX and bulk samples by X ray fluorescence (XRF). The geometrical size distributions of atmospheric particles were generated for each site. Based on NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology, USA) morphology database, the site-specific individual particle shapes reveal predominance of "Layered" (calcite and quartz rich), "Angular" structures (quartz rich) and "Flattened" particles over all the sites. Particles were found to be highly non-spherical with irregular shapes (CIR varying from 1 to 0.22 with median value ~0.76; AR varying from 1 to 5.4 with median value ~1.64). Noteworthy to mention, that unit values of AR and CIR represent spherical particles. Chemical analyses of PM5 particles revealed dominance of crustal elements e.g. Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, in general. Particles over Kukas Hill (27.027° N, 75.919° E; ~800 MAGL) showed highest Fe mass fractions (~43%), i.e. a key element (in form of hematite; Fe2O3) for solar (visible) energy absorption and thus heating the atmosphere. The retrieved morphological parameters help to construct particle shape and number size distribution that are highly useful to reduce the uncertainty in radiative forcing of dust particles appreciably when combined with particle chemical composition as suggested by Kalashnikova and Sokolik (2004). References : Mishra, S. K., and S. N. Tripathi (2008), Modeling optical properties of mineral dust over the Indian Desert, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23201, 19 PP., doi:10.1029/2008JD010048. Okada, K., J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin (2001), Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3123-3126 Kalashnikova OV, Sokolik IN. (2004) Modeling the radiative properties of nonspherical soil-derived mineral aerosols, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer, 87, 137-66.

Mishra, S. K.; Agnihotri, R.; Yadav, P.; Singh, S.; Tawale, J. S.; Rashmi, R.; Prasad, M.; Arya, B. C.; Mishra, N.

2012-12-01

369

Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of observations from isolated sites and using a common regression model based on climatological/geographical covariates. The behaviour of the fitted spatial GEV-distribution is heavy-tailed with ? ? 0.3 over Belgium. A comparison between the RL-maps using GEV model and the ones obtained from Universal Kriging (UK) confirms the reliability of the spatial GEV model in explaining atmospheric drought in Belgium. References [1] Beniston, M., Stephenson, D. B., Christensen, O. B., Ferro, C. A. T., Frei, C., Goyette, S., Halsnaes, K., Holt, T., Jylhü, K., Koffi, B., Palutikoff, J., Schöll, R., Semmler, T., and Woth, K. (2007), Future extreme events in European climate; an exploration of Regional Climate Model projections. Climatic Change, 81, 71-95. [2] Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (Eds.)] (2007), king Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp. [3] Coles, S. (2001), An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Germany. [4] Embrechts, P., C. Klüppelberg, and T. Mikosch (1997), Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [5] Smith, R., (2004), Statistics of extremes, with application in environment, insurance and finance, in : Extreme Values in Finance, Telecommunications and the Environment, edited by: Finkenstadt, B. and Rootzen, H., 373-388, Chapman and Hall CRC Press, London.

Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

2014-05-01

370

Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles. All of these questions are important in trying to understand human health impacts. More information on climate change, soils, and human health issues can be found in Brevik (2012). References Brevik, E.C. 2012. Climate change, soils, and human health. In: E.C. Brevik and L. Burgess (Eds). Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. in press. IPCC. 2007. Summary for policymakers. pp. 1-18. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds). Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Brevik, Eric C.

2013-04-01

371

What product might a renewal of Heavy IonFusion development offerthat competes with methane microbes and hydrogen HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 a Fusion Technology journal publication by Logan, Moir and Hoffman described how exploiting unusually-strong economy-of-scale for large (8 GWe-scale) multi-unit HIF plants sharing a driver and target factory among several low cost molten salt fusion chambers {at} < $40M per 2.4 GW fusion each (Fig. 1), could produce electricity below 3 cts/kWehr, even lower than similar multi-unit fission plants. The fusion electric plant could cost $12.5 B for 7.5 GWe and produce hydrogen fuel by electrolysis at prices competitive with gasoline-powered hybrids getting fuel from oil at $20$/bbl. At $60/bbl oil, the fusion plant can cost $35B and compete {at} 10% APR financing. Given massive and still-increasing world demand for transportation fuel even with oil climbing above $60/bbl, large HIF plants producing both low cost electricity and hydrogen could be more relevant to motivate new R&D funding for HIF development in the next few years. Three major challenges to get there: (1) NIF ignition in indirect drive geometry for liquid chambers, (2) a modular accelerator to enable a one-module IRE < $100 M, (3) compatible HIF target, driver and chamber allowing a small driver {at}< $500 M cost for a >100MWe net power DEMO. This scoping study, at a very preliminary conceptual level, attempts to identify how we might meet the last two great challenges taking advantage of several recent ideas and advances which motivate reconsideration of modular HIF drivers: >60X longitudinal compression of neutralized ion beams using a variable waveform induction module in NDCX down to 2 nanosecond bunches, the proof-of-principle demonstration of fast optical-gated solid state SiC switches by George Caporaso's group at LLNL (see George's RPIA06 paper), and recent work by Ed Lee, John Barnard and Hong Qin on methods for time-dependent correction of chromatic focusing errors in neutralized beams with up to 10 % {Delta}v/v velocity tilt, allowing 5 or more bunches, and shorter bunches, and possibly < 1 mm radius focal spot targets. We seek multi-pulsing with neutralized compression and focusing to enable higher peak power capability and the ability to create nearly arbitrary composite ''picket fence'' pulse shapes can be used to innovate HIF target designs for lower driver energy, and at the same time, reduce unit driver cost per joule for given driver energy, and reduce development time. For example, Debbie Callahan has explored close-coupled HIF targets with adequate gains > 40 that would need higher peak beam intensities in order to reduce total driver energy below 1 MJ. In principle, both PLIA and induction accelerators might benefit from multiple short bunches (see June 24, 2005 talk by Logan on multi-pulsing in PLIA accelerators for IFE), although the PLIA approach, because of fixed circuit wave velocities at any z, requires imaginative work-arounds to handle the different bunch velocities required. George's RPIA06 paper also describes a different type of radial line induction linac that might be considered, but its unclear how the required pulse-to-pulse variable waveforms can be obtained with such pulselines. This initial MathCad analysis explores multi-pulsing in modular solenoid induction linacs (concept shown in Figure 1) considering high-q ECR sources, basic induction acceleration limits assuming affordable agile waveforms, transverse and longitudinal bunch confinement constraints, models to optimize bunch lengths, solenoid fields, core radial builds and switching. Figure 2 below illustrates one linac module for a driver example (not yet optimized) consisting of 40 linacs (20 at each end). Necessarily, this first look invokes many new ideas, but could they potentially meet the above challenges?

Logan, Grant; Lee, Ed; Yu, Simon; Briggs, Dick; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Qin, Hong; Waldron, Will; Leitner, Mattaheus; Kwan, Joe; Henestroza, Enrique; Caporaso, George; Meier, Wayne; Tabak, Max; Callahan, Debbie; Moir, Ralph; Peterson, Per

2006-04-19

372

EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2006 Roberts Prize is awarded to: M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 2007 Prize for the Highest Cited Paper The annual prize for the most highly cited paper is awarded by the journal publishers (IOP Publishing) to the article published in PMB that has received the most citations1 in the previous 5 years (in this case for the period 2002 to 2006 inclusive). We have much pleasure in advising readers that the 2007 prize is awarded to: S S Vedam, P J Keall, V R Kini, H Mostafavi, H P Shukla and R Mohan 2003 Acquiring a four-dimensional computed tomography dataset using an external respiratory signal Phys. Med. Biol. 48 45-62 Simon Harris, Publisher Steve Webb, Editor-in-Chief 1 Figures taken from Thomson/ISI

2007-07-01

373

Multiple ion species fluid modeling of sprite halos and the role of electron detachment from O- in their dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sprite halos are brief descending glows appearing at the lower ionosphere boundary, which follow impulsive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges [e.g., Barrington-Leigh et al., JGR, 106, 1741, 2001, Wescott et al., JGR, 106, 10467, 2001; Pasko, JGR, 115, A00E35, 2010]. They last for a few milliseconds, with horizontal extension of tens of kilometers and vertical thickness of several kilometers. According to global survey of the occurrence of transient luminous events by the ISUAL instruments on the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, on average sprite halos occur once every minute on Earth [Chen et al., JGR, 113, A08306, 2008]. It has been established that sprite halos are caused by electron heating, and molecule excitation and ionization in the lower ionosphere due to lightning quasi-electrostatic field [e.g., Pasko et al., JGR, 102, 4529, 1997; Barrington-Leigh et al., 2001; Pasko, 2010]. Past modeling work on sprite halos was conducted using either a two dimensional (2D) model of at most three charged species or a zero dimensional model of multiple ion species. In this talk, we report a modeling study of sprite halos using a recently developed 2D fluid model of multiple charged species. The model charged species include the ion species set used in [Lehtinen and Inan, GRL, 34, L08804, 2007] to study the dynamics of ionization perturbations produced by gigantic jets in the middle and upper atmosphere. In addition, another charged species, O-, is added to this set, because electron detachment of O- can proceed very fast under moderate electric field [Rayment and Moruzzi, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 26, 321, 1978], requiring a separate treatment from the other light negative ions. The modeling results of a sprite halo driven by positive cloud-to-ground lightning indicate that the halo can descend to lower altitude with much higher electron density behind its front when the O- detachment process is included. Electron density ahead of the halo front is not significantly reduced from the ambient value, so that there is no attachment "hole" forming in that region that is commonly observed in previous modeling work. According to recent work by Qin et al. [JGR, 116, A06305, 2011], electron density must be around 10^3 1/m^3 or less at sprite initiation altitude in order for individual streamers to form. This requires the ambient electron density at the sprite initiation altitude to be close to 10^3 1/m^3 from our results, because electron density is not greatly decreased below the halo front. In addition, the large downward extent of the halo shown by our results may offer an explanation for the initiation of sprite streamers at 65-70 km altitude observed previously.

Liu, N.

2011-12-01

374

Estimation of the spatial validity of local aerosol measurements in Europe using MODIS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actual impact of atmospheric aerosols in the Earth's radiative budget is still associated to large uncertainties [IPCC, 2007]. Global monitoring of the aerosol properties and distribution in the atmosphere is needed to improve our knowledge of climate change. The instrumentation used for this purpose can be divided into two main groups: ground-based and satellite-based. Ground-based instruments, like lidars or Sun-photometers, are usually designed to measure accurate local properties of atmospheric aerosols throughout the day. However, the spatial validity of these measurements is conditioned by the aerosol variability within the atmosphere. Satellite-based sensors offer spatially resolved information about aerosols at a global scale, but generally with a worse temporal resolution and in a less detailed way. In this work, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550nm from MODIS Aqua, product MYD04 [Remer, 2005], is used to estimate the area of validity of local measurements at different reference points, corresponding to the AERONET [Holben, 1998] stations during the 2011-2012 period in Europe. For each case, the local AOD (AODloc) at each reference point is calculated as the averaged MODIS data within a radius of 15 km. Then, the AODloc is compared to the AOD obtained when a larger averaging radius is used (AOD(r)), up to 500 km. Only those cases where more than 50% of the pixels in each averaging area contain valid data are used. Four factors that could affect the spatial variability of aerosols are studied: proximity to the sea, human activity, aerosol load and geographical location (latitude and longitude). For the 76 reference points studied, which are sited in different regions of Europe, we have determined that the root mean squared difference (RMSD) between AODloc and AOD(r) , averaged for all cases, increases in a logarithmic way with the averaging radius (RMSD ? log(r)), while the linear correlation coefficient (R) decreases following a logarithmic trend (R ? -log(r)). Among all the factors studied, the aerosol load is the most influential one in the aerosol spatial variability: for averaging radii smaller than 40 km, the RMSD increases with AODloc. Another important factor is the latitude and longitude: the variation of the RMSD in the AOD with regard to the averaging radius can differ up to a 60%, depending on the location. On the contray, the proximity to the sea and the amount of population surrounding each reference point do not have a noticeable influence compared to the above mentioned factors. Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1-16, 1998. IPCC (2007). S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, USA. Remer, L. A., y co-authors, 2005: The MODIS aerosol algorithm, products, and validation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 947-973. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS3385.1

Marcos, Carlos; Gómez-Amo, J. Luis; Pedrós, Roberto; Utrillas, M. Pilar; Martínez-Lozano, J. Antonio

2013-04-01

375

Addressing inconsistencies in black carbon literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The literature describing black carbon (BC) emissions, and their effect on Earth’s climate, is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in definitions; data collection and characterization; system boundaries; and time horizons have led to confusion about the relative importance of BC compared to other climate-active pollutant (CAPs). We discuss three sources of confusion: 1) Currently available BC inventories are not directly comparable to those used by the IPCC to track the greenhouse gases (GHGs) considered in the Kyoto Protocol (CO2, CH4, N2O). In particular, BC inventories often include all emissions: natural and anthropogenic in origin, controllable and non-controllable. IPCC inventories include only anthropogenic emissions. This BC accounting is appropriate for atmospheric science deliberations, but risks being interpreted as an overstatement against official Kyoto GHG inventories in a policy or control context. The IPCC convention of using 1750 as the starting year for emission inventories further complicates matters: significant BC emissions were emitted previous to that date by both human and natural sources. Though none of the pre-1750 BC emissions remain in the atmosphere today, their legacy presents challenges in assigning historical responsibility for associated global warming among sectors and regional populations. 2) Inconsistencies exist in the specific emissions sources considered in atmospheric models used to predict net BC forcing often lead to widely varying climate forcing estimates. For example, while some analyses consider only fossil fuel 1, others include both open biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion 2, and yet others include sources beyond biomass and fossil fuel burning 3. 3) Inconsistencies exist in how analyses incorporate the relationship between BC emissions and the associated cooling aerosols and processes, such as organic carbon (OC), and aerosol indirect effects (AIE). Unlike Kyoto GHGs, BC is rarely emitted in pure form and always with significant emissions of OC aerosols. The OC/BC ratio, however, is quite variable by emission source and often poorly characterized both in its current state and under intervention scenarios. In contrast, sulfur emissions, which become cooling sulfate (SO4) aerosols, are less intrinsically linked to other emissions, i.e., they can be controlled separately. Comparisons often ignore the substantial differences in uncertainties across the CAPs. These sources of confusion operate in a landscape of shifting scientific understanding of the RF from BC, including the work by Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) indicating a BC RF that is roughly double the IPCC AR4 1 value for BC without organic carbon (OC). Doubling the impact of BC has a major impact on the relative importance of sectors for interventions. An approach is to consider post-AR4 estimates for BC, methane, etc. as part of sensitivity analyses, until a full new assessment becomes available. 1. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, et al. Working Group I Report: "The Physical Science Basis". Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, US: IPCC; 2007. 2. Jacobson MZ. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 2001;409:695-7. 3. Ramanathan V, Carmichael G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience 2008;1:221-7.

Shonkoff, S. B.; Chafe, Z.; Smith, K. R.

2010-12-01

376

PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structures, physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of materials are becoming increasingly amenable to treatment by first-principles (ab initio) quantum mechanical simulations. Calculations containing a few hundred atoms are now routine, thanks to improvements in computer technology and computational techniques. Schemes to determine electronic structures more accurately and to treat more complex systems continue to be developed. A growing number of scientists and engineers are becoming aware of the power of these approaches. By applying these new computational tools, materials science and technology is expected to enter a new era of accelerated progress and efficiency. In 1998 the first workshop entitled 'Theory Meets Industry' (TMI) was held at the Vienna University of Technology. The aim of the workshop was to direct the potential of the ab initio simulation codes developed in academia towards the necessities arising from industrial research. Over the next decade, significant advances in ab initio methodology and its application to academic and industrial research were achieved. It was thus considered timely to hold a second TMI workshop in 2007, again in Vienna. The contributions from academia concentrated on a wide range of new developments in ab initio simulations, as well as on applications at the forefront of materials research. Speakers from the industrial sector also emphasized the progress made in successfully applying ab initiotechniques to key areas of modern technology. The proceedings were published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter as a special issue (volume 20, number 6, 2008), which was included in the 'Top papers 2008 showcase' of that journal. Following the notable success of the first two workshops, it was decided that the third TMI workshop would be held outside Europe. Holding the workshop in Japan was intended to increase awareness of theoretical materials science and foster further international collaboration in this field. Lectures and poster presentations were thus solicited from leading international academic and industrial researchers. The large audience that attended responded to the high quality of the talks with pertinent questions and lively discussions. The third workshop, TMI2009, was held over three days from 11-13 November, 2009, at the Nagoya International Center, Nagoya, Japan. Invited talks were given by 23 speakers from 9 countries from both the academic and industry sectors. The speakers were Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central R&D Labs, Japan), Tomas Bucko (University of Vienna, Austria), Gábor Csányi (University of Cambridge, UK), Alessandro De Vita (King's College London, UK), Bernard Delley (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland), Christophe Domain (EDF, France), George Fitzgerald (Accelrys, USA), Takeo Fujiwara (University of Tokyo, Japan), Jürgen Hafner (University of Vienna, Austria), Masaya Ishida (Sumitomo Chemicals, Japan), Werner Janse Van Rensburg (Sasol Technology, South Africa), Masanori Kohyama (AIST, Japan), Takao Kotani (Tottori University, Japan), Georg Kresse (University of Vienna, Austria), Katsuyuki Matsunaga (Kyoto University, Japan), Stefan Müller (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany), Shin-ichiro Nakamura (Mitsubishi Chemicals, Japan), Fumiyasu Oba (Kyoto University, Japan), Tamio Oguchi (Hiroshima University, Japan), Pascal Raybaud (IFP, France), Isao Tanaka (Kyoto University/JFCC, Japan), Göran Wahnström (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc., USA). There were 40 poster presentations in total. The workshop was attended by approximately 120 participants with approximately 50 per cent from industry. The invited talks covered advances in ab initio solid-state calculations and their practical use in industry. Presentations outlining the progress made in treating large and complex systems, as well as more accurate and efficient calculation methods, were given from the theory side. Examples of the use of ab initiocalculations for research and development of a wide variety of materials were pres

Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

2010-09-01

377

- and Mesoscopic Soft Condensed Matter Architectures on Semiconductor Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple approach of self-organized fabrication of two dimensional mesoscopic networks with the feature size down to 50 nm has been developed. The technique is based on the self-organized patterning in a thin layer of complex liquid (polymer solution) in the presence of humid atmosphere. Two dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped carbon structures were produced by high temperature annealing of nitrocellulose precursors [1]. The polymer network was also utilized as a mask for further reactive ion etching of surfaces with epi-layer of GaAs [2,3] and GaAs/AlGaAs ? -doped heterostructures [4]. The electrical transport in the obtained structures was studied in a temperature range from 1.9 to 300 K and in pulsed magnetic fields up to 35 T. A crossover from the Mott variable range hopping to the Colomb-gap Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping has been observed experimentally in mesoscopic carbon structures [1]. At low fields, ln(R/R0) is proportional to B2. In the intermediate range, the magnetoresistance is linear on B. At high temperatures, if the hopping distance is comparable to the localization length, the observed small negative magnetoresistance in our samples is consistent to the weak-localization picture. Magnetoresistance of patterned GaAs/AlGaAs ?-doped structures is negative [4], which is relater to quantum interference in hopping regime. At B=0, the resistance showed typical behavior of a two-dimensional hopping. Below about 20 K, the data followed the Mott variable-range-hopping mechanism for two dimensions. Also, we have used diblock-copolymer system, self-assembled with L-B technique, to produce nano-patterns. These structures were utilized as templates for introducing metal nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces by reactive ion beam etching for magnetic storage systems [5] and DNA separation on a flat surface [6] devices. 1. V.A. Samuilov, J. Galibert, V.K. Ksenevich, V.J. Goldman, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, I.A. Bashmakov, V.A. Dorosinets, Magnetotransport in mesoscopic carbon networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.319-323, 2001. 2. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, L.V. Govor, V.K. Ksenevich, I.A. Bashmakov, I.M. Grigorieva, L.V. Solovjova, Fabrication of regular mesoscopic networks of GaAs wires, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.127-130, 1999. 3. V.A. Samuilov, I.B. Butylina, V.K. Ksenevich, G. Kiss, G. Remenyi, Observation of transport in mesoscopic honeycomb-shaped networks, Superlattices and Microstructures, 25: (1-2) p.p.197-202, 1999 4. J. Galibert, V.A. Samuilov, V.K. Ksenevich, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, Magnetoresistance of low dimensional mesoscopic honeycomb-shape GaAs networks, Physica B, 294-295, p.p.314-318, 2001. 5. S. Zhu, R.J. Gambino, M.H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, S.A. Schwarz, and R.D. Gomez, "Microscopic Magnetic Characterization of Submicron Cobalt Islands Prepared Using Self-Assembled Polymer Masking Technique," IEEE Trans. Magn., 33, 3022, 1997. 6. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu, DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85, p.p.5651-5654, 2000.

Samuilov, Vladimir; Seo, Young-Soo; Ksenevich, Vitaly; Galibert, Jean; Sokolov, John; Rafailovich, Miriam

2003-03-01

378

Structure in solution of a four-helix lipid binding protein.  

PubMed Central

Because of the low solubility of lipids in water, intercellular and intracellular pathways of lipid transfer are necessary, e.g., for membrane formation. The mechanism by which lipids in vivo are transported from their site of biogenesis (endoplasmatic reticulum and the chloroplasts) to their place of action is unknown. Several small plant proteins with the ability to mediate transfer of radiolabeled phospholipids in vitro from liposomal donor membranes to mitochondrial and chloroplast acceptor membranes have been isolated, and a protein with this ability, the nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) isolated from barley seeds (bLTP), has been studied here. The structure and the protein lipid interactions of lipid transfer proteins are relevant for the understanding of their function, and here we present the three-dimensional structure in solution of bLTP as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The 1H NMR spectrum of the 91-residue protein was assigned for more than 97% of the protein 1H atoms, and the structure was calculated on the basis of 813 distance restraints from 1H-1H nuclear Overhauser effects, four disulfide bond restraints, from dihedral angle restraints for 66 phi-angles, 61 chi 1 angles, and 2 chi 2 angles, and from 31 sets of hydrogen bond restraints. The solution structure of bLTP consists of four well-defined alpha-helices A-D (A, Cys 3-Gly 19; B, Gly 25-Ala 38; C, Arg 44-Gly 57; D, Leu 63-Cys 73), separated by three short loops that are less well defined and concluded by a well defined C-terminal peptide segment with no observable regular secondary structure. For the 17 structures that are used to represent the solution structure of bLTP, the RMS deviation to an average structure is 0.63 A +/- 0.04 A for backbone atoms and 0.93 A +/- 0.06 A for all heavy atoms. The secondary structure elements and their locations in the sequence resemble those of nsLTP from two other plant species, wheat and maize, whose structures were previously determined (Gincel E et al, 1995, Eur J Biochem 226:413-422; Shin DH et al, 1995, Structure 3:189-199). In bLTP, the residues analogous to those in maize nsLTP that constitute the palmitate binding site are forming a similar hydrophobic cavity and a potential acyl group binding site. Analysis of the solution structure of bLTP and bLTP in complex with a ligand might provide information on the conformational changes in the protein upon ligand binding and subsequently provide information on the mode of ligand uptake and release. In this work, we hope to establish a foundation for further work of determining the solution structure of bLTP in complex with palmitoyl coenzyme A, which is a suitable ligand, and subsequently to outline the mode of ligand binding.

Heinemann, B.; Andersen, K. V.; Nielsen, P. R.; Bech, L. M.; Poulsen, F. M.

1996-01-01

379

Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary radioactive pollution. The consequences were estimated based on the worst emission scenario for the existing basic reactor type, selection of real meteorological forecast conditions, favoring the direct transport of the contaminated air masses to the territory of the country in consideration. In the present work BERS is used to estimate the worst case accidental scenario impact from a possible new unit of Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary over the territory of Bulgaria. 1. D.Syrakov, M.Prodanova, 1998, Atmospheric Environment, 32 (24), 4367-4375. 2. D. Syrakov, M. Prodanova, K. Slavov, Inernationsal J. Environment and Pollution, 20, 1-6 (2003) 286-296. 3. D. Syrakov, B. Veleva, M. Prodanova, T. Popova, M. Kolarova, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 100 (2009) 151-156. 4. D.Syrakov, M Prodanova, J. Intern. Sci. Publ.: Ecology & Safety Vol. 6 Part 1 (2011) 94-102. www.scientific-publications.net.

Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

2014-05-01

380

The solvent-extractable organic compounds in the Indonesia biomass burning aerosols - characterization studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-scale air pollution episode due to the out-of-control biomass burning for agricultural purposes in Indonesia started in June 1997, has become a severe environmental problem for itself and the neighboring countries. The fire lasted for almost five months. Its impact on the health and ecology in the affected areas is expected to be substantial, costly and possibly long lasting. Air pollution Index as high as 839 has been reported in Malaysia. API is calculated based on the five pollutants: NO 2, SO 2, O 3, CO, and respirable suspended particulates (PM10). It ranges in value from 0 to 500. An index above 101 is considered to be unhealthy and a value over 201 is very unhealthy (Abidin and Shin, 1996). The solvent-extractable organic compounds from four total suspended particulate (TSP) high-volume samples collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (Stations Pudu and SIRIM) were subjected to characterization - the abundance was determined and biomarkers were identified. Two of the samples were from early September when the fire was less intense, while the other two were from late September when Kuala Lumpur experienced very heavy smoke coverage which could be easily observed from NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. The samples contained mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alkanes and triterpanes, alkanoic acids, alkanols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference between the early and late September samples was very significant. The total yield increased from 0.6 to 24.3 ?g m -3 at Pudu and 1.9 to 20.1 ?g m -3 at SIRIM, with increases in concentration in every class. The higher input of vascular plant wax components in the late September samples, when the fire was more intense, was characterized by the distribution patterns of the homologous series n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and n-alkanols, e.g., lower U : R, higher >C 22/C 20/

Fang, M.; Zheng, M.; Wang, F.; To, K. L.; Jaafar, A. B.; Tong, S. L.

381

Automated navigation of Mars rovers using HiRISE-CTX-HRSC co-registered orthorectified images and DTMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion of orbital and rover imagery is critical to a better understanding of the geological and geomorphological context of current and future rovers on Mars. A critical component of this is to ensure that the most accurate possible co-registration can be achieved between orbital images (co-registered to MOLA tracks) and rover imagery. Currently this is either performed by hand or uses Incremental Bundle Adjustment that does not guarantee compliance of rover and global aerographic co-ordinates. The objective of this work is to produce the most accurate possible Mars rover locations in global aerographic coordinates. The first stage of the work involves automated tie-point/feature based co-registration of high-quality image maps from coarse to fine spatial resolutions, i.e. HRSC ORI (~12.5metre/pixel) and DTM (~75mpp), CTX ORI (~6mpp) and DTM (~6mpp), HiRISE ORI (~0.25mpp) and DTM (~1mpp). The second stage of the work involves stereo reconstruction using ground data captured by Navigation cameras onboard MER-A/-B/MSL rover, bundle adjustment of the NavCam ORI/DTM for wide baseline mosaic, and co-registration of NavCam ORI (0.01mpp) and HiRISE ORI based on combined mutual information and edge feature registration techniques. The registration accuracy achieved is up to the sub pixel level of the coarser layer, e.g. 1.25mpp for HRSC-to-CTX, and the final rover traverse has a resolution of 0.025mpp. The development work is based on previous research/development work on HiRISE/HRSC ORI/DTM co-registration [1], stereo ground reconstruction [2], and multi-resolution data fusion [3] within the EU-FP7-PRoVisG project (http://provisg.eu). The co-registered rover locations and multi-layer map have been partly integrated into the interactive web-GIS system (http://progisweb.eu) developed for scientific data selection and visualisation within the PRoVisG and EU-FP7-PRoViDE project (http://provide-space.eu). Further assessment will be performed within PRoViDE. The final products are sets of co-registered multi-layer maps and updated SPICE kernel files in a common global coordinates. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No.312377 PRoViDE. References: [1] W.D. Poole, J.-P. Muller (2012), On the calibration of MOLA pulse-width surface roughness estimates using high-resolution DTMs, in LPSC, The Woodlands, Texas. LPI contribution No.1659, id: 1854 [2] D. Shin and J.-P. Muller (2012), Progressively weighted affine adaptive correlation matching for quasi-dense 3D reconstruction. Pattern Recognition. Pages 1-49 [3] Y. Tao, and J.-P. Muller (2013), A Multi-resolution 3D Reconstruction Tool: Exemplar using MSL NavCam PDS and MastCam PIO imagery, in EPSC (Europlanets), London, UK, EPSC2013-584

Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

2014-05-01

382

Raman and Photoluminescence Studies of III-V Nitrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) studies of III-V nitrides are addressed focusing on recombination mechanisms in superlattics (SL), phonon lifetimes in crystals, and phonon dynamics. A detailed study of PL of GaN/AlGaN based SL is presented [1]. The dependence of the PL emission energy, linewidth, and intensity on temperature in the low temperature regime is consistent with recombination mechanisms involving bandtail states attributed to a small degree of interfacial disorder. The non-radiative activation energy of the PL agrees well with the value derived for the width of the tail-state distribution, indicating the role of some of the deep tail-states as trapping centers for the PL. Additionally, the effect of the polarization field on the PL characteristics is discussed. Raman studies of the lifetimes of phonon modes in GaN and AlN crystallites are also presented [2]. The analysis indicates that the phonon lifetimes in the III-V nitrides as well as in other semiconductors of the wurtzite structure fall into two main regimes: a relatively long time for the low-E2 mode and much shorter times (by approximately an order of magnitude) for the high-E2, E1(TO), A1(TO), and A1(LO) modes. The two time regimes are discussed in terms of the anharmonic decay mechanisms of the phonons in materials of wurtzite structure. The impact of impurities and dopants on the phonon decay time is analyzed as well. A Raman study of LO and TO quasi-mode frequencies as a function of the phonon- propagation angle in AlN is lastly presented [3]. The mode frequencies are analyzed in terms of the interaction of the polar phonons with the long-range electrostatic field. It is shown that the frequency of the LO quasi-mode exhibits a weaker angular dispersion than that of the TO quasi-mode. These frequency shifts, which are geometry dependent, have to be considered when analyzing other effects via Raman frequency such as stress and phonon-plasmon interaction. [1] L. Bergman, M. Dutta, M.A. Stroscio, S.M. Komirenko, R.J. Nemanich, C.J. Eiting, D.J.H. Lambert, H.K. Kwon, and R.D. Dupuis. Submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett. (1999). [2] L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P.L. Murphy, R.J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M.A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R.F. Davis, Phys. Rev.B, 59, 12977 (1999). [3] L. Bergman M. Dutta, C. Balkas, R.F. Davis, J.A. Christman, D. Alexson, R.J. Nemanich, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3535 (1999).

Bergman, Leah

2000-03-01

383

Four centuries of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature from coral archives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ability to judge the significance of recent climate change is fundamentally limited by the shortness and sparsity of the instrumental record. It is therefore crucial to extend the latter, particularly in the tropical Pacific where powerful air/sea interactions orchestrate global-scale low-frequency climate variability. Reconstructions of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) variability have traditionally relied heavily on extratropical proxy records, particularly dendrochronological ones. Such dependence hinders a rigorous examination of the links between tropical SST and continental hydroclimate in the pre-instrumental era. Here we use an expanded network of high-resolution coral proxies and a novel statistical methodology (GraphEM Guillot et al., in revision) to reconstruct tropical Pacific SST back to 1600 C.E solely from annually-banded coral archives. The network and method prove able to capture ? 30% of interannual SST variability in the NINO3.4 region, but systematically under-represents El Nino events, especially strong ones, which negatively affect coral physiology at some sites. La Nina events, however, are more faithfully captured. The reconstructed NINO3.4 displays no long-term trend since 1600 C.E, contradicting claims that the twentieth century is anomalous with respect to a long-term baseline (McGregor et al., 2010). Changes in the preponderance of ENSO 'flavors' (Eastern Pacific vs Central Pacific El Nino events) are assessed using the methodology of (Yeh et al., 2009), and suggests that the late twentieth century trend towards increased CP El Nino occurrences is within historic norms, consistent with results employing a multivariate red noise model (Newman et al., 2011). The link to North American droughts is assessed by comparison to the Palmer Drought Severity Index from the North American Drought Atlas v2a (Cook et al., 2004; Cook, 2008): the pattern corresponding to notable droughts in the US southwest is cool tropical Pacific, both during the instrumental and pre- instrumental period. In detail, SST patterns associated with individual drought episodes may deviate from the canonical La Nina (Cook et al., 2007). Finally, superposed epoch analysis confirms the results of Adams et al. (2003) that El Nino events tend to follow large tropical explosive eruptions. A formal analysis of uncertainties will put these findings into a probabilistic context. References Adams, J., M. Mann, and C. Ammann (2003), Proxy evidence for an El Nino-like response to volcanic forcing, Nature, 426, 274-278, doi:10.1038/nature02101. Cook, E. (2008), North american summer PDSI reconstructions, version 2a, NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA Data Contribution Series # 2008-046, IGBP PAGES/World Data Center for Paleoclimatology. Cook, E., R. Seager, M. Cane, and D. Stahle (2007), North American drought: Reconstructions, causes, and consequences, Earth Sc. Rev. Guillot, D., B. Rajaratnam, and J. Emile-Geay (in revision), A graphical model based approach to paleoclimate reconstruction, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. McGregor, S., A. Timmermann, and O. Timm (2010), A unified proxy for ENSO and PDO variability since 1650, Climate of the Past, 6(1), 1-17, Newman, M., S.-I. Shin, and M. A. Alexander (2011), Natural variation in ENSO flavors, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(14) Yeh, S.-W., J.-S. Kug, B. Dewitte, M.-H. Kwon, B. P. Kirtman, and F.-F. Jin (2009), El Nino in a changing climate, Nature, 461(7263), 511-514.

Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Cobb, K. M.; Cole, J. E.; Correge, T.; Tudhope, A. W.; Rajaratnam, B.

2012-12-01

384

A model of hydrogen bond formation in phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers.  

PubMed

We have modelled hydrogen bond formation in phospholipid bilayers formed, in excess water, from lipids with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroups. The hydrogen bonds are formed between the NH3+ group and either of the PO2- or the (sn2 chain) C=O groups. We used a model that represented the conformational states accessible to a PE headgroup by 17 states and modelled lipid dipole-dipole interactions using a non-local electrostatics theory to include the effects of hydrogen bonding in the aqueous medium. We used Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate equilibrium thermodynamic properties of bilayers in the fluid (T = 340 K) or gel (T = 300 K) phases of the bilayer. We defined Eh to be the difference in free energy between a hydrogen bond formed between a pair of lipid groups, and the energy of hydrogen bonds formed between water and those two groups, and we required its average value, [Eh], to be approximately -0.3kcal/mol (approximately -0.2 X 10(-13) erg) as reported by T.-B. Shin, R. Leventis, J.R. Silvius, Biochemistry 30 (1991) 7491. We found: (i) Eh = -0.9 X 10(-13) erg gave [Eh] = -0.21 X 10(-13) erg (gel phase) and [Eh] = -0.19 X 10(-13) erg (fluid phase). (ii) The relative number of C=O groups on the sn2 chain calculated to take part in interlipid hydrogen bonding in the fluid phase compared to the gel is 1.06 which compares well with the experimental ratio of approximately 1.25 (R.N.A.H. Lewis, R.N. McElhaney, Biophys. J. 64 (1993) 1081). The ratio of such groups taking part in interlipid hydrogen bonding compared to water hydrogen bonding in each phase was calculated to lie between 0.16 and 0.17. (iii) We calculated the distribution of positions of the headgroup moieties, P, O, CH2(alpha), CH2(beta) and N, and found that, in both phases, the O lay furthest from the hydrocarbon chain layer (average approximately 5.3A) with the PO2 and NH3 groups lying at approximately 5A. This results in the P-N dipole lying nearly parallel to the bilayer plane in both phases. The thickness of the headgroup layer underwent essentially no change on going from the gel to the fluid phase. The 2H NMR quadrupole splittings for the alpha and beta CH2 groups were 4.9 and 5.7kHz (fluid phase) and 7.1 and 7.3 kHz (gel phase), respectively, on the assumption of sufficiently rapid rotation around the z-axis. (iv) In both phases, the location of the NH3+ group exhibited a strong peak around 5.2 A into the aqueous medium, with much smaller peaks around 2.6 and 7.8 A, the two CH2 groups exhibited narrower, double-peaked distributions and the O and the PO2 each exhibited a narrow single peak. (v) PE headgroups, in a homogeneous gel phase, exhibited dipolar orientational long-range order in the plane of the bilayer. The distribution of orientation angles exhibited a full width at half height of between approximately 40 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. In a fluid phase no such order was observed. (vi) The number of hydrogen bonds did not differ substantially between the fluid and gel phases. This model is unlikely to display any significant effect of hydrogen bonding upon the "main" hydrocarbon chain melting phase transition at Tm, except, possibly, a broadening of any hysteresis, compared to the case of PC bilayers where interlipid hydrogen bonding is absent. PMID:9459606

Pink, D A; McNeil, S; Quinn, B; Zuckermann, M J

1998-01-19

385

Late-onset Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old woman presented with complaints of exfoliation of the skin and mottled pigmentation all over the body, intolerance to sunlight for the last 14 years, and swelling on the lower one-third of the neck for 15 years. She was apparently well until the age of 29 years when she noticed redness on her shins which later progressed to involve the upper limbs, chest, and face. Three months later, she observed multiple, small, brownish plaques over the erythematous areas, which gradually spread to the sun-exposed areas, namely the face, forearms, hands, and nape of the neck. The erythema disappeared within 5 months of onset. The patient experienced redness of the face, intolerance to the sun, and reduced sweating, particularly during the summer. There was no history of bullous eruption, difficulty during deglutition, tremors, or pedal edema. She suffered five miscarriages and, ultimately, was successful in delivering a normal boy who is now 16 years of age. She had menarche at the age of 14 years and her menstrual cycle was regular. There was no history of similar illness in the family. On cutaneous examination, the skin on the face, neck, trunk, buttocks, and limbs was found to be dry, lusterless, thin, and covered with fine scales. Mottled hyperpigmentation was observed all over the body. Atrophy and telangiectasia were seen over the neck (Fig. 1), face (Fig. 2), nape of the neck, upper and lower limbs, back, and chest. Mild erythema was observed over the face, nose, ears, and forearms. The hair on the scalp, eyebrows, axillae, and pubic area was sparse and thin. The teeth were loose and discolored due to caries, and a foul odor emanated from the mouth. The nails were lusterless and centrally depressed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, smooth, nontender, and moved with deglutition. No bruit was heard over it. No ocular abnormality was detected. The patient had a haemoglobin level of 7.6 g%, total serum iron binding capacity of 70 micromol/L (normal, 45-66 micromol/L), and serum ferritin level of 10 microg/L (normal, 15-200 microg/L). Peripheral blood smear showed hypochromic microcytic red blood cells. Total and differential leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood glucose, serum electrolytes, total and differential serum proteins, liver function tests, blood urea, and microscopic examination of urine and stools were within normal limits. The thyroid profile and complement C3 and C4 levels were within normal limits. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear factor and LE cells were absent. Abdominal ultrasonogram was normal. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the thyroid gland showed features suggestive of colloid goiter. Skin biopsy revealed thinning of the epidermis, flattening of the rete ridges, and hydropic degeneration of the basal cell layer. The dermis was edematous with dilated capillaries, melanophages, and a band-like mononuclear infiltrate. The sweat glands were reduced in number. PMID:17472679

Kumar, Pramod; Sharma, Prafulla Kumar; Gautam, Ram Krishan; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Kar, Hemanta Kumar

2007-05-01

386

First retrievals of HCFC-142b from ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar observations: application to high-altitude Jungfraujoch spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are the first substitutes to the long-lived ozone depleting halocarbons, in particular the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Given the complete ban of the CFCs by the Montreal Protocol, its Amendments and Adjustments, HCFCs are on the rise, with current rates of increase substantially larger than at the beginning of the 21st century. HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) is presently the second most abundant HCFCs, after HCFC-22 (CHClF2). It is used in a wide range of applications, including as a blowing foam agent, in refrigeration and air-conditioning. Its concentration will soon reach 25 ppt in the northern hemisphere, with mixing ratios increasing at about 1.1 ppt/yr [Montzka et al., 2011]. The HCFC-142b lifetime is estimated at 18 years. With a global warming potential of 2310 on a 100-yr horizon, this species is also a potent greenhouse gas [Forster et al., 2007]. First space-based retrievals of HCFC-142b have been reported by Dufour et al. [2005]. 17 occultations recorded in 2004 by the Canadian ACE-FTS instrument (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer, onboard SCISAT-1) were analyzed, using two microwindows (1132.5-1135.5 and 1191.5-1195.5 cm-1). In 2009, Rinsland et al. determined the HCFC-142b trend near the tropopause, from the analysis of ACE-FTS observations recorded over the 2004-2008 time period. The spectral region used in this study extended from 903 to 905.5 cm-1. In this contribution, we will present the first HCFC-142b measurements from ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra. We use observations recorded at the high altitude station of the Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8°E, 3580 m asl), with a Bruker 120HR instrument, in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, visit http://www.ndacc.org). The retrieval of HCFC-142b is very challenging, with simulations indicating only weak absorptions, lower than 1% for low sun spectra and current concentrations. Among the four microwindows tested, the region extending from 900 to 906 cm-1 proved to be the most appropriate, with limited interferences, in particular from water vapor. A total column time series spanning the 2004-2012 time period will be presented, analyzed and critically discussed. After conversion of our total columns to concentrations, we will compare our results with in situ measurements performed in the northern hemisphere by the AGAGE network. Acknowledgments The University of Liège contribution to the present work has primarily been supported by the SSD and PRODEX programs (AGACC-II and A3C projects, respectively) funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO), Brussels. E. Mahieu is Research Associate with the F.R.S. - FNRS. Laboratory developments and mission expenses at the Jungfraujoch station were funded by the F.R.S. - FNRS and the Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, respectively. We thank the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat (HFSJG, Bern) for supporting the facilities needed to perform the observations. We further acknowledge the vital contribution from all the Belgian colleagues in performing the Jungfraujoch observations used here. References Dufour, G., C.D. Boone, and P.F. Bernath, First measurements of CFC-113 and HCFC-142b from space using ACE-FTS infrared spectra, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15S09, doi:10.1029/2005GL022422, 2005. Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz and R. Van Dorland, 2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Montzka, S.A., S. Reimann, A. Engel, K. Krüger, S. O'Do

Mahieu, Emmanuel; O'Doherty, Simon; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin; Bader, Whitney; Bovy, Benoît; Lejeune, Bernard; Demoulin, Philippe; Roland, Ginette; Servais, Christian; Zander, Rodolphe

2013-04-01

387

Nuclear Structure in China 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal view on nuclear physics research / Jie Meng -- High-spin level structures in [symbol]Zr / X. P. Cao ... [et al.] -- Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes / Lie-Wen Chen ... [et al.] -- Wobbling rotation in atomic nuclei / Y. S. Chen and Zao-Chun Gao -- The mixing of scalar mesons and the possible nonstrange dibaryons / L. R. Dai ... [et al.] -- Net baryon productions and gluon saturation in the SPS, RHIC and LHC energy regions / Sheng-Qin Feng -- Production of heavy isotopes with collisions between two actinide nuclides / Z. Q. Feng ... [et al.] -- The projected configuration interaction method / Zao-Chun Gao and Yong-Shou Chen -- Applications of Nilsson mean-field plus extended pairing model to rare-earth nuclei / Xin Guan ... [et al.] -- Complex scaling method and the resonant states / Jian-You Guo ... [et al.] -- Probing the equation of state by deep sub-barrier fusion reactions / Hong-Jun Hao and Jun-Long Tian -- Doublet structure study in A[symbol]105 mass region / C. Y. He ... [et al.] -- Rotational bands in transfermium nuclei / X. T. He -- Shape coexistence and shape evolution [symbol]Yb / H. Hua ... [et al.] -- Multistep shell model method in the complex energy plane / R. J. Liotta -- The evolution of protoneutron stars with kaon condensate / Ang Li -- High spin structures in the [symbol]Lu nucleus / Li Cong-Bo ... [et al.] -- Nuclear stopping and equation of state / QingFeng Li and Ying Yuan -- Covariant description of the low-lying states in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes / Z. X. Li ... [et al.] -- Isospin corrections for superallowed [symbol] transitions / HaoZhao Liang ... [et al.] -- The positive-parity band structures in [symbol]Ag / C. Liu ... [et al.] -- New band structures in odd-odd [symbol]I and [symbol]I / Liu GongYe ... [et al.] -- The sd-pair shell model and interacting boson model / Yan-An Luo ... [et al.] -- Cross-section distributions of fragments in the calcium isotopes projectile fragmentation at the intermediate energy / C. W. Ma ... [et al.].Systematic study of spin assignment and dynamic moment of inertia of high-j intruder band in [symbol]In / K. Y. Ma ... [et al.] -- Signals of diproton emission from the three-body breakup channel of [symbol]Al and [symbol]Mg / Ma Yu-Gang ... [et al.] -- Uncertainties of Th/Eu and Th/Hf chronometers from nucleus masses / Z. M. Niu ... [et al.] -- The chiral doublet bands with [symbol] configuration in A[symbol]100 mass region / B. Qi ... [et al.] -- [symbol] formation probabilities in nuclei and pairing collectivity / Chong Qi -- A theoretical prospective on triggered gamma emission from [symbol]Hf[symbol] isomer / ShuiFa Shen ... [et al.] -- Study of nuclear giant resonances using a Fermi-liquid method / Bao-Xi Sun -- Rotational bands in doubly odd [symbol]Sb / D. P. Sun ... [et al.] -- The study of the neutron N=90 nuclei / W. X. Teng ... [et al.] -- Dynamical modes and mechanisms in ternary reaction of [symbol]Au+[symbol]Au / Jun-Long Tian ... [et al.] -- Dynamical study of X(3872) as a D[symbol] molecular state / B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Super-heavy stability island with a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula / N. Wang ... [et al.] -- Pseudospin partner bands in [symbol]Sb / S. Y. Wang ... [et al.] -- Study of elastic resonance scattering at CIAE / Y. B. Wang ... [et al.] -- Systematic study of survival probability of excited superheavy nuclei / C. J. Xia ... [et al.] -- Angular momentum projection of the Nilsson mean-field plus nearest-orbit pairing interaction model / Ming-Xia Xie ... [et al.] -- Possible shape coexistence for [symbol]Sm in a reflection-asymmetric relativistic mean-field approach / W. Zhang ... [et al.] -- Nuclear pairing reduction due to rotation and blocking / Zhen-Hua Zhang -- Nucleon pair approximation of the shell model: a review and perspective / Y. M. Zhao ... [et al.] -- Band structures in doubly odd [symbol]I / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Lifetimes of high spin states in [symbol]Ag / Y. Zheng ... [et al.] -- Effect of tensor interaction on the shell structure of superheavy nucle

Bai, Hong-Bo; Meng, Jie; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

2011-08-01

388

Earth radiation balance as observed and represented in CMIP5 models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genesis and evolution of Earth's climate is largely regulated by the Earth radiation balance. Despite of its key role in the context of climate change, substantial uncertainties still exist in the quantification of the magnitudes of its different components, and its representation in climate models. While the net radiative energy flows in and out of the climate system at the top of atmosphere are now known with considerable accuracy from new satellite programs such as CERES and SORCE, the energy distribution within the climate system and at the Earth's surface is less well determined. Accordingly, the magnitudes of the components of the surface energy balance have recently been controversially disputed, and potential inconsistencies between the estimated magnitudes of the global energy and water cycle have been emphasized. Here we summarize this discussion as presented in Chapter 2.3 of the 5th IPCC assessment report (AR5). In this context we made an attempt to better constrain the magnitudes of the surface radiative components with largest uncertainties. In addition to satellite observations, we thereby made extensive use of the growing number of surface observations to constrain the radiation balance not only from space, but also from the surface. We combined these observations with the latest modeling efforts performed for AR5 (CMIP5) to infer best estimates for the global mean surface radiative components. Our analyses favor global mean values of downward surface solar and thermal radiation near 185 and 342 Wm-2, respectively, which are most compatible with surface observations (Wild et al. 2013). These estimates are on the order of 10 Wm-2 lower and higher, respectively, than in some of the previous global energy balance assessments, including those presented in previous IPCC reports. It is encouraging that these estimates, which make full use of the information contained in the surface networks, coincide within 2 Wm-2 with the latest satellite-derived estimates (Kato et al. 2013), which are completely independently determined. This enhances confidence in these recent surface flux estimates. IPCC AR5 further presents increasing evidence from direct observations that the surface radiative fluxes undergo significant changes on decadal timescales, not only in their thermal components as expected from the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth surface. In the thermal range, surface observations suggest an overall increase of downward thermal radiation in line with latest projections from the CMIP5 models and expectations from an increasing greenhouse effect. On the other hand the strong decadal changes in surface solar radiation seen in the observations ("dimming/brightening") are not fully captured by current climate models. These decadal changes in surface solar radiation may largely affect various aspects of climate change. Selected related references: Hartmann, D.L., A.M.G. Klein Tank, M. Rusticucci, L. Alexander, S. Brönnimann, Y. Charabi, F. Dentener, E. Dlugokencky, D. Easterling, A. Kaplan, B. Soden, P. Thorne, M. Wild and P.M. Zhai, 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kato, S., Loeb, N.G., Rose, F.G., Doelling, D.R., Rutan, D.A., Caldwell, T.E., Yu, L.S, and Weller, R.A., 2013: Surface irradiances consistent with CERES-derived top-of-atmosphere shortwave and longwave irradiances. Journal of Climate 26 (9):2719-2740. doi:Doi 10.1175/Jcli-D-12-00436.1 Wild, M., 2012: New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance. Atmospheric Environment, 55, 366-367. Wild, M. 2012: Enlightening Global Dimming and Brightening. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 27-37, d

Wild, Martin; Folini, Doris; Schär, Christoph; Loeb, Norman; König-Langlo, Gert