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Dieta del pez espada Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en distintas zonas de pesca frente a Chile central durante el otoño de 2004 Diet of swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 from different fishing zones off central-Chile during autumn 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat of the predator and sample size (stomach number) are some of the most important factors to consider in the study of its diet. To investigate these variations we studied the diet of 51 swordfish Xiphias gladius (range: 173-301 cm) in four fishing areas off central Chile (30ºS - 40ºS) during autumn-winter of 2004. Frequency of occurrence, numeric and

Katherine Castillo; Christian M. Ibáñez; Carlos González; Javier Chong


Evidence of a high percentage of intersex in the Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).  


The first evidence of the presence of intersexuality in a wild population of Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) is reported. Forty of 162 specimens (25%) macroscopically classified as males, showed the presence of female germ cells within the testes. In two specimens grouped previtellogenic oocytes were present; all the other specimens possessed single scattered previtellogenic oocytes. The presence of vitellogenin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the liver of both intersex and normal males. These findings could be due to the exposure to oestrogen-mimicking substances. PMID:12604071

De Metrio, G; Corriero, A; Desantis, S; Zubani, D; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Bridges, C R; Eicker, J; de la Serna, J M; Megalofonou, P; Kime, D E



Global population structure of the swordfish ( Xiphias gladius L.) as revealed by analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global population structure of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) was examined by analyzing the DNA sequence variation contained within the hypervariable left domain of the mitochondrial control region of 247 individuals. A total of 330 base pairs (bp) of sequence from 112 individuals collected in the Pacific (n = 26), the Atlantic (n = 47) and the Mediterranean (n

Jaime R. Alvarado Bremer; Jaime Mejuto; Thomas W. Greig; Bert Ely



Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian coast.  


The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT may bioaccumulate in the aquatic food web and have been of great concern due to their toxic effects on wildlife and human health. There is evidence showing that fish in the human diet contributes at a significant proportion to the total intake of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat levels. This study investigated the concentration of PCBs and DDTs in muscle tissues of samples of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from east Brazilian coast and estimate the human exposure to total DDTs through the consumption of both the species. Samples of the each species were caught between August and September 2001. The mean concentration for summation operator PCBs in P. glauca was 3.15 ng/g w.w. and the summation operator DDTs was 0.93 ng/g w.w. The mean concentration of summation operator PCBs in X. gladius was 6.50 ng/g and the mean of summation operator DDTs was 2.47 ng/g. The estimated daily intake of summation operator DDT through X. gladius or P. glauca consumption can be considered safe since it contributes to less than 0.1% of the limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) of summation operator DDT proposed by WHO. PMID:17223179

de Azevedo e Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Azeredo, Antonio; Lailson-Brito, José; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf



Physicochemical characterisation of ?-chitosan from Sepioteuthis lessoniana gladius.  


?-Chitin and its chitosan from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana have been isolated, purified, characterised and compared with the commercial chitosan. Ash, moisture, mineral, metal and elemental content were analyzed using standard techniques. The optical activity of chitin was found to be levorotatory. The degree of deacetylation was calculated by potentiometric titration and (1)H NMR. Viscosity average molecular weight of ?-chitosan was calculated by viscometry and size average molecular weight by GPC. The structure of ?-chitosan was elucidated with FT-IR and NMR. Thermal nature, crystalline structure and morphology of ?-chitosan were characterised through DSC, XRD and SEM, respectively. The water and fat binding capacity of ?-chitosan presently studied was significantly higher than that of the commercial chitosan. The result of the present study adds that S. lessoniana gladius is also an additional source of ?-chitin and chitosan of higher yield, lower molecular weight and higher degree of deacetylation. PMID:23790866

Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Madeswaran, Perumal; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Shanmugam, Annaian



Effect of chitosan treatments on quality parameters of fresh refrigerated swordfish (Xiphias gladius) steaks stored in air and under vacuum conditions.  


The present study examined the effect of chitosan (1.0% w/v) in combination with packaging on the shelf-life of fresh swordfish steaks. Treatments included the following: A (untreated, control samples stored in air), A-CH (treated with chitosan 1.0% w/v, stored in air), VP (untreated, stored under vacuum packaging) and VP-CH (treated with chitosan, stored under vacuum packaging). VP-CH significantly affected Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Production of TMA-N and TVB-N for A-CH, VP and VP-CH swordfish samples was significantly lower than for control (A) samples at day 8 of storage. Histamine formation for all treatments was low. A-CH and VP-CH resulted in significantly lower levels of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (day 8) as compared to A and VP swordfish samples. Results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of swordfish steaks can be extended using, either aerobic or vacuum packaging and in combination with chitosan, by approximately 4 (A-CH), 8 (VP) and 12 (VP-CH) days. Swordfish steaks treated with chitosan and stored under VP were sensorially acceptable up to 17days. The presence of chitosan (A-CH and VP-CH) did not negatively influence the taste of cooked swordfish. PMID:23072694

Tsiligianni, Maria; Papavergou, Eikaterini; Soultos, Nikolaos; Magra, Taxiarhoula; Savvaidis, Ioannis N



Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean.  


Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5microgg(-1); swordfish: 0.031-9.8microgg(-1)) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liasons. PMID:17376573

Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos



Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)|

Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda



50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...angustirostris. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Sailfish Istiophorus platypterus. Sharks: pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus. bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus. common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. silky...



50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...



Swordfish Vertical Distribution and Recreational Fishery in the Florida Straits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is composed of two studies: (1) an assessment of the vertical habitat use of swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Florida Straits; and (2) a systematic description of the southeast Florida recreational swordfish fishery. First, the vertical distribution of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) was assessed in relation to diel cycles and lunar phase from data gathered utilizing popup satellite archival

Justin David Lerner



Cain on Linnaeus: the scientist-historian as unanalysed entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoologist A. J. Cain began historical research on Linnaeus in 1956 in connection with his dissatisfaction over the standard taxonomic hierarchy and the rules of binomial nomenclature. His famous 1958 paper ‘Logic and Memory in Linnaeus's System of Taxonomy’ argues that Linnaeus was following Aristotle's method of logical division without appreciating that it properly applies only to ‘analysed entities’ such

Mary P Winsor



Fishery Bulletin. Volume 80, Number 2, April 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Development of the vertebral column, fins and fin supports, branchiostegal rays, and squamation in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius; Age and growth of larval Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus in the Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank region; Increment for...



A translation of Carl Linnaeus's introduction to Genera plantarum (1737).  


This paper provides a translation of the introduction, titled 'Account of the work' Ratio operis, to the first edition of Genera plantarum, published in 1737 by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The text derives its significance from the fact that it is the only published text in which Linnaeus engaged in an explicit discussion of his taxonomic method. Most importantly, it shows that Linnaeus was clearly aware that a classification of what he called 'natural genera' could not be achieved by a top-down approach of logical division, but had to rely on inductive, bottom-up procedures. The translation is supplemented by explanatory notes. PMID:17893065

Müller-Wille, Staffan; Reeds, Karen




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types via the Minor Planet Center within 24 hours and a full archive of spectra and products will be provided.

Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.



Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function.  


The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying the foundations of modern taxonomy through the invention of binominal nomenclature. However, another innovation of Linnaeus' has largely gone unnoticed. He seems to have been one of the first botanists to leave his herbarium unbound, keeping the sheets of dried plants separate and stacking them in a purpose built-cabinet. Understanding the significance of this seemingly mundane and simple invention opens a window onto the profound changes that natural history underwent in the 18th century. PMID:16600379

Müller-Wille, Staffan



Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect  

PubMed Central

Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

Muller-Wille, S.



Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen



[Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].  


In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan



Food habits of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus , off the southwest coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, is caught in the eastern North Atlantic as a regular bycatch of the surface-drift longline fishery, mainly directed towards swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Stomachs of 112 shortfin mako sharks, ranging in size from 64 cm to 290 cm fork length, showed teleosts to be the principal component of the diet, occurring in 87% of the stomachs and accounting

Anabela Maia; Nuno Queiroz; João P. Correia; Henrique Cabral



Pelagic shark bycatch in the tuna and swordfish-directed longline fishery off southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of pelagic sharks as bycatch of the South African pelagic longline fleet targeting tuna Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius was investigated during the period 1998-2005. In all, 26 species were caught, of which six are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (lUCN) as Vulnerable and one (scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini) as Endangered. Blue shark

S. L. Petersen; M. B. Honig; P. G. Ryan; L. G. Underhill; L JV Compagno



Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, 1952?1998. II. A preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic fisheries in the Pacific Ocean target both large ( Thunnus spp.) and small tunas (juveniles of Thunnus spp; Katsuwonus pelamis) but also take billfishes (Xiphias gladius, Makaira spp., Tetrapturus spp., Istiophorus platypterus) and sharks (Prionace glauca, Alopias superciliosus, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Galeocerdo cuvieri) as bycatch. We developed a multispecies model using the Ecopath with Ecosim software that incorporated

Sean P. Cox; Timothy E. Essington; James F. Kitchell; Steven J. D. Martell; Carl J. Walters; Christofer Boggs; Isaac Kaplan



Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead

Luis Cardona; Irene Álvarez de Quevedo; Assumpció Borrell; Alex Aguilar



Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on sea turtle by-catch observed in pelagic longline sets during research cruises in the south Atlantic in the vicinity of the shelf edge break in southern Brazil. The longline gear was set in a similar manner to that employed by the commercial longline fleet operating out of Santos, Brazil that targets swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Nineteen sea turtles

M. C Pinedo; T Polacheck



Spanish driftnet fishing and incidental catches in the western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spanish driftnet fishery operating since 1994 on the Mediterranean side of the Gibraltar Straits was an illegal activity whose main target was the swordfish Xiphias gladius but which also caught other species incidentally, particularly sunfish Mola mola. Observations during the 1993 and 1994 seasons showed that the fleet was composed of 27 boats deploying nets 3–4 km long. Swordfish

L. Silvani; M. Gazo; A. Aguilar



Mortality and growth of juvenile coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early mortality in cohortsof the coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) was monitored under experimental conditions on a reef in order to evaluate effects of sedimentation, grazing, predation and competition. Corals that settled in dishes in the laboratory were placed on the reef flat about 3 days after metamorphosis. Six different conditions were tested in each series of experiments: orientation of dishes (upward, vertical and downward) by with and without protection against potential grazers by covering the dish with a net. Survival of juvenile corals on both protected and unprotected dishes facing upward was lower than in the vertical or downward direction. Under the vertical facing and protected conditions, algal growth was more intensive and algae trapped sediment; mortality of juvenile corals by algae and sedimentation increased gradually. In the uprotected and vertical conditions, algal growth on the surface was removed constantly by grazing invertebrates and fishes and the juvenile corals were removed or killed as well. On the downward facing dishes, survivorship of juveniles was relatively high in both protected and unprotected conditions. This habitat attracted many sessile animals that killed some juveniles by competition. Thus, juvenile corals survived better in experimentally manipulated microhabitats not affected by direct sedimentation, not exposed to direct grazing activity, and not occupied by rapidly growing filamentous algae.

Sato, Mayumi




Microsoft Academic Search

Ornamental fishes are the most popular pets in present day world. Among these orna- mental fishes, gold fish (Carrasius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)) is the most admired ornamental fish through out the world and also in India. Most of the fish farmers associated with ornamental fish trade in India are engaged in captive cul- ture of gold fishes. Supply of suitable

Sandipan Gupta; Samir Banerjee


Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae): Concepts, Type Designations, and Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of the concept of culex pipiens linnaeus is reviewed. An illustration of a syntype published by reaumur is designated as the lectotype of pipiens. A lectotype is also designated for culex bifurcatus linneaus, which is stabilized as a synonym o...

R. E. Harbach C. Dahl G. B. White



Life History and Ecology of Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of life history and ecology of carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were conducted from June 1964 through August 1969, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico. Carp are the least abundant and constitute the smallest management problem of three rough-fish sp...

C. Sanchez



Halocynthia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as an indicator of SCUBA diving impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solitary ascidian Halocynthia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is proposed as a good indicator of the deleterious effect of SCUBA diving on the Mediterranean coralligenous communities. A comparative survey of H. papillosa populations at frequented and unfrequented localities was carried out over a two-year period (during 2006 and 2007), before and after a peak diving season in the Sierra Helada Marine

B. Luna-Pérez; C. Valle; T. Vega Fernández; J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso; A. A. Ramos-Esplá




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cissus sicyoides C. Linnaeus, a perennial vine native to tropical Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, has recently been discovered in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. A dense population of this exotic species has been located in a brushy area along a canal network and in two adjacent cit...


Biochemical composition of the isopod Mesidotea entomon (Linnaeus) from the western Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in biochemical composition were determined for the isopod Mesidotea entomon (Linnaeus) from two differing ecological habitats in the western Arctic. Isopods from Pauline Cove, Yukon Territory, showed quantitative differences in total lipid and carbohydrate compared with those of similar body size from Dolomite Lake, Northwest Territories. Total chitin, ash, and protein were similar in isopods from both sites. A

R. E. Korczynski




Microsoft Academic Search

In connection with the investigations of the common commercial shrimp, Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) , carried on by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, studies have been made of the structure of the reproductive organs and accessory sex characters and the general nature of the reproductive process. This report gives information on the anatomy and histology of the male and



Lead, mercury, and certain nutrient elements in ulva lactuca (linnaeus) from Ras Beirut, Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collections of Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus) at nine locations along the coast of Ras Beirut, Lebanon were analysed for lead, mercury, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. Low lead concentrations, the same in all samples, could possibly indicate that U. lactuca has some means by which lead uptake and toxicity can be controlled. Phosphate levels may be a contributing factor

J. Shiber; E. Washburn



[Metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Durusu (Terkos)].  


In this study, metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Durusu (Terkos) were investigated between June 2002 and May 2003. During this study, a total of 67 bream were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites. Ten species of parasites were found on 64 of the 67 fish examined. These parasites are: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878) and D. distinguendus (Nybelin, 1936) Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) Cestoidea, Tetracotyle sp, Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832) metacercaria Trematoda, Eustrongylides excisus (Jagerskiöld, 1909) Nematoda, Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirudinea, glochidia of mollusk, Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) Crustacea. Diplostomum sp., Dactylogyrus sphyrna and D. distinguendus were found to be the dominant parasites of A. brama. Both the prevalence and intensity of other parasites were not found to be high. All identified parasites are a new finding for A. brama in the Lake Durusu. This is the first time that D. distinguendus has been identified in Turkey. PMID:17160860

Karatoy, Emine; Soylu, Erhan



Decreases in Shark Catches and Mortality in the Hawaii-Based Longline Fishery as Documented by Fishery Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes catch data for sharks collected by fishery observers during two periods (1995–2000 and 2004–2006) in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery, which targets swordfish Xiphias gladius in the shallow-set sector and bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the deep-set sector. The blue shark Prionace glauca was the predominant shark species caught throughout the study period (84.5% of all sharks).

William A. Walsh; Keith A. Bigelow; Karen L. Sender



Sea turtle bycatch in the Chilean pelagic longline fishery in the southeastern Pacific: Opportunities for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented on sea turtles caught in the Chilean longline fishery targeting swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in international waters off Chile. A total of 10,604,059 hooks from 7976 sets were observed, representing 94% of the total number of hooks fished between 2001 and 2005. Leatherbacks, Dermochelys coriacea, (n=284) and loggerheads, Caretta caretta, (n=59) were the most common species captured. Leatherbacks

Miguel Donoso; Peter H. Dutton




Microsoft Academic Search

FERREIRA , R.L., H.R. MARTINS , A.A. SILVA & A.B. BOLTEN 2001. Impact of swordfish fisheries on sea turtles in the Azores. Arquipélago . Life and Marine Sciences 18A: 75-79. Ponta Delgada. ISSN 0873-4704. The surface longline fishery around the Azores targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius ). Bycatch from this fishery includes loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta ) and occasionally leatherback



Stable isotopic evidence for trophic groupings and bio-regionalization of predators and their prey in oceanic waters off eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle tissue was collected for stable isotope analysis (SIA) from the main fish predators and their fish and cephalopod prey\\u000a from oceanic waters off eastern Australia between 2004 and 2006. SIA of ?15N and ?13C revealed that the species examined could be divided into three main trophic groups. A “top predator” group consisted mainly\\u000a of large billfish (Xiphias gladius and

Andrew T. Revill; Jock W. Young; Matt Lansdell



Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish\\u000a predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in\\u000a the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae,

Teresa Romeo; Pietro Battaglia; Cristina Pedà; Patrizia Perzia; Pierpaolo Consoli; Valentina Esposito; Franco Andaloro


Isolation and structural elucidation of an ichthyocrinotoxin from the smooth trunkfish (Lactophrys triqueter Linnaeus).  


An ichthyocrinotoxin has been isolated from the skin secretion of the smooth trunkfish, Lactophrys triqueter Linnaeus (family Ostraciidae). A crystalline toxin was isolated and identified as the choline chloride ester of palmitic acid. The toxin has a minimum lethal concentration of 2 ppm and an LC50 of 3.5 ppm using mosquito fish as the test organism. A trace quantity of the choline ester chloride of heptadecanoic acid was identified as a minor component of the toxin. PMID:7164109

Goldberg, A S; Wasylyk, J; Renna, S; Reisman, H; Nair, M S



Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas



Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.  


In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats



Advances in hatchery and grow-out technology of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes advances in hatchery and grow- out technology of cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Linnaeus). In 2007, methods for capture, transport, acclimation, sampling, conditioned spawning, larval rearing, ¢ngerling production, nursery, shipping and grow-out have been perfected. Survival rates ranging from 17.5% to 35% were achieved from egg to shipping size ¢ngerlings (1.0 g) in 2007 at the University of Miami

Daniel D Benetti; Mehmet R Orhun; Bruno Sardenberg; Brian O'Hanlon; Aaron Welch; Ronald Hoenig; Ian Zink; José A Rivera; Bristol Denlinger; Donald Bacoat; Kevin Palmer; Fernando Cavalin



Regional and temporal changes in epizoobiontic bryozoan-communities of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) and implications for North Sea ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, bryozoans have not been used as indicators for changes in bottom communities or climate control in the North Sea Basin, despite a 200-year history of bryozoan collecting. The epizoobiontic bryozoan fauna of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) was analysed on 51 sample stations kept in four German museums. The samples cover the entire North Sea and different time periods (1776-2008, mainly the period of 1904/1905 compared to 1980-87). Cluster analysis shows a differentiation into a northern and a southern North Sea assemblage. The northern assemblage is characterized by Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854), Callopora dumerilii (Audouin, 1826) and Tricellaria ternata (Ellis & Solander, 1786), while the southern North Sea is characterized by Electra pilosa (Linnaeus, 1767), Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Plagioecia patina (Lamarck, 1816). Spatial separation approximately follows the 50 m depth contour. The temporal distribution patterns of bryozoans are discussed in terms of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and temperature variations.

Bitschofsky, F.; Forster, S.; Scholz, J.



Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)  

SciTech Connect

Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

Lakshmanan, P.T. (Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin (India)); Nambisan, P.N.K. (Cochin Univ. of Science and Technology (India))



Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) activity moves a man-size pig carcass: Relevant data for forensic taphonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taphonomy is the study of many variables involving decomposition, preservation, dispersal, erosion, burial or exposition of dead organisms. Forensic Taphonomy examines how biotic or abiotic variables can change evidences in legal investigations. Many insects are closely associated with decomposition processes. The scavenger dung-beetle, Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767), may be important biotaphonomically in the decomposition process of carcasses. Man-size pig carcasses

Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues; José Albertino Rafael; Roberto Ferreira Wanderley; Helder Marques; José Roberto Pujol-Luz



The effect of dissolved oxygen and salinity on oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure of Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white shrimp Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) is an abundant species in the coastal lagoons and estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico. This species is well adapted to environments of low salinity and can tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen. This study was designed to measure the effects of prolonged hypoxia and salinity level on: (a) the oxygen consumption and ammonia

Carlos Rosas; Evenor Martinez; Gabriela Gaxiola; Roberto Brito; Adolfo Sánchez; Luis A. Soto



Unusual observation of an ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis) eating an adult Linnaeus's two-toed sloth ( Choloepus didactylus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) eating from an adult Linnaeus’ two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) was described. Observation was made at the Viruá National Park of northern Brazil. The sloth had an estimated weight of 7kg and a portion of its hairs were plucked after the kill. The ocelot began to eat its prey by the braincase. Three days

Miguel Delibes; Javier Calzada; Cuauhtémoc Chávez; Eloy Revilla; Beatriz A. Ribeiro; Denise Prado; Claudia Keller; Francisco Palomares



Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...


Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century  

PubMed Central

Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24 000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation.

Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.



Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from canaries Serinus canaria Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Brazil.  


Isospora canaria Box, 1975 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported and described from canaries Serinus canaria (Linnaeus) in southeast Brazil. Its oöcysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 24.4 × 22.2 ?m, with smooth, bilayered wall, ~1.2 ?m. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 17.6 × 10.6 ?m. The Stieda body is nipple-like, and substieda body is prominent and homogeneous. The sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules. The sporozoite has anterior and posterior refractile bodies and a nucleus. The report of this coccidium recovered from exotic canaries in South America is relevant to native passerines, mainly to Carduelis yarrellii, which are listed as vulnerable species by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). PMID:23595491

Berto, Bruno P; Ferreira, Ildemar; Flausino, Walter; Teixeira-Filho, Walter L; Lopes, Carlos W G



Polyphenol extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus attenuate nephropathy in experimental type 1 diabetes.  


Diabetic nephropathy progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is one of the precipitation factors in diabetic nephropathy. Previously, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus and its polyphenol extracts were found to possess antioxidative effects. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. polyphenol extract (HPE) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. The results show that HPE reduced kidney mass induced by STZ significantly, as well as improving hydropic change of renal proximal convoluted tubules in the rats. HPE also significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL in STZ induced rats. Treatment with HPE significantly increased the activity of catalase and glutathione and reduced lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). The findings of this research show the beneficial effects of HPE on STZ induced diabetic nephropathy including pathology, serum lipid profile and oxidative marker in kidney. PMID:19219995

Lee, Wen-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Jen-Dong; Cheng, Su-Ya; Chen, Hong-Chen; Lee, Huei-Jane



Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC–DAD–APCI–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a traditional Chinese herb containing functional components such as carotenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharides, has been widely used in the health food industry because of its possible role in the prevention of chronic disease like age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array detection–mass spectrometry

B. Stephen Inbaraj; H. Lua; C. F. Hung; W. B. Wu; C. L. Lin; B. H. Chen



Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers ( Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions ( Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS\\/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18ngmL?1 in tigers and 2.69ngmL?1 in lions.

Xuemei Li; Leo Wai Yin Yeung; Sachi Taniyasu; Paul K. S. Lam; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Muqi Xu; Jiayin Dai




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrak: Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 merupakan antara sumber perikanan gastropoda paling utama di perairan Selat Johor, Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, persampelan dilakukan secara rawak menggunakan kaedah jalur transek, bermula dari Januari hingga Disember 2005. Data panjang cangkerang dibahagikan mengikut jantina dan panjang, dengan sela-kelas 2 mm. Secara keseluruhannya, nisbah jantan kepada betina adalah pada kadar 1:1.73, yang tidak berbeza secara

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang


On the morphology of the worker immatures of the leafcutter ant Atta sexdens Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  


Leafcutter ants of the genus Atta Fabricius are serious agricultural pests. Morphological studies of immature stages within this group are few, and the data provided for species of considerable importance are usually incomplete. In this study, the immatures of Atta sexdens Linnaeus are described and compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Only specimens from founding stage colonies (i.e., lacking adult workers) were used. The existence of four larval instars was estimated by a frequency plot of maximum head widths, and the larvae of different instars differed from each other mainly by their bodily dimensions. Worker larvae belonged to two distinct morphological castes: (1) gardeners and nurses and (2) within-nest generalists. The worker larvae described in this study differed from a previous description of the same species by the following traits: the existence of a genal lobe, the number of clypeal hairs, the presence of two hairs on the ninth abdominal somite, the presence of hairs on the anterior surface of the labrum, and the shape of the maxillary palpus. This study provides a comparative analysis of immature stages of A. sexdens that may be relevant to future morphological and biological studies of the Attini. PMID:22419653

Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Ceccato, Marcela; Reiss, Itamar Cristina; Décio, Pâmela; Lorenzon, Natalia; Da Silva, Natiele Gonçalves; Bueno, Odair Correa



Naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in visual wulst of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  


The visual wulst (VW), the rostro-dorsal surface of the avian telencephalon extending from the midline to the lateral region of the brain, is a laminated "bulge" consisting in four histologically distinct rostro-caudally arranged laminae with a specific sequence: hyperpallium apicale, interstitial nucleus of hyperpallium apicale, hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare. The VW has been proposed to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Various behavioral studies including lesion experiments have indicated the importance of the VW, which receives visual and/or auditory cues. We have investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the fascinating structural changes occurring in VW neurons of the seasonally breeding bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766). The Golgi method was used to study the seasonal fluctuations in the neuronal classes of the VW with regard to dendritic thickness, spine morphology and spine density during both the non-breeding and breeding periods of male Baya weaver birds. Significant variations in parameters studied among the various neuronal types located in the different well-demarcated regions of the VW are believed to contribute to the functional differences reported among the wulst regions. Thus, this study extends our view demonstrating naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in a seasonally dynamic avian brain of a bird that hones not only its learning and memorizing system but also its social and sexual system in preparation for the breeding season. PMID:23435992

Srivastava, U C; Gaur, Parul



On a new species of the genus Cobboldina (Nematoda: Atractidae) from Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.  


The specimens of the genus Cobboldina Leiper, 1911 and family Atractidae (Railliet, 1917) Travassos, 1919 recovered from the faecal matter of Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) from the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India recognized as a new species after careful observation. The collected nematode differs from the only valid species Cobboldina vivipara Leiper, 1911, in the presence of gubernaculum (13.2-29.7 ?m in length) and the number of caudal papillae (10 pairs) and named as Cobboldina gubernacularia sp. n., This is the second species of the genus Cobboldina recorded from the host Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captive in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. PMID:24082537

Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb



Lysossomal Membrane Stability of the brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus) (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to the anionic surfactant Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate (LAS) were evaluated on the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758), using a cellular level biomarker. The Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT) assay was used to estimate effects at cellular levels. Significant effects were observed for the NRRT assay, even in low concentrations. The effects at cellular level were progressive, suggesting that the organisms




Levels and distribution pattern of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in razor clams Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Galicia (north-west Spain) in relation to biometric parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and distribution as well as their relationship to biometric parameters in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758), 15 individual samples collected from two points sited in the Islas Cies, Ría de Vigo in Galicia, Spain, collected monthly between February 2003 and April 2004, were analysed. PCBs (IUPAC No. 31, 28, 52, 101, 118,

N. Carro; I. García; M. Ignacio; A. Mouteira



Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin  

PubMed Central

Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of ?-chain and ?-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang



Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.  


In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu



Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) activity moves a man-size pig carcass: relevant data for forensic taphonomy.  


Taphonomy is the study of many variables involving decomposition, preservation, dispersal, erosion, burial or exposition of dead organisms. Forensic Taphonomy examines how biotic or abiotic variables can change evidences in legal investigations. Many insects are closely associated with decomposition processes. The scavenger dung-beetle, Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767), may be important biotaphonomically in the decomposition process of carcasses. Man-size pig carcasses were used as models to examine the decomposition process in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve in central Amazonia. The scavenger dung-beetle has great potential in decomposition and production of post-mortem injuries, including dismemberment and the removal of soil beneath the carcass thereby causing a change in its position. PMID:18990518

Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Wanderley, Roberto Ferreira; Marques, Helder; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto



In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective properties of polyphenols from Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux.  


Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective properties of the aqueous extract and tetrahydrofuran-extracted phenolic fractions of Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus) Lamouroux were investigated in rats with chemically induced liver injury. Total polyphenols were determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Liver damage was induced by CCl(4) and assessed by a histological technique. Reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) analysis showed increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) gene expression and activities in the group treated with free phenolic acid (FPA) fractions of H. opuntia, suggesting inducing effects on both enzymes. In addition, rats treated with FPA fractions displayed lower liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels than those observed for rats in the CCl(4)-treated group. These data suggest that the phenolic fractions from H. opuntia may protect the liver against oxidative stress-inducing effects of chemicals by modulating its antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status. PMID:22564347

de Oliveira e Silva, Ana Mara; Vidal-Novoa, Alexis; Batista-González, Ana Elsa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Portari Mancini, Dalva Assunção; Reina-Urquijo, Wilman; Mancini-Filho, Jorge



Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by females for egg laying. Trips of unexplained nature are made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas are occasional transients through the study plot. Standardized census trips provided data for estimating the size of the population. Census data were taken after females had returned from egg laying. The samples were spaced at intervals of a week or more to allow free movement of turtles over their ranges and assure more nearly equal availability of all turtles. These standard samples were compared by a collection ratio. Assumptions involved in the use of this ratio are discussed. Correction factors were applied to make allowance for turtles whose ranges.were partly inside and partly outside the study area, and for transient turtles. A second estimate, on the basis of the entire season's collecting, gave closely comparable results. The population of the study area is estimated to be between four and five turtles per acre, with juveniles constituting less than ten per cent of the total.

Stickel, L.F



Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely covered the area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. The average range of adult males was 330 feet, adult females 370 feet. The difference between male and female ranges was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of defense of territory. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlapped grossly. Turtles were frequently found near each other and no antagonistic behavior was observed. A trail-laying device was developed in order to follow individual travel routes. The trailer consists of a light weight housing fastened to the turtle's back. It contains a spool of white thread that unwinds as the turtle moves, thus marking its exact route. Turtles selected for this more detailed study were followed with trailers for a total of 456 turtle days. Maps illustrating their travels are shown. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by, (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths completely covering the area, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain paths or routes. Trailer records and mapped collection records both show that the maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks. This general procedure is varied by some turtles to include intensive coverage of only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges and travel between them at infrequent intervals. One turtle showing this behavior was followed with a trailer for 161 days during 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by some turtles. These include egg laying trips by females as well as trips of unexplained nature made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas occasionally occur as transients in the study plot. The size of the population was estimated on the basis of collections during on

Stickel, L.F.



Adaptations for feeding on rock surfaces and sandy sediment by the fiddler crabs (Brachyura: Ocypodidae) Uca tetragonon (Herbst, 1790) and Uca vocans (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of fiddler crab, Uca tetragonon(Herbst, 1790) and Uca vocans(Linnaeus, 1758), which belong to the subgenus Gelasimus, dwell on rocky shores and muddy–sandy tidal flats, respectively, in Phuket Is., Thailand. We investigated their feeding ecology in relation to the morphology of their feeding organs: minor food-handling chelipeds and maxillipeds. U. tetragononfed chiefly on rocks covered by filamentous green algae.

Satoshi Takeda; Sombat Poovachiranon; Minoru Murai



Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

Schofield, Pamela J.



Labial gland marking secretions of male Bombus lucorum bumblebees from Europe and China reveal two separate species: B. lucorum (Linnaeus 1761) and Bombus minshanicola (Bischoff 1936)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in male bumblebee labial gland secretions can be used to separate species pairs. Cephalic labial gland secretions from male Bombus lucorum Linnaeus bumblebees from Europe, and male ‘B. lucorum’ bumblebees from China, were analyzed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). In the European B. lucorum L., ethyl tetradec-9-enoate was identified as the major compound (58% peak area), along with a

Andreas Bertsch; Horst Schweer



Geographically Widespread Swordfish Barcode Stock Identification: A Case Study of Its Application  

PubMed Central

Background The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a cosmopolitan large pelagic fish inhabiting tempered and tropical waters and it is a target species for fisheries all around the world. The present study investigated the ability of COI barcoding to reliably identify swordfish and particularly specific stocks of this commercially important species. Methodology We applied the classical DNA barcoding technology, upon a 682 bp segment of COI, and compared swordfish sequences from different geographical sources (Atlantic, Indian Oceans and Mediterranean Sea). The sequences of the 5? hyper-variable fragment of the control region (5?dloop), were also used to validate the efficacy of COI as a stock-specific marker. Case Report This information was successfully applied to the discrimination of unknown samples from the market, detecting in some cases mislabeled seafood products. Conclusions The NJ distance-based phenogram (K2P model) obtained with COI sequences allowed us to correlate the swordfish haplotypes to the different geographical stocks. Similar results were obtained with 5?dloop. Our preliminary data in swordfish Xiphias gladius confirm that Cytochrome Oxidase I can be proposed as an efficient species-specific marker that has also the potential to assign geographical provenance. This information might speed the samples analysis in commercial application of barcoding.

Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Guarino, Francesca; Reina, Simona; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito



Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in China.  


Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid method with high specificity and efficiency under isothermal condition using a set of four specifically designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for specific detection of Babesia orientalis in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758). Four primers were designed from the V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of B. orientalis. Blood samples were collected from B. orientalis experimentally infected water buffalo as well as from 165 water buffalo from eight different regions of the Hubei province, south China. Genomic DNA was extracted, subjected to the LAMP assay and compared with results obtained using a previously described semi-nested PCR. The LAMP assay proofed to be B. orientalis specific and more sensitive than the semi-nested PCR. While previously B. orientalis had not been reported north of the Yangtse River, our results show that B. orientalis has spread to the north of the river. This could pose a serious threat to the water buffalo industry. PMID:19665847

He, Lan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Zhao, Jun-Long



Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.  


Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gda?sk Bay and Ustecko-?ebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gda?sk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gda?sk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gda?sk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gda?sk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions. PMID:23677750

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna



Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.  


Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan



Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China.  


The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL(-1) in tigers and 2.69 ng mL(-1) in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species. PMID:18789477

Li, Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Xu, Muqi; Dai, Jiayin



[Mortality in free living siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758) due to Salmonella typhimurium, phage type DT104 and DT013].  


This report deals with an enzootic due to Salmonella Typhimurium in two free living Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758). Other birds in the vicinity of the siskins were not affected. Clinical signs consisted of non-specific symptoms such as ruffled plumage, apathy and reduced food intake. During necropsy, gross lesions were enlarged livers with focal necrosis, pale spleens, enlarged kidneys, pneumonia and enteritis. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from internal organs in pure culture. Using the polymerase chain reaction, the detection of Salmonella according to EN ISO 6579:2002 was confirmed. The detailed characterisation of both isolates in the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and in the Robert Koch Institute yielded for the first siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4, 5, 12: i : 1, 2, LT DT104, BT a and for the second siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4,12 i : 1, 2, LT DT013, BT c. These phage types were identified for the first time in siskins. The detected phage types have importance as causes of disease not only for free living siskins but also as infectious and zoonotic agents for domestic poultry and poultry products. PMID:19813449

Krüger, Alexandra; Redmann, Thomas; Sommer, Dagmar; Antakli, Ali; Kaleta, Erhard F



The spawning, embryonic and early larval development of the green wrasse Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae) in controlled conditions.  


Green wrasse, Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758), is an endangered species in the southern Adriatic Sea, but it is also of interest for potential rearing in polyculture with other commercial species for the repopulation of areas where it is endangered or as a new aquaculture species. A parental stock of the green wrasse was kept in aquaria for six years. The spawning, embryonic and early larval development maintained under controlled laboratory conditions are described and illustrated. The average diameter of newly spawned eggs was 1.01±0.03 mm. Mature and fertilized eggs were attached to the tank bottom by mucus. Hatching started after 127 h at a mean temperature of 14.4±0.8°C. The average total length of newly hatched larvae was 4.80±0.22 mm. Absorption of the yolk-sac was completed after the 5th day when larvae reached 5.87±0.28 mm. Larvae were fed with the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. The pigmentation of L. viridis larvae is similar to that of Labrus merula and Labrus bergylta, but the main differences between these species are in the size of larvae and the development time of the melanophores on the anal fin-fold (five days later than with L. merula) and on top of the head (nine days earlier than with L. merula). PMID:21342751

Kožul, V; Glavi?, N; Tutman, P; Bolotin, J; Onofri, V



A revision of the South American snake genus Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Tachymenini). I. Two new species of Thamnodynastes from Central Brazil and adjacent areas, with a redefinition of and neotype designation for Thamnodynastes pallidus (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revision of the South American snake genus Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830 (Ser- pentes, Colubridae, Tachymenini). I. Two new species of Thamnodynastes from Central Brazil and adjacent areas, with a redescription of and neotype designation for Thamndynastes pallidus (Linnaeus, 1758). Two new species of Thamnodynastes whose ranges are entirely or largely in Brazil are described. Thamnodynastes pallidus, one of the most

Joseph R. Bailey; Robert A. Thomas; Nelson Jorge da Silva Jr


Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of the digenean Enodiotrema reductum Looss, 1901 (Platyhelminthes, Plagiorchioidea, Plagiorchiidae), parasite of the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) in Senegal.  


This study describes the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a digenean Enodiotrema reductum (Pligiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) from the green turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758). This is the first report of E. reductum from Senegal. The mature spermatozoon of E. reductum is filiform and exhibits two axonemes of the 9?+?"1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, an extramembranar ornamentation associated with spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen, among other ultrastructural features. The spermatozoon of E. reductum is distinguished by the presence of a moniliform mitochondrion composed of a bulge associated with a long cord and of a central cytoplasmic expansion. This work represents the first utrastructural study of any representative of the large family Plagiorchiidae. Our results are compared with previously published data on spermatozoa of other digenean taxa. PMID:22488200

Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Sène, Aminata; Tkach, Vasyl V; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Marchand, Bernard



New data on the morphology of Iheringascaris inquies (Linton, 1901) (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a specific parasite of the marine fish Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus), as revealed by SEM.  


Specimens of the type species of the ascaridoid genus Iheringascaris Pereira, 1935, I. inquies (Linton, 1901) (Anisakidae), were collected from the digestive tract and mesentery of its type host Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Rachycentridae, Perciformes) from off the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, USA, during May of 2011. Scanning electron microscopical examination, used for the first time for specimens originating from the West Atlantic, made it possible to study in detail some taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and distribution of male caudal papillae, cephalic and cuticular structures, deirids and cloacal (anal) lips. The allocation of other, poorly described, species from different hosts in Indian waters to this genus needs to be confirmed. PMID:23327015

Moravec, Frantisek; Yost, Justin; de Buron, Isaure



Swedenborg, Linnaeus and brain research--and the roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the rediscovery of Swedenborg's manuscripts.  


Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at the end of his long life became famous as a visionary mystic and founder of a new religion. However, at younger age, he was recognized as a prominent mining engineer and natural philosopher, particularly interested in geology, mineralogy, cosmology, paleontology and last but not least physiology of the brain. In his Oeconomica regni animalis (1740) and in several posthumously published extensive manuscripts, he described and analyzed e.g. the structural and functional organization of the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical construction of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid and the secretory functions of the pituitary gland. In these fields, he presented remarkable insights and far reaching conclusions which in some cases have been experimentally verified in modern times. In spite of family relations Swedenborg rarely met the 19 years younger Linnaeus. Linnaeus was not only the founder of the systemic botany but as physician a keen and to some extent original observer of neurological symptoms; one of the first who adequately described motor aphasia. To regard these two men, among the few Swedish authors of the 18th century whose names are still internationally well known, as early precursors of neurological research, seems justified. The young Canadian, Alfred H. Stroh (1878-1922), had a crucial importance for the research on the works of Swedenborg, and the rediscovery of his manuscripts. His work was supported and financed to a large extent by professor Gustaf Retzius, at that time the most prominent Swedish researcher in anatomy and histology. There are many reasons to be thankful for the important contributions made by Alfred Stroh and Gustaf Retzius to stimulate the interest for Emanuel Swedenborg in Sweden and internationally. PMID:17578815

Gordh, Torsten E; Mair, William G P; Sourander, Patrick



Laboratory and field evaluation of the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the oviposition response of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae).  


In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae). First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD(99)) by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD(99) for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD(99) obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti. PMID:22241123

Antonio-Arreola, Gloria Elsa; López-Bello, Roger; Romero-Moreno, Daenna Kaori; Sánchez, Daniel



Induction of Apoptosis, G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Microtubule Disassembly in K562 Leukemia Cells by Mere15, a Novel Polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Mere15 is a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus with cytotoxicity in solid cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 inhibited the growth of K562 cells with IC50 values of 38.2 ?g/mL. Mere15 also caused concentration dependent induction of apoptosis, with overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, Mere15 arrested cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase of K562 cells in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, Mere15 caused the disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton in K562 cells and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin in a cell free system via interaction with tubulin. We concluded that Mere15 was cytotoxic to K562 leukemia cells and the cytotoxicity was related to the apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest and microtubule disassembly. These results implied that Merer15 was a broad spectrum anticancer polypeptide, not only cytotoxic to various solid cancer cells but also to the chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia.

Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhao, Jin; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Cuicui; Cheng, Linyou; Wu, Ning; Lin, Xiukun



Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.  


The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra



Characterization of a new insect cell line (NTU-YB) derived from the common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) and its susceptibility to microsporidia.  


A new lepidopteran cell line, NTU-YB, was derived from pupal tissue of Eurema hecabe (Linnaeus) (Pieridae: Lepidoptera). The doubling time of YB cells in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 8% FBS at 28 degrees C was 26.87h. The chromosome numbers of YB cells varied widely from 21 to 196 with a mean of 86. Compared to other insect cell lines, the YB cells produced distinct esterase, malate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns. Identity of the internal transcribed spacer region-I (ITS-I) of YB cells to E. hecabe larvae was 96% and to Eurema blanda larvae (tissue isolated from head) was 81%. The YB cells were permissive to Nosema sp. isolated from E. blanda and the infected YB cells showed obvious cytopathic effects after 3weeks post inoculation. The highest level of spore production was at 4weeks post inoculation when cells were infected with the Nosema isolate, and spore production was 1.34+/-0.9x10(6)spore/ml. Ultrastructrual studies showed that YB cells can host in vitro propagation of the E. blanda Nosema isolate, and developing stages were observed in the host cell nuclei as observed in the natural host, E. blanda. The NTU-YB cell line is also susceptible to Nosema bombycis. PMID:19761771

Chen, Yun-Ru; Solter, Leellen F; Chien, Tsz-Ying; Jiang, Ming-Han; Lin, Hsieh-Fang; Fan, Huai-Sheng; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Chung-Hsiung



The noncosmopolitanism paradigm of freshwater zooplankton: insights from the global phylogeography of the predatory cladoceran Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Crustacea, Onychopoda).  


A major question in our understanding of eukaryotic biodiversity is whether small bodied taxa have cosmopolitan distributions or consist of geographically localized cryptic taxa. Here, we explore the global phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Crustacea, Onychopoda) using two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16s ribosomal RNA, and one nuclear marker, 18s ribosomal RNA. The results of neighbour-joining and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal an exceptionally pronounced genetic structure at both inter- and intra-continental scales. The presence of well-supported, deeply divergent phylogroups across the Holarctic suggests that P. pediculus represents an assemblage of at least nine, largely allopatric cryptic species. Interestingly, all phylogenetic analyses support the reciprocal paraphyly of Nearctic and Palaearctic clades. Bayesian inference of ancestral distributions suggests that P. pediculus originated in North America or East Asia and that European lineages of Polyphemus were established by subsequent intercontinental dispersal events from North America. Japan and the Russian Far East harbour exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity at both regional and local scales. In contrast, little genetic subdivision is apparent across the formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America, areas that historical demographic analyses suggest that were recolonized just 5500-24 000 years ago. PMID:19912535

Xu, S; Hebert, P D N; Kotov, A A; Cristescu, M E



Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts.  


Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) is described from the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus (definitive host) and moose/elk Alces spp. (intermediate hosts) from Finland (type-locality) and Alaska, USA. The independent status of the new species and the conspecificity of its adults and metacestodes have been recently confirmed by the mtDNA sequence data of Lavikainen et al. (2011; Parasitology International, 60, 289-295). Special reference is given to morphological differences between the new species and T. krabbei Moniez, 1879 (definitive hosts primarily canines for the latter), both of which use the moose/elk (Alces spp.) as intermediate hosts (the latter also uses Rangifer and perhaps other northern ruminants), and between the new species and T. ursina Linstow, 1893, both of which use the brown bear U. arctos as a definitive host. New morphological data are also provided for adults and cysticerci of T. krabbei. The analysis includes potentially useful morphometric features that have not been previously applied to Taenia spp. PMID:22002024

Haukisalmi, Voitto; Lavikainen, Antti; Laaksonen, Sauli; Meri, Seppo



Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*  

PubMed Central

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose.

Gomes, Angelica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, Jose L.; Pavao, Mauro S. G.



Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

Schofield, Pamela J.



Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.  


The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T



The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.  


The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA. PMID:21996710

Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet



Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools  

SciTech Connect

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

Fossi, M.C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail:; Casini, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Marsili, L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)



Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes.  


Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated. PMID:15904864

Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Viñas, Jordi; Mejuto, Jaime; Ely, Bert; Pla, Carles



Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.  


Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J



The responses of the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a polluted site: implications for their use in environmental risk assessment.  


The present study investigates the response of three hepatic biomarkers in adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a wastewater outlet of an oil refinery with fish caged at a pristine site used as controls. The biomarkers that were investigated were the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, we have measured the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc) in sediment samples at the polluted site. Although the polluted site had high environmental levels of PAHs and heavy metals, there was no difference in hepatic EROD activity and HSI between fish caged at the polluted site and controls. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly lower in fish caged at the polluted site compared to controls. Our results point out that the studied biomarkers have limited use in environmental risk assessment studies, at least when caged adult sea bass is used as the sentinel species and complex toxicant mixtures are involved. PMID:23644668

Traven, Luka; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Vuki? Luši?, Darija; Smital, Tvrtko



Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m?2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m?2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m?2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m?2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations.

Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.



Methodological streamlining of SNP discovery and genotyping via high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) in non-model species.  


The exponential growth of genetic resources is fueled by continued advances in genomic technologies and the adoption of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population studies. Concomitant to these developments, there is growing need for rapid screening and subsequent genotyping of SNPs in non-model organisms. Here we provide a rapid and low-cost workflow utilizing high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for nuclear marker development and genotyping of 774 Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) that is amendable to other species. Preliminary HRMA screening of amplicons (>290bp) for 10 nuclear loci revealed the presence of nucleotide polymorphisms, however, length and variability precluded diagnostic genotyping. Two variants of HRMA were therefore utilized to provide diagnostic genotyping assays. Short-amplicon HRMA (SA-HRMA), in which primers flank closely a SNP of interest, was identified as a low cost, rapid, closed-tube diagnostic genotyping assay that could distinguish between homozygous genotypes by ?Tm, and heterozygous genotypes by heteroduplex melting curve profiles. When the patterns of sequence variation were not suitable for SA-HRMA, unlabeled probe (UP)-HRMA was utilized. UP-HRMA has the advantage of being capable of genotyping multiple linked SNPs in a single closed-tube assay without Bayesian haplotype reconstruction, and can identify new SNPs while genotyping populations. Almost 37% of the SNPs genotyped via UP-HRMA were discovered while genotyping populations and not from preliminary screening. Analysis of swordfish in the North Atlantic (NA, n=419), South Atlantic (SA, n=296), and Mediterranean (MED, n=59) found no significant linkage disequilibrium. To assess whether deviations in HWE could be the result of genotyping error rather than population admixture only swordfish from reported spawning areas in the NA (n=49), MED (n=59), and SA (n=42) were analyzed and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant genetic differentiation (P<0.001) was identified among populations. PMID:23123289

Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R



Defining dynamic pelagic habitats in oceanic waters off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many species in the pelagic ocean are widespread, they are not randomly distributed. These species may have associations with particular water masses or habitats, but to best understand patterns in the ocean, these habitats must be identified. Previous efforts have produced static or seasonal climatologies, which still represent smearing over habitats. The Eastern Tuna and Billfish Longline Fishery (ETBF) targets a range of high trophic level species in oceanic waters off eastern Australia. In this study, dynamic ocean habitats in the region were identified for each month based on cluster analysis of five oceanographic variables averaged at a monthly time scale and a spatial scale of 0.5° for the period 1995-2006. A total of seven persistent habitats were identified off eastern Australia with intra and interannual variation in size and location, indicating the importance of spatial and temporal variation in the dynamics of the region. The degree to which these dynamic habitats were distinguished was tested using (i) stable isotope analysis of top fish predators caught in the region and (ii) estimates of variation in estimated abundance generated from catch data from the fishery. More precise estimates (measured as lower total CV) of isotopic values from swordfish ( Xiphias gladius), yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) and albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) were obtained for 4 of 6 isotope comparisons using the dynamic habitat groupings, which indicate that stratifying by pelagic habitat improved precision. Dynamic habitats produced more precise abundance estimates for 7 of 8 large pelagic species examined, with an average reduction in total CV of 19% compared to when abundance was estimated based on static habitat stratification. These findings could be used to guide development of effective monitoring strategies that can distinguish patterns due to environmental variation, and in the longer term, climate change.

Hobday, A. J.; Young, J. W.; Moeseneder, C.; Dambacher, J. M.



Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for Radix balthica (Linnaeus 1758).  


We present data for eight polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from a microsatellite-enriched DNA library for the freshwater snail Radix balthica. Three of them were specific for R. balthica while five also amplified polymorphic products in two congeneric species. Test application on populations from all over the species range has shown that these loci are highly informative for analysing population structure and estimating migration rates. Observed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are attributed to a mixed mating system. PMID:21564859

Salinger, M; Pfenninger, M



Ultrastructure of female germ cells in Haliotis asinina Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germ cells in the ovary of H. asinina are divided into six stages: oogonia and five stages of oocytes. The oogonium is a scallop-shaped cell 8–10 ?m in diameter, closely adhered to a trabecula. Its nucleus exhibits small blocks of heterochromatin along the nuclear envelope and a small nucleolus. The cytoplasm contains abundant ribosomes. The stage I oocyte is a




The effect of natural antioxidant (Thymus vulgaris Linnaeus) on flesh quality of tuna (Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus)) during chilled storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna Thunnus thynnus flesh was treated with dried thyme Thymus vulgaris, vacuum-packed and then stored at 0 °C for 18 days. Proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total volatiles bases, trimethylamine, pH and fatty acids composition were determined throughout the period of storage. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between moisture, ash, protein and lipid were found between lots.




Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.  


Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from eastern Germany and Poland since 1979 indicated an increase in concentrations during the 1990s. Livers of Atlantic salmons did not contain quantifiable concentrations of any of the fluorochemicals monitored. PFOS is a widespread contaminant in wildlife from the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas, while FOSA and PFOA were detected only in certain locations indicating their sporadic spatial distribution. PMID:12188342

Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Günter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P



Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958) from Ceará coast, NE Brazil.  


Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from <0.34 to 856.6 ng.g(-1) d.w., and were highest (average of 154.8 ng.g(-1) d.w.) in juveniles (n = 22), whereas lowest concentrations (average of 2.5 ng.g(-1) d.w.) were observed in adult/sub-adult animals (n = 3). There was a significant negative correlation between animal size and Hg concentration probably due to different diets between juveniles and sub-adults/adults. Carapace fragments, which are non-invasive, non-lethal substrates, may be of importance for monitoring purposes of these generally endangered species. PMID:22441601

Bezerra, Moisés F; Lacerda, Luiz D; Costa, Breno G B; Lima, Eduardo H S M



Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958) from Ceará coast, NE Brazil.  


Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from <0.34 to 856.6 ng.g -1 d.w., and were highest (average of 154.8 ng.g -1 d.w.) in juveniles (n = 22), whereas lowest concentrations (average of 2.5 ng.g -1 d.w.) were observed in adult/sub-adult animals (n = 3). There was a significant negative correlation between animal size and Hg concentration probably due to different diets between juveniles and sub-adults/adults. Carapace fragments, which are non-invasive, non-lethal substrates, may be of importance for monitoring purposes of these generally endangered species. PMID:22323310

Bezerra, Moisés F; Lacerda, Luiz D; Costa, Breno G B; Lima, Eduardo H S M



Exposure to domoic acid affects larval development of king scallop Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domoic acid (DA) is a highly toxic phycotoxin produced by bloom forming marine diatoms Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Bivalves can accumulate this toxin to a high level through their feeding activities, and thus illness or death in can occur in consumers of bivalves. In this study, king scallop, Pecten maximus, larvae were exposed to dissolved domoic acid (DA) for 25d, and the

Hui Liu; Maeve S. Kelly; Dirk A. Campbell; Shuang Lin Dong; Jian Xin Zhu; Su Feng Wang



Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758).  


The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J; Love, Adrian C; Waring, Colin P



Non-Proteinaceious Toxin from the Venomous Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spin...

M. S. R. Nair



Liver histological structure in adult European bison. Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758).  


The histological structure of the liver in 12 European bison, 2-8 years old, was presented. The study of the hepatic lobule showed that in Bison bonasus there were no connective septa around the hepatic lobules. On the hepatic lobule territory, solitary bile ducts, respectively solitary arterioles, were sometimes observed. Every one of these vessels was isolated from the hepatic parenchyma by thick coats of collagen. In the adventitia of the hepatic sublobar vessels, capillaries of the vasa vasorum system were found. The thick capsule of Glisson presented an outer part lacking in blood vessels and an inner part vascularised with arterioles and capillaries originating from the subcapsular portal tracts. The ligament insertion in the liver parenchyma was described. PMID:12416928

Prunescu, Carol-Constantin; Prunescu, Paula; Krasi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Krasi?ski, Zbigniew A



Translocation of an endangered insect species, the field cricket ( Gryllus campestris Linnaeus, 1758) in northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relocations of species have become a tool widely used in nature conservation, but insects have rarely been considered as targets.\\u000a Here, we present a translocation project of the field cricket (Gryllus campestris L. 1758), which is a threatened species at the northern edge of its range. Only ten populations were left in Lower Saxony\\u000a (Germany), illustrating the need for urgent

Axel Hochkirch; Kathrin A. Witzenberger; Anje Teerling; Friedhelm Niemeyer



Redescription of Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously

Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER



Diurnal rhythms and seasonal changes in the roosting behaviour of Indian myna Acridotheres tristis (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the awakening and roosting behaviour of mynas. In the annual cycle of these mynas, 3 distinct\\u000a phases were noticed—the pre-breeding season (November–March), breeding season (April–July) and post-breeding season (August–October).\\u000a The various roosting activities of mynas such as the time of waking up and calls, the time of arrival and departure of the\\u000a first bird and

Anil Mahabal; V G Vaidya



Mass spectrometrical analysis of cuticular proteins from the wing of Hebemoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several insect cuticular genes and proteins are annotated and an arthropod cuticular database is available, mass spectrometrical data on cuticular proteins and their post-translational modifications are limited.Wings from Hebemoia glaucippe were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy or homogenized, proteins were extracted and run on 2DE.In-gel digestion was carried out by using trypsin, chymotrypsin and Asp-N and subsequently the resulting

Narkhyun Bae; Martin Lödl; Arnold Pollak; Gert Lubec


Mass spectrometrical analysis of cuticular proteins from the wing of Hebemoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).  


Although several insect cuticular genes and proteins are annotated and an arthropod cuticular database is available, mass spectrometrical data on cuticular proteins and their post-translational modifications are limited. Wings from Hebemoia glaucippe were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy or homogenized, proteins were extracted and run on 2DE. In-gel digestion was carried out by using trypsin, chymotrypsin and Asp-N and subsequently the resulting peptides and post-translational modifications were identified by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS; HCT). A complex wing skeleton and the cuticle of H. glaucippe were demonstrated. Cuticle protein 18.6, isoform A, pupal cuticle protein, cuticular protein CPR59A and two putative proteins, putative cuticular protein B2DBJ and putative cuticle protein CPG31 with two expression forms were identified. Two phosphorylation sites on the same peptide, T213 and S214, were identified on putative cuticle protein CPG31, quinone formation was observed at Y76 on cuticular protein CPR59A probably indicating the presence of post-translational modifications. The results may be relevant for the interpretation of mechanoelastic and physical properties of these proteins. Along with the extraordinary architecture the proteinaceous matrix is probably representing or allowing the unusual aerodynamic function of the butterfly wing. Moreover, the results may be important for mechanisms of insecticide and drought resistance. PMID:21903182

Bae, Narkhyun; Lödl, Martin; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert



Microscopic characterization of teeth of pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766).  


The microscopic description of the teeth of pacas (Agouti paca) bred in captivity was developed for providing biological data on one of the largest American wild rodents, as not many references exist in the literature about this species. Two newborn males, two adult males (9 and 72 months old), one newborn female and two adult females (30 and 54 months old) were used after death due to fights, neonatal cannibalism or unknown causes. Animals were radiographed, and their teeth were extracted and put on an acrylic resin block, cut on a diamond-like disc microtome and diaphanized. It was noted that enamel surrounds the coronary dentine and projects to the root region, besides being present as internal laminae, arranged in a parallel way and in the vestibulolingual direction. The dentine is located between the enamel laminae and surrounds the pulp horns. The cementum is located internal to the enamel laminae. From scanning electronic microscopy, we find that the enamel is the outer element on the vestibular surface, and it is in direct contact with the dentine. On the lingual surface, the cementum and dentine are the outer elements. PMID:17845228

Oliveira, F S; Canola, J C; Oliveira, P T; Pécora, J D; Capelli, A



Anatomoradiographic description of the teeth of pacas bred in captivity (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766).  


Two newborn males, two adult males 9 and 72 months old, one newborn female and two adult females of 30 and 54 months old pacas were used. Animals were radiographed on lateral recumbency, teeth were extracted and the vestibulolingual and mesiodistal lengths were achieved at the occlusal surface, besides the longitudinal length. The lower incisors presented greater length in relation to the other ones and sinuous shape; the upper incisors, relatively smaller, are practically straight. There is no canine tooth, and after a great diastema there is one premolar and three molars in each hemiarcade. In adult pacas, the enamel of incisors presents yellowish colour, mainly in the labial surface; in the premolars and molars, the enamel is present as internal sheets disposed nearly in a parallel way and in vestibulolingual direction, through practically all the dental length, which provides several joined teeth aspect. PMID:16968251

Oliveira, F S; Canola, J C; Oliveira, P T; Pécora, J D; Capelli, A



Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M. L. H.



The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

Rogers, C. S.; Pietsch, T. W.; Randall, J. E.; Arnold, R. J.



Alaria alata in wild boars (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in the eastern parts of Germany.  


Over the last decade, incidental findings of Alaria alata in stocks of German wild boar during the official Trichinella inspection have been increased. As early as 2006, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment pointed out the possible health risk to the consumer posed by this trematode. However, at that time, reliable data concerning the prevalence of the parasite in German wild boars and feral pigs were lacking especially because no appropriate detection method was available. The development of the A. alata mesocercariae technique (Riehn et al., Parasitol Res 107(1):213-220, 2010) now makes it possible to close the remaining gaps in knowledge in this field. Over a 2-year period, 286 retained samples of fresh meat from wild boars originating from different hunting areas in Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, which were tested negative for A. alata during the official Trichinella inspection in the competent veterinary inspection offices, were reexamined with the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT). In 33 out of 286 retained meat samples (11.5%) with a preliminary negative report, the trematode was demonstrated during the follow-up examination using AMT. This result especially in connection with the highly heterogeneous distribution of the parasite within the hosts' body (Riehn et al., Parasitol Res 107(1):213-220, 2010; Moehl et al., Parasitol Res 105(1):1-15, 2009) shows clearly that a high number of unreported cases of alariosis in wild boars have to be assumed. PMID:22562214

Riehn, Katharina; Hamedy, Ahmad; Grosse, Knut; Wüste, Tanja; Lücker, Ernst



Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus.  


We examined 94 carcasses of and 1,213 faecal samples from red foxes collected between 1981 and 2001 in natural and transformed ecosystems in the southern part of Belarus. A total of 32 helminth species were found. Of these, the most common were Alaria alata, Pearsonema plica, Taenia crassiceps, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spp. larvae and Uncinaria stenocephala. All species are significant for medical and veterinary health. PMID:12474048

Shimalov, V V; Shimalov, V T



First detection of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) from Bulgaria.  


The trematode Alaria alata, an intestinal parasite of different carnivore species is widely distributed throughout Europe. The mesocercarial stages of Alaria spp. may infect almost all vertebrate species, including humans, and, in particular, omnivorous scavengers such as wild boars serve as paratenic hosts for the parasite. The introduction of the A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) opened the way to a reliable detection of Alaria spp. mesocercariae in different body tissues of their paratenic hosts. For the first time, it was possible to detect vital A. alata mesocercariae from two Bulgarian wild boars by means of this new method. In addition, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of the respective parasitic DNA allowed the unequivocal species identification of the parasites as A. alata. Isolation and molecular biological identification of the parasite's developmental stages make significant contributions to completion of data on both the distribution of Alaria spp. in stocks of European game and the relationship between different Eurasian Alaria spp. isolates. PMID:23374251

Riehn, K; Lalkovski, N; Hamedy, A; Lücker, Ernst



Accumulation, distribution and depuration of mercury in the green mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation, distribution and depuration of inorganic mercury in the gills, viscera, mantle and adductor muscle + foot of\\u000a green musselPerna viridis were investigated. Mussels were exposed to 37–5 and 75 µg 1?1 mercury as HgCl2 in a static system for 4 days. The rate of accumulation was found to be the maximum in gills followed by viscera, mantle\\u000a and muscle

P K Krishnakumar; R Damodaran; P N K Nambisan



Seasonal variation in growth and survival of Strombus canarium (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae.  


This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L(-1) in filtered seawater (0.22 microm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL(-1) ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 +/- 1 degrees C, salinity of 30 +/- 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 microm day(-1), S = 14.36-2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 microm day(-1), S = 5 +/- 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 +/- 66.93 microm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 +/- 586.51 microm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences. PMID:19634470

Cob, Z C; Arshad, A; Bujang, J S; Ghaffar, M A




Microsoft Academic Search

The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a species threatened with extinction that receives legal protection in Mexico (SEMARNAT, 2002) and is listed in CITES to Appendix I (CITES, 2005). It ranges from southern Texas through Mexico and Central America to Ecuador and northern Argentina (Murray and Gardner, 1997), where it occupies a variety of habitats, including humid tropical and subtropical forests,



Age and growth of the blue shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) off northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 2000, 681 blue sharks, Prionace glauca (173.8–310cm total length, TL) were collected off northeastern Brazil (Brazilian EEZ). Vertebral sections of 156 males (173.8–310cm TL) and 80 females (185.5–283cm TL) were analysed. The index of average percentage error (IAPE) ranged from 0 to 3.1% for 3–12 growth rings (GRs). Mean marginal increment (MI) decreased from November to January

Rosângela Lessa; Francisco M Santana; Fábio H Hazin



Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven



The effect of iron supplementation in the diet of Dasypus novemcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) armadillos in captivity.  


Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus have been used as an experimental model of leprosy. Besides non-human primates, they are the only species naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and when experimentally inoculated, reproduce the lepromatous form of the disease producing large quantities of bacilli. This species has been maintained in captivity by numerous researchers and specific housing and feeding requirements have been developed to guarantee their survival during long experimental periods. In the 'Lauro de Souza Lima' Institute, armadillos receive dog food, ground beef, boiled eggs and vitamin C. However, despite the balanced diet, anemia has been observed in some captive animals, especially in armadillos inoculated with M. leprae in advanced stages of infection. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of iron sulfate supplementation in the feed provided for armadillos, both inoculated and non-inoculated with M. leprae, by means of the evaluation of their hematological profile. Fourteen armadillos received 10 mg/animal of iron sulfate (Hematofer(R)) diluted in sterile water mixed with their daily feed for 50 days. Hemograms and serum iron dosages for each armadillo were performed before and after supplementation. The hematocrit values increased significantly after iron supplementation, both in armadillos inoculated and non-inoculated with M. leprae. It is possible that the amount of iron in the feed is insufficient for the formation of hemoglobin, leading to microcytic anemia. Dietary supplementation with iron sulfate reversed this state, showing the importance of understanding the metabolism of exotic species for their maintenance in captivity, and thus ensuring their well-being. PMID:19347153

Rosa, P S; Pinke, C A E; Pedrini, S C B; Silva, E A



Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  


The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R



Morphological characterization of the ovarian preantral follicle population of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  


The aim of this research was to characterize the preantral ovarian follicular population in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) using light and electron microscopy. Ovaries from six mature females were collected and further fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. A total of 33273.45 ± 5789.99 preantral follicles (PFs) were estimated for the population in each ovary. Most preantral follicles were primordial (91.56%), followed by primary (6.29%) and secondary (2.15%) ones. Most PFs were morphologically normal (94.4%), and only a few were atretic (5.6%). At histology assessment, amounts of lipid droplets were observed into the oocyte cytoplasm, which was confirmed through ultrastructural analysis. This work characterizes for the first time the ovarian population of preantral follicles, total and per category, in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). The general follicles featured at primordial, primary and secondary categories are very similar to those described for other species. PMID:23278244

Lima, G L; Santos, E A A; Luz, V B; Rodrigues, A P R; Silva, A R



When selection deceives phylogeographic interpretation: the case of the Mediterranean house gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus, 1758).  


A previous study on Hemidactylus turcicus based on mtDNA makers indicated that this gecko has a Middle-East origin, and that the current phylogeographic pattern is the result of a very rapid spread from the east to the west of the species' range. The same study identified two distinct mitochondrial lineages with low differentiation and genetic diversity. Since H. turcicus is known to be closely associated to humanized environments, its present distribution range and phylogeography is frequently interpreted to be the result of recurrent human-mediated introductions. These conclusions used to be the same as those used to interpret the results obtained for the European populations of another gecko, Tarentola mauritanica. However, a recent study has revealed that the phylogeographic pattern of T. mauritanica is not solely the result of a recent colonization, but also of a mitochondrial selective sweep. Could the same be occurring in H. turcicus? To answer this question, two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and two nuclear genes (ACM4 and Rag2) were used in this study. From the mtDNA data we confirmed the existence of two distinct phylogeographic lineages; one occurring exclusively in the northern Mediterranean (Clade A), and another one more widespread that is the only lineage present in North Africa (Clade B). In light of these results, we could hypothesize that H. turcicus had its origin in Turkey, and from there Clade A moved to Europe and Clade B to North Africa spreading latter into Europe. However, Clade A presents significantly higher nucleotide diversity for the nuclear DNA compared to the mtDNA, and neutrality tests gave significant results for the mitochondrial data. These results suggest that the lack of mtDNA genetic diversity and structure in the European population of H. turcicus could also be due to a selective sweep, and not only because of a recent colonization. Together with the situation reported in T. mauritanica, the identification of a hitch-hiking process occurring in H. turcicus, represents two unprecedented cases of a selective sweep taking place in the same geographic area shaping the phylogeographic patterns of two unrelated genera of geckos. PMID:21167948

Rato, C; Carranza, S; Harris, D J



Biochemical evidence of efficacy of potash alum for the control of dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus).  


Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya in India and other South East Asian countries, and novel insecticides for vector control are urgently needed. In the present investigation, efficacy of potash alum, a traditionally known double salt in Indian and Chinese medicine system, was tested against the larvae of dengue vector, A. aegypti. LC(50,) LC(90) and LC(99) values were recorded for various instar larvae where I instar larvae were found to be the most susceptible and IV instar larvae as the least susceptible one. The LC(50) values of crude and standard potash alum of various instar larvae ranged between 15.29 and 48.53 ppm and 20.50-65.10 ppm, respectively. Biochemical changes were also evidenced in IV instar A. aegypti larvae following a sublethal exposure for 24 h in the levels of various nutrient reserves and primary metabolites such as sugar, glycogen, lipids and proteins suggesting possible mode of action responsible for larval mortality. Sugar and glycogen concentrations were measured as 24.6 and 10.67 ?g per five larvae in controls which were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 32.11-93.98% and 39.26-94.47%, respectively, in larvae treated with crude alum. In controls, protein and lipid content were recorded as 210.74 and 94.71 ?g per five larvae which dropped up to 26.53% and 25.5%, respectively, in larvae following treatment with crude alum. Moreover, drastic changes were also recorded for DNA content with 25.39-44.17% decrease in crude alum-treated larvae. It is evident from these results that potash alum, a fairly cheaper and readily available ecofriendly compound could be recommended as a potential chemical larvicide against dengue vector at mosquito breeding sites in the vicinity of human dwellings. PMID:21188602

Preet, Shabad; Sneha, A



Life History, Ecology, and Management of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of eight years of investigations of carp in Elephant Butte Lake are combined into this monographic report which includes ecological life history, population ecology, and management methods and techniques. Classification, taxonomy, and range of the...

D. B. Jester



Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...


Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...


Frequency sensitivity and directional hearing in the gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus 1758).  


1. The neural audiogram of the common long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus was recorded from the inferior colliculus (IC). The most sensitive best frequency (BF) thresholds for single neurones are below 0 dB SPL between 7-20 kHz, reaching a best value of -20 dB SPL between 12-20 kHz. The lower and upper limits of hearing occur at 3 kHz and 63 kHz, respectively, based on BF thresholds at 80 dB SPL. BF threshold sensitivities are about 10 dB SPL between 25-50 kHz, corresponding to the energy band of the sonar pulse (26-78 kHz). The tonotopic organization of the central nucleus of the IC (ICC) reveals that neurones with BFs below 20 kHz are disproportionately represented, occupying about 30% of ICC volume, occurring in the more rostral and lateral regions of the nucleus. 2. The acoustical gain of the external ear reaches a peak of about 20 dB between 8-20 kHz. The gain of the pinna increases rapidly above 4 kHz, to a peak of about 15 dB at 7-12 kHz. The pinna gain curve is similar to that of a simple, finite length acoustic horn; expected horn gain is calculated from the average dimensions of the pinna. 3. The directional properties of the external ear are based on sound diffraction by the pinna mouth, which, to a first approximation, is equivalent to an elliptical opening due to the elongated shape of the pinna. The spatial receptive field properties for IC neurones are related to the directional properties of the pinna. The position of the acoustic axis of the pinna and the best position (BP) of spatial receptive fields are both about 25 degrees from the midline between 8-30 kHz but approach the midline to 8 degrees at 45 kHz. In elevation, the acoustic axis and the BP of receptive fields move upwards by 20 degrees between 9-25 kHz, remaining stationary for frequencies up to 60 kHz. 4. The extremely high auditory sensitivity shown by the audiogram and the directionality of hearing are discussed in terms of the adaptation of the auditory system to low frequencies and the role of a large pinna in P. auritus. The functional significance of low frequency hearing in P. auritus is discussed in relation to hunting for prey by listening and is compared to other gleaning species. PMID:2746553

Coles, R B; Guppy, A; Anderson, M E; Schlegel, P



Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70–75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat



Brief description of the cardiac anatomy in a tiger (Panthera tigris, Linnaeus, 1758): a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the cardiac anatomy of an 18-years-old male tiger that died at a local zoo. In general, the cardiac anatomy of this animal corresponded with that described for domestic carnivores. The left atrium received four pulmonary veins. In the right ventricle the musculus papillaris magnus and m. papillaris subarterial had the same size. In the left ventricle there

W. Perez; M. Lima



Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m?2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade



Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; Antonio Sykes


Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar



On the occurrence of angular crab ( Goneplax rhomboides , Linnaeus 1758) in the German Bight, North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summer 2006, an unfamiliar crab occurred for the first time in the bycatch of FRV “SOLEA” in the German Bight. It was determined\\u000a to be Goneplax rhomboides only when it was found again during the brown shrimp survey in winter. Further specimens were caught in later surveys of\\u000a FRV “SOLEA” and with different gears at water depths from 39

Thomas Neudecker; Karin Schiefenhövel; Thomas Kehlert; Karl-Heinz Becker


Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).  


In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. PMID:22131285

Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika



Food Preferences of the Common Tern, Sterna hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758) at the Densu Floodplains, Accra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns (Sterna hirundo) are found in large numbers in productive brackish or saltwater

Angela M. Ahulu; F. K. E. Nunoo; E. H. Owusu


High attack rate of Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus 1758) infestation in an impoverished Brazilian community.  


Tungiasis (jigger) is endemic in many impoverished communities in many parts of Brazil. Forty-seven individuals entering an endemic area were followed up for a period of six weeks and regularly examined for the presence of newly embedded sand fleas. At the end of the third week, the attack rate of Tunga penetrans infestation had already approached 100%. PMID:15138080

Heukelbach, J; Franck, S; Feldmeier, H



The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam



The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus Linnaeus 1758) off the Azores.  


Stomach contents from 17 sperm whales, 15 males and two females, caught during commercial activities in 1981-1984 in the Azores region were identified and measured. A total of 28,738 cephalopods and 16 fish were represented in the collections. In addition, there were tunicates in two whales and man-made products in three whales. None of the stomachs were empty. Flesh was present in 94.1% and indigestible fragments alone, including mandibles (beaks) of cephalopods, were present in 5.9% of the stomachs. Twelve species of cephalopod were represented by flesh and 40 species were represented by lower beaks. The cephalopod families contributing food to the whales in this region are, in order of their contribution by estimated mass, the Octopoteuthidae (39.8%), the Histioteuthidae (32.7%), the Architeuthidae (12.1%), the Lepidoteuthidae (4.5%), the Ommastrephidae (3.4%), the Pholidoteuthidae (2.1%), the Cycloteuthidae (1.9%), the Cranchiidae (1.7%) and eight other families each contributing less than 1% by mass. Presence of Gonatus beaks in the stomachs show which whales have migrated southwards to the Azores just prior to capture and the presence of a large Megalocranchia species possibly shows which whales have migrated from higher latitudes off Iceland. However, the presence of Teuthowenia maculata shows which whales came north from the West coast of Africa, just prior to capture. The modal mass of cephalopods consumed is 400-450 g which represents 0.00001 of the whales' body mass. 77.5% of the species eaten have luminous organs and 82% of the species are neutrally buoyant. It seems likely that the sperm whale is obtaining 77% of its food by swimming through luminous shoals of slow-swimming, neutrally bouyant squids and only about 23% by chasing faster swimming, larger cephalopods. Cephalopods not previously recorded from the North Atlantic are Onychoteuthis boreali-japonicus, and Histioteuthis bonnellii corpuscula. Histioteuthis ?miranda may have been collected by the whales much further south than the Azores. Species not recorded previously in the diet of sperm whales in the North Atlantic are Ommastrephes bartrami, Gonatus steenstrupi, Histioteuthis ?miranda, H. bonnellii corpuscula, H. meleagroteuthis, Discoteuthis laciniosa, Mastigoteuthis species, Chiroteuthis species, ?Helicocranchia, Liocranchia reinhardti, and ?Liguriella. PMID:8096086

Clarke, M R; Martins, H R; Pascoe, P



Persistence and metabolism of Fipronil in rice (Oryza sativa Linnaeus) field.  


Rice is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Fipronil insecticide has been widely used to control rice pests. The research was conducted to evaluate the fate of fipronil in rice-field. Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in rice is studied by applications of Regent 0.3G @ 45 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) was made 7 days after transplanting of paddy. Samples of paddy plants were collected at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after the application of insecticide. The samples of rice grains, bran, husk and straw were collected at the time of harvest. The samples were extracted and cleaned up by following a standardized methodology. Fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in paddy plants after 7 days of its application at recommend and four times of recommend doses were found to be 6.60 and 19.85 mg kg(-1), respectively. Among fipronil metabolites, sulfone derivative had maximum residue concentration followed by other metabolites viz. sulfide, amide and desulfinyl. The residues were reached below the detectable limit (0.01 mg kg(-1)) after 45 and 90 days at recommend and four time of recommend doses, respectively. At harvest, the samples of paddy straw, rice grains, bran and husk did not reveal the presence of fipronil and its metabolites. PMID:23238826

Kumar, Rajinder; Singh, Balwinder



Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.



Cycles of Activity, Group Composition, and Diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6–8 individuals. However, we found the animals

Robert W. Sussman; Ian Tattersall



Physalis peruviana Linnaeus, the multiple properties of a highly functional fruit: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work is to spread the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of the Physalis peruviana L. fruit and the relation of their physiologically active components with beneficial effects on human health, through scientifically proven information. It also describes their optical and mechanical properties and presents micrographs of the complex microstructure of P. peruviana L. fruit and studies

Luis A. Puente; Claudia A. Pinto-Muñoz; Eduardo S. Castro; Misael Cortés



Assessing species validity of Mugil platanus Günther, 1880 in relation to Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative morphological characters make identification of mullet species difficult. As a consequence, cosmopolitan distribution of Mugil cephalus is currently under discussion. In order to clarify the controversy regarding the taxonomic status of the southern Atlantic American mullet M. platanus, in relation to Mugil cephalus, a comprehensive analysis is presented using sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, landmark?based morphometry and

González M. Castro; S. Heras; M. B. Cousseau; M. I. Roldán



Ingestion of domoic acid and its impact on king scallop ( Pecten maximus, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method for spiking formulated feed with domoic acid (DA) was developed in this study. DA feed was prepared by mixing 0.15 mL 100 ?g mL-1 DA with 0.1 g formulated feed, and drying the mixture at room temperature for 2h. The prepared DA feed contained 0.19 pg DA per particle. Of the added DA, 46.72% was retained in the feed. Relatively high DA retention (about 50%) was recorded after DA feed was soaked in water for 2h. Exposure to DA feed for 7 d did not cause the increase of tissue DA level of adult king scallop ( Pecten maximus) significantly in 60 d. The increase of their gonad index after DA exposure was not significantly different from the control. No significant change in DA level was found in spermary, ovary or fertilized eggs after DA exposure. These results indicated that DA excretion may be more efficient than DA accumulation under the current experimental conditions, and the mechanism of domoic acid incorporation in P. maximus may involve intracellular biotransformation.

Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S.; Campbell, Dirk A.; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhu, Jianxin; Wang, Sufeng



Sperm ultrastructure of the European hornet Vespa crabro (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).  


This study represents the first sperm description of a Vespinae species (Vespa crabro). The acrosome consists of an acrosomal vesicle and a perforatorium. The nucleus has compact chromatin and shows lenticular structures on the nuclear envelope. These structures, which have never been observed in a hymenopteran sperm, could be clusters of nuclear pores. The centriolar adjunct has an asymmetric pattern and shows a structured periphery. The centriole consists of 9 accessory microtubules and 9 doublet microtubules devoid of arms and spokes. The axoneme has a 9+9+2 microtubule pattern and the accessory microtubules have 16 protofilaments. The mitochondrial derivatives differ in length and diameter. The larger one is adjacent to the nuclear base, while the smaller one begins below the centriolar adjunct. They possess three distinct areas and a large paracrystalline region, which occurs only in the large one. The large mitochondrial derivative ends first, followed by the small one. The axoneme gradually disorganizes: first the central microtubules disappear, then the doublets, which show opened B-tubules, and finally the accessory microtubules. The sperm morphology of V. crabro is very similar to that of the polistine wasp, Agelaia vicina. This can indicate that, in Vespidae, sperm morphology is maintained without important variations among subfamilies and/or that this similarity indicates close phylogenetic relationship between these two subfamilies. Although Vespidae phylogenetically related to Formicidae, these data suggest that the former more closely related to Apoidea than to Formicidae. PMID:18675936

Mancini, Karina; Lino-Neto, José; Dolder, Heidi; Dallai, Romano



[Mallophaga species observed in white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linnaeus) in Turkey].  


This study was carried out on six white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) between the years 2002-2006. Oral cavities of the pelicans were examined macroscopically. The lice found in the oral cavities were collected by forceps and were preserved in tubes containing 70% alcohol. Also, each pelican was put in a big carton-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and the pelicans were treated with propoxur for a few minutes. The lice that fell on to the paper were collected in a Petri dish and later on they were put in vials containing 70% alcohol. Five (83.3%) out of the six pelicans under examination were found to be infested with at least one lice species. From the oral cavities and bodies of the pelicans 346 lice were collected and three species namely: Piagetiella titan (Piaget, 1880), Pectinopygus forficulatus (Nitzsch, 1866) and Colpocephalum eucarenum (Burmeister, 1838) were identified as three Mallophaga species. Pectinopygus forficulatus and Colpocephalum eucarenum were recorded for the first time from the white pelicans in Turkey. PMID:18351556

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur



Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).  


The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species. PMID:23337491

Speck, Stephanie; Perseke, Lea; Petney, Trevor; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Taraschewski, Horst; Bunnell, Toni; Essbauer, Sandra; Dobler, Gerhard



Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV

Karan S Shah; Elizabeth C Evans; Marie C Pizzorno



[Bacillary necrosis in larvae of the bivalve Euvola ziczac (Linnaeus, 1758) caused by a Pseudomonas sp].  


The incidence of bacteria as etiological agents of diseases in larvae of bivalve mollusks, is well documented in the literature. In this study, a series of test were performed to identify and estimate pathogenic level of marine bacteria isolated during an epizootic in a larval culture system of the tropical scallop Euvola ziczac. Such bacteria was identified as Pseudomonas sp. belonging to the group alcaligenes. The bacterium produced not only lethal effects on the scallop larvae through infection (invasive action), but also a possible pathogenic activity through endotoxins associated to bacterial cell-wall. In addition, it is possible that the isolated bacteria could act as a pathogen with members of the genus Vibrio, which was also present during the epizootic outbreak in the culture system. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas sp. to commercial antibiotics was remarkable. PMID:1343735

Lodeiros, C; Freites, L; Vélez, A



[Periodicity of oviposition of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and field].  


The object of this work was to determine of gonotrophic diel pattern of female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field conditions. Three day-old female mosquitoes were the fed on chicken blood and transferred to bioassay cages. Four oviposition substrates were offered: paper sulfite, filter, butter and towel. The results showed that filter paper received a significantly higher (40.4%) percentage of deposited eggs than the other oviposition substrates. After their first blood meal, females started to oviposit on the 3rd model day; 35.7% of the total number of eggs deposited. The oviposition diel patterns of females were observed every two hours during the photoperiod in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the periodicity of oviposition showed that the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th- 12th h of photophase and 1st - 2nd h of scotophase. In the field, the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th - 12th h of photophase and 1st - 4th h of scotophase. These results point out that Aedes aegypti showed an oviposition periodicity pattern that can subsidize monitoring and or control of vector insect. itis suggested that ovitraps should be placed in the field during the morning hours since the captures occur during afternoon. PMID:17119745

Gomes, Adriana Dos Santos; de Sá Sciavico, Célia J; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo


Pancreatic infections of Myxobolus osburni Herrick (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in the pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) in Iowa.  


Cysts of Myxobolus osburni occurred throughout the pancreas in 119 of 150 (79.3%) pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) from West Lake Okoboji, northwest Iowa during the summer, 1980. None of 341 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were infected. Lobate cysts (up to 3 mm diameters) adjacent to the gall bladder contained sporulating plasmodia and mature spore masses. Inflammatory responses in the infected pancreas included engorged blood vessels, endocrine cell nuclei pyknosis, leukocyte (mostly lymphocyte) infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, dark pigment deposition and fibrosis. Host reaction was most pronounced in pancreas containing unencapsulated spore aggregates. Spore variability and plasmodial structure are also described. PMID:6808159

Ingram, K M; Mitchell, L G



7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imperata cylindrica (Linnaeus) Raeuschel (cogongrass) Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury (murainograss) Leptochloa chinensis (Linnaeus) Nees (Asian sprangletop) Lycium ferocissimum Miers (African boxthorn) Lygodium...



7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imperata cylindrica (Linnaeus) Raeuschel (cogongrass) Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury (murainograss) Leptochloa chinensis (Linnaeus) Nees (Asian sprangletop) Lycium ferocissimum Miers (African boxthorn) Melastoma...



Mercury in wild terrestrial carnivorous mammals from north-western Poland and unusual fish diet of red fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in the kidney (K), liver (L), and pectoral muscle (M) of 19 individuals representing\\u000a wild carnivorous mammals from NW Poland: 10 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), 3 raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, 2 badgers Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758, 3 pine martens Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758, and 1 polecat Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758. The

El?bieta Kalisi?ska; Piotr Lisowski; Wies?aw Salicki; Teresa Kucharska; Katarzyna Kavetska



Sexual dimorphism in the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri ustus (I. Geoffroy, 1844) (Primates, Cebidae).  


Causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological characters such as body weight, canine length, coat color and ornamentation. Here we describe a peculiar coat color characteristic in the squirrel monkey that is present only in adult females over five years old and which increases with age. Neither males nor young animals manifest this phenomenon, which is characterized by a spot of black hairs located anteriorly to the external ear (pinna). This characteristic could be used to discriminate adult females of Saimiri sciureus in the wild without the need of capture techniques. PMID:19347161

Goldschmidt, B; Mota-Marinho, A; Araújo-Lopes, C; Brück-Gonçalves, M A; Matos-Fasano, D; Ribeiro-Andrade, M C; Ferreira-Nascimento, L W; Simmer-Bravin, J; Monnerat-Nogueira, D



Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control.

Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O



Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S



Bioavailability of heavy metals in fresh water Tilapia nilotica (Oreachromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758): potential risk to fishermen and consumers.  


The study was undertaken to assess the accumulation of some heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) in different tissues (muscle, gills, heart, liver, brain, bone and skin) of Tilapia nilotica. It is one of the most edible fish species in Egypt and was collected from a commercial fish farm in order to evaluate their potential risk to fishermen and consumers. This fish farm is fed with discharged water containing agricultural, industrial, sewage and domestic wastes. The length-weight relation and condition factor calculation of Tilapia nilotica samples showed a significant linear regression (r(2) = 0.920) and an average condition factor of 4.1 g/cm(3). This indicated that the health status for the studied fish samples was good. Metal pollution index (MPI) values for the determined heavy metals in the different tissues reflected that the muscle was the only tissue that had the lowest content. Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values for the investigated heavy metals were lower than those reported for the permissible limits. The data were evaluated by using ANOVA statistical analysis. For appraising the human health risk effects of heavy metals in fish muscle, estimated dietary intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were determined. HQ levels indicated that Cr and Co were the only heavy metals among the determined ones that had values more than unity. Also, their relative contributions in fish consumptions were Cr> Co> Pb> Ni> Cu> Cd> Zn. The highest average HQ value of chromium determined in this study referred to the possible adverse effects of Cr on human health. Accordingly, the potential public health risks from dietary exposure to hazardous contaminants in fish species from fish farms must be continually subjected to research, regulation and debate. PMID:23431978

El-Sadaawy, Manal M; El-Said, Ghada F; Sallam, Neama A



Growth of Blue-Green Microalgae Passed through the Carassius auratus(Linnaeus) Gut in Blooming Pond Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

FMEL fluorescence unit (LOMO, St. Petersburg) was used to measure fluorescence. This system allowed us to measure the algal cell fluorescence excited in three spectral regions (blue, ? max = 410 nm; blue-green, ? max = 510 nm; and green, ? max = 540 nm), The spectral regions of fluorescence excitation were chosen based on specific absorption spectra of photosynthetic

V. I. Kolmakov; N. A. Gaevskii; M. I. Gladyshev



Isolation and characterization of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the pelagic perciform fish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from South Africa.  


Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, containing simple tetranucleotide repeats, were isolated de novo from a Pomatomus saltatrix partial genomic library using the fast isolation by amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats protocol. These loci were further characterized in 100 individuals from two putative populations off the South African east coast. The loci are highly polymorphic with 18-37 alleles (on average 24 alleles/locus) and the observed heterozygosity in both populations was high (0.79). These loci will be used to assess population structuring in P. saltatrix along the southern African coast with consideration of implications for future management of this important linefish species. PMID:21585973

Dos Santos, S M R; Klopper, A W; Oosthuizen, C J; Bloomer, P



Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.  


We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

Escobar-Sánchez, O; Galván-Magaña, F; Rosíles-Martínez, R



Mercury and Selenium Bioaccumulation in the Smooth Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead\\u000a shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 ?g g?1 ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 ?g g?1 ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that

O. Escobar-Sánchez; F. Galván-Magaña; R. Rosíles-Martínez



Identification of Culex pipiens Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae) immunogens recognized by host humoral immunity and their impact on survival and fecundity.  


Insecticide use continues to be the primary control strategy to reduce insect vector populations. Concerns about insecticide resistance in target organisms, environmental degradation, and possible deleterious impact on human health have led researchers to seek a variety of alternative control strategies. We tested a relatively new method for controlling mosquitoes using host immune response. New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were immunized with salivary gland (SGE), midgut (MGE), or ovary (OVE) extracts from female Culex pipiens L. Immunized rabbits were then exposed to unfed adult mosquitoes which were subsequently observed for changes in survival, fecundity, and hatch success. Parents that fed upon MGE- (P<0.001), SGE- (P<0.018) and OVE- (P<0.018) immunized rabbits experienced significantly higher mortality within 48 hours than parents fed on control rabbits. Midgut extract elicited the strongest effects upon survival (P<0.001), oviposition activity (P<0.001), and hatch success (P<0.001) in the parent generation. Survival (P<0.018), oviposition activity (P<0.001), and hatch success (P<0.001) were likewise strongly reduced in parents fed on SGE-immunized rabbits. Ovary extract-fed parents experienced less pronounced, but significant reductions, in survival (P<0.018) and hatch success (P<0.034). Surviving progeny were most strongly impacted by feeding upon MGE-immunized rabbits. Our study suggests that manipulating host immune response may be a suitable technique for reducing Cx. pipiens mosquito survival and fecundity, and subsequently the potential risk of disease transmission by this species. PMID:18689280

Abbassy, Magda M; Shaheen, Hind I; Dykstra, Elizabeth A; Beavers, Gregory M; Hoel, David F; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Afifi, Manal M; Ibrahim, Moustafa O; Karim, K A



Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques



Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot\\/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay

C. Ramos; B. Teixeira; I. Batista; O. Matos; C. Serrano; N. R. Neng; J. M. F. Nogueira; M. L. Nunes; A. Marques



Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)  

PubMed Central

The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium.

Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist Garcia, P.



The compound eye of Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chilopoda: Notostigmophora): an ultrastructural reinvestigation that adds support to the Mandibulata concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lateral compound eye of Scutigera coleoptrata was examined by electron microscopy. Each ommatidium consists of a dioptric apparatus, formed by a cornea and a multipartite eucone crystalline cone, a bilayered retinula and a surrounding sheath of primary pigment and interommatidial pigment cells. With reference to the median eye region, each cone is made up of eight cone segments belonging

Carsten H. G. Müller; Jörg Rosenberg; Stefan Richter; V. Benno Meyer-Rochow



Selection of nest platforms and the differential use of nest building fibres by the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus 1766  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice by the Baya weaver between different plant species as nesting platforms and sources of nesting fibre was analysed on an agricultural study plot at Chorao (15°30?N, 73°50?E), an island in the Mandovi estuary in Goa, India. The bird chose eucalyptus over coconut palms, as shown by a higher ratio of utilised trees to available trees and by the

S. D. Borges; M. Desai; A. B. Shanbhag



Blood sugar formation from dietary carbohydrate is facilitated by the pentose phosphate pathway in an insect Manduca sexta Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary carbohydrate, the principal energy source for insects, also determines the level of the blood sugar trehalose. This disaccharide, a byproduct of glycolysis, occurs at highly variable concentrations that play a key role in regulating feeding behavior and growth. Little is known of how developing insects partition the metabolism of dietary carbohydrate to meet the needs for blood trehalose, ribose

Stewart N Thompson



Reproductive strategy of the sable ( Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758): An analysis of litter size inheritance in farm-raised populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the genetic basis of the reproductive strategy of the sable (Martes zibellina), we performed a complex segregation analysis of the quantitative trait of average litter size. We used data on the pedigree\\u000a structure and litter size. Statistical analysis suggests that the analyzed trait, defining female fertility in the reproductive\\u000a period, has a normal distribution. The mixed model of

G. R. Svishcheva; S. N. Kashtanov



Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.  


Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen



Identification of a Novel Metalloproteinase and Its Role in Juvenile Development of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:105–117, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J



Differential responses of juvenile and adult South African abalone (Haliotis midae Linnaeus) to low and high oxygen levels.  


Marine invertebrates have evolved multiple responses to naturally variable environmental oxygen, all aimed at either maintaining cellular oxygen homeostasis or limiting cellular damage during or after hypoxic or hyperoxic events. We assessed organismal (rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) and cellular (heat shock protein expression, anti-oxidant enzymes) responses of juvenile and adult abalone exposed to low (~83% of saturation), intermediate (~95% of saturation) and high (~115% of saturation) oxygen levels for one month. Using the Comet assay, we measured DNA damage to determine whether the observed trends in the protective responses were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Juveniles were unaffected by moderately hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Elevated basal rates of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were sufficient to prevent DNA fragmentation and protein damage. Adults, with their lower basal rate of anti-oxidant enzymes, had increased DNA damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions, indicating that the antioxidant enzymes were unable to prevent oxidative damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The apparent insensitivity of juvenile abalone to decreased and increased oxygen might be related to their life history and development in algal and diatom biofilms where they are exposed to extreme diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels. PMID:22975222

Vosloo, Andre; Laas, Anél; Vosloo, Dalene




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 130 species of thrips occurring in Africa, Europe, and the Mediterranean region were intercepted by U. S. agricultural quarantine officers in shipments of plants and cut flowers at the various ports of entry in the United States from 1983 to 1999. Of the 24 most commonly intercepted speci...


Mass spectrometrical analysis of bilin-binding protein from the wing of Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).  


Bilin-binding protein (BBP) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and a pigment protein in Lepidoptera. It is binding to a series of lipidic compounds but its functions remain to be elucidated. Working on wing proteins in Hebomoia glaucippe, we observed this protein on gels and decided to characterize BBP. A gel-based mass spectrometrical method using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by in-gel digestion of protein spots followed by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS (ion trap, HCT) identification and characterization of proteins was applied. An antibody was generated against the protein and immunoblotting in the butterfly and mouse brain was carried out. Two spots were identified from the butterfly wing as BBP (P09464) with high sequence coverage. Nitrotyrosination (Y163; as aminotyrosine) was observed and nitration was verified using immunoblotting. Additional posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as hypusine, carboxylation, kynurenine, aminoadipic acid, were proposed. The presence of BBP-immunoreactive protein was also observed in mouse brain. The characterization of BBP showed high sequence similarity with mouse apolipoprotein D and the findings suggest a tentative function of BBP comparable to apolipoproteins. The role of the PTMs remains elusive but nitration, in analogy to nitration effects reported in literature, proposes a role for mechanoelastic proteins and protein-protein interactions. PMID:22740467

Bae, Narkhyun; Lödl, Martin; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert



Characterization of a germination-accelerating factor from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  


The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of a host insect-derived extract. This extract therefore appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi, although the substance (germination-accelerating factor, GAF) responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Our previous study was extended to the isolation of GAF from pupae of the silkworm, a host insect of N. rileyi. This present work subjects GAF to a structural analysis. The chemical structure of GAF is characterized as 2S-amino-tetradeca-4-ene-1,3R-diol (D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine) based on spectroscopic data. An examination of the structure-activity relationship shows that the activity of D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine was superior to that of sphingosines with shorter and longer carbon chains. It is suggested that the molecular species with a 14-carbon chain of a sphingosine is important for host recognition. PMID:20530914

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro



Identification of a novel metalloproteinase and its role in juvenile development of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus).  


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. PMID:23475557

Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J



Effect of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of pome fruit in South Africa, and control of codling moth in apple and pear orchards relies on the application of insecticides and in some cases pheromone mediated mating disruption. Development of resistance to insecticides and placement of restr...


Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway  

PubMed Central

Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen



Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A. J.; Marelli, D. C.; Frischer, M. E.; Danforth, J. M.; Williams, J. D.



Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil and extracts of bay laurel Laurus nobilis Linnaeus (Lauraceae) from Portugal.  


Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay laurel EO were eucalyptol (27.2%), ?-terpinenyl acetate (10.2%), linalool (8.4%), methyleugenol (5.4%), sabinene (4.0%) and carvacrol (3.2%). The EO exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested foodborne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, whereas this activity was less pronounced or even nonexistent in the EE and AE. In contrast, EO exhibited low antioxidant activity compared to extracts (EX), and among the EX, the hot AE revealed the highest antioxidant ability. The results show that bay laurel EO and its EX have potential as natural alternatives to synthetic food preservatives, in order to enhance food safety and increase food shelf life. PMID:21756182

Ramos, C; Teixeira, B; Batista, I; Matos, O; Serrano, C; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Nunes, M L; Marques, A



A contribution for the definition of serum chemistry values in captive adults Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).  


Serum chemistry analyses represents a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and understanding of diseases in marine mammals. Although several studies are being conducted within the field of clinical pathology, haematological and serum chemistry data for Antillean manatees are deficient. The purpose of this study was to determine serum chemistry values for captive Antillean manatees within the CMA/Ibama facility in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from five captive adult Antillean manatees fed with seagrass and analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, phosphate, chloride, calcium and uric acid. Blood chemistry parameters were determined using a semi-automatic analyzer. Maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviations were calculated for each serum chemistry parameter. Differences on the values of males and females were verified using an unpaired Student's t-test. All the parameters analysed were similar between sexes, with exception of AP, which was higher in females (191.43 +/- 31.86 U/l). Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid values for Trichechus manatus manatus are reported for the first time in this paper. This study is the first to report serum chemistry parameter values for long-term captive male and female Antillean manatees. Therefore, the lower values of albumin, phosphate, chloride, cholesterol and triglycerides obtained here highlight the importance of clinical pathology during health monitoring of captive marine mammals. PMID:17381673

Silva, F M O; Vergara-Parente, J E; Gomes, J K N; Teixeira, M N; Lima, R P



Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris



The essential oil of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi in larval control of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use. Results The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: ?-3-carene (55.43%), ?-pinene (16.25%), sylvestrene (10.67%), germacrene D (2.17), ?-myrcene (1.99%), and isoterpinolene (1.4%). The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 ?g mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 ?g mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil. Conclusions The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti.



[Evaluation of the inhibiting activity of the diflubenzuron on the ecdysis of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera, Culicidae)].  


The inhibiting activity of diflubenzuron on the ecdysis of Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated, with a view to using this product in mosquito control. This study also aimed to determine the interaction between this product, the type of artificial containers and the susceptibility of the mosquito. Bioassays were carried out in the backyard of a residence, using seven kinds of artificial habitats: tires, glass, concrete roofing, cans, plastic containers, cement and pottery. In each kind of artificial habitat, 20 Aedes aegypti larvae in the 4th instar were set. The same number of larvae was used as a control. Each test was repeated five times and the observation of mortality was done once every 24 hours, until 100% mortality was reached at 1 ppm. There was no significant difference between the main surveillance periods of the larvae, nor between the various kinds of artificial habitats. A significant difference was found between the instars, in that the 3rd instar was the most resistant to diflubenzuron inhibiting activity. It was also shown that concentrations did not interact with instars or material of the artificial habitats at the 5% significance level. PMID:15094897

Martins, Flávia; da Silva, Ionizete Garcia



[Parasite fauna and features of the parasite community structure in the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus) from Yenisei and Kacha rivers].  


Phoxinus phoxinus is a species widely distributed throughout Palaearctic and is a good model for investigation of parasite communities. Species composition and structure of parasite communities in the minnow from the streams if different types, namely Yenisei river near Krasnoyarsk City and its left affluent Kacha River, were examined. Indices of Shannon, Simpson, and Berger-Parker were used to describe the component parasite communities. Twenty five parasite species of seven classes were revealed, and ectoparasite were found to be dominating among them. The host-specific parasite species Paratrichodina phoxini (Infusoria), Dactylogyrus borealis (Monogenea), Parahemiurus merus and Diplostomum phoxini (Digenea) constitute the peculiarity of the parasite fauna in minnow. Parasite community of minnow in the Kacha river is the most various one. It is caused by the following factors--favorable temperature conditions, composition of ichthyofauna, and a high density of fish population in the Kacha river. Metacercaria of Diplostomum phoxini, the specific parasites of minnow's brain, are dominating in both streams. PMID:20349627

German, Iu K; Pronin, N M


Ontogenetic profile of innate immune related genes and their tissue-specific expression in brown trout, Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758).  


The innate immune system is a fundamental defense weapon of fish, especially during early stages of development when acquired immunity is still far from being completely developed. The present study aims at looking into ontogeny of innate immune system in the brown trout, Salmo trutta, using RT-PCR based approach. Total RNA extracted from unfertilized and fertilized eggs and hatchlings at 0, 1 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 weeks post-fertilization was subjected to RT-PCR using self-designed primers to amplify some innate immune relevant genes (TNF-?, IL-1?, TGF-? and lysozyme c-type). The constitutive expression of ?-actin was detected in all developmental stages. IL-1? and TNF-? transcripts were detected from 4 week post-fertilization onwards, whereas TGF-? transcript was detected only from 7 week post-fertilization onwards. Lysozyme c-type transcript was detected early from unfertilized egg stage onwards. Similarly, tissues such as muscle, ovary, heart, brain, gill, testis, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, posterior kidney, anterior kidney and blood collected from adult brown trout were subjected to detection of all selected genes by RT-PCR. TNF-? and lysozyme c-type transcripts were expressed in all tissues. IL-1? and TGF-? transcripts were expressed in all tissues except for the brain and liver, respectively. Taken together, our results show a spatial-temporal expression of some key innate immune-related genes, improving the basic knowledge of the function of innate immune system at early stage of brown trout. PMID:23765117

Cecchini, Stefano; Paciolla, Mariateresa; Biffali, Elio; Borra, Marco; Ursini, Matilde V; Lioi, Maria B



Anatomical and scanning electron microscopic characteristics of the tongue in the pampas deer (Cervidae: Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).  


This study represents the first definitive anatomical description of the tongue and lingual papillae of the pampas deer and compares the different information on the morphology of the other ruminant species available in the literature. In this study, the tongues of four adult and one fetal deer were used. The tongue was elongated with an oval or rounded apex. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex were smaller than the ones on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the lingual body. Two very thin secondary papillary projections were found to emerge from the bilateral sides of some filiform papillae. Spherical fungiform papillae were randomly distributed among filiform papillae on dorsal surface of the lingual body and ventral surface of the apex. More developed conical papillae were observed in the caudal half of the lingual torus, whereas the rostral half of the torus had smaller conical papillae. Each conical papilla included shallow longitudinal groove on its anterior surface and some conical papillae on the lingual torus had bifid sharp apices. On the caudal portion of the torus, we also observed a few fungiform papillae, which were larger than those located on the lingual body. There were no lenticular papillae on the lingual torus, and five to nine round or oval circumvallate papillae were situated on each caudolateral side of the lingual torus. Morphological features of the tongue in the pampas deer were more similar to wild ruminant species than they were to domestic species. Microsc. Res. Tech., 76:1025-1034, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23857640

Erdo?an, Serkan; Pérez, William



Agonistic interactions between invasive green crabs, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus), and sub-adult American lobsters, Homarus americanus (Milne Edwards)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas, has recently expanded its range into the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, where there is potential for substantial niche overlap with juvenile American lobsters, Homarus americanus. We used two experiments to elicit, record and analyze the agonistic interactions of adult green crabs (carapace width of 63–75 mm) and sub-adult (carapace length of 55–70 mm)

P. J. Williams; T. A. Floyd; M. A. Rossong



Agonistic interactions between the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and juvenile American lobster, Homarus americanus (Milne Edwards)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive organisms have the potential for competition with native organisms. In the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, juvenile American lobsters have a potential spatial overlap with adult green crabs. Crustaceans use agonistic behaviour to settle disputes, with the larger organism often winning contests for limited resources such as food and shelter. Two experiments were carried out using adult green crabs

M. A. Rossong; P. J. Williams; M. Comeau; S. C. Mitchell; J. Apaloo



Analysis of a deep transcriptome from the mantle tissue of Patella vulgata Linnaeus (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Patellidae) reveals candidate biomineralising genes.  


The gastropod Patella vulgata is abundant on rocky shores in Northern Europe and a significant grazer of intertidal algae. Here we report the application of Illumina sequencing to develop a transcriptome from the adult mantle tissue of P. vulgata. We obtained 47,237,104 paired-end reads of 51 bp, trialled de novo assembly methods and settled on the additive multiple K method followed by redundancy removal as resulting in the most comprehensive assembly. This yielded 29,489 contigs of at least 500 bp in length. We then used three methods to search for candidate genes relevant to biomineralisation: searches via BLAST and Hidden Markov Models for homologues of biomineralising genes from other molluscs, searches for predicted proteins containing tandem repeats and searches for secreted proteins that lacked a transmembrane domain. From the results of these searches we selected 15 contigs for verification by RT-PCR, of which 14 were successfully amplified and cloned. These included homologues of Pif-177/BSMP, Perlustrin, SPARC, AP24, Follistatin-like and Carbonic anhydrase, as well as three containing extensive G-X-Y repeats as found in nacrein. We selected two for further verification by in situ hybridisation, demonstrating expression in the larval shell field. We conclude that de novo assembly of Illumina data offers a cheap and rapid route to a predicted transcriptome that can be used as a resource for further biological study. PMID:22865210

Werner, Gijsbert D A; Gemmell, Patrick; Grosser, Stefanie; Hamer, Rebecca; Shimeld, Sebastian M



Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758).  


With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98 +/- 0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia. PMID:23660672

Tripathi, Ratnesh Kumar; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Akanksha; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Rahasya Mani; Jena, Joy Krushna



Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).  


The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank. PMID:22012220

Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos



Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia  

PubMed Central

The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes.

Drotz, Marcus K.; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E.



Feeding habits of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus 1766), in the Ecological Reserve of Taim (ESEC - Taim) - south of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine feeding habi tats of capybaras in the ESEC-Taim (RS, Brazil), us ing microhistological analyses of feces. Data were anal yzed seasonally. In 172 samples analyzed, 17 specie s were identified, with predominance of Poaceae. Zizaniops is bonariensis was the most frequent species in win ter (38%), spring (32%) and summer (26.5%) and

Lucélia do Valle Borges; Ioni Gonçalves Colares



A synthesis of the early life history of the anglerfish, Lophius piscatorius (Linnaeus, 1758) in northern British waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the anglerfish Lophius piscatorius is now a species of major commercial importance, our understanding of its basic biology is far from complete. Here, the early life history of L. piscatorius is investigated by otolith daily increment analysis, the application of a particle tracking model and an examination of the geographical distribution of pelagic and demersal anglerfish. Otolith incremental analysis

John R. G. Hislop; Alejandro Gallego; Michael R. Heath; Fiona M. Kennedy; Stuart A. Reeves; Peter J. Wright



Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.  


The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. PMID:22154255

He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C



Blood sugar formation due to abnormally elevated gluconeogenesis: aberrant regulation in a parasitized insect, Manduca sexta Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations of carbohydrate metabolism associated with parasitism were examined in an insect, Manduca sexta L. In insect larvae maintained on a low carbohydrate diet gluconeogenesis from [3-13C]alanine was established from the fractional 13C enrichment in trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose and the blood sugar of insects and other invertebrates. After transamination of the isotopically substituted substrate to [3-13C]pyruvate, the latter

S. N. Thompson; D. L. Dahlman



A review of the biology and ecology of the Robber Crab, Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767) (Anomura: Coenobitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birgus latro (L.) is the largest terrestrial hermit crab in the world. The species is widely distributed on remote Indo-Pacific islands of the tropics, but it is rapidly declining and is currently classified as data deficient on the IUCN red list. This review provides a synopsis of both published and unpublished data on the biology and ecology of B. latro.

M. M. Drew; S. Harzsch; M. Stensmyr; S. Erland; B. S. Hansson



Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two

Gregory W. Stunz; Thomas J. Minello



Redescription of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri (Travassos, 1916) (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Caviidae) from Argentina.  


Twenty-eight Capillariinae species have been recorded in rodents; 1 of these species was reported from a caviomorph rodent, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (capybara), and placed in the genus Echinocoleus by Moravec (1982). However, both original description and subsequent contributions of Echinocoleus hydrochoeri are poor and incomplete. In this paper, this species is redescribed, and a new geographical distribution is reported. The redescription is based on morphologic and morphometrical features; intestine ends in a cloaca beside ejaculatory duct, caudal bursa composed of 2 large ventrolateral lobes with a fleshy internal part and a membranous external part (they are not united dorsally with a membrane), 1 pair of caudal papillae, terminal part of cylindrical cirrus ornamented with thin and thick spines (and particular pattern distribution), sclerotized spicule in male, and vulvar appendage in female, and 3 bacillary bands (1 ventral and 2 lateral). Generic and specific analyses were performed to establish new standards for future studies on the systematic position of Capillariinae species. This study presents new morphological information and a new record of a capillariid species from Argentina. PMID:23413958

Robles, María del Rosario; Eberhardt, María Ayelen Teresita; Bain, Odile; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín



The influence of fresh weight and water temperature on metabolic rates and the energy budget of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meretrix meretrix L. was held in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions to measure specific physiological parameters of its energy budget. O2 consumption rate, NH3 excretion rate (NR), ingestion rate, faeces excretion rate and scope for growth (SFG) were negatively related in an exponential manner to the fresh weight of the clams at all water temperatures, while almost all metabolic

Shuhong Zhuang; Xuemei Liu



Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity was determined for three clutches and up to 20 offspring per clutch in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic, using microsatellite markers. All three clutches were sired by at least two different males. The results were compared with those of previous studies of multiple paternity in turtles. No significant difference among studies was observed in

J. S. Ireland; A. C. Broderick; F. Glen; B. J. Godley; G. C. Hays; P. L. M. Lee; D. O. F. Skibinski



Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758).  


The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47) on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina). PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta). The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain. PMID:23564589

Angioni, Salvatora Angela; Scortichini, Giampiero; Diletti, Gianfranco; Perletta, Fabrizia; Ceci, Roberta; Ferri, Nicola


Ecology of the fiddler crab Uca (Thalassuca) vocans vocans (Linnaeus) (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) I. Daily activity in warm and cold seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Field observations on the behaviour ofUca (Thalassuca) vocans vocans were made in the estuary of the Okukubi river, Okinawa Island.\\u000a \\u000a The formation of the feeding aggregation of wandering individuals or drove was found in warm seasons above an average monthly\\u000a air temperature 20°C from April to early November, while the aggregation was little observed in cold seasons below the temperature

Yukio Nakasone



Double valvular insufficiency in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus, Linnaeus, 1758) suffering from concomitant bacterial pneumonia.  


Ultrasonography, and, to a lesser extent, echocardiography are now well-established, noninvasive, and painless diagnostic tools in herpetologic medicine. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles, but valvulopathy is rarely documented in these animals and, consequently, is poorly understood. In this report, sinoatrial and atrioventricular insufficiencies were diagnosed in a 5-yr-old captive dyspneic Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) on the basis of echocardiographic and Doppler examination. This case report is the first to document Doppler assessment of valvular regurgitations in a reptile. PMID:21370663

Schilliger, Lionel; Tréhiou-Sechi, Emilie; Petit, Amandine M P; Misbach, Charlotte; Chetboul, Valérie



Community of arthropod ectoparasites of two species of Turdus Linnaeus, 1758 (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  


This study was aimed at describing the community of arthropod ectoparasites associated with sympatric populations of Turdus amaurochalinus and Turdus rufiventris and analyzing the aggregation patterns of the chewing lice species, during reproductive and nonreproductive periods, of both Turdus species in three areas of the Atlantic forest in southern Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Altogether, we captured 36 specimens of T. amaurochalinus and 53 specimens of T. rufiventris. We identified two families of chewing lice, Menoponidae and Philopteridae, with Myrsidea and Brueelia as the most prevalent and abundant on both host birds. The lowest aggregation levels of chewing lice Myrsidea and Brueelia occurred during the reproductive period of both host species, suggesting a reproductive synchronization and a dispersion period. The most prevalent feather mite on T. amaurochalinus was Proctophyllodes weigoldi, and on T. rufiventris, Trouessartia serrana. Analges sp. and Pteronyssoides sp. were not observed on T. rufiventris. We identified three species of ticks; Ixodes auritulus was the most prevalent and abundant on the birds. Ornithoica vicina was the only hippoboscid fly collected, and only on T. amaurochalinus. The richness of ectoparasites was greater on T. amaurochalinus than on T. rufiventris. For T. amaurochalinus, the mean richness was lesser in winter compared to spring and autumn; however, we observed no variation in the mean richness of ectoparasites for T. rufiventris during the same seasons. PMID:23093206

da Cunha Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Graciolli, Gustavo



Relative growth of Petrochirus diogenes (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea, Anomura, Diogenidae) in the Ubatuba region, São Paulo, Brazil.  


The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative growth and heterochely in the hermit crab Petrochirus diogenes. Hermit crabs were collected in the Ubatuba region, SP, from 1993 to 1996; using a commercial fishing boat equipped with two double-rig nets. Body mass of each individual was weighed and their cephalothoracic shield and chelar propodus size were measured. Body mass and chelar propodus size were regarded as dependent variables and plotted against length of cephalothoracic shield according to the allometric equation y = a x x(b). A total of 479 individuals were obtained being 307 males and 172 females. Cephalothoracic shield width follows an isometric growth for both sexes. Otherwise, right cheliped dimensions show different relative growth patterns and left cheliped ones present a positive allometry in males and females. Unlike brachyurans, ontogenetic changes in the growth rate of chelar propodus are not clearly discernible, which prevents the accurate detection of allometric variations. In both sexes, the right cheliped is larger than the right one. Cheliped size is a sexual dimorphic feature with males bearing larger chelipeds than females. Heterochely may be particularly adaptive in agonistic interactions and precopulatory behaviour in P diogenes. PMID:23505650

Bertini, G; Fransozo, A



Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model.

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant



Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).  


Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans



Three centuries of temperature records in Scotland preserved in sclerochronological archives from freshwater pearl mussels, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bivalves are natural indicators of environmental variability as they reflect environmental conditions such as temperature in growth bands within the shell. During the winter period in temperate climes, shell growth ceases owing to the low water temperature and limited food supply. This hiatus is revealed by chemical staining as a very distinct etch-resistant band - termed the winter line. Winter lines alternate with less etch-resistant bands thus providing a chronology for any analyses which can be correlated to other proxy series and instrumental data. Freshwater pearl mussels have also been shown to form their shells in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the ambient water thus fluctuations in water temperature can be constrained from the ^18Ocarbonatedata. As long as the date of collection is known, annual growth increments provide a precise dating tool for isotope samples and allow the allocation of precise calendar years to each part of the shell. Measurements of consecutive increments serve as records of isotopic composition from which derived temperatures may be correlated with other sample series and annual instrumental records, giving a high resolution proxy for temperature for a given region. ....... The use of live-collected M. margaritifera shells is now prohibited in the UK due to the mussel's rarity and its protection under the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) and the European Union Habitats and Species Directive (EUHSD). Museum collections of freshwater pearl mussels thus provide an invaluable resource, with many collections in UK museums having been live-collected during 19th century. As M. margaritifera is one of the longest-lived invertebrates, attaining an age of up to 140 years, sclerochronological and ^18Oaragonite data have the potential to provide terrestrial climate records on the centennial scale. The use of museum specimens has the potential to establish a composite three hundred year record of Scottish environmental change. Shells from several localities in Scotland dating from the late 1700s to the present were sampled and the results compiled to construct a composite record of temperature change prior to and during the anthopogenically-induced contribution to climate change. The breadth of the collections used and the sampling protocol employed allows the examination of intra-individual and intraspecific variability in ^18Oaragonite data from contemporaneous individuals from the same locality. Results have implications for the use of archaeological and subfossil shells in the reconstruction of past climates.

Pannell, C. L., ,, Dr; Fallick, A. E., ,, Prof.



75 FR 45675 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) to review the sites' management plans and...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) Dates: September 1, 2010 to August 31,...



Interactions Between Sockeye Salmon and Lake Resident Fish in the Chignik Lakes, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparative studies were made of the food, abundance, and growth rate of juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, ninespine stickleback, Pungitius pungitius Linnaeus and pond smelt Hypomes...

W. H. Parr



The prezoeal stage in various decapod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed descriptions on the prezoeal stage of the following 20 decapod species have been made based on material hatched in the laboratory, and phylogenetic relationships are discussed: Pandalus montagui Leach, Pagurus prideaux Leach, Pagurus bernhardus (Linnaeus), Hyas araneus (Linnaeus), Hyas coarctatus Leach, Inachus dorsettensis (Pennant), Inachus leptochirus Leach, Macropodia tenuirostris (Leach), Orithyia sinica (Linnaeus), Ebalia tuberosa (Pennant), Liocarcinus holsatus (Fabricius),

Sung Yun Hong



Pathological findings in the caeca of naturally infected ostriches, Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves, Struthionidae) parasitized by Codiostomum struthionis (Horst, 1885) Railliet and Henry, 1911 (Nematoda, Strongylidae).  


In order to characterize lesions associated with Codiostomum struthionis in ostriches, 10 caeca were examined on both macro- and microscopic levels. Parasites were found in the distal third of the caecum and characterized as C. struthionis. Thickened mucosa was identified macroscopically where parasites were observed in high concentrations. Nodular areas were also observed in the distal third of the infected caeca, as well as hemorrhagic areas abutting small ulcers surrounded by edema. These findings were not observed in healthy controls. The concentration of C. struthionis found in infected animals was directly correlated with the severity of lesions observed in each caecum. These results allowed us to infer that C. struthionis is responsible for lesions in ostrich caeca. PMID:19647369

de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo



Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits, HIF-1?, -2? and -3? in hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus [Linnaeus, 1758].  


The present study aimed at characterization of three HIF-? subunits, HIF-1? -2? and -3? from hypoxia-tolerant Clarias batrachus, as well as to elucidate their expression pattern under short and long-term hypoxic conditions and identification of biomarker candidate. The complete cDNAs of HIF-1?, -2? and -3? were 2,833, 4,270 and 3,256 bp in length, encoding 774, 818 and 628 amino acid residues, respectively. In C. batrachus, HIF-? subunits were structurally similar in DNA binding, dimerization, degradation and transcriptional activation domains, but differed in their oxygen-dependent degradation domains. Presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase binding domain in HIF-? subunits was reported here for the first time in fish. In adult C. batrachus, three HIF-? mRNAs were detected in different tissues under normoxic conditions, however HIF-1? was highly expressed in all the tissues studied, in comparison to HIF-2? and -3?. Short-term hypoxia exposure caused significant increase in three HIF-? transcripts in brain, liver and head kidney, while after long-term hypoxia exposure, significant up-regulation of HIF-1? in spleen and -2? in muscle was observed and HIF-3? significantly down-regulated in head kidney. These observations suggest that the differential expression of HIF-? subunits in C. batrachus was hypoxic time period dependent and may play specialized roles in adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-2?, with its highly elevated expression in muscle tissues, can be a robust biomarker candidate for exposure to hypoxic environment. PMID:24065526

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep K



Evolution of arthropod visual systems: development of the eyes and central visual pathways in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).  


Despite ongoing interest into the architecture, biochemistry, and physiology of the visual systems of the xiphosuran Limulus polyphemus, their ontogenetic aspects have received little attention. Thus, we explored the development of the lateral eyes and associated neuropils in late embryos and larvae of these animals. The first external evidence of the lateral eyes was the appearance of white pigment spots-guanophores associated with the rudimentary photoreceptors-on the dorsolateral side of the late embryos, suggesting that these embryos can perceive light. The first brown pigment emerges in the eyes during the last (third) embryonic molt to the trilobite stage. However, ommatidia develop from this field of pigment toward the end of the larval trilobite stage so that the young larvae at hatching do not have object recognition. Double staining with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and an antibody against L. polyphemus myosin III, which is concentrated in photoreceptors of this species, confirmed previous reports that, in the trilobite larvae, new cellular material is added to the eye field from an anteriorly located proliferation zone. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that these new cells differentiate into new ommatidia. Examining larval eyes labeled for opsin showed that the new ommatidia become organized into irregular rows that give the eye field a triangular appearance. Within the eye field, the ommatidia are arranged in an imperfect hexagonal array. Myosin III immunoreactivity in trilobite larvae also revealed the architecture of the central visual pathways associated with the median eye complex and the lateral eyes. Double labeling with myosin III and BrdU showed that neurogenesis persists in the larval brain and suggested that new neurons of both the lamina and the medulla originate from a single common proliferation zone. These data are compared with eye development in Drosophila melanogaster and are discussed with regard to new ideas on eye evolution in the Euarthropoda. PMID:16788994

Harzsch, Steffen; Vilpoux, Kathia; Blackburn, David C; Platchetzki, David; Brown, Nadean L; Melzer, Roland; Kempler, Karen E; Battelle, Barbara A



Ecology of the parasitic endohelminth community of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus, 1776) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Aquidauana River, Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  


This study investigated the structure and diversity of the endohelminth community and its interactions with Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, caught in the Aquidauana River, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Ten helminth species were represented in 1,228 specimens of parasites found in the intestine and mesentery of 33 specimens of P. fasciatum. Cestodes were observed in the intestine, while nematodes Cucullanus sp. in the mesentery. Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Spatulifer rugosa and Choanoscolex abscisus showed the highest mean intensity and mean abundance and Nomimoscolex sudobin showed the highest prevalence. Simpson's index indicated dominance in the endohelminth infracommunities (C = 1.0792) and Choanoscolex abscisus was considered the central species. A clumped pattern of dispersion according to Green's index was related. 69.69% of hosts analyzed had between 2 and 5 species of endohelminths. Mean diversity was H = 0.5517 (SD = 0.4209). Two pairs of species showed significant positive association and four pairs presented significant positive correlation among abundance data. Significant negative correlations between total length and prevalence and abundance of Peltydocotyle rugosa and Nomimoscolex sudobim were found. However, no significant correlation was observed between condition factor and abundance, as well as total length and diversity. There was significant prevalence of Harriscolex kaparari in male hosts. PMID:19347150

Campos, C M; Fonseca, V E; Takemoto, R M; Moraes, F R



Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus.  


Plasma Ca concentration (annual mean) in males Coturnix cotumix coturnix was 10.27 +/- 0.14 mg/100 ml while it was slightly higher (11.85 +/- 0.15 mg/100 ml) among females. Plasma Pi levels (annual mean) in males and females were 5.62 +/- 0.12 mg/100 ml and 6.52 +/- 0.20 mg/100 ml, respectively. While the males did not exhibit marked fluctuation in plasma Ca and Pi levels either in winter or summer, the females did record significant elevation in the levels of both these electrolytes during breeding season. The peak values of plasma Ca (17.66 +/- 0.38 mg/100 ml) and Pi (8.64 +/- 0.22 mg/100 ml) in females were observed during June. Parathyroid gland of the grey quail exhibited hyperactivity (hypertrophy and hyperplasia) during breeding season, however, the activity was more conspicuous among females than in males. The maximum increase in cell and nuclear diameters were observed in females during May-July. The follicles were also filled with AF- and PAS-positive materials during these months. The glands depicted signs of hypoactivity and degeneration during peak winter season (November-December) as evident by decrease in cell and nuclear diameters as well as vacuolation in the chief cells. PMID:16850889

Dhande, R R; Suryawanshi, S A; Pandey, A K



Tetraploid Induction by Inhibiting Mitosis I with Heat Shock, Cold Shock, and Nocodazole in the Hard Clam Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetraploid induction by inhibiting mitosis I with heat shock (32, 35, and 38C), cold shock (1, 4, and 7C), and nocodazole\\u000a (0.02 to 1.6 mg\\/L) was investigated in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. All treatments were applied to fertilized eggs about 5 min before the first cell division at 22 to 23C, and lasted for\\u000a 10, 15, and 20 min. Three replicates were

Huiping Yang; Ximing Guo



A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage

Eckart Stolle; Lena Wilfert; Regula Schmid-Hempel; Paul Schmid-Hempel; Michael Kube; Richard Reinhardt; Robin FA Moritz



Morphogenetic responses from protoplasts and tissue culture of Laminaria digitata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux (Laminariales, Phaeophyta): callus and thalloid-like structures regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regeneration of meristematic tissues from sporophytes of Laminaria digitata was studied by protoplast and tissue culture. Sequential treatment of explants in sterile seawater with 1% Betadine for 5 min,\\u000a 1% commercial bleach for 1–2 min and 2% antibiotic treatment supplemented with 1 ?M GeO2 overnight enabled viable explants as high as 55%. Different morphogenetic responses were observed from tissue culture on\\u000a media

Isabelle Mussio; Anne-Marie Rusig



Sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


The colony of urban stray cats living in the Rio de Janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. As many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. They were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. All animals had a blood sample drawn for CBC, platelet count, heartworm and retroviruses detection. Capillary blood smears were made for hemoparasites detection. Coat marking and colors were tabby (59.7%), followed by solid black (17%); torbie (10.6%); bicolor (10.6%) and harlequin (2.1%). The only ectoparasites found were fleas, which infested 28% of the animals. The hemoparasites found were Haemobartonella felis (38%) and piroplasmas that could not be differentiated between Cytauxzoon spp. and Babesia spp. (47%). No cat was found infected by Dirofilaria immitis or FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus), although FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies could be detected (21%). There was no correlation between hemoparasites and FIV infections. The estimated total cat population (mark-recapture method) was 59; 68% female and 32% male, suggesting that a neutering program is in fact needed. PMID:15517031

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Souza, Aline Moreira; Almosny, Nádia; Charme, Márcia; Labarthe, Norma



Follow-up of the health conditions of an urban colony of free-roaming cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  


Similar to other urban areas where food and shelter are abundant, the zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro has dealt for years with a colony of feral or semi-feral domestic cats. A survey was conducted during 2002-2004 as a follow-up to a previous study in 2001 of the cat colony to identify pathogens circulating among the population and to annually follow the status of the cats to analyze morbidity coefficients and associations among infections and infestations identified in the colony. During the 3 years of the present study, 75 cats were sampled at least once, including 44 that were caught and examined only once, 14 that were examined twice, and 17 that were examined three times. For each cat that was caught, records were kept regarding sex, age, general health, and the presence of ectoparasites. Each year, a blood sample was taken for hematologic testing, platelet count, hemoparasite detection, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, and retrovirus detection. Blood counts were within normal range for the majority of cats tested. Feline immunodeficiency virus, fleas, and lice were detected in all years; however, incidence rates for each of these varied significantly throughout the years. Prevalence of Cytauxzoon spp., Mycoplasma spp., T. gondii infections were variable among the 3 years, although differences were not significant. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus increased significantly over the 3 years. Mycoplasma spp. and flea infestations were significantly associated, but no other associations among the pathogens were detected. Over the 3 years, the rate of new cat introductions decreased, and the pathogens showed a tendency to disseminate throughout the colony; however, there was virtually no evidence of clinically detectable disease. Therefore, it seems that stabilizing the population by a judicious control program facilitated the distribution of the pathogens throughout the colony, while the general well-being of the cats was not seriously affected. PMID:17481822

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Labarthe, Norma; Guerrero, Jorge; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Pereira, Cássia Dias; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim



[Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].  


One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345

Dias, Fátima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Knoff, Marcelo


Reconciling Deep Calibration and Demographic History: Bayesian Inference of Post Glacial Colonization Patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using Bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales.

Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo



Nest-building behavior by the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata (Kroyer) on the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh from Northern-Central Chile.  


Many small arthropod herbivores from terrestrial and marine environments construct tubicolous nest-like domiciles on their host plants or algae by rolling up selected portions of the leaf or blade. Nests serve as both shelter and food, which results in conflicting needs for the grazers because feeding activity continuously destroys parts of the nests. While the nesting habit of ampithoid amphipods and other peracarid crustaceans is widely known, very little is known about the nest dynamics and how the conflict between shelter and food requirements is resolved. Herein we examined the nest-building behavior and nest occupancy of the kelp-dwelling amphipod Peramphithoe femorata on the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Domiciles on the distal-most part of the blades were occupied by amphipods and were steadily advanced toward the blade base. Since the blades grow from a basal growth meristem, blades and nests develop in opposite directions. Thus, the amphipods exploit the kelp growth pattern to maintain their nests in the medium-distal part of the blades. During a 2-week-long experiment, we observed that blade elongation equaled nest advancement during the first 8 days after nest construction. Thereafter, blade growth slowed down and was surpassed by nest advancement rates, possibly forcing amphipods to seek out new blades. Nest occupancy was generally short (1-4 days), but some amphipods resided longer (>4 days) in their nests. The sophisticated nest-building behavior of P. femorata and other ampithoids maximizes nest persistence, offers optimal protection against predators, and promotes feeding on nutritive or, alternatively, on less defended tissues. PMID:20570848

Cerda, Osvaldo; Hinojosa, Iván A; Thiel, Martin



Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.



Cytochrome P450Dependent Mixed Function Oxidases (MFO) System Dynamics During the Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolism in Green Mussel Perna Viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the prominent and most common pollutants in aquatic environments, particularly in marine water. The discharge of hydrocarbons into the sea might be of great concern for marine species living close to dumping sites. Therefore, toxicological properties of hydrocarbons released into marine environments need to be evaluated. PAH pollution potential may be predicted by assessing the induction

C. Amutha; G. Bupesh; R. Ramesh; P. Kavitha; P. Subramanian



Insecticide residues in cotton soils of Burkina Faso and effects of insecticides on fluctuating asymmetry in honey bees ( Apis mellifera Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four insecticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, endosulfan and profenofos) are used quarterly in the cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. These insecticides were investigated in soils collected from traditionally cultivated and new cotton areas. Also, the effects of insecticide exposure on the developmental instability of honey bees, Apis mellifera, were explored. In soil samples collected three months after insecticide treatments, endosulfan

Norbert Ondo Zue Abaga; Paul Alibert; Sylvie Dousset; Paul W. Savadogo; Moussa Savadogo; Michel Sedogo



Subchronic effects of environment-like cadmium levels on the bivalve Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758): II. Effects on energy reserves in relation to calcium metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose, glycogen and protein levels in freshwater mussels (Anodonta anatina) exposed to algae- and water-borne Cd for 35 days and allowed to depurate for posterior 120 days were monitored. In body fluids, glucose was increased while protein levels were decreased. Glycogen stores in the tissues generally declined during exposure and remained low until the end of depuration, associated with decreased

Huong Thi Thuy Ngo; Silke Gerstmann; Hartmut Frank



Comparative studies on the nutrition of two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata Linnaeus and Haliotis discus hannai Ino I. Effects of algal diets on growth and biochemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the nutritional value of eight algal diets for two species of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata and Haliotis discus hannai, by measuring biochemical composition of the algae and relating this to feeding rate, growth and biochemical composition of the animals. Nutritional value of algal diets can be divided into three categories for each species of abalone.




Genetic population structure of the common sole, Solea solea Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces, Pleuronectiformes) along the southern shores of the Mediterranean Sea (Tunisian coasts)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the genetic differentiation among Solea solea populations, collected from both sides of the Siculo-Tunisian Strait (northeast and southeast Tunisian coasts), which is considered to be a boundary area between the eastern and western Mediterranean basins. Seven polymorphic enzyme loci (MDH-2*, MDH-3*, PGM*, PGI-1*, PGI-2*, GOT-2* and SOD*) were used in this study. Significant departure from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium,

L. Bahri-Sfar; M. Kaouèche; M. Haffani; K. Ouanes; O. K. Ben Hassine



Predatory impact of the green crab ( Carcinus maenas Linnaeus) on post-settlement winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus Walbaum) as revealed by immunological dietary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation on flatfish during the early juvenile stage is an important factor regulating year-class strength and recruitment. In this study, immunological dietary analysis was performed on green crabs (Carcinus maenas) collected from the Niantic River, Connecticut, in an effort to evaluate the predatory impact of this species on post-settlement winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Through the use of species-specific antiserum, winter

David L. Taylor



Reconciling deep calibration and demographic history: bayesian inference of post glacial colonization patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758).  


A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales. PMID:22164307

Marino, Ilaria A M; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo



Growth, nutrient utilization and parameters of mineral metabolism in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed plant-based diets with graded levels of microbial phytase.  


Diets with graded levels of the experimental microbial phytase SP1002 (0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 FTU/kg) were fed to juvenile Nile tilapia (average BW = 68.8 g) for 60 days (n = 4). A digestibility trial ran parallel to the growth trial using 0.3 g TiO2/100 g as an indigestible marker. The efficiency of phytase supplementation was evaluated by parameters of growth response, crude protein and mineral utilization (using body composition data), apparent nutrient digestibility, mineral content in scale and vertebra and inorganic phosphorus in blood plasma. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey-test using SAS-program. Significant improvements (p < 0.01) were found for growth, FCR and SGR, mainly for diets with 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase supplementation. Protein utilization was significantly increased and maximized between 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg. Phosphorus utilization increased significantly up to 4000 FTU/kg. Digestibility of protein and phosphorus was also significantly improved. Phosphorus concentration in the blood, vertebra and scale increased significantly after phytase addition. Similarly, calcium and magnesium concentration in vertebra and scale were increased. Generally, phytase supplementation between 1000 and 2000 FTU/kg resulted in growth rates and mineralization parameters similar to a control diet with inorganic phosphorus. PMID:15387847

Portz, L; Liebert, F



[Monitoring of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) by means of ovitraps at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Campus, Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso].  


TDengue is one of the most important arboviruses affecting man and is a serious health problem in tropical areas where climatic conditions are favorable for occurrences of foci of Aedes aegypti. Oviposition traps with added hay infusion were installed at 19 points on the campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso with the objective of investigating the monthly levels of infestation with the dengue vector and the influence of abiotic factors. The results obtained were compared with the following monthly abiotic data: temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation; and with the number of days for which the traps remained in the field. Rain was the only abiotic factor that influenced the level of infestation of the dengue vector at this location. There were significant differences between the quantities of Aedes aegypti eggs found at different sites within the same study area. The numbers of eggs found at each site over the year did not follow a single distribution pattern. PMID:19802474

Miyazaki, Rosina Djunko; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Campelo, José Holanda; Pignati, Marina


Morphology and lectin-binding sites of pyloric caeca epithelium in normal and GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Linnaeus 1758.  


Mucosal epithelium of pyloric caeca was studied in normal and in GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus L., using morphological analysis, conventional and lectin glycohistochemistry. The lining epithelium consisted of columnar (absorptive) cells, goblet cells and intraepithelial leucocytes. The epithelium from normal animals was significantly taller than GnRH-treated samples. Conventional histochemistry displayed the same staining pattern in normal and hormone-treated specimens which showed a mixture of neutral and sulphated acidic glycoconjugates in the luminal surface and goblet cells, and neutral glycans in apical granules of enterocytes. Lectin histochemistry revealed a different glycoconjugate pattern in normal and GnRH-treated tunas. In normal specimens the luminal surface expressed sialoglycoconjugates which bound MAL II, SNA, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-SBA as well as asialoglycans stained with HPA, SBA, GSA I-B4 , LTA. N-linked glycans were highlighted by Con A and KOH-sialidase-WGA. In GnRH-treated tunas the luminal surface did not react with SNA, SBA and LTA. The columnar cells of normal tunas bound KOH-sialisase-PNA in the apical region, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, HPA, SBA, KOH-sialidase-SBA and KOH-sialidase-WGA in apical granules, GSA I-B? and LTA in the supranuclear region. GnRH-treated specimens showed some columnar cells that stained with KOH-sialidase-WGA in the apical granules and with GSA I-B4 in the supranuclear region. The goblet cells of normal animals produced mucins positive to PNA, HPA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, SBA, GSA II. The latter three binding sites lacked in GnRH-treated tunas. The results suggest that the mucosal epithelium of Thunnus thynnus L. pyloric caeca expresses a complex glycan pattern that is affected by GnRH-treatment. PMID:23939675

Zizza, Sara; Desantis, Salvatore



Morphology and lectin-binding sites of pyloric caeca epithelium in normal and GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Linnaeus 1758.  


Mucosal epithelium of pyloric caeca was studied in normal and in GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus L., using morphological analysis, conventional and lectin glycohistochemistry. The lining epithelium consisted of columnar (absorptive) cells, goblet cells and intraepithelial leucocytes. The epithelium from normal animals was significantly taller than GnRH-treated samples. Conventional histochemistry displayed the same staining pattern in normal and hormone-treated specimens which showed a mixture of neutral and sulphated acidic glycoconjugates in the luminal surface and goblet cells, and neutral glycans in apical granules of enterocytes. Lectin histochemistry revealed a different glycoconjugate pattern in normal and GnRH-treated tunas. In normal specimens the luminal surface expressed sialoglycoconjugates which bound MAL II, SNA, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-SBA as well as asialoglycans stained with HPA, SBA, GSA I-B(4), LTA. N-linked glycans were highlighted by Con A and KOH-sialidase-WGA. In GnRH-treated tunas the luminal surface did not react with SNA, SBA and LTA. The columnar cells of normal tunas bound KOH-sialisase-PNA in the apical region, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, HPA, SBA, KOH-sialidase-SBA and KOH-sialidase-WGA in apical granules, GSA I-B(4) and LTA in the supranuclear region. GnRH-treated specimens showed some columnar cells that stained with KOH-sialidase-WGA in the apical granules and with GSA I-B(4) in the supranuclear region. The goblet cells of normal animals produced mucins positive to PNA, HPA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, SBA, GSA II. The latter three binding sites lacked in GnRH-treated tunas. The results suggest that the mucosal epithelium of Thunnus thynnus L. pyloric caeca expresses a complex glycan pattern that is affected by GnRH-treatment. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21165985

Zizza, Sara; Desantis, Salvatore



Sodium cyanide-induced modulations in the activities of some oxidative enzymes and metabolites in the fingerlings of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp fingerlings exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.5?mg?L) of sodium cyanide showed a steady decrement over a 7-day period in respiratory rate, rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and fall in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities followed by variations in lactic and pyruvate levels. Changes in these enzyme activities might be due to impaired oxidative metabolism and severe cellular damage leading to

M. David; H. Ramesh; V. K. Patil; S. R. Marigoudar; S. G. Chebbi



Characterization of toxins from the broad-banded water snake Helicops angulatus (Linnaeus, 1758): isolation of a cysteine-rich secretory protein, Helicopsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicops angulatus (broad-banded water snake) according to recent proposals is presently cited in the family Dipsadidae, subfamily Xenodontinae, forming the tribe Hydropsini along with the genera Hydrops and Pseudoeryx. The current work characterizes the proteolytic and neurotoxic activities of H. angulatus crude toxins from salivary excretion (SE) and describes the isolation and identification of a cysteine-rich secretory protein\\u000a (CRISP) called

Amalid Estrella; Elda E. Sánchez; Jacob A. Galán; W. Andy Tao; Belsy Guerrero; Luis F. Navarrete; Alexis Rodríguez-Acosta



[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  


The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S


Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  


The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro



Supplementation of microbial levan in the diet of Cyprinus carpio fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sublethal toxicity of fipronil: effect on growth and metabolic responses.  


A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC50) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L0P0 (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L0P1 (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.25P1 (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L0.50P1 (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L0.75P1 (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x (2) + 5.366x + 5.812, r (2) = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x (2) + 2.833x + 6.506, r (2) = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x (3) - 12.30x (2) + 35.23x + 9.874, r (2) = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x (3) - 8.429x (2) + 31.80x + 8.718, r (2) = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and augmented the growth. PMID:23666372

Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Jha, A K; Akhtar, M S; Mandal, S C; Das, P; Prusty, A K



Isolation of a bioactive substance from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) that accelerates the germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  


The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of host insect-derived extracts. Thus the extract appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi. However, the substance responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Hence we attempted to purify this substance. One thousand g of dried silkworm pupae was subjected to methanol extraction, followed by methanolysis, two different solvent partitions, and three different column chromatographies. A total of 12.4 mg of substance was obtained in the active fraction. The substance obtained exhibited an activity more than 46,000 times higher than that of the methanol extract. The substance was detected as a single peak on Sephadex LH20 column chromatography and as a single band on high-performance thin-layer chromatography. These data indicate that the concentrated fraction contained a high-purity substance. PMID:20208348

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro



Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling.

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane



Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model.  


Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling. PMID:19965962

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane



Subchronic effects of environment-like cadmium levels on the bivalve Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758): III. Effects on carbonic anhydrase activity in relation to calcium metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of subchronic cadmium (Cd exposure at environment-like levels (water- and algae-borne Cd) on carbonic anhydrase (CA), its distribution in various body compartments and subcellular fractions, and its correlation to Cd and Ca concentrations in the freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina were investigated. CA activity in the hemolymph (HML) and extrapallial fluid were strongly affected in both directions, i.e. inhibition

Huong Thi Thuy Ngo; Silke Gerstmann; Hartmut Frank



The Acanthaster Survey of Saipan, Marianas Islands, 1969. Structure and Ecology of the Saipan Reefs in Relation to Predation by Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the principal factor controlling the depth of reef coral growth in the Caribbean appears to be the ambient light intensity, in the Indo-Pacific it may well be the level of Acanthaster predation below the wave base. Such a biological control of reef ...

T. F. Goreau I. Peter E. A. Graham J. C. Lang P. D. Goreau



Nutritional and ecological aspects of buriti or aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa Linnaeus filius): A carotene-rich palm fruit from Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mauritia flexuosa, a palm tree native of Latin America, is an excellent source of carotenes. The natural habitats are swamps; nevertheless, with sufficient water supply, it can grow in other soils. Buriti is the richest natural source of beta carotene known (152,000 µg RAE\\/100g in the oil). Animal studies showed an extremely high bioavailability, probably due to its oily composition.

Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos



The metabolic responses and acid–base status after feeding, exhaustive exercise, and both feeding and exhaustive exercise in Chinese catfish ( Silurus asotus Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding and exhaustive exercise are known to elevate metabolism. However, acid–base status may be oppositely affected by the\\u000a two processes. In this study, we first investigated the acid–base response of Chinese catfish to feeding (the meal size was\\u000a about 8% of body mass) to test whether an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion after feeding)\\u000a would

Ke-Gui Li; Zhen-Dong Cao; Jiang-Lan Peng; Shi-Jian Fu



Mersin Balýkçý Barýnaðýndan Yakalanan Sparus aurata (Linnaeus 1758)'dan Ýzole Edilen Enterobacteriaceae Grubu Bakterilerin Bazý III. Kuþak Sefalosporinlere Karþý Plasmid Kökenli Dirençliliðin Saptanmasý  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resistance frequency and plasmid based resistance of Enterobacteriaceae members Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. and Proteus sp. which isolated from Sparus aurata against the IIIrd generation cephalosporins Cefazol (CF), Ceftizoxime (ZOX) and Ceftriaxone (CRO) antibiotics were studied. Sparus aurata were caught from the Mersin fishermen's shelter. Dilution technique at agar containing media and plasmid elimination tests were employed for the



Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).  


Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355mg/kg), copper (107?g/kg), iron (0.81mg/kg), potassium (3481mg/kg), magnesium (322mg/kg), manganese (0.04mg/kg), selenium (0.47mg/kg), sodium (700mg/kg) and zinc (4.46mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70kg male and a 65kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A



Molecular characterization and expression analysis of PPP1R3C in hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) under hypoxia.  


Hypoxia is an important environmental stressor that leads to rapid adaptive changes in metabolic organization. However, the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia tolerance in fish remain largely unknown. The present work was focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that may lead to tolerance of Clarias batrachus to hypoxic stress. Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3C (PPP1R3C) is a new hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targeted gene and is regulated by HIF-1 under hypoxic conditions. Overexpression of PPP1R3C increases glycogen accumulation through activation of several enzymes and processes. In this study, for the first time, full length cDNA of PPP1R3C from C. batrachus was characterized and its expression pattern in the brain, liver, muscle and spleen under short (progressive hypoxia; PH, 1h, 6h and 12h) and long-term (natural) hypoxic conditions was investigated. The complete cDNA of PPP1R3C was of 1499bp, encoding 285 amino acid residues. The identified protein had a protein phosphatase 1 binding motif and a carbohydrate binding domain, thought to be involved in the regulation of glycogen metabolism. Short-term hypoxia exposure caused significant increase in PPP1R3C transcripts in the liver (6h; 6.96 fold and 12h; 3.91 fold) and muscle (progressive hypoxia; 3.46 fold), while, after long-term hypoxia exposure, significant up-regulation in the liver (7.77 fold) and spleen (6.59 fold) tissues was observed. No significant differences were observed in the brain for any time periods. Thus PPP1R3C may play an important role in the tolerance of C. batrachus to hypoxia. PMID:23948083

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K



Biochemical compounds’ dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external\\u000a (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental\\u000a stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase.

Domitília Matias; Sandra Joaquim; Margarete Ramos; Paula Sobral; Alexandra Leitão



Transcriptional and post-transcriptional response of drug-metabolizing enzymes to PAHs contamination in red mullet (Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758): a field study.  


Aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) liver detoxification enzymes to PAHs at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in the field. Fish were captured in the north-eastern Adriatic Sea, close to an oil refinery. Sixteen PAHs (EPA) were determined in sediments and fish fillets; transcription levels of cyp1a, cyp3a and abcc2 genes and EROD, BROD, B(a)PMO, BFCOD, GST and UDPGT enzymatic activities were measured. Levels of PAHs in sediments reflect the oil pollution gradient of the area, with weak correspondence in fish fillets. cyp1a gene transcription and EROD, B(a)PMO and BFCOD activities were significantly induced in the oil refinery site, and a slight up-regulation of cyp3a and abcc2 was also observed. GST and UDPGT remained unchanged. The present study provides the first data on detoxification responses at transcriptional levels in the liver of red mullet and confirms phase I enzymes as suitable biomarkers of exposure to PAHs in field studies. PMID:20417960

Della Torre, Camilla; Corsi, Ilaria; Nardi, Francesco; Perra, Guido; Tomasino, Maria Paola; Focardi, Silvano



Transcriptional and post-transcriptional response of drug-metabolizing enzymes to PAHs contamination in red mullet ( Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758): A field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) liver detoxification enzymes to PAHs at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in the field. Fish were captured in the north-eastern Adriatic Sea, close to an oil refinery. Sixteen PAHs (EPA) were determined in sediments and fish fillets; transcription levels of cyp1a, cyp3a and abcc2 genes and EROD,

Camilla Della Torre; Ilaria Corsi; Francesco Nardi; Guido Perra; Maria Paola Tomasino; Silvano Focardi



Genetic diversity of the imperilled bath sponge Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 across the Mediterranean Sea: patterns of population differentiation and implications for taxonomy and conservation.  


The Mediterranean bath sponge Spongia officinalis is an iconic species with high socio-economic value and precarious future owing to unregulated harvesting, mortality incidents and lack of established knowledge regarding its ecology. This study aims to assess genetic diversity and population structure of the species at different geographical scales throughout its distribution. For this purpose, 11 locations in the Eastern Mediterranean (Aegean Sea), Western Mediterranean (Provence coast) and the Strait of Gibraltar were sampled; specimens were analysed using partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, along with a set of eight microsatellite loci. According to our results (i) no genetic differentiation exists among the acknowledged Mediterranean morphotypes, and hence, S. officinalis can be viewed as a single, morphologically variable species; (ii) a notable divergence was recorded in the Gibraltar region, indicating the possible existence of a cryptic species; (iii) restriction to gene flow was evidenced between the Aegean Sea and Provence giving two well-defined regional clusters, thus suggesting the existence of a phylogeographic break between the two systems; (iv) low levels of genetic structure, not correlated to geographical distance, were observed inside geographical sectors, implying mechanisms (natural or anthropogenic) that enhance dispersal and gene flow have promoted population connectivity; (v) the genetic diversity of S. officinalis is maintained high in most studied locations despite pressure from harvesting and the influence of devastating epidemics. These findings provide a basis towards the effective conservation and management of the species. PMID:21880083

Dailianis, T; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Dounas, C; Voultsiadou, E



[Post-embrionic development of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus,1758) (Diptera: Muscidae)feed in feces of treated bovines with different avermectins].  


Stomoxys calcitrans is one of the most important ectoparasites of the livestock in Brazil. This dipteran transmits many pathogenic agents to domestic animals, and in Latin America the stable fly is a common vector of Dermatobia hominis eggs. The insecticidal effect of feces from treated bovines with different avermectins was tested against larvae and pupae of S. calcitrans and was studied at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Groups of bovines were, treated with eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin, and one group was left untreated. Approximatly 100 g of feces was colleted frorn the recturri of each animal at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The animal feces were mixtured with basic diet 1:1 and inoculated with first instar larvae of S. calcitrans. The results of this trial showed that percentage of viability of S calcitrans, from larvae to adult, was reduced by 85,00; 84,00; 91,00 and 92,00 per cent for eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin, and doramectin, respectively after 14 days post-treatment. PMID:16153344

de Macedo, Douglas M; Chaaban, Amanda; Moya Borja, Gonzalo E


Development of a protocol testing the ability of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit Besnoitia besnoiti (Henry, 1913) (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).  


Cattle besnoitiosis due to the cyst-forming coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti has recently been reported in expansion in Europe since the end of the twentieth century. The B. besnoiti life cycle and many epidemiological traits are still poorly known. Hematophagous flies, including the worldwide-distributed Stomoxys calcitrans, could be mechanical vectors in the contamination of mouthparts after the puncture of cutaneous cysts or ingestion of infected blood. In this study, a protocol is presented to assess more deeply the role of S. calcitrans, reared in laboratory conditions, in parasite transmission. A preliminary trial showed that stable flies could transmit tachyzoites from bovine artificially parasite-enriched blood to B. besnoiti-free blood using glass feeders. Evidence of transmission was provided by the detection of parasite DNA with Ct values ranging between 32 and 37 in the blood recipient. In a second time, a B. besnoiti-infected heifer harboring many cysts in its dermis was used as a donor of B. besnoiti. An interruption of the blood meal taken by 300 stable flies from this heifer was performed. Immediately after the blood meal was interrupted, they were transferred to a glass feeder containing B. besnoiti-free blood from a non-infected heifer. Quantitative PCR and modified direct fluorescence antibody test (dFAT) were used to detect B. besnoiti DNA and entire parasites, respectively, in the blood recipient, the mouthparts, and the gut contents of S. calcitrans at two time intervals: 1 and 24 h after the interrupted blood meal. Parasite DNA was detected at both time intervals (1 and 24 h) in all samples (blood recipient, mouthparts, and gut contents of stable flies) while entire parasites by dFAT were only found in the abdominal compartment 1 h after the interrupted blood meal. Then, S. calcitrans were able to carry B. besnoiti from chronically infected cattle to an artificial recipient in the conditions of the protocol. PMID:23064799

Liénard, E; Salem, A; Jacquiet, P; Grisez, C; Prévot, F; Blanchard, B; Bouhsira, E; Franc, M



Hybrid incompatibility is consistent with a hybrid origin of Heliconius heurippa Hewitson from its close relatives, Heliconius cydno Doubleday and Heliconius melpomene Linnaeus.  


Abstract Shared ancestral variation and introgression complicates the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use overall genomic compatibility as an alternative estimate of species relationships in a group where divergence is rapid and genetic exchange is common. Heliconius heurippa, a butterfly species endemic to Colombia, has a colour pattern genetically intermediate between H. cydno and H. melpomene: its hindwing is nearly indistinguishable from that of H. melpomene and its forewing band is an intermediate phenotype between both species. This observation has lead to the suggestion that the pattern of H. heurippa arose through hybridization. We present a genetic analysis of hybrid compatibility in crosses between the three taxa. Heliconius heurippa x H. cydno and female H. melpomene x male H. heurippa yield fertile and viable F1 hybrids, but male H. melpomene x female H. heurippa crosses yield sterile F1 females. In contrast, Haldane's rule has previously been detected between H. melpomene and H cydno in both directions. Therefore, H. heurippa is most closely related to H. cydno, with some evidence for introgression of genes from H. melpomene. The results are compatible with the hypothesis of a hybrid origin for H. heurippa. In addition, backcrosses using F1 hybrid males provide evidence for a large Z(X)-chromosome effect on sterility and for recessive autosomal sterility factors as predicted by Dominance Theory. PMID:15715831

Salazar, C A; Jiggins, C D; Arias, C F; Tobler, A; Bermingham, E; Linares, M



Hybrid incompatibility is consistent with a hybrid origin of Heliconius heurippa Hewitson from its close relatives, Heliconius cydno Doubleday and Heliconius melpomene Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared ancestral variation and introgression complicates the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use overall genomic compatibility as an alternative estimate of species relationships in a group where divergence is rapid and genetic exchange is common. Heliconius heurippa, a butterfly species endemic to Colombia, has a colour pattern genetically intermediate between H. cydno and H. melpomene:




7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Inula britannica Linnaeus Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume Lycium ferocissimum Miers Lygodium...



Collection and collation: theory and practice of Linnaean botany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) as an ‘essentialist’, ‘Aristotelian’, or even ‘scholastic’ one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that:

Staffan Müller-Wille



Cetaceans sighted off the west coast of the south Island, New Zealand, Summer 1970 (note)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records are presented of sightings of 6 cetacean species (15 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, over 5000 dusky dolphins, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Gray), approximately 74 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu), 8 sperm whales, Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 6 southern humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae lalandi (Fischer), and 36 southern pilot whales. Globi?cephala melaena edwardii (Smith)) from m.v. Lloret Lopez II between 8 January

B. F. Webb



Effects of temperature and delayed feeding on growth and survival of larvae of three species of subtropical marine fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In larvae of the bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli (Valenciennes), the sea bream Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus), and the lined sole Achirus lineatus (Linnaeus), growth, survival, and starvation times were investigated at temperatures of 22° to 32°C. The rate at which hours after hatching until starvation decreased in relation to temperature for unfed larvae did not differ significantly among the 3 species,

E. D. Houde



Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing.  


The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns) against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches), after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella. PMID:14762529

de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Carvalho; de Amorim, Alziro



Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs(Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).  


Various nutrients, including K+ and NO3-, are increasingly being discharged into aquatic systems via anthropogenic sources, which may impact marine organisms. The present study was conducted on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) early juveniles to determine the acute toxicity of NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl; if a toxicity interaction exists between K+ and NO3-; the hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ changes; and the gill histopathological alterations following exposure to elevated NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl levels. A total of 20 replicate crabs were exposed to each of the five NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl concentrations for 96 h. After 96 h, the surviving crabs were sampled for hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ levels and fixed for histological examination of the anterior gills. The 96-h median lethal concentration of NaNO3-N, KNO3-N, KNO3-K, and KCl-K was 3,452, 112, 312, and 356 mg/L, respectively, for early P. pelagicus juveniles. The toxicity of NaNO3-N was significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of KNO3-N. Furthermore, at the same K+ levels, KNO3-K was significantly (p < 0.05) more toxic than KCl-K, indicating a toxicity interaction between K+ and NO3-. Following exposure to elevated KNO3 and KCl levels, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels compared to the control. Conversely, following exposure to elevated NaNO3 concentrations, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph Na+ levels but significantly lower (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels. Despite the markedly different hemolymph ionic changes following NaNO3 and KNO3/KCl exposure, the histopathological changes to the anterior gill lamellae of the crabs appeared to be similar, including lamellae swelling, epithelial thickening, pillar cell disruption, necrosis, and distortion. PMID:17705664

Romano, Nicholas; Zeng, Chaoshu



Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758) in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil.  


We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm) were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest. PMID:20231959

Lazure, L; Bachand, M; Ansseau, C; Almeida-Cortez, J S



[Helminths of Pampas fox, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814) and of Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) in the South of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].  


Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55%) were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55%) Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous), Molineus felineus (9.9 in P. gymnocercus and 5.6% in C. thous), Strongyloides sp. (22.7 in P. gymnocercus and 16.7% in C. thous), Trichuris sp. (13.6 in P. gymnocercus and 11.1% in C. thous), and Capillaria hepatica (13.6 in P. gymnocercus and 5.5% in C. thous). The trematodes observed were: Alaria alata (36.4 in P. gymnocercus and 50.0% in C. thous), and Asthemia heterolecithodes in 5.6% C. thous. Cestodes were identified as Spirometra sp. (61.1% in C. thous and 54.5 in P. gymnocercus), Diphyllobothriidae, (81.8 in P. gymnocercus and 77.8% in C. thous) and an Acantocephala of the genus Centrorhynchus was also observed in 5.6% of C. thous only. These results indicated the helminths fauna in wild canids from the studied area. PMID:18823576

Ruas, Jerônimo L; Muller, Gertrud; Farias, Nara Amélia R; Gallina, Tiago; Lucas, Andreia S; Pappen, Felipe G; Sinkoc, Afonso L; Brum, João Guilherme W


Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana


[Linear measurements of the bones of Lepus brachyurus brachyurus Temminck, Pentalagus furnessi Stone and oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus (JW-NIBS). I. On the cranium and ossa trunci (author's transl)].  


The Ossa cranii and ossa trunci in Lepus brachyurus brachyurus, Pentalagus furnessi and Oryctolagus cuniculus (strain : JW-NIBS) were investigated morphologically and osteometrically. The number of coccygeal vertebrae is 10-12 in Lepus, 10-11 in Pentalagus and 15-17 in JW-NIBS. The number of upper cheek teeth of Pentalagus is six on one side. Therefore, Lyon's view that the number of upper cheek teeth of Pentalagus is five may not be applicable to use as one of the discriminative characteristics. The sizes of orbit and tympanic bullae in Pentalagus are remarkably small. The length of neurocranium and the inner breadth of caudal surface of vertebral foramina in cervical, thoracic and lumber vertebrae in JW-NIBS are small than those in Lepus and Pentalagus. Among three genera, there are conspicuous differences in shapes of spinous and transverse processus in the lumber vertebrae. The coefficient of variability of the measurements in JW-NIBS is smaller than that in Lepus. PMID:7193587

Otsuka, J; Toyomitsu, Y; Nishinakagawa, H



[Linear measurements of the bones of Lepus brachyurus brachyurus Temminck, Pentalagus furnessi Stone and Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus (JW-NIBS). II. On the Ossa membri thoracici et pelvini (author's transl)].  


The bones of the thoracic and pelvic limbs of Lepus brachyurus brachyurus, Pentalagus furnessi and Oryctolagus cuniculus (strain: JW-NIBS) were investigated morphologically and osteometrically. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The length of long bones in limbs is the largest in Lepus except the distal phalanges, next in JW-NIBS and the smallest in Pentalagus. 2. The breadth of long bones in limbs except the distal phalanges is generally larger in Pentalagus than in Lepus and JW-NIBS, and not significantly different between Lepus and JW-NIBS. 3. The area of articular surface in each limb bone is most extensive in Pentalagus. 4. The distal phalanges of Pentalagus are strong and heavy, the largest in length and the widest in breadth, while those of JW-NIBS are small and light. 5. The distances between the right and left cranial ventral iliac spines, acetabula or ischiatic tuberosities in hip bones are longer in the female than in the male. These differences in sex are distinct in Lepus and JW-NIBS and not clear in Pentalagus. PMID:7286065

Otsuka, J; Toyomitsu, Y; Nishinakagawa, H



Influence of Climate on the Distribution of Walruses, Odobenus Rosmarus (Linnaeus). I. Evidence from Thermoregulatory Behavior. Ii. Evidence from Physiological Characteristics. Iii. Thermoregulation of the Pup and Adult Weddell Seal, Leptonychotes Weddelli (Lesson), in Antarctica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of climate on the distribution of walruses was investigated by observing their behavioral reactions to weather in the natural arctic and subarctic environment and in the temperate climate at the New York Aquarium. Walruses spend a large prop...

F. H. Fay C. Ray M. S. R. Smith



Description and relationships of two novel species of Ceratomyxa Thelohan, 1892 infecting the gallbladders of Aulopiformes: Atlantic lizardfish Synodus saurus Linnaeus, 1758 and royal flagfin Aulopus filamentosus Bloch, 1792 from Cretan Sea, Greece.  


Two members of Aulopiformes (grinners) were examined for myxosporean parasites in their gallbladders. Synodus saurus and Aulopus filamentosus from Cretan Sea, Greece were infected by Ceratomyxa parasites which are described in this paper. Both species of Ceratomyxa are new and referred for the first time as Ceratomyxa cretensis n.sp. and Ceratomyxa filamentosi n.sp. The new species are described morphologically by light and scanning electron microscopy analysis, and characterized genetically by sequencing the small subunit (SSU) rDNA. The SSU rDNA sequences obtained from the two novel Ceratomyxa species were used for the construction of a phylogenetic tree with all the available Ceratomyxa SSU rDNA sequences. PMID:23455943

Kalatzis, Panos G; Kokkari, Constantina; Katharios, Pantelis



Behavioural mechanisms of sea stars ( Asterias vulgaris Verrill and Leptasterias polaris Müller) and crabs ( Cancer irroratus Say and Hyas araneus Linnaeus) preying on juvenile sea scallops ( Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin)), and procedural effects of scallop tethering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared predation rates and behaviours of sea stars (Asterias vulgaris and Leptasterias polaris) and crabs (Cancer irroratus and Hyas araneus) preying on juvenile sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus, 25-35 mm shell height) in laboratory. These predatory species co-occur with sea scallops on the sea bed of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, and limit scallop survival in seeding operations. We also

Madeleine Nadeau; Myriam A. Barbeau; Jean-Claude Brêthes



Prey selection and the functional response of sea stars ( Asterias vulgaris Verrill) and rock crabs ( Cancer irroratus Say) preying on juvenile sea scallops ( Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin)) and blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predators in nature include an array of prey types in their diet, and often select certain types over others. We examined (i) prey selection by sea stars (Asterias vulgaris) and rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) when offered two prey types, juvenile sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and (ii) the effect of prey density on predation, prey selection,

Melisa C. Wong; Myriam A. Barbeau



Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.  


Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert



Mosquitoes of the Subgenus Culex in Southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 24, Number 1, 1988).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty species of Culex of the subgenus Culex are recognized in southwestern Asia and Egypt: pipiens Linnaeus, quinquefasciatus Say, vagans Wiedemann, torrentium Martini, decens Theobald, antennatus (Becker), univittatus Theobald, perexiguus Theobald, the...

R. E. Harbach



Hybrid weeds! Agent biotypes!: Montana's ever-evolving toadflax ...  


Montana's ever-evolving toadflax biological control soap opera ... Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Health ... (Linnaeus) Miller] in western North America, although agent density and control efficacy are  ...


7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on...and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous...



Cannabinoid Receptors: A Novel Target for Therapy of Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa linnaeus (marijuana) and their derivatives are drawing renewed attention because of their diverse pharmacological activities such as cell growth inhibition and tumor regression. We ha...

F. Afaq H. Mukhtar S. Sarfaraz



11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. CLOSE VIEW OF LINNAEUS BUST - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO


10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. BUST OF LINNAEUS OVER SOUTH ENTRANCE - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO


Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, Volume 29, No.1, March 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of Environmental Factors in the Immune Responses of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Other Decapod Crustaceans; Selectivity and Accessibility of Prey in Captive Juvenile Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus; Fatty Acid De...



Unusual findings on host-tick interactions through carnivore scat analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a study on the diet of two Portuguese carnivores, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) and the common genet (Genetta genetta Linnaeus), 276 ticks were found inside the 940 scats analyzed. Prevalence in samples was 7.6% for both predators. Association\\u000a of ticks with prey identified on scats, resulted in new data for Portugal on host-tick interactions

Luís M. Rosalino; Marina Rodrigues; Margarida Santos-Silva; Margarida Santos-Reis



Selectivity of wolf predation on red deer in the Bieszczady Mountains, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pattern of wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 predation on red deerCervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 was studied in Bieszczady Mountains in 1991–2002. In total 324 remains of red deer > 4 months old, killed\\u000a by wolves throughout the year, were found. The sex, age and bone marrow fat content of wolf kills were compared with the same\\u000a characteristics within the free

Wojciech ?mietana



Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivores are often particularly sensitive to landscape fragmentation. Ecological corridors may help to connect local populations,\\u000a ensuring gene flow and retaining viable meta-populations. We aimed to establish habitat suitability models for two large carnivores\\u000a in Poland, the grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758, based on ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Secondly, we

Maren Huck; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Tomasz Borowik; Ma?gorzata Mi?osz-Cielma; Krzysztof Schmidt; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek



Venezuelan Columnar Cacti  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three most abundant Venezuelan columnar cacti, from left to right, Pilosocereus lanuginosus (Linnaeus) Byles & Rowley, Stenocereus griseus (Haworth) Buxbaum, and Cereus repandus (Linnaeus) Miller. These species depend strictly on nectar-feeding bats for their pollination. Bat-mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three species, a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations.

Castro, Janet



Habitat utilization by sympatric European mink Mustela lutreola and polecats Mustela putorius in south-western France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European minkMustela lutreola Linnaeus, 1761 and the European polecatMustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758 are related species sympatric in southwestern France. The European mink is rapidly disappearing whereas the\\u000a polecat maintains good populations. Seasonal habitat use of both species was compared in the Landes de Gascogne region to\\u000a identify if some vulnerability factors of the European mink were associated with habitats

Pascal Fournier; Christian Maizeret; David Jimenez; Jean-Pierre Chusseau; Stéphane Aulagnier; François Spitz




Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the concept of Culex pipien.s Linnaeus is reviewed. An illustration of a syntype published by Reaumur is designated as the lectotype of pipiens. A lectotype is also designated for Culex bifhcatus Linnaeus, which is stabilized as a synonym of pipiens. A neotype for pipiens is designated in place of the non-extant lectotype-specimen. The adult, pupal, and larval



Four new species of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae), all gill parasites from African mouthbreeder tilapias of the genera Sarotherodon and Oreochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae), with a redescription of C. thurstonae Ergens, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), O. aureus (Steindachner), Sarotherodon caudomarginatus (Boulenger), S. galilaeus (Linnaeus) and S. galilaeus sanagaensis (Thys van den Audenaerde) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from different locations in Africa (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Niger and Senegal) revealed the presence of 11 species of monogenean gill parasites. Four, belonging to Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 and considered as new species, are described: C. rognoni n. sp.,

Antoine Pariselle; Charles F. Bilong Bilong; Louis Euzet



Microsatellites for next-generation ecologists: a post-sequencing bioinformatics pipeline.  


Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A



Quill mites of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from North American birds.  


Seven mite species belonging to the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) are recorded from 10 passeriform host species from the USA. Three new species are described and illustrated: Syringophilopsis polioptilus sp. n. from Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus) (Polioptilidae); S. empidonax sp. n. from Empidonax hamrnmondii (Vesey) and Empidonax wrightii Baird (Tyrannidae); and S. sialiae sp. n. from Sialia mexicana Swainson (Turdidae). In addition, records of new hosts are given: Turdus migratorius Linnaeus (Turdidae) for Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958); three tyrannid species (Tyrannidae), Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), M. cinerascens (Lawrence) and Tyrannus verticalis Say for S. tyranni Bochkov et Galloway, 2004; Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) (Icteridae) for S. elongatus (Ewing, 1911); and two parulid species (Parulidae), Dendroica graciae Baird and Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) for S. dendroicae Bochkov et Galloway, 2001. All known species of the genus Syringophilopsis from the Nearctic Region are summarized in tabular form. Syringophilopsis porzanae Bochkov et Galloway, 2004 is reassigned to the genus Ascetonmylla Kethley, 1970. PMID:19175207

Skoracki, Maciej; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S



Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (mammalia) in a disturbed area of southeastern Brazil.  


Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. We compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (E. Geoffroyi, 1803), Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758), and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782)). The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77%) and non-target species (non-carnivores, 11.54%). Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores (2.56%) than non-carnivores (0.77%). Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries (swelling and claw loss). We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types. PMID:18457140

Michalski, Fernanda; Crawshaw, Peter G; Oliveira, Tadeu G de; Fabián, Marta E



Unusual findings on host-tick interactions through carnivore scat analysis.  


In the course of a study on the diet of two Portuguese carnivores, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus) and the common genet (Genetta genetta Linnaeus), 276 ticks were found inside the 940 scats analyzed. Prevalence in samples was 7.6% for both predators. Association of ticks with prey identified on scats, resulted in new data for Portugal on host-tick interactions [e.g. Ixodes acuminatus (Neumann, 1901) and wood mouse] and tick distribution pattern. These unusual findings, besides shedding some light on the host-tick Portuguese assemblage, revealed scats as a new source of biological information. PMID:18040872

Rosalino, Luís M; Rodrigues, Marina; Santos-Silva, Margarida; Santos-Reis, Margarida



No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A. S.



Efectos de una dieta inmunoestimuladora y de la permanencia en temperatura constante sobre el metabolismo hepático de carbohidratos en dorada Sparus aurata L., 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact of an immunostimulant diet and constant temperature on liver carbohydrate metabolism in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 The impact of an immunostimulant diet -frequently used to avoid winter syndrome in aquaculture- on liver carbohydrate metabolism was assessed over a period of 230 days in the gilthead sea bream Sparus aura- ta L., 1758. An enhancement of liver

R. Laiz-Carrión; M. P. Martín del Río; J. L. Soengas; J. M. Mancera


Automated Identification of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Wingbeat Waveform by Artificial Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wingbeat waveforms of Aedes albopictus (Skuse), A. aegypti (Linnaeus), Culex pipiens pallens (Coquillett), C pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, and C pipiens molestus Forskal were recorded by a photosensor and WfRer system. Wingbeat frequencies were extracted from the wingbeat waveform. Back Propagation artificial neural network classifiers were built to identify automatically the species of mosquitoes by wingbeat waveform, wingbeat frequencies, and

Zhenyu Li; Zuji Zhou; Zuorui Shen; Qing Yao


Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for

Mo'awia M Hassan; Omran F Osman; Fathi MA El-Raba'a; Henk DFH Schallig; Dia-Eldin A Elnaiem



Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two areas of the Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses (three stations covered by Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asherson, Zostera marina Linnaeus, Zostera noltii Hornemann) or seaweeds (two stations: one covered by Ulva rigida C. Agardh and another at present without seaweed biomass) were monitored by means of six surveys over a year in order to study macrofaunal composition and seasonal changes.

A Sfriso; T Birkemeyer; P. F Ghetti



A name is a name is a name: some thoughts and personal opinions about molluscan scientific names  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1758, with the publication of Systema Naturae by Linnaeus, thousands of scientific names have been proposed for molluscs. The derivation and uses of many of them are here examined from various viewpoints, beginning with names based on appearance, size, vertical distribution, and location. There follow names that are amusing, inventive, ingenious, cryptic, ideal, names supposedly blasphemous, and names honouring

S. P. Dance



Associations of Arbovirus Vectors with Gallery Forests and Domestic Environments in Southeastern Bolivia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), the vector of dengue and urban yellow fever (YF), have reinfested some urban areas of Bolivia (I-3). While both dengue and YF outbreaks can occur in Ae. aegypti-infested cities and villages, the probability of a YF...

D. R. Roberts E. L. Peyton F. Balderrama F. P. Pinheiro R. Vargas



The Second International Geological Congress, Bologna, 1881  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world geological community owes the 2nd Interna- tional Geological Congress (IGC) Bologna 1881 (i) the establishment of a common disciplinary language; (ii) agreement on the basic chronostratigraphical and chrono- logical classification and nomenclature; (iii) agreement on the basic principles for naming the fossil organisms fol- lowing the binomial nomenclature and the priority rule starting with Linnaeus' Systema Naturae (1776

Gian Battista Vai


Gardens of paradise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a

Staffan Müller-Wille



On the origin of prokaryotic \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent use of the taxonomic system of binomial nomenclature (genus and species) was first popularized by Linnaeus nearly three-hundred years ago to classify mainly plants and animals. His main goal was to give labels that would ensure that biologists could agree on which organism was under investigation. One-hundred fifty years later, Darwin considered the term species as one of

Priya DasSarma; Shiladitya DasSarma



The Web and the Structure of Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easily accessible taxonomic knowledge base is critically important for all biodiversity-related sciences. At present, taxonomic information is organized and regulated by a system of rules and conventions that date back to the introduction of binomial nomenclature by Linnaeus. The taxonomy of any particular group of organisms comprises the sum information in the taxonomic literature, supported by designated type specimens

H. C. J. Godfray; B. R. Clark; I. J. Kitching; S. J. Mayo; M. J. Scoble



In vitro protein synthesis capacities in a cold stenothermal and a temperate eurythermal pectinid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translational system was isolated from the gills of the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki (Smith) and the European scallop Aequipecten opercularis (Linnaeus) for in vitro protein synthesis capacities (µg protein mg FW -1 day -1) and the translational capacities of RNA (k RNA in vitro mg protein mg RNA -1 day -1). In vitro protein synthesis capacity in the cold-adapted

D. Storch; O. Heilmayer; I. Hardewig; H.-O. Pörtner



Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peptidase sequences were analyzed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1,528 sequences, 92 sequences encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences w...


A Preliminary Study of the Crossing Relationships of Capsicum baccatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bird pepper or chilipequin is a variable species ranging from the southern United States throughout Central America into Columbia. It has generally been assumed that this pepper was first described by Linnaeus in his Mantissa of 1767 under the binomial Capsicum baccatum, although Hunziker in his synopsis of the genus apparently does not accept this interpretation. While some

Emboden William A. Jr



The evolution of viviparity in holocene islands: ecological adaptation versus phylogenetic descent along the transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species that contain populations with different reproductive modes offer excellent opportunities to study the transition between such strategies. Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of two species within the Salamandra-Lyciasalamandra clade which displays two reproductive modes simultaneously. Along the S. salamandra distribution, the common reproductive mode is ovoviviparity although the species also has viviparous populations in the northern Iberian Peninsula.

G. Velo-Antón; M. García-París; P. Galán; A. Cordero Rivera



Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Non-Native Nile Tilapia II: Fundamental Niche Projections and Invasion Potential in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the fundamental niche of invasive species facilitates our ability to predict both dispersal patterns and invasion success and therefore provides the basis for better-informed conservation and management policies. Here we focus on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758), one of the most widely cultured fish worldwide and a species that has escaped local aquaculture facilities to become established in

Michael R. Lowe; Wei Wu; Mark S. Peterson; Nancy J. Brown-Peterson; William T. Slack; Pamela J. Schofield



Movements of bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus ) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean recorded by pop-up satellite archival tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pop-up satellite archival tags were implanted into 68 Atlantic bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus), ranging in size from 91 to 295 kg, in the southern Gulf of Maine ( n=67) and off the coast of North Carolina ( n=1) between July 2002 and January 2003. Individuals tagged in the Gulf of Maine left that area in late fall and overwintered

S. G. Wilson; M. E. Lutcavage; R. W. Brill; M. P. Genovese; A. B. Cooper; A. W. Everly



Neotype designation and a diagnostic account for the centipede, Scolopendra gigantea L. 1758, with an account of S. galapagoensis Bollman 1889 (Chilopoda Scolopendromorpha Scolopendridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest species-group name in the chilopod order Scolopendromorpha and family Scolopendridae, Scolopendra gigantea Linnaeus 1758, is stabilized in accordance with the current concept by designating a neotype specimen from northern Venezuela. The species occurs in northern Colombia and Venezuela, and on Trinidad, Isla Margarita, Curaçao, and Aruba; records from the US Virgin islands, Haiti, Mexico, and Honduras are deemed

R. M. Shelley; S. B. Kiser



Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum(Forskal) in the Red Sea against generalist reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory feeding assays comparing chemical and sclerite deterrence capabilities of Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum revealed that the organic extract deterred feeding by the generalist reef fish Thalassoma klunzingeri (Fowler and Steinitz) and T. lunare (Linnaeus), whereas the sclerites were palatable. The mean number of pellets, containing natural extract concentration as in the living coral, eaten by the test fish was 0.2560.43,

D. Kelman; Y. Benayahu; Y. Kashman


Ecological aspects and hunting sustainability of paca (Cuniculus paca) in the Itaya river basin, Peruvian Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains information about sleeping dens, population structure and the impact of hunting of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766). It is based in sleeping den observations, transect censuses and hunt- ing records. We found that each sleeping den has one to three orifices for regular access and way out, one to four orifices for circumstantial escape, and an

Rolando Aquino; Deyber Gil; Etersit Pezo



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a serious pest of cucurbit crops. Although melon fly females oviposit in cucurbit crops, both males and females are frequently associated with a range of non-host plants, including both crops such as corn (Zea mays C. Linnaeus) and wild plants su...


Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...


Movements of blue sharks ( Prionace glauca ) in depth and course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic telemetry was used to follow 22 blue sharks,Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), over the continental shelf and slope in the region between George's Bank and Cape Hatteras between 1979 and 1986. The sharks frequently made vertical excursions between the surface and depths of several hundred meters. The oscillations, which were repeated every few hours, were largest in the daytime and were

F. G. Carey; J. V. Scharold; Ad. J. Kalmijn



Evidence of olive ridley mitochondrial genome introgression into loggerhead turtle rookeries of Sergipe, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastline of Sergipe state hosts the main Brazilian nesting sites of Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829). The second most abundant species of turtles in Sergipe is Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Both sea turtle species, respectively known as olive ridley and loggerhead, are currently listed as endangered\\u000a by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The genetic

Estéfane Cardinot Reis; L. S. Soares; G. Lôbo-Hajdu



Prospects for Jatropha biofuels in Tanzania: An analysis with Strategic Niche Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on research in Tanzania about the scope for developing biofuels from an oil-seed bearing plant called Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. The plant is widely seen to have potential to help combat the greenhouse effect, help to stop local soil erosion, create additional income for the rural poor, and provide a major source of energy both locally and internationally.

Janske van Eijck; Henny Romijn



Spatial variation in kelp forest communities along the Big Sur coast of central California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giant kelp [Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh] forests are commonly called a community, but their composition varies among sites and depths. While numerous studies mention this variation and it is the descriptive basis for general models of kelp community structure, it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. We described kelp forest structure among four depths (6, 9, 12, and 15 m)

Michael S. Foster; Glenn R. Vanblaricom



Ionic regulation in aglomerular tropical estuarine pufferfishes submitted to sea water dilution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two common tropical estuarine pufferfishes were used in this study. The main species was Sphoeroides testudineus Linnaeus, 1758, a very abundant species in the estuaries of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil), found in waters of salinity between 0‰ (tidal creeks) and 34‰ (tidal plains). The second species was S. greeleyi Gilbert, 1900, a species limited in distribution to an area of

Viviane Prodocimo; Carolina Arruda Freire



Efficiency of Fruit Juice Feeding in Morpho peleides (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described the feeding behavior of the frugivorous butterfly Morpho peleides (Butler 1872) under various conditions and tested its ability to take up fluid from selected natural and artificial food sources in comparison with the nectarvorous Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus 1758). Both nymphalids showed similar probing behavior except for one particular proboscis movement and the fact that M. peleides was

M. C. N. Knopp; H. W. Krenn



Natural variability in distribution of an intertidal population of Macoma balthica subject to potential oil pollution at Port Valdez, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural variability in the abundance of an intertidal population of the lamellibranch Macoma balthica (Linnaeus, 1758) was measured during 1971 and 1972 in a study area near the proposed oil storage and tankship loading facility at the southern terminus of the Trans-Alaska pipeline in Port Valdez, Alaska. M. balthica were divided for analysis into a large and a small size

R. T. Myren; J. J. Pella



Intermoult duration affects the susceptibility of shore crabs Carcinus maenas (L.) to pyrene and their ability to metabolise it  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied pyrene (PYR) toxicity and the ability to metabolise and eliminate PYR in two colour forms of shore crabs Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758). In addition, we analysed differences in the expression of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) encoding specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) by quantitative realtime PCR. Green and red intermoult crabs are considered to represent different adaptational life stages,

Esben Dam; Bjarne Styrishave; Kim Furbo Rewitz; Ole Andersen



Chela loss in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Brachyura) and its effect on mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and experimental studies were conducted to determine the incidence of chela loss and its effect on mating success in a population of the shore crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) inhabiting the Menai Straits, North Wales. The study was performed between 1989 and 1993. Male crabs showed a higher degree of chela loss (12.5%) than females (7.9%). In males, frequencies

P. Abello; C. G. Warman; D. G. Reid; E. Naylor



Frequency of moulting by shore crabs Carcinus maenas (L.) changes their colour and their success in mating and physiological performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male shore crabs, Carcinus maenas [Linnaeus, 1758], compete aggressively for access to receptive females to mate. Size is the single most important factor for the outcome of these conflicts, large males with carapace width (CW) over 60 mm being much more likely to gain access to receptive females than smaller males. To compete aggressively, large male shore crabs decrease moulting

Bjarne Styrishave; Kim Rewitz; Ole Andersen



Shell selection by the tropical hermit crab Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1791) (Anomura, Diogenidae) from Southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell preferences, as shown by laboratory choice experiments, are important determinants of shell utilization under natural conditions. Size and shell species preferences of the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen were determined for the three most occupied [Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767), Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791) and Pisania auritula (Link, 1807)] shell species along the rocky shore of Grande beach, Ubatuba, Brazil, taking

Renata B Garcia; Fernando L. M Mantelatto



Ontogeny and otolith microstructure of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Pisces: Pomatomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most marine fish larvae undergo distinct transitions during their development, often associated with functional shifts in their ecology. The purpose of the present study was to document the ontogenetic record contained within otoliths of the early life history stages of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus), so that future work could use this otolith record to examine the ecological and population

J. A. Hare; R. K. Cowen



Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the collections of the Moravian Museum, Brno  

Microsoft Academic Search

DVOØÁK L. 2006: Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) from the Czech Republic and Slovakia in the collections of the Moravian Museum, Brno. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 91: 149-157. - More than 730 specimens of social wasps deposited in the collections of the Moravian Museum Brno have been identified. They belong to eleven species (Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula



Almond, pigweed, and melon pollen retention in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) remains a devastating insect pest on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus) particularly where it has not been eradicated. Identifying and understanding the survival of boll weevils during overwintering periods when cotton is not available is important ...


Avian visual system configuration and behavioural response to object approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antipredator behaviour theory provides a framework to understand the mechanisms behind human- wildlife interactions; however, little is known about the role of visual systems in the responses to humans. We quantified responses of brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater (Boddaert), and mourning doves, Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus), to object approach (a ground-based vehicle) and vehicle lighting regimen, and we examined two visual properties

Bradley F. Blackwell; Esteban Fernández-Juricic; Thomas W. Seamans; Tracy Dolan



Effect of Ammonium-supplemented Seawater on Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activities in Host Tissue and Zooxanthellae of Pocillopora damicornis and on Ammonium Uptake Rates of the Zooxanthellae 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host glutamine synthetase activity decreases in Pocillopora dami­ cornis (Linnaeus) following exposure of the coral to seawater containing ele­ vated ammonium (20 jlM). Zooxanthellae isolated from these corals exhibited lower ammonium uptake capacity and glutamine synthetase activity compared with those from the control corals. Ammonium concentration of the sur­ rounding seawater had no effect on the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehy­ drogenase



Fur mite, Listrocarpus alouattae Fain (Acari: Atopomelidae), from Alouatta palliata Gray (Primates: Cebidae) in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of a study on ectoparasites of Costa Rican monkeys are presented. Thirty six mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata Gray, 1849) and 3 capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus Linnaeus, 1758) from different zones of the country were examined for ectoparasites. Fur mites of the family Atopomelidae were found on 2 of the individuals of A. palliata, which were identified as

Adriana Troyo; Mayra E. Solano; Olger Calderón-Arguedas; Misael Chinchilla; Ronald Sánchez; Gustavo A. Gutiérrez-Espeleta



Rhinobatos nudidorsalis , a new species of shovelnose ray (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) from the Mascarene Ridge, central Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new shovelnose ray, Rhinobatos nudidorsalis, is described from the Mascarene Ridge, an inadequately surveyed chain of seamounts in the central Indian Ocean. Of the three subgroups of Rhinobatos occurring in the Indian Ocean, it most closely conforms with the subgenus Rhinobatos (Linnaeus). A small species, known only from the holotype, it is unique within the family in having an

Peter R. Last; Leonard J. V. Compagno; Kazuhiro Nakaya



Discrimination among Japanese Species of the Orius Flower Bugs (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) Based on PCR-RFLP of the Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-RFLP-based method of species identification was considered for 5 Japanese species of Orius Wolff flower bugs, Orius strigicollis (Poppius), O. minutus (Linnaeus), O. sauteri (Poppius), O. nagaii Yasunaga, and O. tantillus (Motschulsky). Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the nuclear ribosomal gene and a portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene were compared among species

Masahiko MURAJI; Kenjiro KAWASAKI; Toru SHIMIZU; Takashi NODA



In vitro cytotoxicity of crustacean immunostimulants for lobster ( Homarus gammarus) granulocytes demonstrated using the neutral red uptake assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutral red uptake (NRU) cell viability assay was adapted for use with lobster Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758) granulocytes cultured in vitro. The assay was more sensitive than the conventional trypan blue exclusion assay and facilitated a higher sample throughput than subjective microscope-based assessments of cell viability. The NRU assay was demonstrated to have a linear response from 470 to

Chris Hauton; Valerie J Smith



Morphology and metrics, isotopes and dates: determining the validity of Equus laurentius Hay, 1913  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct radiocarbon dating and stable isotope and biometric analyses are evidence that the holotype of Equus laurentiusHay, 1913 comprises the skull and jaw of two different horses that are less than 500 years old. The size and morphology of the specimens fall within the range of like elements of modern Equus caballusLinnaeus, 1758. The mandibular cheek teeth exhibit bit wear,

Eric Scott; Thomas W. Stafford Jr; Russell W. Graham; Larry D. Martin



Larval growth of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus , in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in July\\/August 1985 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; they were aged by means of growth rings in the sagittal otoliths. Daily growth rings were observed and subdaily rings were visible starting with the third or fourth daily increment. The Gompertz growth equation, commonly employed in larval growth analysis, suitably describes the growth of this

I. Palomera; B. Morales-Nin; J. Lleonart



Responses of massive and branching coral species to the combined effects of water temperature and nitrate enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The branching coral species Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) and the massive coral species Pontes lobata Dana were exposed for 30 days to different temperatures and nitrate concentrations to study the response of the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis. Results suggest that the effect of nitrate enrichment on the polyp-zooxanthella symbiosis varies according to the coral morphology. After the experimental period only 30% of P.

Carmen Schlöder; Luis D'Croz



Introduction, dispersal and potential impacts of the green crab Carcinus maenas in San Francisco Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Atlantic portunid crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) has invaded the North Pacific Ocean following more than two centuries of global dispersal due to human activities. C. maenas was first collected in San Francisco Bay, California, in 1989–1990, where its distribution and prey selectivity were investigated in 1992–1994. It has become abundant in shallow, warm lagoons (which as favorable

A. N. Cohen; J. T. Carlton; M. C. Fountain



Marine boating habits and the potential for spread of invasive species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for boating to disperse the clubbed tunicate Styela clava Herdman, 1881 and green crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence was investigated using interviews with recreational and commercial boaters in eastern Prince Edward Island (PEI). Boaters were asked how long their boat had been at the present location; the primary use of the

Emily Darbyson; Andrea Locke; John Mark Hanson; J. H. Martin Willison



A multisource solution for a complex problem in biodiversity research: Description of the cryptic ant species Tetramorium alpestre sp.n. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ants of the myrmicine Tetramorium caespitum (Linnaeus, 1758)\\/T. impurum (Foerster, 1850) complex have challenged taxonomy for long. Schlick-Steiner et al. (2006) made plausible that there are at least seven instead of two species to the complex in the Western Palearctic. Using an increased sample size for increased robustness of the system, we here delimit the alpine species Tetramorium sp. A

Florian M. Steiner; Bernhard Seifert; Karl Moder; Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner



Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller,

K. V. Vinod; Thomas K. Sabu



Spatio-temporal patterns in the genetic structure of recently settled blue mussels ( Mytilus spp.) across a hybrid zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of a hybrid zone between the mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus and M. galloprovincialis Lamarck have not resolved the relative importance of the genetic composition of settling larval cohorts versus post-settlement selection in determining the distribution of the parental species and their hybrids. In the present study, recently settled mussels (spat) were collected from 20 sites in southwest England

M. R. Gilg; T. J. Hilbish



Further investigations of the mite genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) from North American passerines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new syringophilid species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 are described from North American passerines: S. zonotrichia n. sp. from Zonotrichia albicolis (Gmelin) (Emberizidae) on Texas; S. jackowiaki n. sp. from Poecile carolinensis (Auduborn) (Paridae) in Texas; and S. xanthocephalus n. sp. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) (Icteridae) and S. agelaius n. sp. from Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus (Icteridae), both from Arizona. Spizella

Andre V. Bochkov; Maciej Skoracki; Sarah A. Hendricks; Greg S. Spicer



Study of insect succession and rate of decomposition on a partially burned pig carcass in an oil palm plantation in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects found associated with corpse can be used as one of the indicators in estimating postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of this study was to compare the stages of decomposition and faunal succession between a partially burnt pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) and natural pig (as control). The burning simulated a real crime whereby the victim was burnt by murderer. Two

Heo Chong Chin; Mohamad Abdullah Marwi; Ahmad Firdaus Mohd; John Jeffery; Hiromu Kurahashi; Baharudin Omar



Seasonal narwhal habitat associations in the high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements and behavior of top marine predators are often closely linked with productive oceanic fronts or regional prey aggregations. Consequently, it is of interest to quantify habitat needs and preferences, which can facilitate predictions of conditions favoring persistence and success. Multivariate habitat models of movements and dive behavior of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros, Linnaeus) in the eastern Canadian high Arctic

K. L. Laidre; M. P. Heide-Jørgensen; M. L. Logdson; R. C. Hobbs; P. Heagerty; R. Dietz; O. A. Jørgensen; M. A. Treble



Duckling response to changes in the trophic web of acidified lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reared American Black Duck (Anas rubripes Brewster) and Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus) ducklings on two Quebec laurentian lakes in which we manipulated brook trout populations (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill), lake acidity and lake productivity to relate waterfowl foraging to trophic status of lakes. We developed a preliminary model to assess the effects of lake acidity and productivity, fish predation

Jean-Luc DesGranges; Christian Gagnon



Cypermethrin in the ambient air and on surfaces of rooms treated for cockroaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cypermethrin is one of several pyrethroid insecticides which are labeled for the control of cockroaches. In recent years cypermethrin has been used extensively in controlling the German cockroach, Blattella qermanica (Linnaeus) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Wright and Dupree (1987), Appel et al (1989) and Bohnert et al (1991), among others, reported its control effectiveness in houses and apartments. Cypermethrin also provides control

C. G. Wright; R. B. Leidy; H. E. Dupree



On the delineation and higher-level classification of algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological classification has been successively shaped by Neoplatonism, ideas of plenitude and one-dimensional continuity (the Great Chain of Being), two-dimensional continuity (Linnaeus's map), idealized comparative morphology and development and, through phylogenetic theory, Darwinian descent with modification. Concepts of Algae have thus evolved within a succession of very different paradigms. Algae have been imperfect plants; a segment of the Great Chain;

Mark Ragan



Acceptability and digestion of diets fed to larval stages of Homarus gammarus and the role of dietary conditioning behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst the role of chemoreception in juvenile crustacean feeding behaviour has received considerable attention, the chemosensory responses of larval planktonic crustacean stages have been neglected. The present study investigated the acceptability of processed, microparticulate and microencapsulated diets and the possible role of chemoattractants for larval and juvenile stages ofHomarus gammarus (Linnaeus) and juvenile stages ofPalaemon elegans (Rathke). Larval and juvenile

K. Kurmaly; D. A. Jones; A. B. Yule



Saffron Quality: Effect of Agricultural Practices, Processing and Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron, the most expensive spice worldwide, is comprised of the dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus Linnaeus of the Iridaceae family, a sterile triploid not found in the wild. According to the definition given by FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) it forms ‘a loosely matted mass of dark, reddish-brown flattened threads, amongst which a few narrower yellow ones can

Stella A. Ordoudi; Maria Z. Tsimidou


Applying the Scientific Method & Phylogenetics to Understand the Transition from Kingdoms to Domains: Does One Plus One Equal Five, Six, or Three?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The progression of the taxonomic organization of life from Linnaeus's original two kingdoms to the traditional five-kingdom system to today's widely accepted three-domain system is explored in a group-learning activity. Working with a set of organisms, students organize them into each system. Discussion after each step focuses on viewing…

Davis, Sandra L.



Broad spectrum effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga delisea pulchra in antifouling assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the antifouling activity was investigated of a series of chemically related, halogenated furanones isolated from Delisea pulchra (Greville) Montagne, a red alga which is rarely fouled in the field. The metabolites were tested in laboratory assays against representatives of the three major groups of fouling organisms, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite amphitirite Darwin, the macroalga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

R. De Nys; P. D. Steinberg; P. Willemsen; S. A. Dworjanyn; C. L. Gabelish; R. J. King




Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of trematode (Orchipedium jolliei Schell, 1967; Prohyptiamus grusi Kocan, Waldrup, Ramakka, and Iverson, 1982; Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802)), three species of nematode (Tetrameres grusi Shumakovich, 1946; Synhimanthus sp.; Contracaecum sp.), and one species of cestode (Anomotaenia sp.) were recovered from 146 sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), collected in Alaska, Canada, and two areas in Texas. The only common

Glen D. Gaines; Robert J. Warren; Danny B. Pence


Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.



Evaluation of extracts and oils of tick-repellent plants from Sweden.  


Abstract. Leaves of Myrica gale Linnaeus (Myricaceae), Rhododendron tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre Linnaeus: Ericaceae) and Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) were extracted with organic solvents of different polarities and the essential oils of leaves were obtained by steam distillation. The extracts or oils were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae). Rhododendron tomentosum oil, 10%, diluted in acetone, exhibited 95% repellency; R. tomentosum and A. absinthium extracts in ethyl acetate, > 70% repellency; A. absinthium extract in hexane, approximately 62% repellency; and M. gale oil, 10%, approximately 50% repellency on I. ricinus nymphs. Compounds in the leaf extracts or in the oils were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and/or MS. Characteristic volatiles detected from oil or extract of M. gale were the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol and thujenol; and of R. tomentosum myrcene and palustrol. Characteristic volatiles from leaf extracts of A. absinthium were sabinene, oxygenated monoterpenes, e.g. thujenol and linalool, and geranyl acetate. Each plant species synthesized numerous volatiles known to exhibit acaricidal, insecticidal, 'pesticidal' and/or arthropod repellent properties. These plants may be useful sources of chemicals for the control of arthropods of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance. PMID:16336298

Jaenson, T G T; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K



Resurrection of Hyla wavrini Parker (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae), a gladiator frog from northern South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

During field work in Venezuela and Brazil a difference in call was noticed between specimens of large hylids of the Hyla boans-group. Based on this and on morphological differences, it was concluded that Hyla wavrini Parker, 1936, up till now considered a synonym of Hyla boans (Linnaeus, 1758), should be considered a valid species, of which Hyla miranda-ribeiri Melin, 1941

M. S. Hoogmoed



Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus: chromosomal and molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution, and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,




Effects of Synthetics molluscicide Niclosamide and plant extracts ( Euphorbia and Melia ) Molluscicide against The different developmental stages of the fresh-water snail physa acuta , the (Draparnaud )vector of trematod parasite in Mosul area North Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of synthetic molluscicide ( Niclosamide) and some botanical molluscicide ( Euphorbia heliscop (EE) and Melia azedirachta (MA)) , of different concentrations on fecundity, survival and embryonic hatchability of the fresh water snails, Physa acuta (Draparnaud) Lymnea auricularia(L)- (pulmonats) and Melanopsis praemorsa (Linnaeus)- (Prosobranchates) in Mosul area were investigated. There are variable lethal effects of different Niclosamide concentrations on

Talib Hussen Ali


Interrelationship between Gasterophilus larvae and the horse’s gastric and duodenal wall with special reference to penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of penetration into the stomach and duodenum of the horse by bot fly larvae, Gasterophilusintestinalis (De Geer) and G. nasalis (Linnaeus) (Diptera : Gasterophilidae) was evaluated. Evidence of larval perforation of the stomach or duodenum was not found on gross inspection. Palpation of the intact stomach and duodenum was not effective in establishing the existence of Gasterophilus larvae

T. P. Cogley; M. C. Cogley



Redescription of Sphaerirostris picae (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from magpie, Pica pica, in northern Iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.  


Adults of Sphaerirostris picae (Rudolphi, 1819) Golvan, 1956 are described from European magpie, Pica pica Linnaeus (Corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern Iranian town of Tonekabon by the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Other specimens also were collected from Corvus cornix Linnaeus, Corvus corone Linnaeus, and Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus (Corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. Our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook rows on the ovoid anterior proboscis and 27-36 spine rows on the cylindrical- to cone-shaped posterior proboscis, each with 8-10 hooks and 2-5 spines per row, respectively. They are distinguished from those of all other species of the genus by having a unique prominent expansion of the dorsal inner receptacle wall, called the receptacle process (RP), anteriorly into the anterior proboscis and by the presence of longitudinal alveolar lobes throughout the receptacle and proboscis. The RP is described using histological sections. Sphaerirostris picae is further distinguished from 2 closely related species, namely, Sphaerirostris lancea (Westrumb, 1821) Golvan, 1956 and Sphaerirostris pinguis (Van Cleave, 1918) Golvan, 1956, by characteristics of proboscis armature, position of female gonopore, and other reproductive system and receptacle features. Histological sections revealed damage to host intestinal tissue. PMID:20557203

Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; Eslami, Ali



Ontogenetic Change in Digestive Enzyme Activity of Larval and Postlarval White Shrimp Penaeus setiferus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole specimens of developmental stages of Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus, 1767) were homogenized and assayed for activities of digestive enzymes. In all de- velopmental stages, activities were present for trypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, amylase, and non-specific es- terase; none for pepsin or lipase were detected. Activities assayed with substrates for chymotrypsin and aminopep- tidase are not apparently due to the



Genetic consequences of long larval life in the starfish Linckia laevigata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) on the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow between populations of the asteroid Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus) was investigated by examining over 1000 individuals collected from ten reefs throughout the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, for genetic variation at seven polymorphic enzyme loci. Despite geographic separations in excess of 1000 km, Nei's unbiased genetic distance (0 to 0.003) and standardised genetic variation between populations (FST) values (mean

S. T. Williams; J. A. H. Benzie



Dietary assimilation and the digestive strategy of the omnivorous anomuran land crab Birgus latro (Coenobitidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, the diet of robber crabs, Birgus latro (Linnaeus) was generally high in fat, storage polysaccharides or protein and largely comprised fruits, seeds, nuts and animal material. The plant items also contained significant amounts of hemicellulose and cellulose. In laboratory feeding trials, crabs had similar intakes of dry matter when fed artificial diets high in either

Joanne E. Wilde; Stuart M. Linton; Peter Greenaway



First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from hatch through the next spring in two South Dakota, USA lakes to identify factors affecting year-class strength. Hatching occurred over 37- and 47-day periods in the two lakes. Common carp that hatched earlier achieved greater total lengths at the end of the first growing season (Brant Lake: r = )0.84,




Hatching asynchrony in the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus: an experimental test of the brood reduction hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. We tested the brood reduction hypothesis by manipulating hatching spans of Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus (Linnaeus) broods during two low vole years (1996-97) in western Finland. In addition, half the broods in 1997 were food sup- plemented during the entire nestling period. 2. Nestling mortality was high, occurring in 55% of nests, and the eÄect of manipulated hatching

Jurgen Wiehn; Petteri Ilmonen; Erkki Korpimaki; Maarit Pahkala; Karen L. Wiebe



Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Se presenta la distribución actualizada de los Trogidae en México con base en la revisión de cerca de 800 especímenes. En México, los Trogidae se encuentran representados por 9 especies de Trox Fabricius y 18 especies de Omorgus Erichson, de las cuales, T. scaber (Linnaeus), O. howelli Howden & Vaurie, O. monachus Herbst y O. scabrosus Beauvois representan el

Cuauhtémoc DELOYA


Picicola Clay and Meinertzhagen (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from jacamars and puffbirds (Piciformes: Galbulidae, Bucconidae), with descriptions of five new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three species of previously named Picicola Clay and Meinertzhagen from jacamars and puffbirds are redescribed and five new species are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Picicola valquii ex Notharchus tectus (Boddaert), P. naokii ex Bucco capensis Linnaeus, P. osheai ex Malacoptila fusca (J.F. Gmelin), P. faucetti ex Chelidoptera tenebrosa (Pallas), and P. oneilli



Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection\\u000a and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study,

Jimei Song; Song Hua; Kai Song; Yong Zhang



Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke



New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae) in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that

Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Ernest H. Williams


Age determination of Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Cyprinidae) inhabiting Bafra Fish Lakes (Samsun, Turkey) based on otolith readings and marginal increment analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T. - Age and growth of S c a rdinius ery t h ro p h t h a l m u s (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from Bafra Fish Lakes between January 2000 and December 2000 were determined by examination of five hard structures. Scales, vertebrae, opercular bones, lagenar and utricular otoliths were




Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the smooth-hound Mustelus mustelus (L.) and the gummy shark M. antarcticus Günther (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new tetraphyllidean species, Paraorygmatobothrium bai n. sp. and P. rodmani n. sp., are described from the smooth-hound shark Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus) and the gummy shark M.s antarcticus Günther, respectively. The two species are generally consistent in morphology with the nine existing species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994. P. bai n. sp. and P. rodmani n. sp. differ from the existing

T. R. Ruhnke; S. D. Carpenter



Taxonomic status of Pelichnibothrium speciosum Monticelli, 1889 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), a mysterious parasite of Alepisaurus ferox Lowe (Teleostei: Alepisauridae) and Prionace glauca (L.) (Euselachii: Carcharinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of freshly collected tetraphyllidean cestodes from a teleost fish, Alepisaurus ferox Lowe, from Japan with types and vouchers of Pelichnibothrium speciosum Monticelli, 1889, described from the same host, and specimens of Prionacestus bipartitus Mete & Euzet, 1996, from the spiral valve of a shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), from the Indian Ocean between Réunion and Madagascar, revealed their conspecificity. Consequently,

Tomáš Scholz; Frantiöek Moravec



Difference characteristics of phosphorus in Chara and two submerged angiosperm species: implications for phosphorus nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus speciation in three submerged macrophytes species, Chara fibrosa Agardh ex Bruzelius, Najas marina Linnaeus and Vallisneria gigantea Graebner, and the implications for phosphorus nutrient cycling in an aquatic ecosystem were studied, using sequential phosphorus fractionations. The results showed that C.?fibrosa had a far higher residual ash and calcium content compared with the two angiosperm species, but lower total phosphorus

Kian Siong; Takashi Asaeda; Takeshi Fujino; Anna Redden



Two new species of Ophidiasterid sea-stars from the vicinity of Diaoyudao, East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new species of the asteroid family Ophidiasteridae are described from two specimens collected by commercial fishery vessels of Qingdao from the vicinity of Diaoyudao (25°45'N, 123°15'E), East China Sea. Hacelia tuberculata sp. nov. shows affinities with H. tyloplax (H. L. Clark, 1914) and Linckia gracilis sp. nov. is related to L. laevigata (Linnaeus).

Liao, Yulin



Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...


Dynamics of the Arctic Fox Population on St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

English abstract: We hypothesized that the arctic fox, Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus), population on St. Lawrence Island was cyclic and that its fluctuations in size. structure, and productivity were correlated with the relative size of the population of northern voles, Microtus oeconomus Pallas, the primary prey. Based on a nine-year study, we determined that the variations in size of the fox

Francis H. Fay; Robert L. Rausch



Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and\\/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a further layer of complexity. This paper draws on the experiences of the LINNAEUS Collaboration, an international group of primary care researchers,

S. Dovey; K. Hall; M. Makeham; W. Rosser; A. Kuzel; C. van Weel; A. Esmail; R. Phillips



Differing morphology and ultrastructure of the male copulatory apparatus in species-groups of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male genitalia of 13 members of the mymarid wasp genus Anagrus have been studied: Anagrus (Anagrella) mymaricornis (Bakkendorf), Anagrus (Paranagrus) unilinearis Soyka, A. (Anagrus) ustulatus Haliday, A. (A.) erythroneurae Trjapitzin and Chiappini, A. (A.) atomus (Linnaeus), A. (A.) aegyptiacus Soyka, A. (A.) vilis Donev, A. (A.) sensillatus Viggiani and Jesu, A. (A.) breviphragma Soyka, A. (A.) incarnatus Haliday, A. (A.)

Elisabetta Chiappini; Emanuele Mazzoni



Induction of metallothioneins in Mullus barbatus as specific biomarker of metal contamination: A field study in the western Mediterranean Inducción de metalotioneínas en Mullus barbatus como biomarcador específico de contaminación metálica: Estudio de campo en el Mediterráneo occidental  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red mullet (Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the fish species used as bioindicator in the Mediterranean Pollution Monitoring Programme (MEDPOL). This paper presents the results of a field study on the induction of hepatic metallothioneins (MT) in red mullet as specific biomarker of metal contamination. Specimens of M. barbatus were collected in six areas with different degrees of

J. Benedicto; J. Campillo



Modelling the daily food requirements of wintering great cormorants: a bioenergetics tool for wildlife management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo , Linnaeus are large piscivorous birds which occur in Asia, Australia, Africa, Europe and North America. Their European breeding population has increased by at least 15% per annum over the last 15 years, reaching a total of c . 200 000 pairs in the late 1990s. There are concerns that this increase is adversely




Polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue mussels ( Mytilus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue mussels of the genus Mytilus (M. edulis Linnaeus 1758; M. galloprovincialis Lamarck 1819; M. trossulus Gould 1850) are widely distributed in Southern and Northern hemispheres. This ecological plasticity together with the existence of interspecific hybridization in overlapping regions (Skibinski et al. 1978) makes them an interesting model for studies of population dynamics in marine habitats. Genetic marker surveys on

Pablo Presa; Montse Pérez; Angel P. Diz



Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) is a cosmopolitan species, having been reported from a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. It has been extensively studied over the last 100 years or so, and examination of the literature reveals three striking features: (1) the presence of populations in a wide range of environmental conditions; (2) large inter-population

Cathy H. Lucas



Nearshore Distribution and an Abundance Estimate for Green Sea Turtles, Chelonia mydas, at Rota Island, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-three green turtles, Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758), were observed in 84 sightings along 28 transects covering 67% of Rota's shoreline and outer reef perimeter in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Is- lands. No other sea turtle species were encountered. Juvenile turtles of various sizes dominated in all surveyed environments, and observations of turtles with estimated straight carapace lengths a

Steven P. Kolinski; Ronald K. Hoeke; Stephani R. Holzwarth; Larry I. Ilo; Evelyn F. Cox; Robert C. O'Conner; Peter S. Vroom



Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.  


Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating co-occurrence of a facultative ant-tended butterfly (Parrhasius polibetes) with ant-tended treehoppers (Guayaquila xiphias) on Schefflera vinosa shrubs. We evaluated host plant selection and caterpillar survival in P. polibetes in the presence and absence of ant-treehopper associations. Paired trials revealed that butterflies preferably oviposit on branches hosting ant-tended treehoppers when they had a choice between those and branches without this interaction. Presence of ant-tended treehoppers on a branch reduced the abundance of P. polibetes' natural enemies and improved caterpillar survival in both premyrmecophylic and ant-tended phases. Thus ant-tended treehoppers create an enemy-free space on foliage that butterflies exploit to protect larval offspring. These findings connect two widely documented ant-trophobiont mutualisms and highlight the importance of considering multiple interactions for a proper understanding of ant-plant-herbivore systems. Detection of other ant-based mutualisms on oviposition to improve offspring survival may have represented an important evolutionary step in the process of host plant selection in facultative myrmecophilous butterflies. PMID:20645858

Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S



Mechanoreceptors in calanoid copepods: designed for high sensitivity.  


The mechanoreceptors of the first antennae of Pleuromamma xiphias, a mesopelagic calanoid copepod, are critical for the detection of potential threats. These receptors exceed the physiological performance of other crustacean mechanoreceptors in sensitivity to water velocities as well as in frequency response. A study of these receptors was initiated to elucidate structure-function relationships. Morphologically, the receptors resemble the arthropod scolopidial organs by the presence of a scolopale tube. However, the rigidity of the copepod receptors greatly exceeds those described for crustaceans and other arthropods. The scolopale tube completely encloses the distal dendrites and it is firmly anchored to the cuticle. Microtubules are organized in register and arise from microtubule subfibers associated with crescent-shaped rods which extend from the basal body region to the setal socket. The distal dendrites are filled with a large number of cross-linked microtubules. Termination of the distal dendrites inside the lumen of the setae is gradual with a firm anchoring to the cuticle. A likely mechanism for mechanotransduction would involve a linkage between individual microtubules and mechano-gated channels in the dendritic membrane. The rigidity probably contributes to the high frequency sensitivity, and termination of the dendrite inside the seta increases the overall sensitivity of these receptors. PMID:18088933

Weatherby, T M; Lenz, P H



Lists as Research Technologies  

PubMed Central

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems – most notably the sexual system – and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions or his “natural system.” Taking our clues from the anthropology of writing, we want to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can only be overcome by the use of new media.

Muller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle



Gardens of paradise.  


Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology. PMID:11468795

Müller-Wille, S



[The revival of Linnean ideas in nineteenth-century France].  


During the first half of the 19th century, and notably during the Restoration, many French naturalists gathered into some new natural history Societies, called Linnean Societies. They tried to remove the chaos of the zoological and botanical nomenclature, and decided to fight against the generalization of the natural method. They worshipped Linnaeus' memory, his artificial system of classification of plants and animals, and his binomial nomenclature. This worshipping, ignored by the official scientific institution, opened up the way to an international critical approach aiming at the stabilization and universalization of zoological, botanical and geological nomenclatures. At the end of the century this approach caused the writing of the International codes of nomenclature currently in use today. The starting points of these codes were Linnaeus' 10th edition of Systema naturae (1758), 1st edition of Species plantarum (1753) and 5th edition of Genera plantarum (1754). PMID:11614114

Duris, P



Occurrence of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 and D. mergi Dubois, 1932 (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Danish freshwater snails: ecological and molecular data.  


Freshwater pulmonate snails from three locations in Lake Furesø north of Copenhagen were screened for infection with furcocercariae (by shedding in the laboratory) and recovered parasite larvae were diagnosed by molecular methods (by performing PCR of rDNA and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer [ITS] region). Overall prevalence of infection in snails was 2%. Recovered cercariae from Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus) were diagnosed as Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (prevalence 4%) and cercariae from Radix balthica (Linnaeus) as D. mergi (Dubois, 1932) (prevalence 2%). Pathogen-free rainbow trout were then exposed to isolated cercariae and infection success and site location of metacercariae in these fish were determined. Infection experiments confirmed that both species could infect rainbow trout with the eye lens as infection site for the metacercarial stage although infection success differed. Combination of molecular and biological assays may contribute to improvement of our knowledge on diagnosis, distribution and biology of diplostomids in fish. PMID:23724738

Haarder, Simon; Jørgensen, Kasper; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf; Buchmann, Kurt



Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.  


This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa. PMID:23595493

Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian



Circadian rhythms of sexual behavior and pheromone titers of two closely related moth species autographa gamma and Cornutiplusia circumflexa.  


Two closely related plusiinae moths, Autographa gamma Linnaeus and Cornutiplusia circumflexa Linnaeus, are sympatric in Israel. Both species use identical sex pheromone components but in different ratios, and do not attempt to mate with each other. In addition to the effective reproductive separation by their sex pheromones, the sexual behavior of both species was compared to determine whether the lack of selection pressure might create additional barriers to cross-attraction and cross-mating. We found the gamma moth to be sexually active almost equally throughout the scotophase, whereas the sexual activity of C. circumflexa was limited to a short period at the end of the scotophase when most of the gamma moths had already mated. Higher levels of calling were observed with older females. There was a close relationship between pheromone titer and calling activity in both species. PMID:16132217

Mazor, Michal; Dunkelblum, Ezra



Lists as research technologies.  


The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems--most notably the sexual system--and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions and his "natural system." Taking clues from the anthropology of writing, this essay seeks to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can be overcome only by the use of new media. PMID:23488242

Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle



Role of bivalve mollusks in the sediment balance of the Anapa Bay Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sandy beaches of Anapa Bay Bar are a unique natural resource, but they are gradually being degrade under both natural and anthropogenic factors. The emissions of sand and shelly ground from the adjacent sea bottom partly compensate for this process. The concentration of carbonates may reach up to 50% in the beach sands, and most of these carbonates are of mollusk origin. The major deposit formation role belongs to the key bivalve species: Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758). The average biomass of this mollusk species reaches up to 450 g/m2 at the depths of 5-10 m. The other two subdominating mollusk species, the bivalve Donax trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), may impact as 16 g/m2 and 6 g/m2, respectively. Annually, 350 kg of shelly ground per running meter are newly deposited on Anapa beach.

Kosyan, A. R.; Kucheruk, N. V.; Flint, M. V.



Predator–prey interactions from in situ time-lapse observations of a sublittoral mussel bed in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexaplex trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the most abundant and widespread muricid gastropods in the Northern Adriatic Sea, but relatively little is known about the feeding ecology of this predator. We examined the activity of H. trunculus on a sublittoral mussel bed at 24 m depth through in situ time-lapse observations and bulk samples. The camera photographed a 0.25 m2 section

Jennifer A. Sawyer; Martin Zuschin; Bettina Riedel; Michael Stachowitsch



Reef coral reproduction in the eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, Panama, and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive ecology of two major reef-building corals in the eastern Pacific [Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) andPocillopora elegans Dana] was investigated between 1984 and 1990 in Costa Rica, Panama (Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Panama), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) following the 1982–83 El Niño disturbance. Mature spermatocytes and oocytes were found in both species and were usually present in the

P. W. Glynn; N. J. Gassman; C. M. Eakin; J. Cortes; D. B. Smith; H. M. Guzman



Standard metabolic rate of pike, Esox lucius : variation among studies and implications for energy flow modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, is a predatory fish that supports important fisheries and could substantially impact prey populations around the\\u000a temperate northern hemisphere. Consumption of prey by pike is most readily estimated using the energy budget to calculate\\u000a food intake indirectly using estimates of growth rate and metabolism. Resting metabolic rate, R\\u000a s, is a particularly important component of

John D. Armstrong; Lorraine A. Hawkins



Genetic composition of a green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) feeding ground population: evidence for multiple origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migratory marine turtles are extremely difficult to track between their feeding and nesting areas, and the link between juvenile\\u000a and adult habitats is generally unknown. To assess the composition of a feeding ground (FG) population of juvenile green turtles\\u000a (Cheloniamydas Linnaeus), mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were examined in 80 post-pelagic individuals (straight carapace length?=?31\\u000a to 67?cm) sampled in September

P. N. Lahanas; K. A. Bjorndal; A. B. Bolten; S. E. Encalada; M. M. Miyamoto; R. A. Valverde; B. W. Bowen



Comparative properties of the inclusion body proteins of the nucleopolyhedrosis viruses of Neodiprion sertifer and Lymantria dispar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A comparison was made on the properties of the inclusion body proteins of two insect viruses: the nucleopolyhedrosis viruses of the European pine sawfly,Neodiprion sertifer, Geoffroy, and the gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar, Linnaeus. The inclusion body proteins were characterized by the following parameters: amino acid composition, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence and presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate—mercaptoethanol, isoelectric focusing,

S. E. Brown; F. S. KACZlgAREK; N. R. Dubois; R. T. Zerillo; J. Holleman; J. P. Breillatt; H. M. Mazzone



Topographic distribution and daily activity of the European ground squirrel population in Bugacpuszta, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the population density and daily pattern of activity of the European ground squirrelSpermophilus citellus (Linnaeus, 1766) were studied in two habitats of the Kiskunság National Park, Hungary. One habitat was dominated by sandy\\u000a and the other by salty grassland. Population densities were estimated by counting ground squirrel burrow entrances in sample\\u000a areas with different microhabitat characteristics. Three categories

Krisztián Katona; Olivér Váczi; Vilmos Altbäcker



Food composition and feeding behavior of shallow-water crinoids at Eilat (Red Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food of 3 feather-stars, Lamprometra klunzingeriHartlaub, 1890), Heterometra savignii (J. Müller, 1841) and Capillaster multiradiatus (Linnaeus, 1758), from the shallow water of Eilat (Red Sea) was found to be composed of planktonic and semi-benthalic organisms with a strong dominance of zooplankton. Monthly analyses of stomach contents showed seasonal changes in the participation of various systematic units in the diet.

J. Rutman; L. Fishelson



The effect of experimental removal of red foxes Vulpes vulpes on spring density of brown hares Lepus europaeus in western Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red foxesVulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) were experimentally removed in two nearby areas located in western Poland to verify the hypothesis about\\u000a the limiting impact of their predation on the low-density population of brown haresLepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778) (4.4-10.6 ind.\\/km2 in late autumn). In 1996\\/1997–2001\\/2002 foxes were culled (mainly in autumn and winter) in the reduction area (32 km2), whereas in

Marek Panek; Robert Kamieniarz; Wojciech Bresi?ski



Dry season habitat selection by a recolonizing population of Asian elephants Elephas maximus in lowland Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to landclearing and human expansion, Asian elephantElephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 is declining throughout its range. In lowland Nepal, the species now only occurs in small remnant populations,\\u000a shared with India. In order to develop guidelines for conserving the species in the country, we studied the habitat use of\\u000a a small and recently re-established population in Bardia National Park. We

Narendra Man Babu Pradhan; Per Wegge



Nomenclature and classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Plant species, as well as animal and fungi, have a Latin name, which follows the binomial system of Linnaeus (Carl von Linné,\\u000a 1707–1778). The first name refers to the genus (e.g. Cleistes, Bulbophyllum, Constantia and Cattleya). The second name is the specific epithet (e.g. montana, punctatum, cipoensis and loddigesii). The Latin names can be assigned, for example, according to the

Emerson Ricardo Pansarin; Ludmila Mickeliunas Pansarin


Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai



The abundance of Orius niger (Wolf.) and O. minutus (L.) in potato fields and their life table parameters when fed on two prey species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) and onion thrips are serious pests of potatoes in the Ardabil region (Iran). In the present\\u000a study, anthocorid species were identified in potato fields of this region during 2006 and 2007. The results of the abundance\\u000a study indicate that Orius niger (Wolff) and O. minutus (Linnaeus) are major predators of these pests in potato fields. The

Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi; Asghar Fathi



Sex and reproductive aspects in Serranus cabrilla (Osteichthyes: Serranidae): macroscopic and histological approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gonads of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Canary Islands were studied between September 1992 and July 1993. Macroscopic classification of\\u000a the maturity stages was compared with histolog ical classification of gonad characteristics, and the effect?of the classification\\u000a method on the determination of the spawning season and size at maturity was investigated. Analysis of gonad organization and\\u000a development confirmed

M. M. García-Díaz; V. M. Tuset; J. A. González; J. Socorro



Metabolic cost of first reproduction in young female European roe deer Capreolus capreolus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In female roe deerCapreolus capreolus (Linnaeus, 1758), like in several deer species, first reproduction occurs before they have reached their full body size.\\u000a This study quantifies, in young females, the energetic costs induced by the contemporaneously occurring events: growth and\\u000a first reproduction. Resting metabolic rate and body mass were measured in young primiparous females from first mating to 4\\u000a months

Christiane Mauget; Robert Mauget; Antoine Sempéré



Wolf predation on moose and roe deer: chase distances and outcome of encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined chase distances of gray wolves Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 hunting moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus, and recorded details of encounters between wolves and prey on the Scandinavian Peninsula, 1997–2003. In total, 252 wolf\\u000a attacks on moose and 64 attacks on roe deer were registered during 4200 km of snow tracking in 28 wolf territories. Average

Camilla Wikenros; Håkan Sand; Petter Wabakken; Olof Liberg; Hans C. Pedersen



Reproductive investment reduces recuperation from exhaustive escape activity in the tropical scallop Euvola zizac  

Microsoft Academic Search

In scallops, mobilization of reserves from the adductor muscle to support maintenance and reproductive activity may impinge\\u000a upon a major role of the adductor muscle, the movement of the valves during swimming and escape responses. The tropical scallop\\u000a Euvola ziczac (Linnaeus 1758) invests energy reserves to different degrees during its two periods of reproduction each year. We evaluated\\u000a the impact

K. B. Brokordt; J. H. Himmelman; O. A. Nusetti; H. E. Guderley



Morphometric and genetic analysis as proof of the existence of two sturgeon species in the Guadalquivir river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphometric and genetic methods were used to identify two sturgeon species, Acipenser naccarii Bonaparte, 1836, and A. sturio Linnaeus, 1758, captured in some of the principal rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, including the Guadalquivir. After measuring\\u000a 25 Iberian specimens from a fishery and several Spanish and Portuguese museums and applying stepwise discriminant analysis\\u000a (SDA), four specimens preserved in different museums

M. A. Garrido-Ramos; M. C. Soriguer; R. de la Herrán; M. Jamilena; C. Ruiz Rejón; A. Domezain; J. A. Hernando; M. Ruiz Rejón



Morphometric difference between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of Sorex araneus in a zone of parapatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid zone between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk chromosome races of the common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 was found near Novosibirsk city (West Siberia, Russia) in an area unimpeded by geographic barriers. In this\\u000a zone, the shrews of both races and their hybrids were trapped and karyotyped and 22 features of their cranial and postcranial\\u000a skeleton were measured. Canonical discriminant

Andrei V. Polyakov; Sergei S. Onischenko; Vadim B. Ilyashenko; Jeremy B. Searle; Pavel M. Borodin



Predation by striped searobin ( Prionotus evolans, Triglidae) on young-of-the-year winter flounder ( Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): examining prey size selection and prey choice using field observations and laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments and field observations in shallow water habitats in the Navesink River\\/Sandy Hook Bay estuarine system (NSHES), New Jersey, USA, were used to examine the predator–prey relationship between the striped searobin (Prionotus evolans: Linnaeus) and young-of-the-year (YOY) winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus: Walbaum). Striped sea robins (121–367 mm total length [TL]) were present in Sandy Hook Bay but absent from

J. P. Manderson; B. A. Phelan; A. J. Bejda; L. L. Stehlik; A. W. Stoner



Reproductive life history of ocelots Leopardus pardalis in southern Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocelotLeopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758 is an endangered felid in the United States currently restricted to southern Texas. The objectives of our\\u000a study were to obtain data on ocelot parturition dates, fecundity, sex ratios, den characteristics, and first year survival,\\u000a all of which are critical in development of population viability models. Sixteen parturition events were recorded ranging\\u000a from mid-April to

Linda L. Laack; Michael E. Tewes; Aaron M. Haines; John H. Rappole



Whartonia (Fascutonia) natsumei (Acari: Trombiculidae): a new bat chigger collected from Plecotus auritus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Japan, with host and distribution records of the genus Whartonia.  


We describe and illustrate a new bat chigger, Whartonia (Fascutonia) natsumei Takahashi, Takahashi & Kikuchi n. sp., ex. Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758), from Japan, and summarize the host and distribution records of the chiggers of the genus Whartonia Ewing, 1944. With the description of a new species here, the number of Whartonia species increases to 40 composed of 22 species from Asia, 14 from North and South America in addition to Central America, and four from Africa. PMID:16619590

Takahashi, Mamoru; Takahashi, Hisae; Kikuchi, Hirosato



The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, the gray wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecieslupus oritalicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dogCanis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves\\u000a from the Italian Peninsula, 91

Ronald M. Nowak



The morphology of juvenile stages of Bubophilus aluconis Nattress and Skoracki, 2009 (Acari: Syringophilidae) with a description of a male.  


The morphology of juvenile and adult stages of the quill mite Bubophilus aluconis Nattress and Skoracki, 2009 parasitizing the Long-eared Owl Asio otus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Strigiformes) in Poland is described and illustrated. Poland is a new location and A. otus is a new host species for B. aluconis. A description of the male is presented for the first time for this quill mite species. PMID:23094335

Skoracki, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna; O?mi?ski, Micha?; Sikora, Bozena



Habitat selection and the change in distribution of asian elephants in Mengyang Protected Area, Yunnan, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephants were confined to Mengyang Protected Area in China and their distribution range had reduced greatly compared to past\\u000a records. A preliminary study of habitat selection by Asian elephantsElephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 and their distribution was conducted in Mengyang Protected Area and its surrounds using site visits and transect\\u000a surveys from July 2003 to December 2006. Although no variable significantly

Liu Lin; Limin Feng; Wenjing Pan; Xianming Guo; Jianwei Zhao; Aidong Luo; Li Zhang



The distribution of zinc in the oyster Ostrea edulis and its relation to enzymic activity and to other metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of zinc in the oyster Ostrea edulisLinnaeus has been studied in its relation to the zinc-dependent enzymes present and in relation to the copper, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphate contents. Only carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, carboxypeptidase A and malic dehydrogenase zinc metalloenzyme activities could be detected. a-D-mannosidase, a zinc-dependent enzyme hitherto not reported for the oyster, was

T. L. Coombs



Cohort variation in the life-history parameters of stoats Mustela erminea in relation to fluctuating food resources: a challenge to boreal ecologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews field evidence suggesting that periodic temporary population irruptions of feral house miceMus musculus in New Zealand have a substantial effect on the reproductive success of stoatsMustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758. Stoats born during the summer of a peak in numbers of mice are more numerous and have higher fecundity (ovulation\\u000a rate) but lower productivity (independent offspring per female)

Carolyn M. King



Effects of Copper Sulfate on Typha latifolia Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Aqueous and Sediment Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular macrophyte Typha latifolia Linnaeus (common cattail) may be a sentinel for evaluating potential phytotoxicity to rooted aquatic macrophytes in aquatic\\u000a systems. To further evaluate the potential utility of this species, T. latifolia seed germination, shoot growth, and root elongation were measured in 7-day aqueous exposures using mean measured aqueous\\u000a copper concentrations of 10.0, 23, 41, 62, 174, and

S. L. Muller; D. B. Huggett



Patterns of wolf Canis lupus predation on wild and domestic ungulates in the Western Carpathian Mountains (S Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the predator-prey relationships among wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, wild ungulates, and livestock in the managed mountain forests of the Western Carpathians (S Poland). Though\\u000a roe deerCapreolus capreolus dominated in the community of wild ungulates and livestock was abundant within the study area, the three wolf packs preyed\\u000a mainly on red deerCervus elaphus (42% of food biomass), and next

Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska



Occurrence of black wolves in the Northern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of black-coated individuals in wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 populations is not surprising itself, but their presence in populations recovering from a severe numerical\\u000a decline has been considered a possible sign of crossbreeding with the domestic dog. In the northern Apennines (Italy), black\\u000a wolves occur at a non-negligible frequency. In a 3300 km2 area, 22% of wolves observed and

Marco Apollonio; Luca Mattioli; Massimo Scandura



Food habits of wolves Canis lupus in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet of wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 in Latvia was studied from 1997 to 2001 based on 302 scats and 107 stomachs. Wild ungulates (cervids and wild\\u000a boarSus scrofa) and beaverCastor fiber were the dominant prey. Cervids were found in 50% of samples (62% biomass), wild boar in 25% (21% biomass), beavers in 14%\\u000a (12% biomass). Wolves selected for wild boar,

Žanete Andersone; Jãnis Ozoli?š



Dittrichia viscosa and Rubus ulmifolius as reservoirs of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and the role of certain Coccinellid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the self-sown shrubsDittrichia viscosa (L.) W. Greuter andRubus ulmifolius Schott as reservoirs of aphid parasitoids was investigated. In the field studies conducted,D. viscosa grew adjacent to crops of durum wheat and barley andR. ulmifolius grew adjacent to cotton. The relative abundance of the parasitoids of(a) Capitophorus inulae (Passerini) onD. viscosa, (b) Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) on durum wheat

Nickolas G. Kavallieratos; George J. Stathas; Christos G. Athanassiou; George Th. Papadoulis



Reproductive behaviour of free-ranging rural dogs in West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive behaviour of free-ranging dogsCanis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 was studied in a village in the state of West Bengal, India. Increased synchronized breeding was the most\\u000a striking feature of this study. October (late monsoon) represented the peak period of mating for the feral dogs. Of all courting\\u000a males, only 41% were observed to mount and copulate. On average, each male

Sunil Kumar Pal



Space use of common genets Genetta genetta in a Mediterranean habitat of northeastern Spain: differences between sexes and seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal home range size and spatial relationships of 16 adult genetsGenetta genetta Linnaeus, 1758 (6 males and 10 females) were estimated in a Mediterranean habitat of northeastern Spain. Genets minimum density\\u000a was estimated as 0.98\\/km2. Mean annual home range was 113.1 ha in males and of 72.0 ha in females. Males had larger home ranges than females in all

David Camps Munuera; Francesc Llimona Llobet



Symphurus civitatium (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae), a second estuarine-occurring tonguefish off the Southeastern United States and Northern Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of tonguefishes,Symphurus plagiusa (Linnaeus 1766) andSymphurus civitatium Ginsburg 1951, occur sympatrically and sometimes syntopically in shallow water habitats in North Carolina and Louisiana estuaries.\\u000a In North Carolina, approximately 2% of 430 small (S. civitatium, while in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, this species was more abundant and cosmopolitan in distribution than wasS. plagiusa, comprising over 82% of 3,564 tonguefishes collected

Thomas A. Munroe; Donald M. Baltz; Robert L. Allen; Steve W. Ross



Selection of rendezvous sites and reuse of pup raising areas among wolves Canis lupus of north-eastern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coarse scale analysis was carried out of factors affecting rendezvous site selection and fidelity to pup raising areas in\\u000a wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 packs inhabiting the north eastern Apennines, Italy. From 1993 to 2004, 44 rendezvous sites were identified,\\u000a and compared with random sites for variables related to topography, habitat, and human presence. Rendezvous sites were significantly\\u000a more frequent

Claudia Capitani; Luca Mattioli; Elisa Avanzinelli; Andrea Gazzola; Paolo Lamberti; Lorenza Mauri; Massimo Scandura; Alessia Viviani; Marco Apollonio



Genetic Variation and Relative Catalytic Efficiencies: Lactate Dehydrogenase B Allozymes of Fundulus Heteroclitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate whether functional differences exist between allelic variants of a B type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC in the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus), the kinetic properties of pyruvate reduction were examined. While the pH dependence and the temperature dependence for maximal catalysis were indistinguishable among the allozymes, reaction velocities at low pyruvate concentrations were

Dennis A. Powers



Development of the amentiferous concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amentiferous concept developed in pre-Linnaean times, and early botanists clearly recognized the topical similarities\\u000a among plants bearing aments. Among the amentiferous plants placed side by side in early times were many that would not be\\u000a so situated today—e.g., gymnosperms intermixed with dicotyledons. By the time of Linnaeus, only dicotyledons were included\\u000a among the ament-bearing groups. J. G. Gmelin was

William Louis Stern



A Promising Evaluation Method for Dead Leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the Adsorption of Methyl Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile is an endemic species in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, dead leaves of P. oceanica (L.) which are accumulated on the beach seasonally were used as an alternative low cost biosorbent to remove methyl violet\\u000a (MV) from aqueous solution. In order to explain the adsorption kinetics, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic\\u000a models were

Sevilay Cengiz; Levent Cavas



Cannabinoid Receptor as a Novel Target for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus (marijuana) and their derivatives have received renewed interest in recent years due to their diverse pharmacologic activities such as cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects and tumor regression. Here we show that expression levels of both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are significantly higher in CA-human papillo- mavirus-10 (virally transformed cells derived from

Sami Sarfaraz; Farrukh Afaq; Vaqar M. Adhami; Hasan Mukhtar



Relation between plant density and arthropod density in cabbage fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between plant density and the abundance of arthropods was examined by planting cabbages in four densities\\u000a (0.25, 1, 4, or 8 plants per square meter). Four herbivorous species were examined: the small white butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the beet semi-looper Autographa nigrisigna (Walker), and the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer).

Kohji Yamamura



Spatial and temporal dynamics of the male effective population size in bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eusociality and male haploidy of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) enhance the deleterious effects of population decline and aggravate the degeneration of population fitness compared to solitary\\u000a and diploid species. The highly dispersive male sex may be the prime driver to connect otherwise isolated populations. We\\u000a therefore studied the temporal and spatial structure of the male population of Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus 1758)

Stephan Wolf; Theresa Toev; Ruby L. V. Moritz; Robin F. A. Moritz


A taxonomical re-evaluation of the Valais chromosome race of the common shrew Sorex araneus (Insectivora: Soricidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 is subject to intense chromosomal polymorphism. About 65 chromosome races are presently known. One of these\\u000a chromosome races (the Valais race) is karyologically, morphologically, biochemically, and genetically clearly distinct from\\u000a all other chromosome races of the species. Recent studies of hybrid zones between the Valais race and other chromosome races\\u000a in the Swiss and

Harald Brünner; Nicolas Lugon-Moulin; François Balloux; Luca Fumagalli; Jacques Hausser



Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrewSorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in\\u000a this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution,\\u000a and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,\\u000a genetic

Jan M. Wójcik; Miros?aw Ratkiewicz; Jeremy B. Searle



Temporal stability and spatial divergence of mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from coastal regions of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction-site variation in mitochondrial (mt) DNA was assayed among 1675 red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus) sampled from 20 localities along the southeastern coast of the USA (western Atlantic) and the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf).\\u000a Up to four consecutive year-classes (cohorts) were sampled at most localities. Nucleotide-sequence divergence among 170 mtDNA\\u000a haplotypes identified ranged (in percentage) from 0.184 to 1.913, with

J. R. Gold; L. R. Richardson; T. F. Turner



Ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of the coconut crab Birgus latro (Coenobitidae: Paguroidea: Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spermatozoon ofBirgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767) is approx 14µm in length. It is composed of a large multi-layered oblong-ovoid acrosome which is capped by a conical operculum and lies anterior to a small ring of cytoplasm and an amorphous nucleus which is drawn out into a series of arms or extensions. Originating from the cytoplasmic area are three further long

C. C. Tudge; B. G. M. Jamieson



Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

Lennon, Robert E.



Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surge (non-linear) uptake of ammonium, measured by incorporation of 15N, was investigated in three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Soliera robusta (Greville) Kylin (Rhodophyta) and Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) Lamouroux (Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 ?mol L?1) led to pronounced uptake within 4–6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase

Varsha Raikar; Mohideen Wafar



Prevention of a Plant Disease by Specific Inhibition of Fungal Polyamine Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DL-alpha -Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (EC, strongly retards the growth of several species of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Such inhibition can be completely reversed by putrescine or spermidine, confirming the essentiality of polyamines for growth of fungal hyphae. We now show that DFMO can protect bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus cv. Pinto)

M. Venkat Rajam; Leonard H. Weinstein; Arthur W. Galston



Variations in scent-marking behaviour of European badgers Meles meles in the vicinity of their setts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For European badgersMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758), the importance of olfactory signals located at home-range borders in the context of territoriality has\\u000a been widely accepted. Badgers, however, also scent mark far from their borders, often in the vicinity of their communal sett.\\u000a Little is known about the significance of these marks in intraspecific communication. Here, we investigated the patterns of\\u000a object-marking

Christina D. Buesching; David W. Macdonald



Reproductive strategy of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria Scyphomedusae) in the Suez Canal and its migration between the Red Sea and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the common jellyfish A. aurita (Linnaeus) in the Suez Canal was investigated by monthly sampling over a 28 month period from September 2006 to December 2008. Young medusae of 2–3 cm diameter appeared during February\\/March. Growth was rapid. Some specimens of this cohort reached 16 cm and spawned by March\\/May and then decreased in size or

Hamed A. El-Serehy; Khaled A. Al-Rasheid



Efficacy of neem extract against the blowfly and housefly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus, are ubiquitous insects that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. Pest management\\u000a techniques for populations of these flies are needed. Currently, bioinsecticides, particularly those derived from plant origin,\\u000a have been increasingly evaluated in controlling populations of medically important insects. In this study, an

Sirisuda Siriwattanarungsee; Kabkaew L. Sukontason; Jimmy K. Olson; Orawon Chailapakul; Kom Sukontason



Spawning of the cobia, Rachycentron canadum , in the Chesapeake Bay area, with observations of juvenile specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic eggs collected in Atlantic coastal waters adjacent to Chesapeake Bay have been identified as those of the cobia,Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus). The egg diameters ranged from 1.16 mm to 1.42 mm with a mean of 1.27 mm. The single large oil globule had a mean\\u000a diameter of 0.38 mm.\\u000a \\u000a The presence of gravid females and the appearance of cobia eggs

Edwin B. Joseph; John J. Norcross; William H. Massmann



Flipper beat frequency and amplitude changes in diving green turtles, Chelonia mydas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a turtle-borne camera system, changing flipper beat frequency and amplitude were measured in five diving green turtles\\u000a (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus 1758) in the Baha de los Angeles, Mexico (2858?N, 11333?W). These observations were made between June and August\\u000a 2002. Turtles worked hardest (i.e., had the highest flipper beat frequency and amplitude) at the start of descents when positive\\u000a buoyancy

Graeme C. Hays; Greg J. Marshall; Jeff A. Seminoff



The use of RNA:DNA ratios to predict growth limitation of juvenile summer flounder ( Paralichthys dentatus ) from Delaware and North Carolina estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional indices were used to develop biochemical correlates of feeding and growth rates for juvenile summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus), from North Carolina (NC) and Delaware (DE). Six parameters (Fulton's condition K=104xweight\\/(length3), wet weight\\/dry weight, [protein], [RNA], [DNA], and RNA:DNA) were related to feeding and growth rates of fish from previously reported 10 to 14-d experiments at temperatures ranging from

K. D. Malloy; T. E. Targett



Feeding and hoarding behaviour of the Eurasian red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris during autumn in Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits and hoarding behaviour of the Eurasian red squirrelSciurus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 were examined during autumn in Nopporo Forest Park (43°20’N, 141°30’E), in western Hokkaido, Japan. The diet\\u000a consisted of 32 plant species. Twelve species were both eaten and hoarded (the two most common of which wereAbies sachalinensis andPinus koraiensis), and 20 species were eaten but not hoarded.

Tsung Hung Lee



Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), hake (Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits\\/km2) and

Roberto Carlucci; Lembo Giuseppe; Maiorano Porzia; Capezzuto Francesca; Marano Chiara Alessandra; Sion Letizia; Spedicato Maria Teresa; Ungaro Nicola; Tursi Angelo; Gianfranco D'Onghia



Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.  


The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade



A new species of Xorides Latreille (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Xoridinae) parasitizing Pterolophia alternata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in  Robinia pseudoacacia.  


A new species is described, Xorides benxicus Sheng, sp. n., reared from the cerambycid twig-boring pest of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Pterolophia alternata Gressitt, 1938, in Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China. A key is given to the species similar to Xorides benxicus Sheng, namely Xorides asiasius Sheng & Hilszcza?ski, 2009, Xorides cinnabarius Sheng & Hilszcza?ski, 2009 and Xorides sapporensis (Uchida, 1928). PMID:23275750

Sheng, Mao-Ling; Zhao, Rui-Xing; Sun, Shu-Ping



Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic\\u000a Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of\\u000a Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected\\u000a observations

Eugen SeiboldIlse Seibold; Ilse Seibold



Species identification and chromosome variation of captive two-toed sloths.  


Two-toed sloth species, Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's, are frequent residents of zoo collections in North America. However, species identification has always been problematic because of their large overlap in external morphology, which represents an obstacle to the captive breeding program. We describe here a PCR-based technique that allows species identification of two-toed sloths without requiring sequencing, by using a mitochondrial marker (COI gene) and restriction enzyme assay. We also report intra- and inter-specific patterns of chromosome variation in captive two-toed sloths. Molecularly, we identified 22 samples of Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's two-toed sloths corresponding to 14 and 8 individuals, respectively. One animal was identified as a hybrid using the nuclear gene Enam having alleles derived from both species. The chromosome number in Hoffman's two-toed sloths showed low variation ranging only between 50 and 51. In contrast, Linnaeus's two-toed sloths appeared to vary widely, with diploid numbers ranging from 53 to 67, suggesting distinct geographic groups. The species identification method presented here represents a low-cost easy-to-use tool that will help to improve management of the captive population of two-toed sloths. PMID:22147591

Steiner, Cynthia C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A



Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety  

PubMed Central

Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a further layer of complexity. This paper draws on the experiences of the LINNAEUS Collaboration, an international group of primary care researchers, in obtaining ethics approval to conduct an international study investigating medical error in general practice in six countries. It describes the ethics review processes applied to exactly the same research protocol for a study run in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the US. Wide variation in ethics review responses to the research proposal occurred, from no approval being deemed necessary to the study plan narrowly avoiding rejection. The authors' experiences demonstrated that ethics committees operate in their own historical and cultural context, which can lead to radically different subjective interpretations of commonly-held ethical principles, and raised further issues such as ‘what is research?’. This first LINNAEUS study started when patient safety was a particularly sensitive subject. Although it is now a respectable area of inquiry, patient safety is still a topic that can excite emotions and prejudices. The LINNAEUS Collaboration now extends to more countries and continues to pursue an international research agenda, so reflection on the influences of history, social context, and structure of each country's ethical review processes is timely.

Dovey, Susan; Hall, Katherine; Makeham, Meredith; Rosser, Walter; Kuzel, Anton; Van Weel, Chris; Esmail, Aneez; Phillips, Robert



Effectiveness of the defence mechanism of the turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), against predation by lizards.  


The turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae Linnaeus, is a pest on cruciferous crops. Larvae sequester secondary plant compounds, namely glucosinolates, in their haemolymph. When attacked, their integument is easily disrupted and a droplet of haemolymph is exuded ('easy bleeding'). This has been shown to be an effective, chemical-based, defence against invertebrate predators. The efficiency of this proposed defence was tested against a vertebrate predator, using groups of the iguanid lizard Anolis carolinensis Voigt as a model predator. Caterpillars of Pieris rapae Linnaeus and Pieris brassicae Linnaeus served as control prey species that do not sequester glucosinolates. Lizards attacked far fewer sawfly larvae than pierid caterpillars. Several of the sawfly larvae were rejected after an initial attack, demonstrating unpalatability to the lizards, while the Pieris larvae were not rejected. However, P. rapae larvae topically treated with extracts of haemolymph of A. rosae had no deterrent effect on the lizards and no avoidance learning occurred over a period of two weeks. Adult sawflies do not easy bleed but have glucosinolates carried over from the larval stage. Lizards attacked them at a higher rate than larvae and they were never rejected. The results suggest that for the defensive effectiveness of the pest sawfly species against vertebrates the chemical cue is not necessarily sufficient. Movement and colour may be important additional factors triggering the behaviour of vertebrate predators. PMID:15191629

Vlieger, L; Brakefield, P M; Müller, C



New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon.  


In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species. PMID:20943027

Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri, Fábio Silva; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Brito, Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales


Survey of Predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata.

Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad



Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.  


An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (<3.5 kDa) and of high molecular weight (HMW) (3.5-100 kDa and >100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel



Identification of the intermediate hosts of Habronema microstoma and Habronema muscae under field conditions.  


A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for the specific detection of Habronema microstoma and Habronema muscae (Nematoda, Spirurida) in order to identify the intermediate hosts of both nematode species under field conditions. A total of 1087 netted and 165 laboratory-bred flies were tested. Flies were identified as Musca domestica Linnaeus 1758, Musca autumnalis De Geer 1776, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758), Haematobia titillans (De Geer 1907) and Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758) (Muscidae). Genomic DNA was extracted from pools of fly heads, thoraces and abdomens, and 703 samples were subjected to a duplex two-step semi-nested PCR assay to specifically detect diagnostic regions within the ribosomal ITS2 sequence of both H. microstoma and H. muscae. Stomoxys calcitrans specimens were positive for H. microstoma DNA and M. domestica specimens were positive for H. muscae DNA. In particular, PCR-positive samples derived from both farm-netted and laboratory-bred flies. The present study represents the first evidence of the vectorial competence of different fly species as intermediate hosts of Habronema stomachworms under field conditions. We discuss the roles of S. calcitrans and M. domestica in transmitting H. microstoma and H. muscae. PMID:18816277

Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Iorio, R; Carluccio, A; Contri, A; Paoletti, B; Bartolini, R; Giangaspero, A



Effect of water quality parameters on the distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda-Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean: a statistical approach.  


The region between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S latitude was known to be congenial for distribution of Pleuromamma species. Diel and ontogenetic migrations were observed for Pleuromamma xiphias. Multivariate analyses such as factor analysis on species' abundance and predictive step-up multiple regression models of water quality parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and their first order interaction effects on Pleuromamma species' abundance, were carried out in the regions, off 10 degrees N, 10 degrees N to 10 degrees S, 10 degrees S to 30 degrees S, along the Somali Coast (38 degrees S-40 degrees S) and a fifth region along the western boundary of the above four regions. Relation between Pleuromamma species' abundance and the water quality parameters showed a decreasing trend in the variability explained (VE) from region 1 (VE = 55.19%) to region 4 (VE = 31.15%) in the models, indicating that the influence of other ecological factors was of higher significance in the south than in the north, with a north south gradient. Indices of diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and evenness (Heips) were calculated and lognormal distributions fitted for these indices were found to be a good fit (p < 0.05). The five regions were compared, based on critical ratio of the diversity index. Shannon-Weaver diversity showed higher values during night collections than day collections, justifying the tendency for diurnal variations. Diversity and dominance were highly (r = 0.95) correlated. A multilinkage cluster analysis by group averaging method for the species, based on the standardised values of log(10) (X + 1) transformed species' abundance, showed that Pleuromamma indica, Pleuromamma gracilis and Pleuromamma abdominalis were not segregated in any of the five regions. Bray and Curtis (1957) coefficient of similarity for the species in the five regions combined together, showed 50% similarity for the cluster containing circum-global species, Pleuromamma piseki, P. gracilis, P. abdominalis and P. borealis. The species, P. indica and P. xiphias entered this cluster at 22% similarity level. Multivariate factor analysis by row normalisation (for species) and column normalisation (for stations), using varimax rotation to simple structure for unique grouping of species as well as stations, carried out in the five regions, showed that the maximum number of species' clusters were obtained in region 2, indicating a higher variability in the ecological conditions in this region than in the other four regions. The significance of the factor model and the differential factor groups of species were also determined in the studied regions. On a broader scale, based on the ecological aspect, the first four regions could be reduced to two regions, viz, region 1 including the north off 10 degrees N, Central Indian Ocean and the area of subtropical convergence, and region 2 consisting exclusively of the equatorial region between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S based on distribution of Pleuromamma species. The plot of the species abundance with respect to latitude also showed such a demarcation. PMID:18712613

Jayalakshmy, K V; Saraswathy, M; Nair, Maheswari



Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.

Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A



Sublethal effects and predator-prey interactions: implications for ecological risk assessment.  


Ecological risk assessments tend to focus on contaminant effects on single species in isolation. However, additional effects from interactions between species (e.g., predator-prey interactions) may also occur in natural systems. The present study investigated the consequences of sublethal contaminant effects in prey on predator-prey interactions, particularly the interaction between prey behavioral changes and predation by predators with different hunting strategies. Ambush (Ischnura elegans Vander Linden [Insecta, Odonata]) and active (Notonecta glauca Linnaeus [Insecta, Heteroptera]) predator species were used in conjunction with three prey species (Asellus aquaticus Linnaeus [Crustacea, Isopoda], Cloion dipterum Linnaeus [Insecta, Ephemeroptera], and Chironomus riparius Meigen [Insecta, Diptera]). Immobilized prey demonstrated the importance of prey behavior for determining predation rates for both single- and multiple-prey species. Chironomus riparius was less responsive following exposure to cadmium, becoming more vulnerableto attack by the active but not the ambush predator. Some evidence was also observed for reduced general activity in C. dipterum following cadmium exposure. Sublethal exposure of prey did n