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1

Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1?9c, 16:0, 22:6?3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6?3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

2010-07-01

2

Organochlorine compounds in tissues of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) from Mediterranean Sea and Azores islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The Italian Ministry of Environment has undertaken a program (1999–2001) to measure levels of contaminants in top marine predators and to develop sensitive biomarkers for the evaluation of toxicological risk in these species.In 1999, 15 swordfishes (Xiphias gladius) taken from the Mediterranean Sea along the Sicilian coast (Strait of Messina,

Patrizia Stefanelli; Antonella Ausili; Alfonso Di Muccio; Cristina Fossi; Stefano Di Muccio; Silvia Rossi; Andrea Colasanti

2004-01-01

3

STANDARDIZED CATCH RATES BY SEX AND AGE FOR SWORDFISH (XIPHIAS GLADIUS) FROM THE U.S. LONGLINE FLEET 1981-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) catch and effort data from the U.S. Pelagic longline fleet operating in the Western North Atlantic were used to update indices of abundance for the North Atlantic swordfish stock. Standardized catch rates were estimated using a Generalized Linear Mixed modeling approach assuming a delta-lognormal error distribution. Indices of abundance in units of biomass (dressed weight) were

Mauricio Ortiz

4

STANDARDIZED CATCH RATES BY SEX AND AGE FOR SWORDFISH (Xiphias gladius) FROM THE U.S. LONGLINE FLEET 1981-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) catch and effort data collected from the US Pelagic longline fleet operating in the western north Atlantic were used to update indices of abundance for the north Atlantic swordfish stock. Standardized catch rates were estimated using a Generalized Linear Mixed modeling approach assuming a delta-lognormal error distribution. Indices of abundance in units of biomass (dressed weight)

Mauricio Ortiz

5

UPDATED STANDARDIZED CATCH RATES FOR SWORDFISH AGES 3-10+ (Xiphias gladius) FROM THE U.S. PELAGIC LONGLINE FLEET 1982-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) catch and effort data collected from the US Pelagic longline fleet operating in the western north Atlantic were used to develop indices of abundance for the north Atlantic swordfish stock. Standardized catch rates were estimated using a Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling approach assuming a delta-lognormal error distribution. Indices of abundance in units of biomass (dressed weight)

Mauricio Ortiz; Jean Cramer

6

STANDARDIZED CATCH RATES BY SEX AND AGE FOR SWORDFISH (XIPHIAS GLADIUS) FROM THE U.S. LONGLINE FLEET 1981-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) catch and effort data from the US Pelagic longline fleet operating in the Western North Atlantic were used to update indices of abundance for the North Atlantic swordfish stock. Standardized catch rates were estimated using a Generalized Linear Mixed modeling approach assuming a delta-lognormal error distribution. Indices of abundance in units of biomass (dressed weight) were

Mauricio Ortiz

7

Boundary between the north and south Atlantic populations of the swordfish ( Xiphias gladius ) inferred by a single nucleotide polymorphism at calmodulin gene intron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic differentiation of the Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) was investigated by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the calmodulin gene (CAM) intron locus. Clearly distinct allele and genotype frequencies were observed between the north (20–41°N) and mid-south (10°N–33°S)\\u000a Atlantic samples. Much lower frequency of A allele (37.5–57.1%) was observed in the north samples (n = 160 in total) than in the mid-south

S. Chow; S. Clarke; M. Nakadate; M. Okazaki

2007-01-01

8

Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds  

PubMed Central

The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill.

Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

2013-01-01

9

Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization  

PubMed Central

Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock.

Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

2014-01-01

10

UPDATED STANDARDIZED CATCH RATES FOR SWORDFISH AGES 3-10+ (Xiphias gladius) FROM THE U.S. PELAGIC LONGLINE FLEET 1982-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Updated indices of swordfish abundance were estimated by applying the previous years' Generalized Linear Models to updated swordfish catch and effort data through the year 2000 from the US Pelagic longline fleet operating in the western North Atlantic. Indices of abundance in units of biomass (dressed weight) were estimated for fish greater than 33 lbs due to size restrictions

Jean Cramer; Mauricio Ortiz

11

15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... ), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax ), blue shark (Prionace glauca ), salmon shark (Lamna ditropis ), shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ), thresher sharks (Alopias spp. ), swordfish (Xiphias gladius ), tunas (family...

2009-01-01

12

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the FMP, specifically: Billfish/Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) ...) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north Pacific...

2013-10-01

13

Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)  

PubMed Central

Background Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ?13C and ?15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius ?13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (?8–9 months), during which ?15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ ?15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes.

Lorrain, Anne; Arguelles, Juan; Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

2011-01-01

14

CHARACTERISTICS OF SWORDFISH (Xiphias gladius) CATCHES ACHIEVED BY EXPERIMENTAL FISHING USING INSTRUMENTED LONGLINE IN THE SEYCHELLES EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ) Preliminary results of an experimental long line fishing program: « Programme d'Action de la Pêche Palangrière Seychelloise - PAPPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local pelagic longline fishery targeting swordfish started in the Seychelles in 1995. Actually 10 vessels are active. In June 2000 a two year research program was set up through partnership of SFA, IFREMER and the French cooperation in Seychelles. Between 2000 and 2001, 18 longline trips corresponding to 136 sets were conducted on the SFA's research vessel \\

Bertrand Wendling; Vincent Lucas; Rose Marie Bargain; François Poisson; Marc Taquet

15

76 FR 56327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...managed by the FMP, specifically: Billfish/Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks...vulpinus) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) blue shark (Prionace glauca) Tunas: north Pacific albacore...

2011-09-13

16

Antibiotic Action of Solanum incanum Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

The fruits of Solanum incanum Linnaeus are extensively used in Kenya for the treatment of cutaneous mycotic infections and other pathological conditions. The therapeutic activity of the berries has been attributed to their content of solanine and related glycoalkaloids, which are saponins and cytostatic poisons. In the present study, however, a simpler more potent antimicrobial substance with a phosphorylated structure similar to the purine adenine was isolated from the berries. The crystals of this compound were effective inhibitors of the growth of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and some pathogens of agricultural produce. High concentrations of the substance caused hemolysis of erythrocytes. Images

Beaman-Mbaya, V.; Muhammed, S. I.

1976-01-01

17

Cytauxzoonosis in a Giraffe 'Giraffa camelopardalis' (Linnaeus, 1758)' in Zululand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytauxzoonosis is reported for the first time in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)) that died naturally of the disease. Both histiotropic and erythrocytic parasites were found. The animal was very anaemic and had marked haemoglobinuria. T...

R. M. McCully M. E. Keep P. A. Basson

1970-01-01

18

LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature  

PubMed Central

Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton) to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

2010-01-01

19

Analysis of the Rice Mutant dwarf and gladius leaf 1. Aberrant Katanin-Mediated Microtubule Organization Causes Up-Regulation of Gibberellin Biosynthetic Genes Independently of Gibberellin Signaling  

PubMed Central

Molecular genetic studies of plant dwarf mutants have indicated that gibberellin (GA) and brassinosteroid (BR) are two major factors that determine plant height; dwarf mutants that are caused by other defects are relatively rare, especially in monocot species. Here, we report a rice (Oryza sativa) dwarf mutant, dwarf and gladius leaf 1 (dgl1), which exhibits only minimal response to GA and BR. In addition to the dwarf phenotype, dgl1 produces leaves with abnormally rounded tip regions. Positional cloning of DGL1 revealed that it encodes a 60-kD microtubule-severing katanin-like protein. The protein was found to be important in cell elongation and division, based on the observed cell phenotypes. GA biosynthetic genes are up-regulated in dgl1, but the expression of BR biosynthetic genes is not enhanced. The enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in dgl1 is not caused by inappropriate GA signaling because the expression of these genes was repressed by GA3 treatment, and degradation of the rice DELLA protein SLR1 was triggered by GA3 in this mutant. Instead, aberrant microtubule organization caused by the loss of the microtubule-severing function of DGL1 may result in enhanced expression of GA biosynthetic genes in that enhanced expression was also observed in a BR-deficient mutant with aberrant microtubule organization. These results suggest that the function of DGL1 is important for cell and organ elongation in rice, and aberrant DGL1-mediated microtubule organization causes up-regulation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes independently of gibberellin signaling.

Komorisono, Masahiko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Aichi, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

2005-01-01

20

Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).  

PubMed

The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied. PMID:24871188

Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

2014-01-01

21

Dosage des metaux lourds (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb et Hg) dans l'espadon peche a Ghazaouet. (Levels determination of heavy elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) in sword fish caught from the bay of Ghazaouet).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear technics 'PIXE' and 'XRF', were used for heavy metals analysis (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), in sword fish (xiphias Gladius) caught in Ghazaouet bay. Muscles, liver and gonads were analysed. The methods gave similar results. A bioaccumulation phen...

A. Chalabi M. Malek M. Ghomari M. A. Benamar A. Tchantchane

1993-01-01

22

Isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins to distinguish swordfish, blue marlin and Mediterranean spearfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we show that the method of isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a simple and reliable one for detecting the fraudulent substitution of cold-smoked fillets of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) with those of lower value blue marlin (Makaira mazara) and for detecting substitution of blue marlin steaks with those of Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone). The cold smoking process does

P. Renon; C. Bernardi; R. Malandra; P. A. Biondi

2005-01-01

23

Biomarkers for endocrine disruptors in three species of Mediterranean large pelagic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species, such as large pelagic fish, are potentially at risk due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is investigated. The potential estrogenic effects of PHAHs in three fish species of commercial interest, the top predators bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata

M. c. Fossi; S. Casini; L. Marsili; G. Neri; G. Mori; S. Ancora; A. Moscatelli; A. Ausili; G. Notarbartolo-di-sciara

2002-01-01

24

Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system.

Muller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

2012-01-01

25

Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in 'data-driven research.' Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of 'information overload.' Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called 'natural' system. PMID:22326068

Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

2012-03-01

26

ESPÉCIES DO GÊNERO Eimeria (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) EM TAMANDUÁS-BANDEIRA (Myrmecophaga tridactyla LINNAEUS, 1758) EM CATIVEIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.

FAGNER LUIZ DA C. FREITAS; ANDRÉ S. ZANETTI; CÉLIO R. MACHADO; ROSANGELA Z. MACHADO

27

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?  

PubMed Central

Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ?6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ?75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

2008-01-01

28

Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

2011-01-01

29

Intestinal bacterial diversity in live rock lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus) (Decapoda, Pleocyemata, Palinuridae) during transportation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the bacterial diversity in the intestine of rock lobster Panulirus homarus during live transportation process lasting for 14h. The total viable count (TVC) in the intestine of P. homarus (Linnaeus, 1758) prior to packing (control) was 130.33 x 106 cfu ml-1. In the intestine of packed lobsters (experimental), the TVC showed an increasing trend and the recorded

GRASIAN IMMANUEL; PALANISAMY IYAPPA RAJ; PALANICHAMY ESAKKI RAJ; ARUNACHALAM PALAVESAM

30

First Occurrence Of The Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) In Lesina Lagoon (Eastern Italian Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of the tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) were caught in Lesina Lagoon during experimental sampling for the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus using fyke net traps from December 1999 to September 2000. The species O. niloticus is not native in Italian coastal waters, although attempts of tilapia culture in land-based aquaculture farms were occasionally carried out in the past.

G. SCORDELLA; F. LUMARE; A. CONIDES; C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

31

Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus(Linnaeus, 1753) (Rutaceae) of North-East India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ten Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) species of North-East India have been karyo-morphologically analysed. All studied species had 2n=18 chromosomes without any evidence of numerical variation. All the chromosomes were found to be of metacentric and sub-metacentric in all the species; the morphology of the chromosomes showing size difference only. Symmetrical karyotype which does not have much difference in the ratio of longest to shortest chromosome in all the species was observed. Three species, Citrus grandis (Osbeck, 1757), Citrus reticulata (Blanco, 1837) and Citrus medica (Linnaeus, 1753) are identified as true basic species from asymmetry studies of karyotypes as they reflect on the primitive nature of their genomes. Citrus indica (Tanaka, 1937)occupies a special taxonomic position within the genus Citrus as a progenitor for other cultivated species.

Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

2011-01-01

32

Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

2012-09-01

33

Advances in hatchery and grow-out technology of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes advances in hatchery and grow- out technology of cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Linnaeus). In 2007, methods for capture, transport, acclimation, sampling, conditioned spawning, larval rearing, ¢ngerling production, nursery, shipping and grow-out have been perfected. Survival rates ranging from 17.5% to 35% were achieved from egg to shipping size ¢ngerlings (1.0 g) in 2007 at the University of Miami

Daniel D Benetti; Mehmet R Orhun; Bruno Sardenberg; Brian O'Hanlon; Aaron Welch; Ronald Hoenig; Ian Zink; José A Rivera; Bristol Denlinger; Donald Bacoat; Kevin Palmer; Fernando Cavalin

2008-01-01

34

Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish\\u000a predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in\\u000a the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae,

Teresa Romeo; Pietro Battaglia; Cristina Pedà; Patrizia Perzia; Pierpaolo Consoli; Valentina Esposito; Franco Andaloro

35

Occurrence and accumulation of organochlorine contaminants in swordfish from Mediterranean Sea: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners and DDT compounds were measured in the liver of a teleost species: namely, Xiphias gladius. PCB concentrations (median: 1121ng\\/g lipid wt) were comparable with DDT levels (median: 1236ng\\/g lipid wt). PCBs revealed a profile dominated by hexa-, penta- and heptachlorinated congeners. Among DDTs, the compound in the greatest concentration was p,p?-DDE, representing 70% of the

M. M. Storelli; G. O. Marcotrigiano

2006-01-01

36

Using the PCR–RFLP method to identify the species of different processed products of billfish meats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method had been developed for the detection of five billfish species Xiphias gladius, Makaira nigricans, M. indica, Istiophorus platypterus and Tetrapturus audax in raw, frozen and heat-treated meats. The primers L-CYTBF and H-CYTBF were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene and the molecular weight of amplified fragment was 348 bp

Hung-Sheng Hsieh; Tuu-jyi Chai; Deng-Fwu Hwang

2007-01-01

37

Stable isotopic evidence for trophic groupings and bio-regionalization of predators and their prey in oceanic waters off eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle tissue was collected for stable isotope analysis (SIA) from the main fish predators and their fish and cephalopod prey\\u000a from oceanic waters off eastern Australia between 2004 and 2006. SIA of ?15N and ?13C revealed that the species examined could be divided into three main trophic groups. A “top predator” group consisted mainly\\u000a of large billfish (Xiphias gladius and

Andrew T. Revill; Jock W. Young; Matt Lansdell

2009-01-01

38

Regional and temporal changes in epizoobiontic bryozoan-communities of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) and implications for North Sea ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, bryozoans have not been used as indicators for changes in bottom communities or climate control in the North Sea Basin, despite a 200-year history of bryozoan collecting. The epizoobiontic bryozoan fauna of Flustra foliacea (Linnaeus, 1758) was analysed on 51 sample stations kept in four German museums. The samples cover the entire North Sea and different time periods (1776-2008, mainly the period of 1904/1905 compared to 1980-87). Cluster analysis shows a differentiation into a northern and a southern North Sea assemblage. The northern assemblage is characterized by Amphiblestrum flemingii (Busk, 1854), Callopora dumerilii (Audouin, 1826) and Tricellaria ternata (Ellis & Solander, 1786), while the southern North Sea is characterized by Electra pilosa (Linnaeus, 1767), Crisia eburnea (Linnaeus, 1758) and Plagioecia patina (Lamarck, 1816). Spatial separation approximately follows the 50 m depth contour. The temporal distribution patterns of bryozoans are discussed in terms of NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and temperature variations.

Bitschofsky, F.; Forster, S.; Scholz, J.

2011-02-01

39

Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)  

SciTech Connect

Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

Lakshmanan, P.T. (Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin (India)); Nambisan, P.N.K. (Cochin Univ. of Science and Technology (India))

1989-07-01

40

Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods (crustacea) associated with the stoloniferan coral tubipora musica (Linnaeus) from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species of siphonostomatoid copepods, Asterocheres tubiporae n. sp. and Entomopsyllus stocki n. sp., associated with the stoloniferan coral Tubipora musica (Linnaeus) are described from Madagascar. Asterocheres tubiporae is characterized by the possession of a large posteroventral process on the caudal ramus and the elongated free segment of leg 5. Entomopsyllus stocki is readily distinguished from its congeners by

2004-01-01

41

Effect of Trachelobdella lubrica (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) on biochemical and haematological characteristics of black scorpion fish ( Scorpaena porcus , Linnaeus 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black Scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758) caught during monthly sampling carried out in 2003 in the Dardanelles, Turkey, were examined for the parasite. Trachelobdella lubrica. Infested fish were caught only during December 2003, and the clinical conditions of the 12 fish naturally infested with T. lubrica included fin rot, swollen foci of skin and haemorrhages of the gill and

Ekrem Sanver Celik; Seyit Aydin

2006-01-01

42

Occurrence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758) in Perú.  

PubMed

The presence of Moniezia expansa (Rud, 1810) Blanchard, 1891, is reported in domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758). Four tapeworms were collected and identified as M. expansa. This is the first report of M. expansa collected in a domestic pig in Perú. PMID:19028016

Gómez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; González, Armando E

2008-12-20

43

Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

George, Sam

2014-03-01

44

Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century  

PubMed Central

Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24 000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation.

Fay, Michael F.; Chase, Mark W.

2009-01-01

45

Subulura halli (Ascaridida: Subuluridae) from the endangered great bustard Otis tarda Linnaeus (Aves: Gruiformes) in China.  

PubMed

Subulurid nematodes identified as Subulura halli Barreto, 1918 were collected from the endangered bird Otis tarda Linnaeus (Gruiformes: Otididae) in China. A detailed redescription of the hitherto poorly known species is presented using both light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy. Previously unreported and erroneous morphological features of taxonomic significance are revealed. This species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the relatively long oesophagus (1.47-1.92 mm long, representing 10.6-16.9% of body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae (11 pairs in total, arranged as five pairs of precloacal and six pairs of postcloacal papillae), the equal length of spicules (1.35-1.52 mm long, representing 10.7-13.7% of body length) and the presence of a small medioventral, precloacal papilla in the male. PMID:24684055

Du, Li-Qiang; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shun-Cai; Li, Liang

2014-02-01

46

Accumulation and depuration of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins by laboratory cultured purple clam Hiatula diphos Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Purple clams (Hiatula diphos Linnaeus) accumulate paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins produced by a toxic strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim in a laboratory study. The maximal toxicity of PSP toxins attained 31.3m MU/g after 20 days exposure. The toxin profile of H. diphos was similar to that reported for A. minutum at the end of the exposure period; and GTX1 was dominant. GTX congeners were found in muscle on day 16 and day 20, these substances could be detected during the depuration period as well. GTX1 was detected in the siphon only on day 32. The results show that H. diphos accumulates PSP toxins according to the amount and toxin profile of ingested A. minutum. PMID:16137734

Chou, Hong Nong; Huang, Chen Ping; Chen, Chih Yu

2005-10-01

47

Effects of sediment composition on cadmium bioaccumulation in the clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Sediment particulates can be ingested by benthic animals, and the bioavailability of associated metals strongly depends on their speciation in the sediments. Different sedimentary components have distinct physiochemical characteristics and result in different biological responses from animals. Therefore, the bioaccumulation of particle-bound trace metals may be different. In the present study, bioaccumulation of cadmium adsorbed on various (hydr)oxide minerals, that is, ferric hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, and manganese dioxide, in the clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus was studied. The results showed that the accumulation rate of cadmium varied for different mineral-adsorbed cadmium. The bioaccumulation of metal (hydr)oxide-adsorbed cadmium in M. meretrix followed the order Cd-MnO2 ?>?Cd-Al(OH)3 ?>?Cd-Fe(OH)3 . The type of mineral determines both the assimilation efficiency and ingestion rate, and consequently controls the bioaccumulation of adsorbed cadmium. PMID:23355485

Wu, Xing; Xie, Lingtian; Xu, Liying; Wang, Shaofeng; Jia, Yongfeng

2013-04-01

48

Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome.

Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Lukas; Rab, Petr

2013-01-01

49

Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC–DAD–APCI–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a traditional Chinese herb containing functional components such as carotenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharides, has been widely used in the health food industry because of its possible role in the prevention of chronic disease like age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array detection–mass spectrometry

B. Stephen Inbaraj; H. Lua; C. F. Hung; W. B. Wu; C. L. Lin; B. H. Chen

2008-01-01

50

Alcataenia atlantiensis n. sp. (Dilepididae) from the razorbill ( Alca torda Linnaeus) in the eastern North Atlantic basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Alcataenia is described from razorbills Alca torda Linnaeus from the southern region of the North Sea in the coastal waters of Belgium. It differs from known species of the genus in having 18–20 rostellar hooks measuring 63–74 m in length. Other attributes include a cirrus-sac 145–228 m in length, 36–49 testes and a vitelline gland measuring

E. P. Hoberg

1991-01-01

51

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals.\\u000a The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were\\u000a sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary,

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang; Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar

2011-01-01

52

Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity: a study in Rose Coloured Starlings ( Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s?1 in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to travel distances between 200 and 300 km, respectively. This represents the widest speed range

Sophia Engel; Herbert Biebach; G. Henk Visser

2006-01-01

53

ON THE BIOLOGY AND BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION DYNAMIC OF THE DOG CONCH, STROMBUS CANARIUM LINNAEUS, 1758 (STROMBIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrak: Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 merupakan antara sumber perikanan gastropoda paling utama di perairan Selat Johor, Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, persampelan dilakukan secara rawak menggunakan kaedah jalur transek, bermula dari Januari hingga Disember 2005. Data panjang cangkerang dibahagikan mengikut jantina dan panjang, dengan sela-kelas 2 mm. Secara keseluruhannya, nisbah jantan kepada betina adalah pada kadar 1:1.73, yang tidak berbeza secara

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang

54

Morphometric and allometric studies on eggshells and embryos of free-living Canada geese ( Branta c. canadensis Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 289 eggs laid by free-living Canada geese ( Branta canadensis canadensis Linnaeus, 1758) in the northwestern part of Germany were collected in spring 2002 and 2003 and examined for shell and embryo parameters. Mean egg mass was 160.88±19.68 g. Approximately 90% of all eggs had a mass between 140 and 185 g. About 90% of all clutches consisted of

Brigitte M. Bönner; Walburga Lutz; T. Redmann; Sabine Jäger; Brinja Reinhardt; J. Wissing; W. Knickmeier; E. F. Kaleta

2004-01-01

55

Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.  

PubMed

The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column iron, total organic carbon, ammonia, and total kjedahl nitrogen, and a negative relationship with alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Results from principle component analysis revealed patterns between waterbody type and water chemistry variables that suggests hydrologic modification can have profound effects on the levels of fish tissue Hg in riverine systems. From 1993 to 2007, fish tissue Hg levels have trended lower. A spike in tissue Hg levels was observed in 2003-2005. The drying and rewetting of the landscape after the 2002 drought is hypothesized to have caused an increase in the methylation efficiencies of the system. PMID:20058074

Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

2010-04-01

56

On a new species of the genus Cobboldina (Nematoda: Atractidae) from Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The specimens of the genus Cobboldina Leiper, 1911 and family Atractidae (Railliet, 1917) Travassos, 1919 recovered from the faecal matter of Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) from the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India recognized as a new species after careful observation. The collected nematode differs from the only valid species Cobboldina vivipara Leiper, 1911, in the presence of gubernaculum (13.2-29.7 ?m in length) and the number of caudal papillae (10 pairs) and named as Cobboldina gubernacularia sp. n., This is the second species of the genus Cobboldina recorded from the host Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captive in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. PMID:24082537

Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

2012-10-01

57

Blood supply in the tongue of Nellore Bos indicus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Aspects of the vascularization of the tongue of Nellore Bos indicus (Linnaeus, 1758) were evaluated through the vascular injection technique (with latex-type Neoprene 450, Du Pont do Brasil S.A. and Sulvinil coloring, Glassurit), fixed in formaldehyde at 7% and dissected with magnifying glass. The material was collected at Goiás Carnes Freezer Warehouse in Goiania, Goias. It was found that the deep lingual artery penetrated the lower lateral region of the prominence of the dorsal area of the tongue, advancing rostrally between the hyoid bone and the hypoglossal muscle. In the intravisceral initial third, the artery represents the deep, sinuous continuation branch of the lingual artery, in which path the sublingual artery was stressed in the ventral plan. Then, the artery deepened in the interior of the hypoglossal muscles and genioglossal, supplying dorsal branches (from three to nine) for the lingual torus; from one to five dorsal collateral branches for the lingual cavity; and one or two ventral collateral branches. At the lingual apex, the artery undergoes bifurcation supplying collateral, dorsal and ventral branches with anastomoses between the parallel vessels in the same antimere and between branches of lower caliber hierarchy between opposite antemeres. The large presence of microvessels indicates a significant blood supply to the organ. These results, in comparison with those found in literature, suggest a peculiar vascular pattern for this cattle breed of Indian origin. PMID:19183353

Ferreira, J R; Nogueira, D J; Rodrigues, B F; Alvarenga, B F

2009-04-01

58

Antitumor effects of a polypeptide isolated from Tegillarca granosa linnaeus and the related molecular mechanism.  

PubMed

This study is to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus-1 (TG-1) on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells in vitro. The proliferation of OS-RC-2 cells was evaluated under various concentrations of TG-1 using MTT assay. The apoptosis of OS-RC-2 cells was analyzed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. And the cell cycle distribution of OS-RC-2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression level of Ki67 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR and level of casepase-3 was examined by Western blot analysis. TG-1 incubation significantly inhibited the proliferation of renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and arrested cells at G0/G1 phase (P <0.05). And TG-1 also significantly inhibited the expression of Ki67 mRNA (P<0.05). Additionally, TG-1 significantly promoted apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 in cells (P<0.05). Moreover, the optimal effects of TG-1 was achieved at the concentration of 100 mg/L The results indicate that TG-1 has antitumor effects on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and that the underlying mechanisms may be acted through inhibiting proliferation and Ki67 mRNA expression, and promoting apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. PMID:24811818

Xu, Wenhua; Chang, Zhishang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Changqing; Wang, Chunbo; Xu, Luo

2014-05-01

59

Naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in visual wulst of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The visual wulst (VW), the rostro-dorsal surface of the avian telencephalon extending from the midline to the lateral region of the brain, is a laminated "bulge" consisting in four histologically distinct rostro-caudally arranged laminae with a specific sequence: hyperpallium apicale, interstitial nucleus of hyperpallium apicale, hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare. The VW has been proposed to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Various behavioral studies including lesion experiments have indicated the importance of the VW, which receives visual and/or auditory cues. We have investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the fascinating structural changes occurring in VW neurons of the seasonally breeding bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766). The Golgi method was used to study the seasonal fluctuations in the neuronal classes of the VW with regard to dendritic thickness, spine morphology and spine density during both the non-breeding and breeding periods of male Baya weaver birds. Significant variations in parameters studied among the various neuronal types located in the different well-demarcated regions of the VW are believed to contribute to the functional differences reported among the wulst regions. Thus, this study extends our view demonstrating naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in a seasonally dynamic avian brain of a bird that hones not only its learning and memorizing system but also its social and sexual system in preparation for the breeding season. PMID:23435992

Srivastava, U C; Gaur, Parul

2013-06-01

60

Leaf litter removal by the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) and sesarmid crabs in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative data on leaf litter removal activity of macrozoobenthic organisms in the mangrove forests of East Africa are virtually non-existent. In the present study, litter removal activity was determined in two contrasting types of mangrove stands in Gazi Bay (Kenya). In the relatively elevated Ceriops tagal vegetation, which is only flooded during spring tides, the detritivorous snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus)

F. J Slim; M. A. Hemminga; C. Ochieng; N. T Jannink; E Cocheret de la Morinière; G. Van der Velde

1997-01-01

61

Growth and survival rates of carpet shell clam ( Tapes decussatus Linnaeus, 1758) using various culture methods in Sufa (Homa) Lagoon, Izmir, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carpet shell clam (Tapes decussatus Linnaeus, 1758) is a candidate species for aquaculture development in Turkish waters. Our study aimed to assess the efficiency of three different methods (i.e., net, box and fenced ground) to maximize clam production. Two different net materials (hard plastic net and polyamide net) were tested in the net method trials. Conducted over 1 year

Serpil Serdar; Aynur Lök; Aysun Köse; Harun Yildiz; Sefa Acarli; Philippe Goulletquer

2007-01-01

62

Ontogenetic development of digestive functionality in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus, Linnaeus 1758) larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 32 day post-hatch (DPH). The development of digestive system in golden pompano can be divided into three phases: phase I starting from hatching and ending at the onset of exogenous feeding; phase II starting from first feeding (3 DPH) and finishing at the formation of gastric glands; and phase III starting from the appearance of gastric glands on 15 DPH and continuing onward. The specific activities of trypsin, amylase, and lipase increased sharply from the onset of first feeding to 5-7 DPH, followed by irregular fluctuations. Toward the end of this study, the specific activities of trypsin and amylase showed a declining trend, while the lipase activity remained at similar levels as it was at 5 DPH. The specific activity of pepsin was first detected on 15 DPH and increased with fish age. The dynamics of digestive enzymes corresponded to the structural development of the digestive system. The enzyme activities tend to be stable after the formation of the gastric glands in fish stomach on 15 DPH. The composition of digestive enzymes in larval pompano indicates that fish are able to digest protein, lipid and carbohydrate at early developmental stages. Weaning of larval pompano is recommended from 15 DPH onward. Results of the present study lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny of golden pompano during the larval stage and provide a guide to feeding and weaning of this economically important fish in hatcheries. PMID:24448718

Ma, Zhenhua; Guo, Huayang; Zheng, Panlong; Wang, Long; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G; Zhang, Dianchang

2014-08-01

63

Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin  

PubMed Central

Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of ?-chain and ?-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2013-01-01

64

Parasites as biological tags in population studies of demersal and pelagic fish species.  

PubMed

Among the different techniques applied in a holistic approach for fish stock identification, the use of parasites as "biological tags" is becoming increasingly important. In this presentation, our recent studies on the use of some parasite species, identified by genetic markers, and the parasite/fauna composition, in stock identification of demersal (Merluccius merluccius), small pelagic (Trachurus trachurus), and large pelagic fish species (Xiphias gladius) are reviewed. Different species of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium were genetically identified by the application of genetic (allozyme) markers. Statistically significant differences in the spatial distribution of distinct species of Anisakis were found in the fish considered. As to the species of Hysterothylacium genetically detected, different relative proportions were detected in several Mediterranean and Atlantic samples of swordfish (X. gladius). This study demonstrates the potential value of these anisakid nematodes, at both larval and adult stages, as "biological tags" for these fish species in European waters. PMID:16881389

Mattiucci, S

2006-06-01

65

Detection of collagen through FTIR and HPLC from the body and foot of Donax cuneatus Linnaeus, 1758.  

PubMed

To make more effective use of available marine resources, acid soluble collagen (ASC) was isolated from body and foot of wedge clam Donax cuneatus Linnaeus, 1758 with acetic acid and was characterized for their potential and commercial applications. The yield of ASC was 17% and 23% respectively. SDS PAGE, UV and FTIR spectroscopy showed that both were type I mainly with slight differences. HPLC was used for identifying the presence of different types of amino acids, where glycine was more or less 20% in both the samples and takes the lead amino acid position and presence of imino acids (11.8 and 12.6%) has been the characteristic feature of type I collagen. PMID:24741170

Nazeer, R A; Kavitha, R; Ganesh, R Jai; Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Kumar, N S Sampath; Ranjith, R

2014-04-01

66

Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) activity moves a man-size pig carcass: relevant data for forensic taphonomy.  

PubMed

Taphonomy is the study of many variables involving decomposition, preservation, dispersal, erosion, burial or exposition of dead organisms. Forensic Taphonomy examines how biotic or abiotic variables can change evidences in legal investigations. Many insects are closely associated with decomposition processes. The scavenger dung-beetle, Coprophanaeus lancifer (Linnaeus, 1767), may be important biotaphonomically in the decomposition process of carcasses. Man-size pig carcasses were used as models to examine the decomposition process in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve in central Amazonia. The scavenger dung-beetle has great potential in decomposition and production of post-mortem injuries, including dismemberment and the removal of soil beneath the carcass thereby causing a change in its position. PMID:18990518

Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Wanderley, Roberto Ferreira; Marques, Helder; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

2008-11-20

67

Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).  

PubMed

A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28°C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:23299317

Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

2013-02-01

68

Redescription of immatures and bionomy of the Palaearctic species Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Hispini), a leaf-mining hispine beetle.  

PubMed

Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) is a member of the tribe Hispini Gyllenhal, 1813 associated with plants of the family Cistaceae Juss. and is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. Immature stages are described in detail, including line drawings, chaetotaxy, sculpture of integument, and SEM photos of morphological details. This is the first detailed description of immatures in the tribe Hispini, and this can be regarded as a model description for studies of other species in the tribe. Diagnostic characters for this species in comparison with other described larvae and pupae of the genus Dicladispa and the sympatric Hispa atra Linnaeus, 1767 are discussed. Some remarks on the biology of Dicladispa testacea, such as host plants, feeding patterns of adults, structure of larval and pupal mines, are also given. PMID:24943146

Swi?toja?ska, Jolanta; Borowiec, Lech; Stach, Ma?gorzata

2014-01-01

69

Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

Schofield, Pamela J.

2010-01-01

70

Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by females for egg laying. Trips of unexplained nature are made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas are occasional transients through the study plot. Standardized census trips provided data for estimating the size of the population. Census data were taken after females had returned from egg laying. The samples were spaced at intervals of a week or more to allow free movement of turtles over their ranges and assure more nearly equal availability of all turtles. These standard samples were compared by a collection ratio. Assumptions involved in the use of this ratio are discussed. Correction factors were applied to make allowance for turtles whose ranges.were partly inside and partly outside the study area, and for transient turtles. A second estimate, on the basis of the entire season's collecting, gave closely comparable results. The population of the study area is estimated to be between four and five turtles per acre, with juveniles constituting less than ten per cent of the total.

Stickel, L.F

1949-01-01

71

Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely covered the area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. The average range of adult males was 330 feet, adult females 370 feet. The difference between male and female ranges was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of defense of territory. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlapped grossly. Turtles were frequently found near each other and no antagonistic behavior was observed. A trail-laying device was developed in order to follow individual travel routes. The trailer consists of a light weight housing fastened to the turtle's back. It contains a spool of white thread that unwinds as the turtle moves, thus marking its exact route. Turtles selected for this more detailed study were followed with trailers for a total of 456 turtle days. Maps illustrating their travels are shown. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by, (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths completely covering the area, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain paths or routes. Trailer records and mapped collection records both show that the maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks. This general procedure is varied by some turtles to include intensive coverage of only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges and travel between them at infrequent intervals. One turtle showing this behavior was followed with a trailer for 161 days during 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by some turtles. These include egg laying trips by females as well as trips of unexplained nature made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas occasionally occur as transients in the study plot. The size of the population was estimated on the basis of collections during on

Stickel, L.F.

1950-01-01

72

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity.

Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentao, Patricia

2014-01-01

73

Anti-inflammatory potential of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols and a monoacylglycerol from the edible brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus.  

PubMed

A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC?? of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

2014-03-01

74

Reducing sugar-producing bacteria from guts of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) for lignocellulosic waste minimization.  

PubMed

The guts of Tenebrio Molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm) were used as inocula to isolate reducing sugar-producing bacteria during bioconversion of lignocellulose to reducing sugars in this study. Three carbon sources, i.e., carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), filter paper (FP), and lignocellulosic waste (LIG), were specifically selected; and two types of culturing media (M1 and M2) were used. After 6 months of sequential cultivation, lignocellulose (i.e., polysaccharides) degradation of enrichments M1-CMC (47.5%), M1-FP (73.3%), M1-LIG (70.4%), M2-CMC (55.7%), M2-FP (73.1%) and M2-LIG (71.7%) was achieved, respectively, with incubation for 48 h. Furthermore, seven bacterial strains were successfully isolated corresponding to most of the major bands detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The maximum reducing sugars yield by the combination of Agromyces sp. C42 and Stenotrophomonas sp. A10b was 56.7 mg g·LIG(-1) of 48 h, which is approximate 2-5 times higher than the original enrichments and individual microbial strains. These findings suggest that bioconversion by microorganisms from mealworm guts has great application potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis. PMID:21869568

Qi, Wei; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

2011-01-01

75

Molineus cati n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea), a parasite of feral cats, Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 in South Africa.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Molineus Cameron, 1923 was recovered from feral cats, Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758, in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Because of a caudal bursa with rays of the 2-1-2 type, but with the extremities of rays 4 nearer those of rays 3 than those of rays 5, the new species is closely related to seven Neotropical Molineus spp., four parasitic in Primates, two parasitic in Mustelidae and one a parasite of Procyonidae. Amongst these species, only Molineus barbaris Cameron, 1936, a parasite of Tayra barbara (Mustelidae) from Trinidad and Molineus vexillarius (Dunn, 1961), a parasite of Tamarinus nigricollis (Primates) from Peru have rays 4 longer than two-thirds the length of rays 3, like the new species. However, the new species is differentiated from the other two in that rays 9 arise at the level of the bifurcation of the dorsal ray and not after the division as is the case with M. barbaris and M. vexillarius. PMID:11131118

Durette-Desset, M C; Boomker, J; Malan, F S

2000-09-01

76

Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity: a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus).  

PubMed

The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to travel distances between 200 and 300 km, respectively. This represents the widest speed range where we could obtain voluntarily sustained flights. From a subset of these flights, data on the wing beat frequency (WBF) and intermittent flight behaviour were obtained. Over the range of speeds that were tested, flight costs did not change with velocity and were on an average 8.17+/-0.64 W or 114 W kg(-1). Body mass was the only parameter with a significant (positive) effect on flight costs, which can be described as EE(f)=0.741 M(0.554). WBF changed slightly with speed, but correlated better with body mass. Birds showed both types of intermittent flight, undulating and bounding, but their frequencies did not systematically change with flight speed. PMID:16425018

Engel, Sophia; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G Henk

2006-06-01

77

Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa.  

PubMed

A new nematode species, Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the cornish jack Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Osteoglossiformes; Mormyridae) in the Sangha River (Congo River basin) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species differs from the only other congeneric species parasitising fishes in Africa, D. malapteruri (Baylis, 1923), mainly in the presence of dentigerous ridges on lips, absence of lateral caudal alae in the cloacal region, in the anteriorly curved, non-bifid distal tip of the gubernaculum and larger eggs (60-90 × 52-78 vs 45 × 30 ?m); males of D. mormyropsis are characterised by the presence of a ventral precloacal cuticular ornamentation not observed in other Dujardinascaris spp. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis and D. malapteruri also differ in the order of their fish hosts (Osteoglossiformes vs Siluriformes). Specimens previously reported as Dujardinascaris graberi Troncy, 1969, a junior synonym of D. malapteruri, from Mormyrops engystoma Boulenger in Chad belong to the new species D. mormyropsis. PMID:24711112

Moravec, František; Jirk?, Miloslav

2014-05-01

78

Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.  

PubMed

Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gda?sk Bay and Ustecko-?ebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gda?sk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gda?sk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gda?sk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gda?sk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions. PMID:23677750

Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

2013-10-01

79

1- O -alk-1?-enyl-2-acyl and 1- O -alkyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids in white muscle of bonito Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of ether-linked phospholipids, including 1-O-alk-1?-enyl-2-acyl and 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines and ethanolamines in bonitoEuthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus) white muscle, was investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chemical ionization\\u000a (iso-butane) mass spectrometry of trimethylsilyl ethers derived from the corresponding ether-linked glycerophospholipids proved\\u000a effective not only for determining molecular weights but also for structural identification based on the ions [M?R]+, [M?RO]+ and

Toshiaki Ohshima; Shun Wada; Chiaki Koizumi

1989-01-01

80

Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time.

Pekarsky, Oleg

2013-01-01

81

[Quantitative aspects of metazoan parasites communities of American harvestfish, Peprilus paru (Linnaeus,1758) (Perciformes: Stromateidae), from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].  

PubMed

Eighty and one specimens of Peprilus paru (Linnaeus,1758) (Perciformes: Stromateidae), collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W) were necropsied between January 2003 to September 2003 to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. All fish were parasitized by two or more metazoan. Were collected eight species of metazoans parasites: four digeneans (Aponurus laguncula, Opechona sp. Lecithocladium sp. e Acanthocolphoides sp.), two nematodes (Hystherothylacium sp. e Raphidascaris sp.), one monogenean (Microcotyle sp.) and one copepod (Caligus sp.). No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The evaluation of the effect of host on parasite abundance and prevalence not showed significant results. The parasite species presented an aggregated distribution pattern. The metazoan parasite community of P. paru is characterized by the high species diversity and high values os prevalence. One pair adult endoparasites presented association. PMID:17588316

De Azevedo, Rodney K; Abdallah, Vanessa D; Luque, José L

2007-01-01

82

Rhinoceronema unicornensis gen. n., sp. n. (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) from Indian one horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

During survey of nematodes from the faecal samples of Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captivated in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India 2,500 specimens were recovered in 3 years from March, 2007 to February, 2010. After processing the specimens were identified as a member of the family Atractidae (Railliet 1917) Travassos 1919 which have 22 valid genera. The present specimens differs from all other valid atractid genera in the features of cephalic region, cup-shaped buccal cavity with a pair of teeth, structure of the oesophagus and coarse transversely striated body. A new genus Rhinoceronema has been created to accommodate the present newly erected type species R. unicornensis. A Key to the genera of family Atractidae is added. PMID:24431555

Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

2013-04-01

83

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

84

Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

2012-09-01

85

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit-URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 ?Gy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 ?Gy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner De S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy De Azevedo

2008-08-01

86

Induction of Apoptosis, G0/G1 Phase Arrest and Microtubule Disassembly in K562 Leukemia Cells by Mere15, a Novel Polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Mere15 is a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus with cytotoxicity in solid cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 inhibited the growth of K562 cells with IC50 values of 38.2 ?g/mL. Mere15 also caused concentration dependent induction of apoptosis, with overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, Mere15 arrested cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase of K562 cells in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, Mere15 caused the disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton in K562 cells and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin in a cell free system via interaction with tubulin. We concluded that Mere15 was cytotoxic to K562 leukemia cells and the cytotoxicity was related to the apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest and microtubule disassembly. These results implied that Merer15 was a broad spectrum anticancer polypeptide, not only cytotoxic to various solid cancer cells but also to the chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia.

Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhao, Jin; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Cuicui; Cheng, Linyou; Wu, Ning; Lin, Xiukun

2012-01-01

87

Induction of apoptosis, G?/G? phase arrest and microtubule disassembly in K562 leukemia cells by Mere15, a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Mere15 is a novel polypeptide from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus with cytotoxicity in solid cancer cells. In this study, we investigated its activity on human K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 inhibited the growth of K562 cells with IC?? values of 38.2 ?g/mL. Mere15 also caused concentration dependent induction of apoptosis, with overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, Mere15 arrested cell cycle progression at G?/G? phase of K562 cells in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, Mere15 caused the disassembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton in K562 cells and inhibited the polymerization of tubulin in a cell free system via interaction with tubulin. We concluded that Mere15 was cytotoxic to K562 leukemia cells and the cytotoxicity was related to the apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest and microtubule disassembly. These results implied that Merer15 was a broad spectrum anticancer polypeptide, not only cytotoxic to various solid cancer cells but also to the chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Mere15 may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:23203280

Liu, Ming; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhao, Jin; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Haizhou; Wang, Cuicui; Cheng, Linyou; Wu, Ning; Lin, Xiukun

2012-11-01

88

The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

2011-02-01

89

Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

2012-12-01

90

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

91

Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).  

PubMed

Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18327481

Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

2008-01-01

92

The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey  

PubMed Central

Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage.

Choy, C. Anela; Popp, Brian N.; Kaneko, J. John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

2009-01-01

93

Unique extracellular matrix heparan sulfate from the bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) safely inhibits arterial thrombosis after photochemically induced endothelial lesion.  

PubMed

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing approximately 4.6 mg g(-1) of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional (1)H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg(-1), 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg(-1)), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC(50) = 0.835 microg ml(-1)) and thrombin (IC(50) = 9.3 microg ml(-1)) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg(-1), the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Pomin, Vitor H; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L; Pavão, Mauro S G

2010-03-01

94

Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.  

PubMed

The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

2014-04-01

95

Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences  

PubMed Central

Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus.

Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, Jose Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

2011-01-01

96

Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

Schofield, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

97

Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsUsing ?13C and ?15N values of serially sampled

Anne Lorrain; Juan Argüelles; Ana Alegre; Arnaud Bertrand; Jean-Marie Munaron; Pierre Richard; Yves Cherel

2011-01-01

98

Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ, two band-like projections originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and hooks evenly distributed along the haptoral margins. Two new species of Scleroductus are described from the external surfaces of siluriform fishes of Mexico and Brazil: Scleroductus lyrocleithrum n. sp. from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Heptapteridae) in a cenote on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; and Scleroductus angularis n. sp. from the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Pimelodidae) in the Rio Tocantins, Tocantins, Brazil. Scleroductus sp. is recorded from the jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard) (Heptapteridae) in the Iguaçu drainage of southern Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA suggest that Scleroductus (represented in the analyses by Scleroductus sp. from R. quelen), Ieredactylus Schelkle, Paladini, Shinn, King, Johnson, van Oosterhout, Mohammed & Cable, 2011 (represented by its type-species) and Gyrodactyloides Bychowsky, 1947 (represented by G. bychowskii Al'bova, 1948) comprise the sister taxon to the remaining viviparous gyrodactylids, with Scleroductus serving as the sister group to Ieredactylus + Gyrodactyloides. The clade containing the three taxa is supported by two putative synapomorphic features: two band-like projections (R1 sclerites) originating from the posterior margin of the superficial bar and a large spine associated with the ejaculatory duct within the male copulatory organ. PMID:23263939

Kritsky, Delane C; Boeger, Walter A; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Vianna, Rogério T

2013-01-01

99

Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools  

SciTech Connect

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

Fossi, M.C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Marsili, L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

2007-05-15

100

Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

PubMed Central

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

Cardona, Luis; Alvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpcio; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

101

Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

102

Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

2013-10-01

103

Distribution of Anisakis larvae, identified by genetic markers, and their use for stock characterization of demersal and pelagic fish from European waters: an update.  

PubMed

In the present paper, recent results obtained on the use of different distributions observed in larval species of Anisakis, genetically identified by means of allozyme markers, for stock characterization of demersal (Merluccius merluccius), small (Trachurus trachurus) and large pelagic (Xiphias gladius) finfish species in European waters, are reviewed and discussed. Several species of Anisakis were identified in the three fish hosts: A. simplex (s.s.), A. physeteris, A. typica, A. ziphidarum, A. pegreffii, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae. Canonical discriminant analysis performed on all the samples of the three fish species collected in areas comprising their geographical range, according to the different species of Anisakis identified, showed distinct fish populations in European waters. In all the three fish hosts, the pattern of distribution of Anisakis larvae allowed discrimination of Mediterranean stocks from Atlantic stocks. In the case of swordfish, the possible existence of a southern Atlantic stock separated from a northern one is also suggested. Congruence and discordance with the population genetic data inferred from allozyme markers on the same samples of the three fish species are also discussed. PMID:17578592

Mattiucci, S; Abaunza, P; Damiano, S; Garcia, A; Santos, M N; Nascetti, G

2007-06-01

104

Integrating genetic and parasitological approaches in the frame of multidisciplinary fish stock analysis.  

PubMed

To assess fish stocks boundaries and state, the tools of population genetics have been widely used, contributing to the evaluation of relevant parameters such as the identification of stock boundaries, the assessment of gene flow and the estimation of effective population size. Also, increasing evidences show that the monitoring of the genetic diversity level is a reliable method to check the status of fish stocks. However, genetics cannot answer all the questions. For example, in high gene flow species the genetic approach could have not enough resolution to identify stock limits, while the use of parasites as biological tags could provide insights into stock structure. Even better, the so-called holistic approach, applying simultaneously a wide range of complementary techniques, is the only one considered able to provide a reliable and complete picture of fish stocks and to address a sustainable exploitation of marine resources. The work will present some examples from multidisciplinary studies concerning commercially relevant species with different biological features: the demersal European hake (Merluccius merluccius), the small pelagic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and the large pelagic swordfish (Xiphias gladius). In all these case studies merging genetic, parasitological and environmental data helped to reveal the real patterns of stocks structure. PMID:18410069

Cimmaruta, R; Mattiucci, S; Nascetti, G

2007-09-01

105

Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.  

PubMed

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

106

The responses of the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a polluted site: implications for their use in environmental risk assessment.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the response of three hepatic biomarkers in adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a wastewater outlet of an oil refinery with fish caged at a pristine site used as controls. The biomarkers that were investigated were the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, we have measured the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc) in sediment samples at the polluted site. Although the polluted site had high environmental levels of PAHs and heavy metals, there was no difference in hepatic EROD activity and HSI between fish caged at the polluted site and controls. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly lower in fish caged at the polluted site compared to controls. Our results point out that the studied biomarkers have limited use in environmental risk assessment studies, at least when caged adult sea bass is used as the sentinel species and complex toxicant mixtures are involved. PMID:23644668

Traven, Luka; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Vuki? Luši?, Darija; Smital, Tvrtko

2013-11-01

107

Ammonium excretion in two benthic cnidarians: Alcyonium digitatum (Linnaeus, 1758) and Urticina felina (Linnaeus, 1767)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an evaluation of nitrogen fluxes between the water column and a macrobenthic community of the Strait of Dover (eastern English Channel), ammonium excretion was measured throughout the year in two common cnidarians (the octocoral Alcyonium digitatum and the sea anemone Urticina felina) which together accounted for 37% of the biomass. Mean ammonium excretion rates were 6.48 (±2.44 s.d.) ?g N g -1 h -1 (ash-free dry weight) for A. digitatum and 4.12 (±l.38 s.d.) ?g N g -1 h -1 for U. felina. Seasonal variations were observed in the excretion of A. digitatum, whereas such variations were less pronounced in U. felina. These trends are discussed in relation to temperature, food availability, nutritional state and nutritional habits of the two species. The results of this and a previous study indicate a nitrogen production of 18.9 g N m -2 y -1 for the entire benthic community.

Migné, A.; Davoult, D.

1997-05-01

108

Distribution and habitat associations of billfish and swordfish larvae across mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006-2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m(-2)) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m(-2)), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m(-2)), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m(-2)). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

Rooker, Jay R; Simms, Jeff R; Wells, R J David; Holt, Scott A; Holt, G Joan; Graves, John E; Furey, Nathan B

2012-01-01

109

The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological oceanography may persist over longer time periods, particularly during the Austral spring.

Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

2011-03-01

110

Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values. PMID:20738644

Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

2009-11-01

111

Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m?2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m?2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m?2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m?2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations.

Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

112

Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are discussed with regard to biogeographic province, marine predator, fishing gear to catch the large pelagic fishes, and size of the beaks recovered in the stomachs.

Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

2013-10-01

113

Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

2010-07-01

114

Kinetics of Spermatogenesis in the Wild Squirrel Funambulus palmarum (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes in detail the morphology and kinetics of germ cell associations, pattern of mitotic divisions frequency distribution of different cellular associations (stages) and percent degeneration of various germ cells i n the squirrel in which spermatogenesis in adults occurs all year round. Eighteen steps of spermiogenesis were identified based on the development of the acrosomal system using PAS-haematoxylin.

S. B. Patil; S. K. Saidapur

1991-01-01

115

Occupational sensitivity to Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm).  

PubMed

Tenebrio molitor is an abundant stored-grain pest in the northern United States. We evaluated an individual with work-related symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis on exposure to this insect. Prick skin tests with extracts prepared from the larval, pupal, and adult-life stages were positive for the patient and for another individual with allergy to a closely related species of beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus. Specific IgE antibodies to the extracts were demonstrated by RAST. RAST inhibition demonstrated immunologic cross-reactivity between the life stages of T. molitor and also between T. molitor and A. diaperinus, as well as slight cross-reactivity with blowfly. The proteins in the extracts of each life stage were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 15 protein bands were detected in each of the extracts, although the patterns of separation were different for each life stage. After immunoblotting and autoradiography, six different IgE-binding proteins were identified in the larval extract, five in the pupal extract, and seven in the adult extract, with similar IgE-binding patterns noted for the larval and adult extracts. We conclude that this patient developed IgE-mediated sensitivity to T. molitor antigens as the result of occupational exposure. This study confirms the fact that beetles of the Tenebrionid family are potentially significant allergens for workers exposed to grains or grain products. PMID:2384648

Schroeckenstein, D C; Meier-Davis, S; Bush, R K

1990-08-01

116

Insecticide resistance status and mechanisms in Malaysian Blattella germanica (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

The insecticide resistance status of 4 strains of adult male Blattella germanica, viz M (Malacca), E (England), F (restaurant) and K (cafeteria) against malathion and bendiocarb compared with a reference susceptible strain (S) was determined by using a modified WHO bioassay method. The results indicated that all the 4 strains were resistant to the insecticides albeit in different degrees. Resistance ratios for malathion ranged from 1.85-41.07-fold, whereas that of bendiocarb ranged from 1.68-4.83-fold. The biochemical microplate enzyme assays technique employed indicated that the resistance in M and E strains were attributed to acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. Multiple resistance was not detected in any of the 4 strains. Parameters of the identified resistance mechanism correlated well with the observed level of resistance. Agar gel electrophoresis showed that variations in esterase isoenzymes did not confer organophosphate and carbamate resistance to the 4 strains. PMID:9322308

Lee, H L; Tien, W D; Omar, B

1997-03-01

117

[Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].  

PubMed

In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland. PMID:19338229

Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

2008-01-01

118

The effect of natural antioxidant (Thymus vulgaris Linnaeus) on flesh quality of tuna (Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus)) during chilled storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna Thunnus thynnus flesh was treated with dried thyme Thymus vulgaris, vacuum-packed and then stored at 0 °C for 18 days. Proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), total volatiles bases, trimethylamine, pH and fatty acids composition were determined throughout the period of storage. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between moisture, ash, protein and lipid were found between lots.

SALAH SELMI; SALOUA SADOK

2008-01-01

119

Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

2014-06-01

120

Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.2±6% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.7±8.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.4±1.9 and 8.8±3.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment. PMID:24516176

Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R

2014-06-01

121

Ingestion of domoic acid and its impact on king scallop ( Pecten maximus, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method for spiking formulated feed with domoic acid (DA) was developed in this study. DA feed was prepared by mixing 0.15 mL 100 ?g mL-1 DA with 0.1 g formulated feed, and drying the mixture at room temperature for 2h. The prepared DA feed contained 0.19 pg DA per particle. Of the added DA, 46.72% was retained in the feed. Relatively high DA retention (about 50%) was recorded after DA feed was soaked in water for 2h. Exposure to DA feed for 7 d did not cause the increase of tissue DA level of adult king scallop ( Pecten maximus) significantly in 60 d. The increase of their gonad index after DA exposure was not significantly different from the control. No significant change in DA level was found in spermary, ovary or fertilized eggs after DA exposure. These results indicated that DA excretion may be more efficient than DA accumulation under the current experimental conditions, and the mechanism of domoic acid incorporation in P. maximus may involve intracellular biotransformation.

Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S.; Campbell, Dirk A.; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhu, Jianxin; Wang, Sufeng

2007-04-01

122

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Perez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

123

Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

2013-12-01

124

[Hybridization of crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758), in Ukrainian reservoirs and genetic structure of hybrids].  

PubMed

Hybridization of crucian carps Carassius carassius in polyspecific crucian populations of reservoirs of Ukraine and genetic structure of the hybrids were investigated using biochemical gene marking and cytometric procedure. The fact of wide hybridization between C. auratus and C. carassius was proved to be true by large number of hybrids which can form populations consisting only from hybrid individuals. Hybrids C. auratus x C. carassius were diploid, tryploid and in exceptional cases tetraploid; females and males which most likely breed by hybridogenesis. Besides, some clonal hybrids C. carassius x C. gibelio-1 appearing as tetraploid females, and one triploid female C. carassius x Tinca tinca were revealed. It is supported that hybridization of alien C. auratus with endemic C. carassius became one of mechanisms of replacement and depressions of populations of the last. PMID:22420218

Mezhzheryn, S V; Kokody??, S V; Kulysh, A V; Verlat'i??, D B; Fedorenko, L V

2012-01-01

125

Vitamin A deficiency in the captive African lion cub Panthera loe (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Dietary, breeding and clinical histories and pathological findings are presented from 2 confirmed and 5 presumed cases of vitamin A deficiency in immature African lions. Five of the 7 animals were born in the wild while 2 were born in captivity. All animals were fed lean red meat sprinkled with a vitamin/mineral supplement. Salient clinical signs were incoordination, "star gazing", blindness and intermittent convulsions. Pathological lesions seen in 4 animals included severe thickening of the cranial bones, with consequent marked compression of the brain and partial herniation of the cerebellum. Vascular damage in the cerebellum and ensuing haemorrhages, resulting in acute increases of an already high intracranial pressure, were thought to be the cause of some of the clinical signs, particularly convulsions rather than direct pressure-necrosis and atrophy of nervous tissue. PMID:1208042

Bartsch, R C; Imes, G D; Smit, J P

1975-06-01

126

Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek  

PubMed Central

Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II).

Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

2012-01-01

127

Hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild-caught Indian cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja. Results Blood samples, taken from the ventral tail vein, were assessed for erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, considering the sex of snakes. Results revealed the erythrocyte numbers (male, 390000?±?12503.33/mm3 and female, 347500?±?7505.55/mm3), shapes and the centrally located oval nuclei. Leukocytes were round, circular or disk-shaped, and the mean size was larger in male than female snakes. The maximum number of leukocytes was found to be 11700?±?100/mm3 in male and 12100?±?200/mm3 in female snakes, and mean values of differential leukocyte count differed statistically between male and female snakes. The total leukocyte levels were found to be higher in female snakes, but the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV values were higher in male snakes. However, the MCH and MCHC values remained higher in female snakes throughout the study period. Mean protein and cholesterol contents differed significantly between male (45.32?±?1.76 and 3.76?±?0.06 mg/mL) and female (12.47?±?0.82 and 4.72?±?0.2 mg/mL) snakes. Conclusions In conclusion, monitoring snake hematological and biochemical parameters can serve as a means to evaluate the physiological and health status of N. naja populations, which may be a useful indicator of their environmental status.

2014-01-01

128

Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).  

PubMed

This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group. PMID:22717095

Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2013-05-01

129

GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

130

Phylogeny of the genus Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Homoptera: Aphididae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Aphis is the largest aphid genus in the world and contains several of the most injurious aphid pests. It is also the most reluctant aphid genus to any comprehensive taxonomic treatment: while most species are easily classified into "species groups" that form well defined entities, numerous species within these groups are difficult to tell apart morphologically and identification keys remain ambiguous and mostly rely on host plant affiliation. In this paper, we used partial sequences of COI/COII and CytB genes to reconstruct the first phylogeny of Aphis and discuss the present systematics. The monophyly of the subgenus Bursaphis and of the tree major species groups, Black aphid, Black backed aphid and frangulae-like species was recovered by all phylogenetic analyses. However our data suggested that the nominal subgenus was not monophyletic. Relationships between major species groups were often ambiguous but "Black" and "Black backed" species groups appeared as sister clades. The most striking result of this study was that our molecular data met the same limits as the morphological characters used in classifications: mitochondrial DNA did not allow the differentiation of species that are difficult to identify. Further, interspecies relationships within groups of species for which taxonomic treatment is difficult stayed unresolved. This suggests that species delineation in the genus Aphis is often ambiguous and that diversification might have been a rapid process. PMID:17113793

Coeur d'acier, A; Jousselin, E; Martin, J-F; Rasplus, J-Y

2007-03-01

131

The growth of pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1798) in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of the pike (Esox lucius L.) population of Lake Trasimeno was studied. A total of 166 specimens was captured in two monthly sampling series, from May 1993 to 1994 and from February to April 1998. There were 45 females and 79 males; nine age classes were present. Regression analysis between total length (TL) and weight (W) was W=0.0001×TL3.0366;

Massimo Lorenzoni; Massimiliano Corboli; A. J Martin Dörr; Mario Mearelli; Giancarlo Giovinazzo

2002-01-01

132

Some valuable fatty acids exposed from wedge clam Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of the wedge clam Donax cuneatus collected from the sandy beach of Cuddalore (southeast coast of India) was determined. In the analysis, the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography revealed the presence of higher amount of saturated fatty acids (35.28%) than mono (12.71%) and polyunsaturated (11.72%) fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, the stearic acid

Annaian Shanmugam; Subramanium Sambasivam

2007-01-01

133

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae), curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an obesity-associated collection of disorders, each of which contributes to cardiovascular risk. For patients with MS, it is difficult to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms. Therefore, the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. Numerous experimental studies have confirmed the important role of medicinal plants or their active components in the prevention and treatment, and in lowering risk factors of MS. As oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the association between obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant components like polyphenols might be useful as a treatment for MS. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L (HSE), rich in several polyphenols, is commonly and effectively used in native medicines against hypertension, diabetes and liver disorders. HSE has also shown therapeutic promise in the prevention of MS in patients, probably due to its polyphenol content. Curcumins, derived from the spice turmeric, and resveratrol, polyphenols found in grapes and red wine respectively, in addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit preadipocyte proliferation, de novo lipogenesis and fat accumulation in liver. Thus, due to their efficacy in the regulation of multiple targets, polyphenols have received considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of MS. This review discusses the therapeutic use of HSE, as well as curcumin and resveratrol, in the context of obesity as an initiator of insulin resistance and hypertension, the two main features of MS, together with the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:22721439

Pérez-Torres, Israel; Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Baños, Guadalupe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

2013-03-01

134

Temperature-induced changes in crystal lattice of bioaragonite of Tapes decussatus Linnaeus (Mollusca: Bivalvia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of bioaragonite of shells of recent T. decussatus during heating were studied by the means of TG-DTA-EGA (FTIR), XRD, XRF and FTIR. The mass loss recorded up to 2.5% appeared\\u000a with the higher rates at 110–150, 200–250, 295–300, and 390–415°C at heating of 10°C min?1 up to 500°C. IR analysis of the evolved gases revealed the emission of

J. Nemliher; K. Tõnsuaadu; T. Kallaste

2009-01-01

135

Social rank and reproductive performance of pampas deer females (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine if success index of pampas deer females is related with females' age and if social rank makes any influence on reproductive performance. Female social rank was determined in 18 groups of animals composed of 1 male: 5-9 females (total=98 females). Date of parturition for each female and sex and birth weight of fawns were recorded for each birth. The females were categorized in three hierarchical ranks: low (<0.33) (group LR), medium (0.33-0.66) (group MR), and high (>0.66) (group HR). The success index increased with age in pampas deer females (P<0.001). Social rank had no effect on calving success, relative calving dates, sex ratio or body weight at birth. In this study, the success index was related with females' age, and the reproductive performance did not differ between females of different social ranks. PMID:24631833

Morales-Piñeyrúa, Jéssica Tatiana; Ciappesoni, Gabriel; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

2014-06-01

136

Persistence and metabolism of Fipronil in rice (Oryza sativa Linnaeus) field.  

PubMed

Rice is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. Fipronil insecticide has been widely used to control rice pests. The research was conducted to evaluate the fate of fipronil in rice-field. Persistence and metabolism of fipronil in rice is studied by applications of Regent 0.3G @ 45 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) was made 7 days after transplanting of paddy. Samples of paddy plants were collected at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after the application of insecticide. The samples of rice grains, bran, husk and straw were collected at the time of harvest. The samples were extracted and cleaned up by following a standardized methodology. Fipronil and its metabolites were quantified by gas liquid chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The total residues of fipronil and its metabolites in paddy plants after 7 days of its application at recommend and four times of recommend doses were found to be 6.60 and 19.85 mg kg(-1), respectively. Among fipronil metabolites, sulfone derivative had maximum residue concentration followed by other metabolites viz. sulfide, amide and desulfinyl. The residues were reached below the detectable limit (0.01 mg kg(-1)) after 45 and 90 days at recommend and four time of recommend doses, respectively. At harvest, the samples of paddy straw, rice grains, bran and husk did not reveal the presence of fipronil and its metabolites. PMID:23238826

Kumar, Rajinder; Singh, Balwinder

2013-04-01

137

Effects of feeding regime on growth rate in the Mediterranean Sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyps of Actinia equina are the most common sea anemones in the rocky intertidal zone of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, where they occur in one of the southernmost populations of this species in the northern hemisphere. We examined effects of feeding rate on polyp growth at ambient sea temperature for this population. Under laboratory conditions, polyps were left unfed,

O. Chomsky; Y. Kamenir; M. Hyams; Z. Dubinsky; N. E. Chadwick-Furman

2004-01-01

138

Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations.

Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet

2013-01-01

139

Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

Schoppe, Sabine

1991-09-01

140

Cycles of Activity, Group Composition, and Diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6–8 individuals. However, we found the animals

Robert W. Sussman; Ian Tattersall

1976-01-01

141

Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

Bailey, Merryll M.

1972-01-01

142

Byssus of the Green-Lipped Mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) as a Biomonitoring Material for Zn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Yap et al. (2003) suggested that the byssus of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis can be a biomonitoring material for Zn although further validation is required. In this work, we did a simple correlation study between Zn concentrations in the byssus (and soft tissue) and in different geochemical fractions of the sediment. A significant (P R = 0.84) between

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan

2005-01-01

143

Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV

Karan S Shah; Elizabeth C Evans; Marie C Pizzorno

2009-01-01

144

Insights into habitat utilisation of the hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766), using acoustic telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of distribution, key biometric parameters and home range extent were determined for hawksbill turtles at Lighthouse Reef Atoll (LRA), Belize over two field seasons (16days, 2009; 30days, 2010). Relative abundance was determined using 49 sightings transects (?1km) distributed across the atoll and of all turtles encountered (n=68), 91% were immature (CCLmin?65cm). Habitat type was significantly correlated with abundance, with

K. L. Scales; J. A. Lewis; J. P. Lewis; D. Castellanos; B. J. Godley; R. T. Graham

2011-01-01

145

Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species  

PubMed Central

Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom.

2013-01-01

146

Influence of Recovery Method and Centrifugation on Epididymal Sperm from Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation. PMID:24832907

Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; Silva, Andréia Maria da; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Silva, Mariana de Araújo da; Oliveira, Moacir Franco de; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

2014-05-01

147

Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766) (Testudinidae).  

PubMed

Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form. PMID:22437396

Barros, M S; Resende, L C; Silva, A G; Ferreira Junior, P D

2012-02-01

148

The efficacy of passiflora incarnata linnaeus in reducing dental anxiety in patients undergoing periodontal treatment.  

PubMed

Statement of Problem: Oral premedication used to reduce the anxiety in patients undergoing dental treatment. Passion flower has been used as a sedative that can control the dental anxiety. Purpose: This study determines the efficacy of Passion flower, in reducing anxiety during the dental procedures. Material and Methods: In this randomized- one sided blind clinical trial, 63 patients, with moderate, high and severe anxiety(according to VAS score) in need of periodontal treatment were randomly divided into 3 groups of 21.The first group was given the drop Passion flower drop and the second group were given the drop of placebo and the third group; neither drug nor placebo were given (negative control group). Results were analyzed by Chi Square, Variance Analysis, Tucky and Paired-T using SPSS software. Results: Mean anxiety level prior to the drug administration was 12.09±2.42 for the Passion flower group, 12.00±2.66 for the placebo group and 11.66±2.39 for the negative control group. After premedication, these values were: 8.47±2.58 for the Passion flower group, 10.52±2.11 for the placebo group and 11.23±2.34 for the negative control group. These results demonstrated a significant difference (p< 0.0001) in the anxiety levels before and after the Passion flower administration in the Passion flower group and also between the Passion flower group and the other two groups. Conclusion: Results indicated that administration of Passion flower, as a premedication, is significantly effective in reducing the anxiety. Since this study is a pioneer on the subject, further trials with greater number of subjects are required to confirm our results. PMID:24724122

Kaviani, N; Tavakoli, M; Tabanmehr, Mr; Havaei, Ra

2013-06-01

149

[Mallophaga species observed in white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus, Linnaeus) in Turkey].  

PubMed

This study was carried out on six white pelicans (Pelecanus onocrotalus) between the years 2002-2006. Oral cavities of the pelicans were examined macroscopically. The lice found in the oral cavities were collected by forceps and were preserved in tubes containing 70% alcohol. Also, each pelican was put in a big carton-box, the bottom of which was covered with a white paper and the pelicans were treated with propoxur for a few minutes. The lice that fell on to the paper were collected in a Petri dish and later on they were put in vials containing 70% alcohol. Five (83.3%) out of the six pelicans under examination were found to be infested with at least one lice species. From the oral cavities and bodies of the pelicans 346 lice were collected and three species namely: Piagetiella titan (Piaget, 1880), Pectinopygus forficulatus (Nitzsch, 1866) and Colpocephalum eucarenum (Burmeister, 1838) were identified as three Mallophaga species. Pectinopygus forficulatus and Colpocephalum eucarenum were recorded for the first time from the white pelicans in Turkey. PMID:18351556

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

2008-01-01

150

Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

2013-01-01

151

Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.  

PubMed

The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested. PMID:16493400

Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

2004-12-01

152

Diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning toxins in Cancer pagurus Linnaeus, 1758 (Brachyura, Cancridae) in Norwegian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 2002 there were several episodes of human intoxication after consumption of brown crabs ( Cancer pagurus ) caught along the Norwegian south coast. The toxic agent was one of the well-known phycotoxins, the diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) complex, routinely found in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis ). This toxin has not previously been documented in brown

Tonje Castberg; Trine Torgersen; John Aasen; Tore Aune; Lars-Johan Naustvoll

2004-01-01

153

Reproduction and polychlorinated biphenyls in Fundulus heteroclitus (linnaeus) from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA  

SciTech Connect

This investigation evaluated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation, survival, and reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus from four stations along a gradient of increasing sediment contamination from West Island in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, USA, to the most contaminated area of the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, Superfund site. Fish collected during their natural spawning season were held in the laboratory for 5 weeks. Liver concentrations of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs averaged 0.461, 9.48, 20.8, and 29.3 {micro}g/g dry weight, with dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of 0.006, 0.132, 0.543, and 1.56 ng/g: differences among stations were statistically significant. Females from two stations within the Superfund site had significantly greater mortality compared to those within West Island, and growth was reduced. Progeny of fish from the most contaminated station exhibited significantly reduced survival and greater incidence of spinal abnormalities compared to those from West Island. No differences in egg production or food consumption were observed. A significant residue-effect relationship was found between TEQs of liver PCBs and female mortality, consistent with that determined previously from laboratory exposures and validating TEQ as an effects indicator. Embryo and larval survival were inversely related to maternal liver TEQ.

Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B.; Mills, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); McElroy, A.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

1998-07-01

154

Evolutionary Divergence of Geographic Subspecies within the Scalloped Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. “Brown” subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

Lavery, Shane D.; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

155

Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species. PMID:23337491

Speck, Stephanie; Perseke, Lea; Petney, Trevor; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Taraschewski, Horst; Bunnell, Toni; Essbauer, Sandra; Dobler, Gerhard

2013-04-01

156

Evolutionary Divergence of Geographic Subspecies within the Scalloped Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

Lavery, Shane D; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G

2014-01-01

157

Rhyncophorus palmarum L. (Linnaeus, 1758): a morphological and histological study of the female reproductive system.  

PubMed

Rhyncophorus palmarum (Coleoptera) is a pest of great economic importance because of the damage caused in the plants of the Palmae family. This study showed that the female reproductive system of this beetle is composed of two ovaries of the telotrophic meroistic type invariably containing two ovarioles per ovary. Each ovariole is home to about 50 oocytes at different stages of maturation. The proximal region of the ovary is rather peculiar because it houses inside it a large quantity of bacilliform structures immersed in a glycolipoprotein substance, which has never before been described in the literature. The function of these structures is still unknown. However, it is suggested that they can function as a method of neutralizing the resistance of the plant because these insects are responsible for the transmission of the red ring disease to the palm plants. PMID:23939674

Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel; Sánchez, Pedro; Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Caetano, Flávio Henrique

2011-09-01

158

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

159

Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins’ system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms.

Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

2013-01-01

160

High attack rate of Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus 1758) infestation in an impoverished Brazilian community.  

PubMed

Tungiasis (jigger) is endemic in many impoverished communities in many parts of Brazil. Forty-seven individuals entering an endemic area were followed up for a period of six weeks and regularly examined for the presence of newly embedded sand fleas. At the end of the third week, the attack rate of Tunga penetrans infestation had already approached 100%. PMID:15138080

Heukelbach, J; Franck, S; Feldmeier, H

2004-07-01

161

Tetrameres numida n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) from Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758), in South Africa.  

PubMed

Tetrameres numida n. sp. from the proventriculus of Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, in South Africa is described from eight male and four female specimens. The new species shares some characteristics with other Tetrameres species, but can be differentiated by a unique combination of characters. It bears two rows of cuticular spines extending over the whole length of the body and possesses two spicules. The left spicule measures 1699-2304 microm and the right one 106-170 microm. Caudal spines are arranged in three ventral and three lateral pairs and the tail is 257-297 microm long. Diagnostic criteria of some of the previously described species of the genus Tetrameres from Africa and other parts of the world have been compiled from the literature and are included here. PMID:17883198

Junker, K; Boomker, J

2007-06-01

162

Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.  

PubMed

A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed. PMID:16624557

Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

2007-02-01

163

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758) living in Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of infection by T. gondii in cats, by examining serum and fecal samples from animals attended at veterinary clinics in the Metropolitan Region of Lima, Peru. We collected and analyzed 154 cat serum samples and 50 fecal samples, regardless of the age, gender or breed. In parallel with the sample collections, the owners answered an epidemiological questionnaire that investigated the following variables: age group, gender, lifestyle (confined, semi-confined or free-living animals), feeding and hunting habits. The serum and fecal samples were analyzed using indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and coproparasitological tests, respectively. IHA showed that the frequency of cat exposure to T. gondii was 11%. Age and gender showed no association with exposure to the parasite. Exposure among the cats was associated with hunting (x2 = 4.98, p = 0.016) and feeding habits (x2 = 13.34, p = 0.001): those fed with raw meat were more exposed than those fed with commercial cat food (x2 = 9.50, p = 0.004) or with homemade food (x2 = 4.1, p = 0.027). The frequency of cats diagnosed in the chronic phase of T. gondii infection was 88% (15/17). No T. gondii oocysts were found in any of the 50 fecal samples examined. PMID:24728367

Cerro, Luis; Rubio, Alicia; Pinedo, Rosa; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Brener, Beatriz; Labarthe, Norma

2014-03-01

164

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? THE STUDY ON OPTIMAL CONDITIONS OF HYDROLYSATED FISH PROTEIN PRODUCTION FROM HAIRTAIL (Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus) ?????? ??????????1 ??? ????? ??????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study on the hydrolysated fish protein from Hairtail production. The factors of this experiment were proportion of fish protein to acid, the hydrolyzing time. The proportion of fish protein to acid (hydrochloric acid, 6M) was varied at 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (w\\/w). The result showed that the proportion of fish protein to acid at 1:1 produced the

Jiranart Thiprugsa; Sasithorn Sukchai

165

Feeding ecology of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) & Tilapia Zillii (Gervias) in a Nile canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish stomachs, 1149 for Tilapia zillii and 1698 for Oreochromis niloticus, were collected from April 1984 till April 1985 from a Nile canal in the Egyptian delta. Both species showed a significant\\u000a overlap of diet (Schoener's index) among individuals ranging from 12 to 17.9 cm standard length. Outside this range differences\\u000a in the importance of food of animal origin occurred.

Elsayed A. Khallaf; A. A. Alne-na-ei

1987-01-01

166

Control of breathing in in vitro brain stem preparation from goldfish (Carassius auratus; Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In vitro brain stem preparations from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to first determine whether this species possesses central chemoreceptors able to modulate respiratory activity. Preparations were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF); fictive breathing was recorded extracellularly by placing a suction electrode on cranial nerve VII. Reducing the level of O2 in the gas mixture used to bubble the aCSF from a hyperoxic level (80% or 98.7% O2) to a relative hypoxic level (20% or 40% O2) increased the frequency of the fictive respiratory burst (P = 0.0002). Reducing the pH of the aCSF from 7.9 to 7.4 by increasing CO2 in the superfusate did not affect fictive breathing. Chloride-mediated neurotransmission (GABA/glycine) is a major modulator of respiratory activity; however, its effect on the neural circuits that regulate breathing in teleosts remains unknown. Bath application of GABA (0.5, 5.0 mM) decreased burst frequency but not amplitude; this effect was dose dependent (drug × concentration: P = 0.01). Superfusion of the preparations with aCSF containing 1.25 ?M of bicuculline methochloride and 1.50 ?M of strychnine hydrochloride (GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists, respectively) increased burst frequency (P = 0.002) and amplitude (P < 0.001). We conclude that respiratory activity produced by the goldfish brain stem is not responsive to the moderate CO2 levels used in this study; it may contain O2 chemoreceptors, but the relatively small response could also reflect nonspecific effects of hypoxia on the central nervous system. Cl(-)-mediated neurotransmission inhibits fictive breathing; this aspect of respiratory regulation is similar to other groups of vertebrates. PMID:24769710

Côté, Éric; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Stéphanie; Kinkead, Richard

2014-01-01

167

Northern refugia and recent expansion in the North Sea: the case of the wrasse Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene climate changes have imposed extreme conditions to intertidal rocky marine communities, forcing many species to significant range shifts in their geographical distributions. Phylogeographic analyses based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers provide a useful approach to unravel phylogeographic patterns and processes of species after this time period, to gain general knowledge of how climatic changes affect shifts in species distributions. We analyzed these patterns on the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops, Labridae), a rocky shore species inhabiting North Sea waters and temperate northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco including the Azores, using a fragment of the mitochondrial control region and the first intron of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein gene. We found that S. melops shows a clear differentiation between the Atlantic and the Scandinavian populations and a sharp contrast in the genetic diversity, high in the south and low in the north. Within each of these main geographic areas there is little or no genetic differentiation. The species may have persisted throughout the last glacial maximum in the southern areas as paleotemperatures were not lower than they are today in North Scandinavia. The North Sea recolonization most likely took place during the current interglacial and is dominated by a haplotype absent from the south of the study area, but present in Plymouth and Belfast. The possibility of a glacial refugium in or near the English Channel is discussed.

Robalo, Joana I; Castilho, Rita; Francisco, Sara M; Almada, Frederico; Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per E; Pereira, Ana M; Almada, Vitor C

2012-01-01

168

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model.

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-01-01

169

Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the impact of larvaciding using a Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) formulation (VectoBac WG) against Aedes aegypti larvae in earthen jars containing aquatic plants. Aquatic plants commonly used for landscaping, Pistia stratiotes (L.) (Liliopsida: Araceae) and Sagittaria sp. (Liliopsida: Alismataceae) were placed inside earthen jars filled with 50 L tap water. All earthen jars were treated with Bti formulation at 8g/1000L. Untreated jars with and without aquatic plants were also set up as controls. Fifty laboratory-bred 2nd instar larvae were introduced into each earthen jar. All earthen jars were observed daily. Number of adults emerged was recorded and the larval mortality was calculated. The indicators of effectiveness of Bti for these studies were (i) residual activities of Bti, and (ii) larval mortality in earthen jars with or without aquatic plants. The treated earthen jars containing P. stratiotes and Sagittaria sp. showed significant residual larvicidal effect up to 7 weeks, in comparison to untreated control (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 77.34% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 80.66% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Earthen jars treated with Bti without aquatic plants also exhibited significantly longer residual larvicidal activity of up to 10 weeks (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 12.66% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 59.34% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Thus, earthen jars without aquatic plants exhibited longer residual larvicidal effect compared to those with aquatic plants. This study suggested that containers with aquatic plants for landscaping should be treated more frequently with Bti in view of the shortened residual activity. PMID:19696734

Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Seleena, B; Lau, K W; Daliza, A R; Ella Syafinas, S; Mohd Sofian, A

2009-04-01

170

Evidence for cryptic speciation in Carchesium polypinum Linnaeus, 1758 (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) inferred from mitochondrial, nuclear, and morphological markers.  

PubMed

Protist diversity is currently a much debated issue in eukaryotic microbiology. Recent evidence suggests that morphological and genetic diversity might be decoupled in some groups of protists, including ciliates, and that these organisms might be much more diverse than their morphology implies. We sought to assess the genetic and morphological diversity of Carchesium polypinum, a widely distributed peritrich ciliate. The mitochondrial marker cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA were used to examine genetic diversity. For the morphological assessment, live microscopy and Protargol staining were used. The mitochondrial marker revealed six robust, deeply diverging, and strongly supported clades, while the nuclear gene was congruent for three of these clades. There were no major differences among individuals from the different clades in any of the morphological features examined. Thus, the underlying genetic diversity in C. polypinum is greater than what its morphology suggests, indicating that morphology and genetics are not congruent in this organism. Furthermore, because the clades identified by the mitochondrial marker are so genetically diverse and are confirmed by a conserved nuclear marker in at least three cases, we propose that C. polypinum be designated as a "cryptic species complex." Our results provide another example where species diversity can be underestimated in microbial eukaryotes when using only morphological criteria to estimate species richness. PMID:20880035

Gentekaki, Eleni; Lynn, Denis H

2010-01-01

171

Blood sugar formation from dietary carbohydrate is facilitated by the pentose phosphate pathway in an insect Manduca sexta Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Dietary carbohydrate, the principal energy source for insects, also determines the level of the blood sugar trehalose. This disaccharide, a byproduct of glycolysis, occurs at highly variable concentrations that play a key role in regulating feeding behavior and growth. Little is known of how developing insects partition the metabolism of dietary carbohydrate to meet the needs for blood trehalose, ribose sugars and NADPH, as well as energy production. This study examined the effects of varying dietary sucrose levels between 3.4 and 34 g/l in an artificial diet on growth rate, depot fat content and blood sugar formation from (13)C-enriched glucose in Manduca sexta. (2-(13)C)Glucose or (1,2-(13)C(2))glucose were administered to larvae by injection and after 6 h blood was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. [2-(13)C]Trehalose was the principal product of [2-(13)C]glucose, but trehalose was also (13)C-enriched at C1 and C3, demonstrating activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. The trehalose C1/C2 (13)C-enrichment ratio, a measure of the substrate cycled through the pentose pathway, significantly increased with increasing dietary sugar, and reached a mean of 0.22 at the highest level. Blood trehalose concentration increased from approximately 38 mM at the lowest dietary carbohydrate level to 75 mM at the highest. Moreover, blood trehalose, growth rate and depot fat all increased in precisely the same way in relation to the level of pentose cycling. Based on the multiplet (13)C-NMR signal structure of trehalose synthesized from [1,2-(13)C(2)]glucose by insects maintained on a high carbohydrate diet, it was established that the formation of trehalose from glucose phosphate derived directly from the administered substrate, with no involvement of the pentose pathway, was greater than that from glucose phosphate metabolized through the pentose pathway prior to trehalose synthesis. On the other hand, glucose phosphate first metabolized through the pentose pathway contributed more to pyruvate formation than did glucose phosphate formed from the labeled substrate metabolized directly to pyruvate via glycolysis; this finding based on the multiplet (13)C-NMR signal structure in alanine derived from pyruvate. The results suggest that as dietary carbohydrate increases blood sugar synthesis from glucose phosphate derived directly from dietary sugar is facilitated by the pentose pathway which provides an increasing amount of substrate to pyruvate formation. PMID:10564771

Thompson, S N

1999-11-16

172

Identification of a Novel Metalloproteinase and Its Role in Juvenile Development of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:105–117, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J

2013-01-01

173

SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). PMID:23733631

Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

2013-08-01

174

Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)  

PubMed Central

Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano–LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds.

Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lodl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

2012-01-01

175

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions.

Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'avila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2014-01-01

176

Helminth communities of European eels Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Vistula Lagoon and Puck Bay, Poland.  

PubMed

Within 2001-2002 a total of 621 eel Anguilla anguilla (L., 1758) (488 from the Vistula Lagoon and 133 from the Puck Bay) were examined. Fifteen parasite taxa were recovered: Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin et Sproston, 1948), Brachyphallus crenatus (Rudolphi, 1802), Deropristis inflata (Molin, 1859), Diplostomum spp., Bothriocephalus claviceps (Goeze, 1782), Proteocephalus macrocephalus (Creplin, 1825), Anguillicola crassus (Kuwahara, Niimi et Itagaki, 1974), Camallanus lacustris (Zoega, 1776), Cystidicola farionis Fischer, 1798, Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802), Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779), Acanthocephalus anguillae (Müller, 1780), A. lucii (Müller, 1776), Echinorhynchus gadi Müller, 1776, and Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776), representing Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala, respectively. Ten of these taxa occurred in the Vistula Lagoon, while fourteen were noted in the Puck Bay. P. anguillae, Diplostomum spp., C. lacustris, C. farionis and P. laevis were not found in the lagoon eels, while B. crenatus did not occur in the bay. Anguillicola crassus was the most frequently found parasite (Vistula Lagoon: prevalence 75%, mean intensity 6.9 specimens; Puck Bay: 74.4%, and 8.3 specimens, respectively). Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae was recorded for the first time in the Puck Bay. PMID:16838624

Bystydzie?iska, Zofia; Rolbiecki, Leszek; Rokicki, Jerzy

2005-01-01

177

Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day?1), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day?1 (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 1.77±0.253 from control where it was 2.56±0.25. Serum protein level increased from 9.33±2.90 mg/ml (control) to 11.67±1.45 mg/ml after MLT treatment while there was depressed serum triglycerides (86.16±1.078 mg/dl) and cholesterol (126.66±0.88 mg/dl) as compared to control values where these were 123.0±1.23 mg/dl and 132.0±1.65 mg/dl respectively. Histological structure of ovary showed small eggs of early perinucleolus stage after MLT treatment while testicular structure of control and MLT treated fish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day?1, GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes.

Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, Madhu

2012-01-01

178

Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

Escobar-Sánchez, O; Galván-Magaña, F; Rosíles-Martínez, R

2010-04-01

179

Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47) on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina). PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta). The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain. PMID:23564589

Angioni, Salvatora Angela; Scortichini, Giampiero; Diletti, Gianfranco; Perletta, Fabrizia; Ceci, Roberta; Ferri, Nicola

2013-01-01

180

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

2013-09-01

181

The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

1992-03-01

182

A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies. PMID:19070049

El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

2007-04-01

183

Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

2013-05-01

184

Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway.  

PubMed

Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

2013-01-01

185

Intestinal ciliated protozoa of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 with the description of Triplumaria izmirae n. sp.  

PubMed

Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates excreted in the feces of three Asian elephants living in Sasal? National Park, Izmir, Turkey, were investigated. Seven ciliate genera consisting of 36 species were identified. This is the first report on intestinal ciliates in elephants living in Turkey; one new species, T. izmirae n. sp., was described. This new species has a special macronucleus shape, skeletal rod plates with two wings and posterior contractile vacuole lying beneath the dorsal left base of the tail flap. The buccal infraciliary bands of T. izmirae are similar to those of T. selenica and T. suwako known from elephants. Triplumaria ovina and Raabena bella occurred in highest percentages in two elephants, whereas Latteuria polyfaria was highest in the third one. Ciliate densities in the three fecal samples were 3.5, 1.5 and 5.0 × 10(4)/mL. PMID:24280461

Gürelli, Gözde; Ito, Akira

2014-02-01

186

Organization and quantification of the elements in the intertubular space in the adult jaguar testis (Panthera onca, LINNAEUS, 1758).  

PubMed

The endocrine portion of mammal testicle is represented by Leydig cells which, together with connective cells, leukocytes, blood and lymphatic vessels, form the intertubular space. The arrangement and proportion of these components vary in the different species of mammals and form mechanisms that keep the testosterone level--the main product of the Leydig cell--two to three times higher in the interstitial fluid than in the testicular blood vessels and 40-250 times higher in these than in the peripheral blood. Marked differences are observed among animal species regarding the abundance of Leydig cells, loose connective tissue, development degree and location of the lymphatic vessels and their topographical relationship with seminiferous tubules. In the jaguar about 13% of the testicular parenchyma is occupied by Leydig cells, 8.3% by connective tissue and 0.3% by lymphatic vessels. Although included in standard II, as described in the literature, concerning the arrangement of the intertubular space, the jaguar has grouped lymphatic vessels in the intertubular space instead of isolated ones. In the jaguar the average volume of the Leydig cell was 2386 microm3 and its average nuclear diameter was 7.7 microm. A great quantity of 2.3 microm diameter lipidic drops was observed in the Leydig cell cytoplasm of the jaguar. The Leydig cells in the jaguar occupy an average 0.0036% of the body weight and the average number per gram of testicle was within the range for most mammals: between 20 and 40 million. PMID:18602267

Azevedo, Maria Helena Ferreira; Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; Balarini, Maytê Koch; Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Peixoto, Juliano Vogas; Guião Leite, Flaviana Lima; Rossi, João Luis; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino

2008-12-01

187

Organization and quantification of the elements in the intertubular space in the adult jaguar testis ( Panthera onca, LINNAEUS, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine portion of mammal testicle is represented by Leydig cells which, together with connective cells, leukocytes, blood and lymphatic vessels, form the intertubular space. The arrangement and proportion of these components vary in the different species of mammals and form mechanisms that keep the testosterone level – the main product of the Leydig cell – two to three times

Maria Helena Ferreira Azevedo; Tarcízio Antônio Rego Paula; Maytê Koch Balarini; Sérgio Luiz Pinto Matta; Juliano Vogas Peixoto; Flaviana Lima Guião Leite; João Luis Rossi Jr.; Eduardo Paulino da Costa

2008-01-01

188

The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemonesCereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina andAnemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders.\\u000a Main source of food forA. viridis andC. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral speciesA. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal

Ch. Chintiroglou; A. Koukouras

1992-01-01

189

[Chronology of embryonic development of the strain "Espiguette" with or without diapause in Locusta migratoria Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae)].  

PubMed

Examination of the eggs taken every 24 hours after laying enabled us to study the chronology of the embryonic development of the "Espiguette" strain of L. migratoria L. This strain is heterogeneous since the development at 27 degrees C is with or without diapause according to the eggs. The eggs that will later on enter diapause present a slower development than that of the other eggs. The slowdown of development becomes more pronounced until the entering into diapause. After the period of diapause, the development of univoltin eggs at 27 degrees C resumes very slowly since the katatrepsis is accomplished in three days, whereas the katatrepsis of the eggs without diapause lasts only 24 hours. As for the eggs which do not express diapause, the embryos complete both anatrepsis and katatrepsis at the same speed. Their morphology changes at the same speed as well until the stage VII. However, the end of development is accomplished slowly until the egg hatching. Thus two critical moments can be defined: the first one at the beginning of anatrepsis concerns the eggs that will enter diapause, and the second one which takes place at stage VII, i.e. after the dorsal closure of the embryo, and concerns the eggs that will avoid diapause. These critical moments must probably correspond to particular states of the embryonic metabolism, which would later on tend to become at a lower level. PMID:19523601

Harrat, Abboud; Petit, Daniel

2009-07-01

190

Untersuchungen zum Gesundheitsstatus von Kanadagänsen ( Branta canadensis , Linnaeus, 1758) in Nordrhein-Westfalen an Hand der Analyse von Eiern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 107 Eier der Kanadagans aus Gelegen im Bereich des Naherholungsgebietes „Saaler Mühle“ in Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden morphometrisch, mikrobiologisch und serologisch untersucht. Untersucht wurde auf Erreger oder gegen diese gerichtete Antikörper von (i) Zoonosen (Salmonella sp.,Campylobacter sp.,Chlamydia sp.), (ii) die Erreger oder deren Antikörper von Tierseuchen (Virus der Newcastle Disease, Influenza A-Virus der Hämagglutinin (HA-)-Subtypen H5 und H7), (iii) Erreger oder

Brigitte M. Bönner; Sabine Jäger; Ursula Reichel; Walburga Lutz; J. Wissing; W. Knickmeier; W. H. Gerlich; Ulrike C. Wend; Annette L. Bolte; E. F. Kaleta

2003-01-01

191

Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).  

PubMed

This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-03-01

192

Studies on the isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus) and antibacterial agents sensitivity.  

PubMed

An epizootic occurred among cultured golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus); it involved mass mortality on fish farms in Linshui in Hainan province, China, in 2008. Diseased fish exhibited no obvious clinical signs, but pathological studies showed that nodules were scattered over the spleen and kidney. To investigate the nature of the pathogen, we studied the surviving fish, and a Gram-negative bacterium (designated strain TOS1) was isolated from the spleens of golden pompano. Pathogenicity assays revealed that TOS1 was virulent for golden pompano when they were challenged by intraperitoneal injection, and the lethal dose (LD(50)) was 1.1 × 10(6)colony forming units (CFU)g(-1). 16S rDNA gene sequence of TOS1 demonstrated high similarity (99%) to that of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Phylogenetic analysis also showed a clear association of strain TOS1 with P. damselae subsp. piscicida, and this agreed with the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical identification. The results also showed that TOS1 was sensitive to norfloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, neomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline, and was very sensitive to Psidium guajava and Atractylodes lancea (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC=10(-6)g/mL). This paper describes a systematic study of P. damselae subsp. piscicida isolated from diseased golden pompano in China, including its sensitivity to different antibiotics and Chinese herbal extracts, which will contribute to the diagnosis and prevention of the associated disease. PMID:23140939

Wang, Ruixuan; Feng, Juan; Su, Youlu; Ye, Lingtong; Wang, Jiangyong

2013-03-23

193

Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa. PMID:22458932

Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

2013-02-01

194

[Parasite fauna and features of the parasite community structure in the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus) from Yenisei and Kacha rivers].  

PubMed

Phoxinus phoxinus is a species widely distributed throughout Palaearctic and is a good model for investigation of parasite communities. Species composition and structure of parasite communities in the minnow from the streams if different types, namely Yenisei river near Krasnoyarsk City and its left affluent Kacha River, were examined. Indices of Shannon, Simpson, and Berger-Parker were used to describe the component parasite communities. Twenty five parasite species of seven classes were revealed, and ectoparasite were found to be dominating among them. The host-specific parasite species Paratrichodina phoxini (Infusoria), Dactylogyrus borealis (Monogenea), Parahemiurus merus and Diplostomum phoxini (Digenea) constitute the peculiarity of the parasite fauna in minnow. Parasite community of minnow in the Kacha river is the most various one. It is caused by the following factors--favorable temperature conditions, composition of ichthyofauna, and a high density of fish population in the Kacha river. Metacercaria of Diplostomum phoxini, the specific parasites of minnow's brain, are dominating in both streams. PMID:20349627

German, Iu K; Pronin, N M

2010-01-01

195

Effects of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of large white cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of different host plants and rearing atmosphere on life cycle of cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae. Insects were reared in the field (fluctuating weather) as well as in the laboratory (constant rearing conditions) on four host plants, viz. cabbage, cauliflower, knol-khol and broccoli. Significant differences were not found in the incubation and pupal period of butterfly reared

Damitre Lytan; D. M. Firake

2012-01-01

196

Effect of Acute Exposure of the Organophosphate Insecticide Rogor on Some Biochemical Aspects of Clarias batrachus(Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian catfish (Clarias batrachus), a common fish of commercial importance, was exposed to a sublethal concentration (1\\/3 of 96 h LC50 value) of Rogor for periods ranging from 24 to 192 h. The changes in glycogen, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase (a,ab) contents of muscle tissue were studied. A gradual decrease in muscle glycogen and an increase in lactate

Ghousia Begum; Shantha Vijayaraghavan

1999-01-01

197

Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

198

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).  

PubMed

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises. PMID:23907296

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ili?, Bojan S; Anti?, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorovi?, Nina M; Mrki?, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lu?i?, Luka R; Cur?i?, Božidar P M; Miti?, Bojan M

2013-09-01

199

Age, Growth, Reproduction and Feeding of the Spurdog ( Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758) in the South-eastern Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life-history parameters and diet of spurdog ( Squalus acanthias) sampled from the SE Black Sea were studied. Spurdog from age classes I to XIV were identified, with a dominance of age class VIII for both sexes. The length-weight relationship was W=0·0040*L 2·95and the mean annual growth rates in length and weight were 7·2 cm and 540·1 g, respectively. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: W ?=12021 (g), L ?=157 (cm), K=0·12 (year -1) and t 0=-1·30 (year). The size at first maturity was 82 cm for males and 88 cm for females. Mean biennial fecundity was also found to be 8 pups/female. The relationships between fecundity-length, fecundity-weight and fecundity-age were found to be: F=-17·0842+0·2369*L (R=0·93), F=0·3780+0·0018*W (R=0·89) and F =-0·7859+1·1609*A (R=0·94) respectively. The spurdog can be considered an opportunistic feeder. Their natural diet was composed mainly of teleost fishes, followed by Crustaceans, Nematodes and Actinarians (=sea anemones). Whiting ( Merlangius merlangus euxinus) was the predominant prey item among their fish prey. Demersal teleosts formed the majority of the diet, and there was no difference ( P>0·05) among the food items of immature, maturing and mature individuals of both sexes.

Avsar, D.

2001-02-01

200

Sexual dimorphism in the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Saimiri ustus (I. Geoffroy, 1844) (Primates, Cebidae).  

PubMed

Causes and implications of sexual dimorphism have been studied in several different primates using a variety of morphological characters such as body weight, canine length, coat color and ornamentation. Here we describe a peculiar coat color characteristic in the squirrel monkey that is present only in adult females over five years old and which increases with age. Neither males nor young animals manifest this phenomenon, which is characterized by a spot of black hairs located anteriorly to the external ear (pinna). This characteristic could be used to discriminate adult females of Saimiri sciureus in the wild without the need of capture techniques. PMID:19347161

Goldschmidt, B; Mota-Marinho, A; Araújo-Lopes, C; Brück-Gonçalves, M A; Matos-Fasano, D; Ribeiro-Andrade, M C; Ferreira-Nascimento, L W; Simmer-Bravin, J; Monnerat-Nogueira, D

2009-02-01

201

Antimalarial activity of the novel quinoline/6-thiopurine conjugate in Gallus gallus Linnaeus, infected experimentally by Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the 4-(6'-thiopurine)-7-chloroquinoline, a novel quinoline/6-thiopurine conjugate, for the treatment of Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Plasmodium juxtanucleare, an avian malaria agent. The avian group treated with 4-(6'-thiopurine)-7-chloroquinoline showed a significative parasite clearance and maintained a low level of parasitaemia, when compared with the untreated control group and to the chloroquine treated avian group. PMID:19691466

Vashist, Usha; Carvalhaes, Rafael; D'agosto, Marta; da Silva, Adilson David

2009-10-01

202

Influence of season and sex on the contents of minerals and trace elements in brown crab (Cancer pagurus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Cancer pagurus is much appreciated in Southern Europe, where the muscle, hepatopancreas, and gonads are consumed regularly with peaks in summer and December. The elemental contents of C. pagurus edible tissues were analyzed in this study during the four seasons. Results indicate that the content varied with tissue, season, and sex. The hepatopancreas had more S, Cl, Ca, Br, Sr, Fe, Cu, Cd, and Pb, the gonads had a higher concentration of Na, and the muscle was richer in Zn. Autumn and winter corresponded to a high Mg, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn content in both the muscle and hepatopancreas. Female gonads had more Fe, Zn, As, and Se than males but less Ca, Cl, Br, and Sr. Regarding toxic elements for human consumption, the levels of As, Hg, and Pb found in all edible tissues pose minimal risks to consumers. However, Cd concentration in the hepatopancreas was always above the action limit. Therefore, we recommend moderate hepatopancreas consumption. PMID:19368352

Barrento, Sara; Marques, António; Teixeira, Bárbara; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Nunes, Maria Leonor

2009-04-22

203

First molecular identification and phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a symptomatic sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:21490184

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2011-06-01

204

First Molecular Identification and Phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a Symptomatic Sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758)?  

PubMed Central

Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies.

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2011-01-01

205

Food of giants - field observations on the diet of Syrinx aruanus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Turbinellidae) the largest living gastropod  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations and analysis of faeces from Syrinx aruanus, the largest living gastropod, show that it feeds on large polychaete worms including species of Polyodontes (Acoetidae), Loimia (Terebellidae) and Diopatra (Onuphidae). This is consistent with the known food of other species of Turbinellidae which regularly include polychaetes in their diet.

John D. Taylor; Emily A. Glover

206

Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity was determined for three clutches and up to 20 offspring per clutch in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic, using microsatellite markers. All three clutches were sired by at least two different males. The results were compared with those of previous studies of multiple paternity in turtles. No significant difference among studies was observed in

J. S. Ireland; A. C. Broderick; F. Glen; B. J. Godley; G. C. Hays; P. L. M. Lee; D. O. F. Skibinski

2003-01-01

207

Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway  

PubMed Central

Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

2013-01-01

208

Feeding rhythms of the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) during spring and neap tidal cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food availability and feeding responses of the green mussel Perna viridis were investigated for two complete tidal cycles during both spring and neap tides. Temporal changes in total particulate matter (TPM), particulate inorganic matter (PIM) and particulate organic matter (POM), were smaller during neap than spring tides. Seston characteristics at different times of a tidal cycle were compared for both

W. H. Wong; S. G. Cheung

2001-01-01

209

Levels of heavy metals in green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (Linnaeus) from Muar Estuary, Johore, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption. PMID:19137835

Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ong, M C; Zaleha, K; Shahbudin, S

2008-09-15

210

Accumulation, depuration and distribution of cadmium and zinc in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotoxicological tests were conducted in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis under laboratory conditions. Different rates of accumulation and depuration in soft tissues are found and this might be due to different mechanisms of metal binding and regulation. At the end of depuration, Cd levels in soft tissues of P. viridis were 10–30 times higher than before exposure, while Zn levels

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan; H. Omar

2003-01-01

211

Structure, attachment, replacement and growth of teeth in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix ( Linnaeus, 1766), a teleost with deeply socketed teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tooth replacement poses many questions about development, pattern formation, tooth attachment mechanisms, functional morphology and the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Although most vertebrate species have polyphyodont dentitions, detailed knowledge of tooth structure and replacement is poor for most groups, particularly actinopterygians. We examined the oral dentition of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a pelagic and coastal marine predator, using a sample

William E. Bemis; Anne Giuliano; Betty McGuire

2005-01-01

212

Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland of Eurygaster maura (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

The morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTG) of Eurygaster maura were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In SEM investigations, MTG are composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir by a duct. MTG are open in between the meso- and the metacoxae. These areas, called evaporation areas, are composed of mushroom-like elements. In TEM investigations, the reservoir walls contained two types of cells. Generally, a reservoir is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, type I cells, which have numerous organelles. Type II cells are found only in a certain area of the reservoir wall. These cells have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands are lined by secretory cells and a secretory duct found in their cytoplasm. Nuclei of secretory cells are closed to the basal region of the cells and circular-shaped. In GC-MS investigations, the MTG exhibited a typical scutellerid composition. In general, (E)-2-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, n-tridecane, n-hexanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and n-dodecane compounds were present, while diisooctyl acetate and 14-Beta-H-Pregna were detected only in the male extracts of Eurygaster maura. PMID:18274257

Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

2007-01-01

213

Investigations on Some Aspects of Reproductive Biology in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) Inhabited Abu-zabal Lake, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to investigate some aspects of the reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus inhabited Abu-Zabal Lake to mange this species in this newly man made lake. Size at first maturity, gonado-somatic index (GSI), hepato-somatic index (HSI), egg diameter and fecundity were studied. Moreover, histological examination of the ovary was performed. At the first sexual maturity (L

Kariman A. Sh; Hanan M. M. Salama

214

PHYLOGENY OF RECENT BILLFISHES (XIPHIOIDEI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Billfishes are genetically and morphologically distinct enough from scombroids to merit placement in a separate suborder, Xiphioidei. Two extant families are usually recognized: Xiphiidae (swordfish, Xiphias) and Istiophoridae, currently containing three genera, Istiophorus (sailfishes), Makaira (marlins), and Tetrapturus (spear - fishes, white, and striped marlins). Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data from mi - tochondrial and nuclear gene sequences (mitochondrial control

Bruce B. Collette; Jan R. McDowell; John E. Graves

2006-01-01

215

The Lampyridae from the Nature Reserve Bosco della Fontana (Marmirolo, Mantua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents data regarding the capture of 4 species of Lampyridae in the Nature Reserve Bosco della Fontana (Marmirolo - Mantua): Lamprohiza splendidula (Linnaeus, 1767), Lampyris noctiluca Linnaeus, 1767, Luciola italica (Linnaeus, 1767) and Luciola lusitanica (Charpentier, 1825). Both the unreliability of the taxonomic characters commonly choosen for discriminating Luciola species and the particu- larly high level of biodiversity

ANNA BONADUCE; BRUNO SABELLI

2006-01-01

216

Cypermethrin and ? -cyhalothrin induced in vivo alterations in nucleic acids and protein contents in a freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus; Family-Clariidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus, were exposed to sub-acute concentrations of cypermethrin and ? -cyhalothrin for 96 h to assess their impact on the levels of nucleic acids and protein in different organs of fish. DNA content was found almost unchanged with a single exception of liver, which showed significant increment in the levels of DNA in response to

Amit Kumar; Bechan Sharma; Ravi S. Pandey

2009-01-01

217

Development of a protocol testing the ability of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) to transmit Besnoitia besnoiti (Henry, 1913) (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).  

PubMed

Cattle besnoitiosis due to the cyst-forming coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti has recently been reported in expansion in Europe since the end of the twentieth century. The B. besnoiti life cycle and many epidemiological traits are still poorly known. Hematophagous flies, including the worldwide-distributed Stomoxys calcitrans, could be mechanical vectors in the contamination of mouthparts after the puncture of cutaneous cysts or ingestion of infected blood. In this study, a protocol is presented to assess more deeply the role of S. calcitrans, reared in laboratory conditions, in parasite transmission. A preliminary trial showed that stable flies could transmit tachyzoites from bovine artificially parasite-enriched blood to B. besnoiti-free blood using glass feeders. Evidence of transmission was provided by the detection of parasite DNA with Ct values ranging between 32 and 37 in the blood recipient. In a second time, a B. besnoiti-infected heifer harboring many cysts in its dermis was used as a donor of B. besnoiti. An interruption of the blood meal taken by 300 stable flies from this heifer was performed. Immediately after the blood meal was interrupted, they were transferred to a glass feeder containing B. besnoiti-free blood from a non-infected heifer. Quantitative PCR and modified direct fluorescence antibody test (dFAT) were used to detect B. besnoiti DNA and entire parasites, respectively, in the blood recipient, the mouthparts, and the gut contents of S. calcitrans at two time intervals: 1 and 24 h after the interrupted blood meal. Parasite DNA was detected at both time intervals (1 and 24 h) in all samples (blood recipient, mouthparts, and gut contents of stable flies) while entire parasites by dFAT were only found in the abdominal compartment 1 h after the interrupted blood meal. Then, S. calcitrans were able to carry B. besnoiti from chronically infected cattle to an artificial recipient in the conditions of the protocol. PMID:23064799

Liénard, E; Salem, A; Jacquiet, P; Grisez, C; Prévot, F; Blanchard, B; Bouhsira, E; Franc, M

2013-02-01

218

SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment.

Bastos, Bethania Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cassia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-01-01

219

The effect of egg size and nutrient content on larval performance: implications to protracted spawning in northern pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in developmental rate from fertilization to swim-up, and body size at swim-up, may affect the growth and survival\\u000a of young-of-the-year fish. Fish egg size (diameter) is often positively correlated to adult female size, but whether increased\\u000a egg size equates to higher egg nutrient content and subsequently improved embryo\\/larval performance, remains unclear. Artificially\\u000a fertilized northern pike eggs from individual females

Brent A. Murry; John M. Farrell; Kimberly L. Schulz; Mark A. Teece

2008-01-01

220

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

221

Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg-Zn heterogeneous catalyst.  

PubMed

The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a substitute to petroleum diesel was investigated in this study from crude jatropha oil (CJO), a non-edible, low-cost alternative feedstock, using aluminium modified heterogeneous basic oxide (Mg-Zn) catalyst. The transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters yielded 94% in 6h with methanol-oil ratio of 11:1, catalyst loading of 8.68 wt.% at 182°C and the properties of CJO fuel produced were determine and found to be comparable to the standards according to ASTM. In the range of experimental parameters investigated, it showed that the catalyst is selective to production of methyl esters from oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) and water content of 7.23% and 3.28%, respectively in a single stage process. Thus, jatropha oil is a promising feedstock for methyl ester production and large scale cultivation will help to reduce the product cost. PMID:21486692

Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

2011-06-01

222

A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae  

PubMed Central

Background The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage map and match it with the Apis mellifera genome using homologous markers. This genome-wide comparison allows insights into structural conservations and rearrangements and thus the evolution on a chromosomal level. Results The high density linkage map covers ~ 93% of the B. terrestris genome on 18 linkage groups (LGs) and has a length of 2'047 cM with an average marker distance of 4.02 cM. Based on a genome size of ~ 430 Mb, the recombination rate estimate is 4.76 cM/Mb. Sequence homologies of 242 homologous markers allowed to match 15 B. terrestris with A. mellifera LGs, five of them as composites. Comparing marker orders between both genomes we detect over 14% of the genome to be organized in synteny and 21% in rearranged blocks on the same homologous LG. Conclusions This study demonstrates that, despite the very high recombination rates of both A. mellifera and B. terrestris and a long divergence time of about 100 million years, the genomes' genetic architecture is highly conserved. This reflects a slow genome evolution in these bees. We show that data on genome organization and conserved molecular markers can be used as a powerful tool for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, opening up new avenues of research in the Apidae.

2011-01-01

223

Insecticide residues in cotton soils of Burkina Faso and effects of insecticides on fluctuating asymmetry in honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Four insecticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, endosulfan and profenofos) are used quarterly in the cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. These insecticides were investigated in soils collected from traditionally cultivated and new cotton areas. Also, the effects of insecticide exposure on the developmental instability of honey bees, Apis mellifera, were explored. In soil samples collected three months after insecticide treatments, endosulfan and profenofos concentrations varied in the range of 10-30 ?g kg(-1) in the traditionally cultivated zones and 10-80 ?g kg(-1) in the new cotton zones, indicating a pollution of agricultural lands. However, only profenofos concentrations were significantly higher in the new cotton zone than the traditionally cultivated zones. In addition, the index of fluctuating asymmetry, FA1, in the length of second tarsus (L(HW)) was increased for bees when exposed to pesticide treated cotton fields for 82d, and their FA levels were significantly higher than those in the control colony in an orchard. The other studied traits of bees exposed to insecticides were not significantly different from controls. Our results indicate that FA may be considered as a biomarker reflecting the stress induced by insecticide treatments. However, the relationship between FA and stressors needs further investigations. PMID:21190716

Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Alibert, Paul; Dousset, Sylvie; Savadogo, Paul W; Savadogo, Moussa; Sedogo, Michel

2011-04-01

224

Subchronic effects of environment-like cadmium levels on the bivalve Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758): I. Bioaccumulation, distribution and effects on calcium metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, and its effects on Ca levels in the freshwater bivalve Anodonta anatina were examined. Mussels were exposed for 35 days to algae- and water-borne Cd at an environment-like concentration and were allowed to depurate for posterior 120 days. Body fluids and tissue samples were taken during both phases to determine total Cd, the Cd:Cd isotope

Huong Thi Thuy Ngo; Silke Gerstmann; Hartmut Frank

2010-01-01

225

Effectiveness of Gambusia holbrooki fish in domestic water containers and controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in southwest Saudi Arabia (Jeddah).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Gambusia holbrooki (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) fishin domestic containers in Jeddah, as well as its effectiveness in the control of immature A.aegypti. The use of G. holbrooki compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.)was donein domestic containers. In a first home visit, G. holbrooki or B.t.i were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 & 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. G. holbrooki fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. The infestation rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the B.t.i group (IR ratio=21.60, 95% CI: 6.46-72.28). In deposits where the fish remained, efficacy was 85% better than B.t.i. The permanence of fish was higher in concrete tanks (48.5%) located outside the house (47.5%) and at ground level (53.3%). PMID:22662590

Gamal, Zakia A

2012-04-01

226

Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753) with respect to frond number and chlorophyll  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland's nutrient

Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

2009-01-01

227

Proteomic identification of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxin Cry4Ba binding proteins in midgut membranes from Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.  

PubMed

Novel Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) Cry4Ba toxin-binding proteins have been identified in gut brush border membranes of the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquito larvae by combining 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and ligand blotting followed by protein identification using mass spectrometry and database searching. Three alkaline phosphatase isoforms and aminopeptidase were identified. Other Cry4Ba binding proteins identified include the putative lipid raft proteins flotillin and prohibitin, V-ATPase B subunit and actin. These identified proteins might play important roles in mediating the toxicity of Cry4Ba due to their location in the gut brush border membrane. Cadherin-type protein was not identified, although previously, we identified a midgut cadherin AgCad1 as a putative Cry4Ba receptor in Anopheles gambiae mosquito larvae [Hua, G., Zhang, R., Abdullah, M.A., Adang, M.J., 2008. Anopheles gambiae cadherin AgCad1 binds the Cry4Ba toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and a fragment of AgCad1 synergizes toxicity. Biochemistry 47, 5101-5110]. Other identified proteins in this study that might have lesser roles include mitochondrial proteins such as ATP synthase subunits, mitochondrial processing peptidase and porin; which are likely contaminants from mitochondria and are not brush border membrane components. Trypsin-like serine protease was also identified as a protein that binds Cry4Ba. Identification of these toxin-binding proteins will lead to a better understanding of the mode of action of this toxin in mosquito. PMID:19272330

Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Andacht, Tracy M; Abdullah, Mohd Amir; Adang, Michael J

2009-04-01

228

The key breeding sites by pupal survey for dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Guba, Cebu City, Philippines.  

PubMed

We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs. PMID:23413699

Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D

2012-11-01

229

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

230

Supplementation of microbial levan in the diet of Cyprinus carpio fry (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to sublethal toxicity of fipronil: effect on growth and metabolic responses.  

PubMed

A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary microbial levan on growth performance and metabolic responses of Cyprinus carpio fry exposed to sublethal dose (1/10th LC??) of fipronil [(±)-5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-?,?,?-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitrile]. Two hundred and twenty five fry were randomly distributed in five treatments in triplicates. Four purified diets were prepared with graded levels of microbial levan. Five different treatment groups were levan control L?P? (basal feed + 0 % levan without exposure to pesticide); pesticide control L?P? (basal feed + 0 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L?.??P? (basal feed + 0.25 % levan with exposure to pesticide); L?.??P? (basal feed + 0.50 % levan with exposure to pesticide); and L?.??P? (basal feed + 0.75 % levan with exposure to pesticide). Weight gain% and specific growth rate were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in levan fed groups compared to their non-levan fed counterpart. Highest (p < 0.05) content of ascorbic acid in muscle, liver and brain tissues was observed with higher level of dietary levan. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased with the increasing level of dietary levan in the liver and muscle. Aspartate aminotransferase activity exhibited a second order polynomial relationship with the dietary levan, both in liver (Y = -1.001x² + 5.366x + 5.812, r² = 0.887) and muscle (Y = -0.566x² + 2.833x + 6.506, r² = 0.858) while alanine aminotransferase activity showed third order polynomial relationship both in liver (Y = 1.195x³ - 12.30x² + 35.23x + 9.874, r² = 0.879) and muscle (Y = 0.527x³ - 8.429x² + 31.80x + 8.718, r² = 0.990). Highest (p < 0.05) superoxide dismutase activity in gill was observed in the group fed with 0.75 % levan supplemented diet. Overall results indicated that dietary microbial levan at 0.75 % in C. carpio fry ameliorated the negative effects of fipronil and augmented the growth. PMID:23666372

Gupta, S K; Pal, A K; Sahu, N P; Jha, A K; Akhtar, M S; Mandal, S C; Das, P; Prusty, A K

2013-12-01

231

Biochemical compounds' dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase. Three different feeding regimes were applied: starvation and two mono-specific microalgal diets ( Isochrysis aff galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans). A comparison between fed and unfed larvae highlighted the importance of egg lipid reserves, especially neutral lipids, during a brief endotrophic phase of embryonic development (first 2 days after fertilization). Egg reserves, however, may energetically contribute to the maintenance of larvae beyond the embryonic development. In fed larvae, the endotrophic phase is followed by a mixotrophic phase extending to days 5-8 after fertilization and a subsequent exotrophic phase. Metamorphosis starts around day 20. The intense embryonic activities are supported by energy derived from lipids, mainly from neutral lipids, and the metamorphic activities are supported by energy derived essentially from proteins accumulated during the planktonic phase and depend on the nutritional value of diets. The diet of I. aff galbana proves to be more adequate to R. decussatus larval rearing. The results provide useful information for the successful production of R. decussatus aquaculture.

Matias, Domitília; Joaquim, Sandra; Ramos, Margarete; Sobral, Paula; Leitão, Alexandra

2011-09-01

232

Sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The colony of urban stray cats living in the Rio de Janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. As many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. They were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. All animals had a blood sample drawn for CBC, platelet count, heartworm and retroviruses detection. Capillary blood smears were made for hemoparasites detection. Coat marking and colors were tabby (59.7%), followed by solid black (17%); torbie (10.6%); bicolor (10.6%) and harlequin (2.1%). The only ectoparasites found were fleas, which infested 28% of the animals. The hemoparasites found were Haemobartonella felis (38%) and piroplasmas that could not be differentiated between Cytauxzoon spp. and Babesia spp. (47%). No cat was found infected by Dirofilaria immitis or FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus), although FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies could be detected (21%). There was no correlation between hemoparasites and FIV infections. The estimated total cat population (mark-recapture method) was 59; 68% female and 32% male, suggesting that a neutering program is in fact needed. PMID:15517031

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Souza, Aline Moreira; Almosny, Nádia; Charme, Márcia; Labarthe, Norma

2004-01-01

233

Follow-up of the health conditions of an urban colony of free-roaming cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Similar to other urban areas where food and shelter are abundant, the zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro has dealt for years with a colony of feral or semi-feral domestic cats. A survey was conducted during 2002-2004 as a follow-up to a previous study in 2001 of the cat colony to identify pathogens circulating among the population and to annually follow the status of the cats to analyze morbidity coefficients and associations among infections and infestations identified in the colony. During the 3 years of the present study, 75 cats were sampled at least once, including 44 that were caught and examined only once, 14 that were examined twice, and 17 that were examined three times. For each cat that was caught, records were kept regarding sex, age, general health, and the presence of ectoparasites. Each year, a blood sample was taken for hematologic testing, platelet count, hemoparasite detection, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, and retrovirus detection. Blood counts were within normal range for the majority of cats tested. Feline immunodeficiency virus, fleas, and lice were detected in all years; however, incidence rates for each of these varied significantly throughout the years. Prevalence of Cytauxzoon spp., Mycoplasma spp., T. gondii infections were variable among the 3 years, although differences were not significant. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus increased significantly over the 3 years. Mycoplasma spp. and flea infestations were significantly associated, but no other associations among the pathogens were detected. Over the 3 years, the rate of new cat introductions decreased, and the pathogens showed a tendency to disseminate throughout the colony; however, there was virtually no evidence of clinically detectable disease. Therefore, it seems that stabilizing the population by a judicious control program facilitated the distribution of the pathogens throughout the colony, while the general well-being of the cats was not seriously affected. PMID:17481822

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Labarthe, Norma; Guerrero, Jorge; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Pereira, Cássia Dias; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

2007-06-20

234

Frugivory and seed dispersal of golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)) in a forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

The influence of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) as a seed disperser was studied by monitoring two groups of tamarins from December 1998 to December 2000 (871.9 hours of observations) in a forest fragment in south-east Brazil. The tamarins consumed fruits of 57 species from at least 17 families. They ingested the seeds of 39 species, and 23 of these were put to germinate in the laboratory and/or in the field. L. rosalia is a legitimate seed disperser because the seeds of all species tested germinated after ingestion, albeit some in low percentages. These primates do not show a consistent effect in final seed germination, because they benefit some species while damaging others. Feces were examined for seeds that had been preyed upon or digested. PMID:18660951

Lapenta, M J; Procópio-de-Oliveira, P; Kierulff, M C M; Motta-Junior, J C

2008-05-01

235

Butyltin compounds, sterility and imposex assessment in Nassarius reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758), prior to the 2008 European ban on TBT antifouling paints, within Basque ports and along coastal areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of imposex (superimposition of male characters, upon females) and the presence of sterile females are assessed in the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus (L.), at 35 locations in the Basque Country. At 18 of these localities, organotin bioaccumulation (tributyltin (TBT); dibutyltin; monobutyltin) was evaluated, using isotope dilution GC–ICP–MS. Higher imposex levels and TBT body burden were found in confined harbours, with

J. Germán Rodríguez; Itziar Tueros; Ángel Borja; Javier Franco; J. Ignacio García Alonso; Joxe Mikel Garmendia; Iñigo Muxika; Cristina Sariego; Victoriano Valencia

2009-01-01

236

Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using fungus Cochliobolus lunatus against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera; Culicidae).  

PubMed

Larvicides play a vital role in controlling mosquitoes in their breeding sites. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against vectors: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi responsible for diseases of public health importance. The AgNPs synthesized by filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The characterization studies confirmed the spherical shape and size (3-21 nm) of silver nanoparticles. The efficacy of mycosynthesized AgNPs at all the tested concentrations (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, and 0.3125 ppm) against second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 1.29, 1.48, and 1.58; LC(90) 3.08, 3.33, and 3.41 ppm) and against A. stephensi (LC(50) 1.17, 1.30, and 1.41; LC(90) 2.99, 3.13, and 3.29 ppm) were observed, respectively. The mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentration of AgNPs. Significant (P?

Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Satish V; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

2011-09-01

237

Effect of the infestation by Lernaea cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 (Copepoda, Lernaeidae) on the leucocytes of Schizodon intermedius Garavello & Britski, 1990 (Osteichthyes, Anostomidae).  

PubMed

Differential white blood cell counts from Schizodon intermedius infested by Lernaea cyprinacea were carried out and compared using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The observations were performed in fish infested by 16-77 adult Lernaea, fish with parasitic lesions but without attached crustaceans, and non parasitized fish (control group). The specimens of Schizodon intermedius were obtained from the University of Londrina fish farming facilities. The following leucocytes were observed: lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils and immature leucocytes. Intense lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia were observed in the infested hosts. Consistent increasing of monocyte percentage values occurred in the infested fish. The highest values for immature leucocytes counts were recorded from infested fish specimens. PMID:10959104

Silva-Souza; Almeida; Machado

2000-05-01

238

Food preferences and related behavior of the browsing sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus) and its potential for use as a biological control agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-spined toxopneustid sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla feeds on a wide variety of algal species and on sea grasses. However, the urchin does show preferences when offered a selection\\u000a of macroalgal species, which it encounters in nature. Preferences among macroalgae were evident in field-collected urchins\\u000a exposed to pair-wise tests where the variable was either the consumption rate of the algae

John Stimson; Tamar Cunha; Joanna Philippoff

2007-01-01

239

'Glaucivermis spinosus' Gen. et Sp. N. (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from the Southern Kingfish, 'Menticirrhus americanus' (Linnaeus) in the Coastal Waters of Mississippi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glaucivermis spinosus is described from the intestine and pyloric ceca of Menticirrhus americanus collected near Ocean Springs, Mississippi, in the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent waters. The genus is characterized primarily by having a preacetabular intestin...

R. M. Overstreet

1970-01-01

240

Development of the subsoephageal body cells and the pericardiac cells during embryogenesis with diapause in Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus 1758) (Orthoptera: Acrididae).  

PubMed

During Locusta migratoria embryogenesis, the yolk is progressively degraded and the resulting metabolites are released in the haemolymph. We researched the organs possibly involved in the uptake of haemolymphatic proteins. Among organs originated from mesoderm, the SOB (suboesophageal bodies) situated in the embryonic head are remarkable by a very early acquisition of differentiated cytological characters, while most other cells of the embryo are undifferentiated. The SOB quite disappear before hatching. Just before katatrepsis stage, the other organs derived from mesoderm begin to differentiate, including the PC (pericardial cells) which take over from the SOB. These cells, situated in thorax and abdomen, are developed during the dorsal close of embryo. The development and the ultrastructural changes of the SOB cells and of the PC were studied during an embryogenesis with diapause. The morphology of embryos which enter diapause is comparable with that of a continuous development at the beginning of katatrepsis. However, the cells of SOB and PC cells suffer from remarkable changes not only physiologically but cytologically. At the beginning of diapause, the proteosynthetic activity practically disappears in the SOB cells and the lysis areas appear. Nevertheless, the exchanges between these cells and the haemolymph still remain important. For the period of cold, which is necessary to the resumption of development, the aspect of the SOB cells changes and in particular the areas of lysis become less wide. When the embryo reopens its development, the SOB cells show a proteosynthetic activity and the areas of lysis disappear. The changes of the SOB cells and of the PC cells are regularized during the resumption of the development: the SOB cells which had again taken a normal activity start to regress from the stage VII on, while the PC cells take over. PMID:18687449

Harrat, Abboud; Raccaud-Schoeller, Jeanne; Petit, Daniel

2009-02-01

241

Lernanthropus kroyeri (Van Beneden and Hesse 1851) parasitic Copepoda (Siphonostomatoidae, Lernanthropidae) of European cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) from Corsica: ecological and morphological study.  

PubMed

Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) is a gill parasite found on the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. During a survey of sea bass of Corsican fish farms, we studied the biology of this parasite under culture conditions. We first chose to conduct a scanning electron microscopic study to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Our examinations made it possible to reveal some unreported superficial structures including details not described previously. Specializations associated with the tegument, in particular, sensory structures and anchoring systems were studied to understand the mechanisms of survival and dispersal of the species. Patterns variation of parasites communities was examined by taking into account environmental factors, such as temperature or salinity, and physiological parameters related to host. The relation between parasites and location of fish was also studied to quantify the importance of site influence on parasite communities. Prevalence and abundances of the infections in different culture systems, fish stocks, and sampling seasons are given. L. kroyeri was significantly present during spring and summer, coinciding with a period of increasing temperature. Significant differences were found grouping data by host size, with higher infection levels in the larger-sized fish. PMID:22179262

Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

2012-05-01

242

Physiological changes in male and female pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) subjected to different photoperiods and handling stress during the reproductive season.  

PubMed

Pikeperch broodstocks were exposed to different photoperiods: constant light (24L:0D), constant darkness (0L:24D), and 12 h light, 12 h darkness (12L:12D), for 40 days. Half of the broodstocks of each photoperiod were exposed to handling stress at a specific time of the day. Results showed that cortisol and lactate did not reveal any significant difference. However, glucose levels in females increased in the stress-free darkness period in comparison with stressful darkness photoperiods (0L:24D-s). Red blood cells in males and white blood cells in females showed a significant difference under different photoperiod regimes. Both sexes showed no significant difference in the differential count of leukocytes under different photoperiods and handling stress. Constant photoperiods and handling stress affected the hematological parameters, particularly, the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils in females. Our findings revealed that due to a long-term exposure to stressors, pikeperch brooders become adapted to stressful conditions. PMID:23504101

Sarameh, Sara Pourhosein; Falahatkar, Bahram; Takami, Ghobad Azari; Efatpanah, Iraj

2013-10-01

243

Reconciling Deep Calibration and Demographic History: Bayesian Inference of Post Glacial Colonization Patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using Bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales.

Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

244

The effect of dietary exogenous digestive enzymes on ingestion, assimilation, growth and survival of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata , Sparidae, Linnaeus) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of microdiets commonly used in the cultivation of marine fish larvae is limited to serving as partial replacements\\u000a for live food. This limited success is thought to be associated with a reduced digestive ability due to an incompletely developed\\u000a digestive system. The enhanced growth obtained from live food has been partially attributed to the digestive enzyme activity\\u000a of

S. Kolkovski; A. Tandler; G. Wm. Kissil; A. Gertler

1993-01-01

245

Relationship between the activity of the succinoxidase system and the rate of oxygen consumption during the embryonic development of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus.  

PubMed

1. Readings were made on the rates of oxygen consumption and on the activities of the succinoxidase system of eggs of the mealworm for each day of embryonic development at 30 degrees C. 2. The rate of oxygen consumption, expressed as microliters/50 eggs/hour, was low (4.89) in newly laid eggs. It rose to 7.41 during the next 24 hours, remained at this level for the next 2 days, and then increased during the remainder of the embryonic period reaching a high value of 14.79 at the time of hatching. 3. The activity of cytochrome oxidase in eggs from newly emerged beetles, expressed as Delta log [Cy Fe(++)]/minute, remained at a value of 0.042 during the first half of the embryonic period, increasing to 0.233 during the latter half of this period. 4. The activity of succinic dehydrogenase showed the same series of changes except at much lower values. Expressed as Delta log [Cy Fe(+++)]/minute, they ranged from 0.010 in the newly laid egg to 0.034 at the end of the embryonic period. 5. The activity of cytochrome oxidase of the egg was found to decrease with parental age. Eggs from newly emerged beetles had activity values considerably higher than those of beetles 6 or 8 weeks after emergence. However, no comparable changes were noted in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase or in the rate of oxygen consumption. These observations suggest that cytochrome oxidase is not a rate-limiting enzyme in the respiratory metabolism of the mealworm egg. PMID:13242759

LUDWIG, D; BARSA, M C

1955-07-20

246

The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel(r) traps in Manaus, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel(r) trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79%) were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (?2 = 11.0271, p ? 0.001). Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001). Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added.

de Azara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Degener, Carolin Marlen; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Ohly, Jorg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

2013-01-01

247

[In vitro observation of the action of isolates of the fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamydosporium on the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The in vitro action of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Verticillium chlamydosporium on eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides was observed. After 7, 10 and 14 days of interaction, the fungus showing most promise for use in biologically control over Ascaris lumbricoides was Verticillium chlamydosporium (26-30%). The other fungi did not present satisfactory results. PMID:17653479

Braga, Fábio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Campos, Artur K; Carvalho, Rogério O; Silva, André R; Tavela, Alexandre O; Maciel, Alessandro S

2007-01-01

248

[The influence of branchial parasitism by monogenoid trematodes on the development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Linnaeus, 1757 bred in net-pond systems in Capivara Dam, PR].  

PubMed

Tilapias are fish originally from Africa which nowadays are commercially bred in almost 100 countries, being one of the most commercially bred species in the world. In this work the trematode population of the monogenoidea group present in the branchiae of Nile tilapias bred in 4 net-ponds with volume of 4 m3 each, was monitored during 5 months. The juvenile fish, presenting initial average weight of 37.65 g originated from other piscicultures, were stocked in the density of 250 animals.m(-3) and monthly monitored until their commercialization, with final average weight of 485.4 g. The prevalence of these ectoparisites was high, between 90 and 100% in all months. The highest values of average intensity of infestation--AII and average abundance of infection--AAI occurred during the 2 first months of captivity, presenting a new increase in the last month of breeding. The only monogenoidea group present in the branchiae of the animals examined belonged to the Dactylogyridae family. The values of the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, nitrite and ammonia were within normal rate. In these conditions there were no significant differences between the relative condition factor--Kn among the parasited and non-parasited animals and also in the different levels of infestation, showing that, in these breeding conditions, the relationship parasite-host-environment presented itself in balance without causing great harm to the animals. PMID:19500461

Zanolo, Rodrigo; Leonhardt, Júlio Hermann; Silva e Souza, Angela Teresa; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi

2009-01-01

249

Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus, 1771 (Poaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes.

Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

2012-01-01

250

Characterization of 13 microsatellite loci for the deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758), from the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 13 polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from the ahermatypic deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa. Among 51 individuals collected from three disjunct oceanic regions, allelic diversity ranged from six to 38 alleles and averaged 9.1 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 9.1 to 96.8% and averaged 62.3% in the Gulf of Mexico population. For some loci, amplification success varied among collections, suggesting regional variation in priming site sequences. Four loci showed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in certain collections which may reflect nonrandom mating. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Morrison, C. L.; Eackles, M. S.; Johnson, R. L.; King, T. L.

2008-01-01

251

Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling.

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

2011-01-01

252

Capture efficiency of the freshwater prawn Palaemonetes argentinus (Nobili 1901) on the Culex pipiens s.l. (Linnaeus 1758) mosquitoes larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predation consists of a chain of events divided in three phases: encounter, capture and ingestion. We filmed the prawn Palaemonetes argentinus depredate on mosquitoes larvae (Culex pipiens s.l.) in aquaria, watching an increment in the swimming activity of prawns then to recognize the movement of the larvae by mechanoreceptors. The encounters of prey demand in the aquaria with small

Federico Giri; Pablo Collins; José Maciá

2004-01-01

253

Insecticide residues in cotton soils of Burkina Faso and effects of insecticides on fluctuating asymmetry in honey bees ( Apis mellifera Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four insecticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, endosulfan and profenofos) are used quarterly in the cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. These insecticides were investigated in soils collected from traditionally cultivated and new cotton areas. Also, the effects of insecticide exposure on the developmental instability of honey bees, Apis mellifera, were explored. In soil samples collected three months after insecticide treatments, endosulfan

Norbert Ondo Zue Abaga; Paul Alibert; Sylvie Dousset; Paul W. Savadogo; Moussa Savadogo; Michel Sedogo

2011-01-01

254

Development of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers in Coilia ectenes Jordan and Seale, 1905 (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae) and cross-species amplification in Coilia mystus Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Coilia ectenes (synonym C. nasus). In a sample of 30 C. ectenes individuals in a Wuhan population from Yangtze River, a total of 78 alleles were detected, and the number of alleles per\\u000a locus ranged from 3 to 12. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.100 to 1.000 and

Chunyan Ma; Qiqun Cheng; Qingyi Zhang

2011-01-01

255

Allozyme polymorphisms and heavy metal levels in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely reported that heavy metal contamination in coastal waters can modify the allozyme profiles of marine organisms. Previous studies have recorded elevated metal concentrations in sediments and mussel tissues off Peninsular Malaysia. In the present study, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was carried out to estimate the levels of allelic variation of the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, collected

C. K Yap; S. G Tan; A Ismail; H Omar

2004-01-01

256

Allozyme polymorphisms and heavy metal levels in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites in Malaysia.  

PubMed

It has been widely reported that heavy metal contamination in coastal waters can modify the allozyme profiles of marine organisms. Previous studies have recorded elevated metal concentrations in sediments and mussel tissues off Peninsular Malaysia. In the present study, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was carried out to estimate the levels of allelic variation of the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, collected from one contaminated and three relatively uncontaminated sites off Peninsular Malaysia. Fourteen polymorphic loci were observed. In addition, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were determined in the sediments and in the soft tissues of the mussels. Mussels from contaminated site, evidenced by high metal pollution indices (MPI) of the sediment and the mussel tissues, showed the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (78.6%), while those collected from the uncontaminated sites had lower MPI of the sediment and mussel tissue, and exhibited lower percentages of polymorphic loci (35.7-57.1%). The population from the contaminated site showed the highest excess of heterozygosity (0.289) when compared to that of the populations from the three uncontaminated sites (0.108-0.149). Allozyme frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E.C. 2.7.5.1) locus also differed between the contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Previous studies have shown that exposure to heavy metals can select or counter-select for particular alleles at this locus. The present results suggest that allozyme polymorphism in P. viridis is a potential biomonitoring tool for heavy metal contamination but further validation is required. PMID:14664863

Yap, C K; Tan, S G; Ismail, A; Omar, H

2004-03-01

257

Assessment of Different Soft Tissues of the Green-lipped Mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) as Biomonitoring Agents of Pb: Field and Laboratory Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the different soft tissues (STs) of Pernaviridis as biomonitoring agents of Pb has not been specifically reported in the literature. Based on the results of our laboratory studies,different rates of accumulation and depuration of Pb in the different STs werefound and this might be due to different mechanisms of metal binding andregulation. At the end of depuration,

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan

2004-01-01

258

A Linnaeus NG TM interactive key to the Lithocolletinae of North-West Europe aimed at accelerating the accumulation of reliable biodiversity data (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an interactive key that is available online through any web browser without the need to install any additional software, making it an easily accessible tool for the larger public. The key can be found at http://identify.naturalis.nl/lithocolletinae. The key includes all 86 North-West European Lithocolletinae, a subfamily of smaller moths (“micro-moths”) that is commonly not treated in field guides. The user can input data on several external morphological character systems in addition to distribution, host plant and even characteristics of the larval feeding traces to reach an identification. We expect that this will enable more people to contribute with reliable observation data on this group of moths and alleviate the workload of taxonomic specialists, allowing them to focus on other new keys or taxonomic work.

Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Haren, Merel M.; Schermer, Maarten; Pieterse, Sander; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

2014-01-01

259

Occurrence of Libyostrongylus sp. (Nematoda) in ostriches (Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758) from the north region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Domestic production of ostrich in Brazil started in the beginning of the last decade, but its sanitary state has not been reported. Libyostrongylus sp. is an ostrich specific nematode whose parasitism can severely affect the birds. Thus, Libyostrongylus spp. larvae were identified in commercial ostriches in the north region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The EPG was determined and fecal cultivation was performed. The eggs presented typical characteristics of strongylid and were present in five out of six farms. The mean EPG varied from 22 to 2395 and Libyostrongylus spp. prevalence was from 0 to 100%, with adult birds more infected. Two types of infective larvae with tail finishing in a tipped spiny knob were distinguished. The first had a mean length of 848 microm (710-1010) with a long sheath tail of about 66 microm (52-112). The other had a mean length of 826 microm (620-940) with a short, more abruptly ending sheath tail of 32 microm (22-40) and a less rounded cephalic end. The differences between these larvae suggest two Libyostrongylus species. PMID:16448757

Bonadiman, Sérgio Fernandes; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Soares, Albert Kennedy Pereira; de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique Almeida; Santos, Clóvis de Paula; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

2006-04-15

260

Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found at a relatively high prevalence of infection (4.6% and 5.2%, respectively). The infection by both parasites showed annual and spatial variability. C. elongatus showed a higher prevalence in 1992 compared to the following years, whereas the prevalence of H. aduncum increased from 1992 to 2001.We observed a relation between parasite distribution and parameters such as latitude and water depth. Adult digeneans (Lecithaster gibbosus and Derogenes varicus) and larval cestodes were also found with lower infection rates. Since changes of infection levels coincided with increasing North Sea water temperature in the studied period, it is hypothesized that temperature may affect parasite population levels. However, it is likely that other environmental factors may contribute to the observed variations. Absence of infection intensities higher than one nematode per fish in small larvae and post-larvae suggests that host survival may be affected by a high infection pressure. The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections should be considered in the understanding of the early life dynamics of the species. PMID:24827100

Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kuhn, Jesper A; Kania, Per W; Munk, Peter; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

261

[Detection of the eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, in the feces of the fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) by the polymerase chain reaction].  

PubMed

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to the identification of eggs of Echinococcus multilocularis in faeces from foxes. The test was positive in three of six faeces samples from foxes which were harbouring adult worms, and in one of four samples from foxes in which no adult E. multilocularis was found in the intestines. These initial results show that it is possible to use PCR to identify E. multilocularis eggs in faeces. PCR can be used to complement examination of intestinal contents, showing that the distribution of eggs in faeces is uneven. The sensitivity of the test was estimated to be 50 eggs in 5 g of faeces. Further work is needed to confirm these initial results before the test can be used more widely. PMID:1305852

Bretagne, S; Guillou, J P; Morand, M; Houin, R

1992-12-01

262

Parasitological and serological studies on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in Switzerland.  

PubMed

In the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland, 1,252 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined during 1990-1991 for intestinal stages of Echinococcus multilocularis using the mucosal smear technique. Special safety precautions were employed during examination. An average of 35% (432 foxes) were infected, mostly with low to medium numbers of gravid worms producing thick-shelled eggs. In the eleven districts of the Canton, prevalence rates varied between 13% and 57%. An average of 29% of the foxes had antibodies in serum or body fluid against a highly species-specific antigen of E. multilocularis (Em2-antigen). The fact that foxes with intestinal E. multilocularis infection have been found in all parts of the Canton of Zurich indicates a relatively high potential infection risk for humans, but apparently the risk is reduced by certain extrinsic or intrinsic factors which have yet to be determined. PMID:1305853

Ewald, D; Eckert, J; Gottstein, B; Straub, M; Nigg, H

1992-12-01

263

SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.  

PubMed

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-06-01

264

The strength of biogenic sand reefs: Visco-elastic behaviour of cement secreted by the tube building polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, Linnaeus, 1767  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical properties of the biomineralised cement from tube-building marine worms are poorly known. Secreted from an organ connected to the polychaetes specialised glands, the cement glues sand grains and calcareous shell fragments of a given size and, on a larger scale, ensures the resistance of the reef to waves. In this study, three kinds of mechanical tests were performed with worm tubes to establish the nature of the cement behaviour. Results obtained show that cement behaves like a visco-elastic material. This property allows the tubes to dissipate the mechanical energy from the waves to which they are subject and to reduce the mechanical stress transmitted inside the tubes to the polychaetes. Comparison of "fresh" and "dry" cements highlights that the visco-elastic behaviour of the cement is maintained after five years. The viscosity of the cement is therefore not related to moisture but to its chemical composition. More generally, these results offer a better understanding of the role of cement on worm reefs strength and their persistence in the geological record.

Le Cam, Jean-Benoît; Fournier, Jérôme; Etienne, Samuel; Couden, Jérôme

2011-01-01

265

Genetic Evidence for Natural Hybridization Between Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus; Linnaeus, 1757) and Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus; Steindachner, 1864) in Lake Edku, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the hybrid nature of tilapias intermediate morphological forms by using esterase isozymes electrophoretic analysis and hybrid index. Esterase isozymes in liver and kidney were electrophoretically compared, to determine the phylogenetic relationship between the intermediate morphological forms and their putative parents, Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus. Also, the hybrid index was estimated to verify their

Shnoudy A. Bakhoum; Mohamed A. Sayed-Ahmed; Evelyn A. Ragheb

266

The occurrence of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus) in coastal Mississippi, USA: Ties to aquaculture and thermal effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the distribution and abundance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus near two aquaculture facilities for two years in coastal wetlands in southeastern Mississippi, USA. In 280 collections, we\\u000a represented 29 families, 65 taxa, and 86,415 fishes with a variety of gear types. Oreochromis niloticus ranked sixth in abundance overall and ranked second among those stations sampled in the Pascagoula

Mark S. Peterson; William T. Slack; Christa M. Woodley

2005-01-01

267

[Freshwater Pearl mussels of the genus Margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia) described as M. elongata (Lamarck, 1819) and M. borealis (Westerlund, 1871) should be classified with M. margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height. This ratio is the main character that, according to Bogatov et al. (2003), allows one to distinguish between three species of the genus Margaritifera: M. margaritifera, M. elongata, and M. borealis. It has been found that the above ratio gradually increases as the shell grows. Therefore, this character is unsuitable for species diagnosis, the more so that no hiatus in it between the three forms of pearl mussels has been revealed in any of the samples studied. On this basis, it may be concluded that Northern Europe, including Russia, is inhabited by only one species of pearl mussels, M. margaritifera. PMID:18491570

Sergeeva, I S; Bolotov, I N; Bespalaia, Iu V; Makhrov, A A; Bukhanova, A L; Artamonova, V S

2008-01-01

268

Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

2010-11-01

269

Storaged products and presence of acid phosphatase in fat body cells at pre-pupal worker stage of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae).  

PubMed

Fat body cells or throphocytes of individuals during beginning of pupation (pre-pupae) of Apis mellifera were collected and studied by routine and cytochemical preparations for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the trophocytes present large reserves of lipids, proteins, and glycogen. Imidazole osmium treatment revealed that lipids are deposited as droplets in the cytoplasm and also within protein granules. Thiery's reaction showed the presence of glycogen inside protein granules. An acid phosphatase reaction was performed to verify the role of this enzyme in the mobilization of stored reserves during metamorphosis. Positive reaction for acid phosphatase was detected at larger protein granules, at the periphery of the large lipid droplets, and free in the cytoplasm. The contents of protein, lipid and glycogen are stored in the trophocytes at larval phase to be used during metamorphosis. The acid phosphatase present in the products stored might be responsible for their metabolization, while acid phosphatase free in cytoplasm might actuates in the trophocytes histolysis that occurs during metamorphosis for energy production. PMID:22172344

Poiani, Silvana Beani; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

2012-02-01

270

Assimilation efficiencies and turnover rates of trace elements in marine bivalves: a comparison of oysters, clams and mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and physiological turnover-rate constants (k) of six trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se, Zn) in four marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, Macoma balthica Linnaeus, Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus, and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus) were measured in radiotracer-depuration experiments. Egestion rates of unassimilated elements were highest during\\u000a the first 24?h of depuration and declined thereafter. Significant egestion of unassimilated

J. R. Reinfelder; W.-X. Wang; S. N. Luoma; N. S. Fisher

1997-01-01

271

Pholeter anterouterus Fischthal & Nasir, 1974 (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) redescribed, together with remarks on the genera Pholeter Odhner, 1914 and Phocitrema Goto & Ozaki, 1930 and their relationship to the centrocestine heterophyids.  

PubMed

Photoleter anterouterus Fischthal & Nasir, 1974, from Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus and Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin from Florida, USA and the ventro-genital complexes of Photeleter gastrophilus (Kossack, 1910) from Delphinus delphis Linnaeus from Queensland, Australia and of Phocitrema fusiforme Goto & Ozaki, 1930 from Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus) and Phoca vitulina Linnaeus from Alaska are redescribed. The genus Photoleter Odhner, 1914 is emended and compared with Phocitrema Goto & Ozaki, 1930 and both genera are compared with members of, and as a result transferred from the family Opisthorchiidae Looss, 1899 to, the subfamily Centrocestinae Looss, 1899, family Heterophyidae Odhner, 1914. PMID:876682

Pearson, J C; Courtney, C H

1977-06-01

272

Hierarchical, self-similar structure in native squid pen.  

PubMed

The structure of native squid pen (gladius) was investigated in two different species on different length scales. By combining microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction, the experiments probed length scales from millimetres down to nanometres. The gladii showed a hierarchical, self-similar structure in the optical experiments with fibres of different size oriented along the long axis of the gladius. The fibre-like structure was reproduced at the nanoscale in AFM measurements and fibres with diameters of 500 ?m, 100 ?m, 10 ?m, 2 ?m and 0.2 ?m were observed. Their molecular structure was determined using X-ray diffraction. In the squid gladius, the chitin molecules are known to form nano-crystallites of monoclinic lattice symmetry wrapped in a protein layer, resulting in ?-chitin nano-fibrils. Signals corresponding to the ?-coil protein phase and ?-chitin crystallites were observed in the X-ray experiments and their orientation with respect to the fibre-axis was determined. The size of a nano-fibril was estimated from the X-ray experiments to be about 150 × 300 Å. About 100 of these nano-fibrils are needed to form a 0.2 ?m thick micro-fibre. We found that the molecular structure is highly anisotropic with ?90% of the ?-coils and ?-chitin crystallites oriented along the fibre-axis, indicating a strong correlation between the macroscale structure and molecular orientation. PMID:24957525

Yang, Fei-Chi; Peters, Robert D; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2014-07-01

273

Ecological interactions between the vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis) and the farmed blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) in Nova Scotia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to quantify the ecological interactions between blue mussels (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus 1758) and vase tunicates (Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus 1767) in the context of mussel farming. To quantify the extent of competition for food resources at varying temperatures, clearance rates for both species were calculated using Tetraselmis striata (Butcher 1959). Between 4-13°C, mussel clearance rates were at

Rémi M. Daigle; Christophe M. Herbinger

2009-01-01

274

Effects of Fire on the Abundance of Xenarthrans in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important ecological factor in Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil, and in other savanna ecosystems. The effect of fire on the abundance of some Xenarthran mammal species Priodontes maximus Kerr, 1792 (giant armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (yellow armadillo) and Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (giant anteater)) was studied at Reserva Xavante do Rio das Mortes, a 329 000

Manrique Prada; Jader Marinho-Filho

2004-01-01

275

Electrophoretic characterisation of the venom samples obtained from various Anatolian snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae, Viperidae, Elapidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venoms extracted from a colubrid snake (Malpolon monspessulanus (Hermann)), seven viperids (Montivipera xanthina (Gray), Montivipera wagneri Nilson &Andrén, Vipera ammodytes (Linnaeus), Vipera kaznakovi (Nikolsky), Vipera eriwanensis (Bonaparte), Vipera barani Böhme & Joger, Macrovipera lebetina (Linnaeus)) and an elapid snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia (Lataste)) collected from various regions of Anatolia were compared using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and densitometry analysis methods.

Hüseyin ARIKAN; Bayram GÖÇMEN; Yusuf KUMLUTA?; Çetin ILGAZ; Mehmet-Zülfü YILDIZ

276

Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco ( Coregonus sardinella , Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace ( C. albula , Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea Basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the ND-1 gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA in the vendace population in Lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin)\\u000a revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together\\u000a with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population

E. A. Borovikova; A. A. Makhrov

2009-01-01

277

[Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].  

PubMed

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation. PMID:19239118

Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

2009-01-01

278

In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile. PMID:22525358

Osman, Alaa G M; Abuel-Fadl, Khaled Y; Kloas, Werner

2012-08-30

279

Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization rate, larval establishment and survival of juvenile tunicates. All these elements can potentially be key factors on limiting the establishment of a population of C. intestinalis in the Orwell Bay aquatic system. Keywords: Invasive species, watershed, biogeography, tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, universal soil loss equation, hydrodynamic modeling, correspondence analysis, turbidity, environmental tolerance.

Mclaughlin, Janelle

280

Defining the limits of taxonomic conservatism in host-plant use for phytophagous insects: molecular systematics and evolution of host-plant associations in the seed-beetle genus Bruchus Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).  

PubMed

In this study, we have investigated the limits of taxonomic conservatism in host-plant use in the seed-beetle genus Bruchus. To reconstruct the insect phylogeny, parsimony and multiple partitioned Bayesian inference analyses were conducted on a combined data set of four genes. Permutation tests and both global and local maximum-likelihood optimizations of host preferences at distinct taxonomic levels revealed that host-fidelity is still discernible beyond the host-plant tribe level, suggesting the existence of more important than previously thought evolutionary constraints, which are further discussed in details. Our tree topologies are also mostly consistent with extant taxonomic groups. Through the analysis of this empirical data set we also provide meaningful insights on two methodological issues. First, Bayesian inference analyses suggest that partitioning by using codon positions greatly increase the accuracy of phylogenetical reconstructions. Regarding reconstruction of ancestral character states through maximum likelihood, the present study also highlights the usefulness of local optimizations. The issue of over-parameterization is also addressed, as the optimizations with the most parameter-rich models have returned the most counterintuitive results. PMID:17276089

Kergoat, Gaël J; Silvain, Jean-François; Delobel, Alex; Tuda, Midori; Anton, Klaus-Werner

2007-04-01

281

Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish.  

PubMed

Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia. PMID:24845507

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Yadav, Prabhaker; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K

2014-06-01

282

Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective

Fernando Braga Stehling Dias; Marion Quartier; Christine A. Romaña; Liléia Diotaiuti; Myriam Harry

2010-01-01

283

Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajós region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID:20619359

Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaña, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Harry, Myriam

2010-12-01

284

Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) collected from some wild and aquacultural sites in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (L.), collected from nine (four wild and five aquacultural) sites between 1999 and 2001, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The concentrations (?g\\/g dry weight) of these heavy metals ranged from 0.68 to 1.25 for Cd, 7.76 to 20.1 for Cu, 2.51

C. K Yap; A Ismail; S. G Tan

2004-01-01

285

Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan

2003-01-01

286

ÂGE ET CROISSANCE DE DEUX ESPÈCES DE CICHLIDAE (PISCES): OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) ET SAROTHERODON MELANOTHERON RÜPPELL, 1852 DU LAC DE BARRAGE D'AYAMÉ (CÔTE D'IVOIRE, AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and brackishwater black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron, from the dam-lake Ayamé were identified by counting opaque zones on otoliths. With 5 and 6 age classes respectively, the maximum age observed was 4 years in O. niloticus and 5 years in S. melanotheron populations. The von Bertalanffy growth curve parameters recorded were L ?

NAHOUA ISSA OUATTARA; ALEXANDRU IFTIME; Grigore Antipa

2009-01-01

287

Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (JBWR) represents the largest protected area for over 300 species of migratory and resident birds on Long Island (LI), New York, and occupies a key position along the Atlantic flyway. We identified changes in nesting populations for 18 species of colonial waterbirds in JBWR and on LI, during 1974 - 1998, to provide a basis for future wildlife management decisions in JBWR and also at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport. None of the populations was stable over the past 25 years in JBWR or on LI. Some populations in JBWR increased (Laughing Gull L. atricilla Linnaeus, Great Black-backed Gull L. marinus Linnaeus, Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall) while others decreased (Herring Gull Larus argentatus Coues, Snowy Egret Egretta thula Molina), but only Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) have disappeared from the refuge. Common Tern (S. hitundo Linnaeus), Least Tern (S. antillarum Lesson), Roseate Tern (S. dougallii Montagu), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger Linnaeus), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus) and Great Egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus) populations all increased on LI over the sampling period although the Common Tern colonies in JBWR have been declining since 1986. The continued protection of the colony sites, particularly saltmarsh islands, in JBWR will be important to the conservation efforts of many colonial waterbird populations on Long Island. The JBWR colonies may serve as a source of emigrants to other Long Island colonies, and in some cases, act as a 'sink' for birds immigrating from New Jersey and elsewhere.

Brown, K. M.; Tims, J. L.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.

2001-01-01

288

Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

2010-01-01

289

11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. CLOSE VIEW OF LINNAEUS BUST - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

290

10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. BUST OF LINNAEUS OVER SOUTH ENTRANCE - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

291

American Chaffseed ('Schwalbea americana' Recovery Plan).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

American chaffseed (Schwalbea americana L.) is a monotypic perennial member of the figwort family, Scrophulariaceae, in the tribe Euphrasieae. The species was described by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753, and named for Christian Georg Schwalbe, an e...

D. Peters

1995-01-01

292

Determination of Selenium in Fish from Designated Critical Habitat of the Gunnison River, Colorado, Summer 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results for the summer 2011 sampling of muscle plugs from common carps (Cyprinus Linnaeus), roundtail chub (Gila robusta), and bonytail chub (Gila elegans) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in Western Colorado.

M. J. Walther T. W. May

2012-01-01

293

Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia. Volume 12, Numbers 12 and 16, 1967. (English Articles Number 1-11 and Numbers 13-15 Are Not Included).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Variability in fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) of Suwalki Lakeland; The actual composition of beetle fauna in Babia Gora; Changes in the coleopterofauna of Babia Gora during the last hundred years; Zoogeographical analysis.

1972-01-01

294

Activity and Feeding Behavior of the Summer Flounder 'Paralichthys dentatus' Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of five to six adult summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus), held under controlled laboratory conditions in a large, experimental, seawater tank, exhibited three general behavior patterns: (1) resting, (2) swimming, and (3) feeding. Whi...

B. L. Olla C. E. Samet A. L. Studholme

1972-01-01

295

A pliocene whale-barnacle from Hawke's Bay, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

An incomplete compartment of a whale-barnacle from the Waitotaran Stage of Waihua River, Hawke's Bay, is described as Coronula aotea n.sp. It is considered to be a close relative of the living species, Coronula diadema (Linnaeus).

C. A. Fleming

1959-01-01

296

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, A

2013-01-01

297

CULEX (CULEX\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the concept of Culex pipien.s Linnaeus is reviewed. An illustration of a syntype published by Reaumur is designated as the lectotype of pipiens. A lectotype is also designated for Culex bifhcatus Linnaeus, which is stabilized as a synonym of pipiens. A neotype for pipiens is designated in place of the non-extant lectotype-specimen. The adult, pupal, and larval

RALPH E. HARBACH; CHRISTINE DAHL; GRAHAM B. WHITE

298

Habitat utilization by sympatric European mink Mustela lutreola and polecats Mustela putorius in south-western France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European minkMustela lutreola Linnaeus, 1761 and the European polecatMustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758 are related species sympatric in southwestern France. The European mink is rapidly disappearing whereas the\\u000a polecat maintains good populations. Seasonal habitat use of both species was compared in the Landes de Gascogne region to\\u000a identify if some vulnerability factors of the European mink were associated with habitats

Pascal Fournier; Christian Maizeret; David Jimenez; Jean-Pierre Chusseau; Stéphane Aulagnier; François Spitz

2007-01-01

299

Experimental integrated aquaculture of fish and red seaweeds in Northern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three potentially valuable red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus Stackhouse, Gracilaria bursa pastoris (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva and Palmaria palmata (L.) O. Kuntze, collected in northern Portugal, were cultivated using the nutrient-rich effluents from a local turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus) farm. The algae were cultivated in a two level cascade system. Several arrangements of the cascade

J. Matos; S. Costa; A. Rodrigues; R. Pereira; I. Sousa Pinto

2006-01-01

300

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

302

Microsatellites for Next-Generation Ecologists: A Post-Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses.

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

303

Cytogenetic studies in four cultivated Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) species  

PubMed Central

Abstract In the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linnaeus, 1753, Amaranthus mantegazzianus Passer, 1864, and Amaranthus caudatus Linnaeus, 1753. The distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using DAPI-CMA3 banding technique. The position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) was observed using Ag-NOR banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (rDNA-FISH) in the four Amaranthus species. Variations in the amount of constitutive heterochromatin were detected both within the species and between them, with DAPI-CMA3 stain. One chromosome pair having a NOR was found in each studied accession, with exception of Amaranthus caudatus cv. EEA INTA Anguil. This accession presented four rDNA loci (FISH), being active two of them (Ag- banding).

Bonasora, Marisa Graciela; Poggio, Lidia; Greizerstein, Eduardo Jose

2013-01-01

304

Digenean diversity in labrid fish from the Bay of Bizerte in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Six species of digeneans (Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901), Helicometra fasciata (Odhner, 1902), Helicometra pulchella (Odhner, 1902), Macvicaria alacris (Looss, 1901), Peracreadium genu (Nicoll, 1909) and Zoogonus rubellus (Olson, 1868)) were found for the first time in labrid fish (Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758), Labrus merula (Linnaeus, 1758) and Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)) from the Bay of Bizerte. Except for P. maculatus and Z. rubellus, which are limited to the rectum, these helminths colonize the entire digestive tract. The study of the seasonal prevalence, abundance and mean intensity shows that three parasites, P. maculatus, H. fasciata and P. genu are present throughout the year while H. pulchella, M. alacris and Z. rubellus are less frequent and appear only in spring (H. pulchella and M. alacris) or in spring and summer (Z. rubellus). The levels of infection and digenean faunal diversity in labrid fish from the Tunisian coasts are generally lower than those from localities within the western Mediterranean. PMID:19580692

Gargouri Ben Abdalah, L; Elbohli, S; Maamouri, F

2010-03-01

305

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758), Egretta thula (Molina 1782), and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766). The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004) with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health. PMID:24346796

Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

2013-01-01

306

New species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) from lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes).  

PubMed

Five new species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) are described from parrots of the subfamily Loriinae (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae): Protolichus ornatus sp. n. from Trichoglossus ornatus (Linnaeus, 1758), P. lorinus sp. n. from Lorius lory (Linnaeus, 1758), P. placentis sp. n. from Charmosyna placentis (Temminck, 1835), P. pulchellae sp. n. from C. pulchella (Gray GR, 1859), and P. rubiginosus sp. n. from T. rubiginosus (Bonaparte, 1850). Protolichus ornatus belongs to the brachiatus species group; the other new species belong to the crassior species group. PMID:24871411

Mironov, Sergey V; Ehrnsberger, Rainer; Dabert, Jacek

2014-01-01

307

Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

Alexander, B. A.; Michener, C. D.; Gardner, A. L.

1998-01-01

308

The tarnished plant bug: Cause of potato rot? — An episode in mid-nineteenth-century entomology and plant pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The domestic potato, Sotanum tuberosum Linnaeus, a member of the nightshade family (Solanaceae),’ has had profound social and political influence in Europe and North America.2 Attempts to discover the potato’s center of original cultivation and document its spread and domestication in Europe and the New World have suffered from a dearth of evidence. Even though the origin and taxonomy of

1981-01-01

309

Seasonal variation in the secretory lipids of the uropygial gland of a sub?tropical wild passerine bird, pycnonotus cafer (L) in relation to the testicular cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight and lipid content of the uropygiai gland of male Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus), a common subtropical wild passerine bird exhibit seasonal variations, roughly coinciding with those of testicular activity. At the peak of the spermatogenic phase (June) and in the post?breeding period (July, August) the gland becomes enlarged and contains a high amount of lipid, whereas during the long period

S. P. Bhattacharyya; S. Roy Chowdhury

1995-01-01

310

Culture of coquina clam, Donax trunculus, larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine whether the larvae of Donax trunculus Linnaeus (1758; Mollusca: Bivalvia) could be cultured. This paper reports the results of two experiments to examine larval culture conditions. In the first, two temperatures (17 °C and 20 °C) and the effect of antibiotics were tested. The second experiment was carried out to study the

Paz Ruiz-Azcona; Rafael Rodríguez-Sierra; Josefa B. Martín

1996-01-01

311

A preliminary study of the insect fauna of Meghalaya, India. 12. Species of the genera Tabanus L. and Haematopota Mg. of the family Tabanidae (Diptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper incorporates two new species of the genusTabanus Linnaeus,viz., T. meghalayensis andT. miniatus and one new species of the genusHaematopota Meigen,viz., H. nigrifrons along with notes on three other species obtained from Meghalaya, India.

M Datta; S Biswas

1977-01-01

312

Species Diversity, Abundance and Seasonal Occurrence of Some Biting Flies in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of biting dipterans was conducted in Kaura LGA of Kaduna State between November 2000 and October 2001. Fifteen species of biting flies were caught in two families, Tabanidae and Muscidae distributed in the following 4 genera: Tabanus 10, Haematopota 2, Chrysops 1 and Stomoxys 2. The genus Stomoxys represented by Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus and S. nigra Macquart had

S. Okiwelu

313

A method of marking larval lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological investigations of lamprey populations in central New York have indicated a need for developing a method of marking larvae of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur) Since lamprey larvae live in burrows in the soft sediments of the stream bottom, the use of an external tag is impractical.

Wigley, Roland L.

1952-01-01

314

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton (2nd edition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

he background to Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton is found in the history of the study of skeletal anatomy of fossils and animals. Coming out of the Age of Exploration, natural historians, including Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lamarck, and Darwin, began to analyze skeletal morphology, which was the catalyst for the development of theories of human evolution and variation that are

M. Anne Katzenberg; Shelley R. Saunders

315

Effects of light of altered spectral composition on coral zooxanthellae associations and on zooxanthellae in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) and Montipora verrucosa (Lamarck) were collected from Hawaiian reefs. In two experiments (September 1979-January 1980: ca. 4 mo; August-October 1980; ca. 2 mo), these reef corals were grown under sunlight passed through filters producing light fields of similar quantum flux but different spectral composition. In vitro cultures of symbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal) from M. verrucosa were

R. A. Kinzie; P. L. Jokiel; R. York

1984-01-01

316

Notes on amphipods Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 and Podocerus chelonophilus (Chevreux & Guerne, 1888) collected from the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, off the Mediterranean and the Aegean coasts of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the occurrence of 2 amphipod species, Caprella andreae Mayer, 1890 and Podocerus chelonophilus Chevreux & Guerne, 1888, that appeared on the carapace of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Sea). The amphipod specimens were found on a male Caretta caretta captured during experimental bottom studies conducted off Samanda?, Hatay

A. Suat; Kerem BAKIR

317

Effect of naturally changing zooplankton concentrations on feeding rates of two coral species in the Eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton concentrations are known to vary by as much as an order of magnitude over a lunar cycle. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the effect of ambient zooplankton concentrations over a lunar cycle on feeding rates of the corals Pavona gigantea (Verrill) (mounding coral, 3.0 mm diameter polyps) and Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) (branching coral, 1.0 mm diameter polyps)

James E. Palardy; Andréa G. Grottoli; Kathryn A. Matthews

2006-01-01

318

Movements of blue sharks ( Prionace glauca ) in depth and course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic telemetry was used to follow 22 blue sharks,Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), over the continental shelf and slope in the region between George's Bank and Cape Hatteras between 1979 and 1986. The sharks frequently made vertical excursions between the surface and depths of several hundred meters. The oscillations, which were repeated every few hours, were largest in the daytime and were

F. G. Carey; J. V. Scharold; Ad. J. Kalmijn

1990-01-01

319

Larval growth of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus , in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in July\\/August 1985 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; they were aged by means of growth rings in the sagittal otoliths. Daily growth rings were observed and subdaily rings were visible starting with the third or fourth daily increment. The Gompertz growth equation, commonly employed in larval growth analysis, suitably describes the growth of this

I. Palomera; B. Morales-Nin; J. Lleonart

1988-01-01

320

Repellency of Deet and SS220 Applied to Skin Involves Olfactory Sensing by Two Species of Ticks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Ixodidae) to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet)and (1S, 20S)- 2-methylpiperidinyl- 3-cyclohexene-1...

J. A. Klun J. F. Carroll M. Debboun

2005-01-01

321

[Commercial capture with long line in the exclusive economic zone in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean Sea].  

PubMed

Pelagic fish were collected with long line in the 20-22 degrees C isotherms from 1986 to 1988 off Guajira, Colombia. Thirteen species of pelagic fish were found including four new records: Lampris guttatus, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, Tetrapturus pfluegeri, Eumegistius brevorti. The occurrence of the orca (Orcinus orca Linnaeus) is confirmed in the Colombian Caribbean waters. PMID:12298249

Alvarez-León, Ricardo

2002-03-01

322

Larval Development and Metamorphosis of Acanthaster planci (Asteroidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

LITTLE is known of the factors influencing survival during the planktonic phase of Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus), the crown of thorns starfish, apart from an observation of fish eating newly released eggs1. But it is not surprising that this phase has been suggested as the cause of the recent plague of the animal in the Pacific2-4, for large females release many

J. A. Henderson

1971-01-01

323

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

324

Reproductive Strategies of 'Raja Radiata, Raja Naevus, Raja Montagui and Raja Clavata' in the North Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper compares the reproductive strategies of the starry ray (Raja radiata Donovan 1808), the cuckoo ray (R. Naevus Fowler 1910) and the thornback ray (R. clavata Linnaeus 1758), in relation to differences in their distribution and abundance in the N...

J. J. van Steenbergen

1994-01-01

325

Marine boating habits and the potential for spread of invasive species in the Gulf of St. Lawrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for boating to disperse the clubbed tunicate Styela clava Herdman, 1881 and green crab Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus, 1758) in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence was investigated using interviews with recreational and commercial boaters in eastern Prince Edward Island (PEI). Boaters were asked how long their boat had been at the present location; the primary use of the

Emily Darbyson; Andrea Locke; John Mark Hanson; J. H. Martin Willison

2009-01-01

326

Complementary (secondary) metabolites in an octocoral competing with a scleractinian coral: effects of varying nutrient regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competitive interactions between two sessile, epibenthic species were investigated on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in the presence and absence of added nutrients, as part of the Enrichment of Nutrients on Coral Reefs Experiment (ENCORE). Sarcophyton ehrenbergi Marenzeller (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea), an alcyonacean soft coral, and Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus), a scleractinian coral, were relocated and placed in contact with each other

B. G. Fleury; J. C. Coll; P. W. Sammarco; E. Tentori; S. Duquesne

2004-01-01

327

Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

Flannery, Maura C.

2013-01-01

328

True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea).  

PubMed

Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

Jerini?-Prodanovi?, Dušanka; Proti?, Ljiljana

2013-01-01

329

Farmers' perception on the importance of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus (L.)) in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) is known as an agricultural pest in West and Central Africa. However, its importance in the agricultural production system in Cameroon has not been investigated. The study assesses farmers' perception on the importance of Z. variegatus in the agricultural production systems of the humid forest zone of Southern Cameroon. METHODS: Research was carried

Sévilor Kekeunou; Stephan Weise; Jean Messi; Manuel Tamò

2006-01-01

330

Deep-water penaeid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) from off the Portuguese continental slope: an alternative future resource?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional crustacean fishery along the continental shelf and slope off Portugal mainly targets the Rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Lucas, 1846), Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus, Linnaeus, 1758) and its associated species, Red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus, Risso, 1816). In recent years, the commercial trawl fishery has been intensive and has resulted in an overexploitation of these species, down to depths of

Maria José Figueiredo; Ivone Figueiredo; Pedro Bordalo Machado

2001-01-01

331

The Web and the Structure of Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easily accessible taxonomic knowledge base is critically important for all biodiversity-related sciences. At present, taxonomic information is organized and regulated by a system of rules and conventions that date back to the introduction of binomial nomenclature by Linnaeus. The taxonomy of any particular group of organisms comprises the sum information in the taxonomic literature, supported by designated type specimens

H. C. J. Godfray; B. R. Clark; I. J. Kitching; S. J. Mayo; M. J. Scoble

2007-01-01

332

Southern elephant seals breeding at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population survey of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758) was conducted at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during the 2001 breeding season. Two breeding sites were identified, one of which had not been previously re? ported. The largest breeding site was located at Duthoit Point, with a total of 128 females, 111 pups and 7 weanlings distributed

Alejandro R. CARLINI; Sebastián POLJAK; Ricardo CASAUX; Gustavo Adolfo DANERI; Miguel GASCO

333

Stress effect of two different transport systems on the physiological profiles of the crab Cancer pagurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer pagurus Linnaeus, 1758, is a very important commercial species that can survive out of water if kept cool and humid. Once caught for commercial purposes and shipped around the world, animals are likely to be subjected to a number of stressors, including emersion and air exposure, hypoxia, temperature changes and handling.The aim of this study was to compare the

S. Lorenzon; P. G. Giulianini; S. Libralato; M. Martinis; E. A. Ferrero

2008-01-01

334

Further fossil whale barnacles from New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five compartments of Coronula diadema (Linnaeus) are recorded from Nukumaruan (Pleistocene) rocks in South Wairarapa and North Canterbury. A complete compartment of Coronula aotea Fleming, from Mangaotoro River, Dannevirke (Mangapanian, Pliocene) shows that the species is more closely related to the living C. reginae Darwin than to C. diadema.

A. G. Beu

1971-01-01

335

Cephalopod Predation Facilitated by Dinoflagellate Luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation by nocturnal cephalopods on non- luminous prey was examined in the presence of dinofla- gellate bioluminescence. Sepia oflcinalis Linnaeus and Euprymna scolopes Berry were tested for predation effi- ciency in darkness illuminated by the luminescent dino- flagellate Pyrocystis fusiformis Murry. Prey were mysids, Holmesimysis sculpta (Tattersall); grass shrimp, Palae- monetes pugio Holthuis; and mosquito fish, Gambusia a&is Baird and

KELLIE J. FLEISHER; JAMES F. CASE

1995-01-01

336

Evidence of Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillidae) in the Upper Volga River (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

*2) Synopsis: Microscopical observations of diatom mounts, processed from material of the Upper Volga Expedition 2005, revealed the presence of sponge spicules that corresponded to Spongilla lacustris (LINNAEUS 1758), Ephydatia mülleri (LIEBERKÜHN 1855), Trochospongilla horri- da WELTNER 1893, and likely Heteromeyenia baileyi (BOWERBANK 1863). These species have three different zoogeographical distributions, namely, cosmopolitan, holarctic and holarctic-amphiatlantic. In the paper illustrations

Martin SCHLETTERER; Thomas Ols EGGERS

337

Recognizing biotic breakage of the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria caused by the stone crab, Menippe mercenaria: An experimental taphonomic approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to assign lethal traces left on prey to particular durophagous predators enhances our understanding of predation pressure in the fossil record. To determine whether stone crabs (Menippe mercenaria Say 1818) leave diagnostic traces in the act of feeding on hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus 1758), live clams were offered to crabs in laboratory aquaria over several months and

M. Kosloski

2011-01-01

338

New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae) in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that

Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Ernest H. Williams

339

Study of insect succession and rate of decomposition on a partially burned pig carcass in an oil palm plantation in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects found associated with corpse can be used as one of the indicators in estimating postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of this study was to compare the stages of decomposition and faunal succession between a partially burnt pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) and natural pig (as control). The burning simulated a real crime whereby the victim was burnt by murderer. Two

Heo Chong Chin; Mohamad Abdullah Marwi; Ahmad Firdaus Mohd; John Jeffery; Hiromu Kurahashi; Baharudin Omar

2008-01-01

340

True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

Jerinic-Prodanovic, Dusanka; Protic, Ljiljana

2013-01-01

341

In vitro protein synthesis capacities in a cold stenothermal and a temperate eurythermal pectinid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translational system was isolated from the gills of the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki (Smith) and the European scallop Aequipecten opercularis (Linnaeus) for in vitro protein synthesis capacities (µg protein mg FW -1 day -1) and the translational capacities of RNA (k RNA in vitro mg protein mg RNA -1 day -1). In vitro protein synthesis capacity in the cold-adapted

D. Storch; O. Heilmayer; I. Hardewig; H.-O. Pörtner

2003-01-01

342

Reproductive strategy of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Opa reservoir, Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish family Cichlidae has a large diversity and dominates African freshwater bodies, with over 200 species reported in inland waters. Sampling for the fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) in Opa reser- voir, Nigeria, started in October 1997 and extended until February 2000. The fishing methods employed for collecting the 1 430 specimens were cast netting and gillnetting. Egg diameter varied

O. O. Komolafe; G. A. O. Arawomo

2007-01-01

343

Effect of temperature on the distribution and biomass of Mytilus edulis in the Alamitos Bay area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmopolitan bivalve, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 is abundant in bays and harbors in southern California. The purpose of the present study is to describe the distribution of this species with respect to water temperature in the Alamitos Bay area (Los Angeles County) where 4 large electrical power generating plants utilize bay water for cooling purposes and discharge the heated

C. R. Feldmeth; M. Alpert

1977-01-01

344

Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGG) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric (TTAGG)n and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+XY) and Deraeocoris ruber(Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+XY) from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785) (2n=30+XY) from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787) (2n=14+2m+XY) from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=22+X) from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (2n=12+XY) from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in Oxycarenus lavaterae and Pyrrhocoris apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the ?rst physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGG)n was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, Deraeocoris rutilus, Megaloceroea recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae), Eurydema oleracea, and Graphosoma lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown) or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from Cimex lectularius, Nabis sp. and Oxycarenus lavaterae with (TTAGG)n and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

Grozeva, S.; Kuznetsova, V.G.; Anokhin, B.A.

2011-01-01

345

Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.  

PubMed

This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa. PMID:23595493

Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

2013-05-01

346

[Studies on the mites(Order Acarina) in Korea: I. Suborder Sarcoptiformes  

PubMed

Acarid mites were isolated from samples collected in Seoul during the period of October 1975 to August 1978. Samples consisted of stored foods such as rice, flour, sugar, dried fishes, dusts of houses and freight offices. The identified mites were classified into 12 species belonging to 12 genera, 5 families as following lists, of which 4 species (*) are newly recorded in Korea. Family Acaridae Ewing and Nesbitt, 1942 1. Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) 2. Acarus siro Linnaeus, 1758 *3. Aleuroglyphus ovatus Troupeau, 1879 4. Suidasia nesbitti Hughes, 1948 5. Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze and Robin, 1868) 6. Caloglyphus berlesei (Michael, 1903) 7. Lardoglyphus konoi (Sasa and Asanuma, 1951) Family Carpoglyphidae Oudemans, 1972 8. Carpoglyphus lactis Linnaeus, 1927 Family Glyphagidae Berlese, 1887 9. Glycyphagus destructor (Schrank, 1781) *10. Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1903) Family Chortoglyphidae Berlese, 1897 *11. Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879) Family Pyroglyphidae Cunliffe, 1958 *12. Euroglyphus maynei (Cooremant 1950) PMID:12902723

Lee, Won Koo; Choi, Won Young

1980-12-01

347

Karyomorphometry on three polyploid species of Arum L. (Araceae, Aroideae).  

PubMed

In this study three polyploid Arum Linnaeus, 1753 species from Southern Italy were chromosomally investigated. Arum italicum Miller, 1768 was found to have 2n = 84 chromosomes and a karyotype composed of numerous asymmetric chromosomes. Arum maculatum Linnaeus, 1753 and Arum apulum (Carano) P. C. Boyce, 1993 were found to have 2n = 56 chromosomes. In the examined taxa some chromosome pairs were characterized by the presence of weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments. The karyotype morphology of Arum italicum was found to be similar to that of Arum maculatum, but the more asymmetrical karyotype and numerous weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments observed in the former suggest the existence of more extensive rearrangements. In contrast, Arum apulum was observed to have a symmetrical karyotype. The A1, A2 and SYi karyotype asymmetry indices are presented. The relationships between these taxa in terms of karyotype morphology and evolution are discussed. PMID:24744834

Turco, Alessio; Medagli, Pietro; Albano, Antonella; D'Emerico, Saverio

2014-01-01

348

Bute's "Botanical tables": dictated by nature.  

PubMed

In the final years of his life, after a long and turbulent political career, John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, was at last free to indulge in one of his passions: botany. The publication of Linnaeus's "Systema naturae" in 1735 threw the botanical world into disarray and academic argument raged throughout Europe. The production of the "Botanical tables" (1785) was an ambitious project to explain Bute's individual view of Linnaeus's system of taxonomy and was particularly composed for the "Fair Sex". Twelve volumes were published privately and presented to family, royalty and botanical colleagues across Europe. The "Botanical tables" were illustrated by the renowned botanical artist, John Miller. The illustrations are both aesthetically pleasing and scientifically correct. In this paper we consider the circumstances of the production of the "Botanical tables" and explore how the original sets of this publication and original material have been dispersed. PMID:20014509

Lazarus, Maureen H; Pardoe, Heather S

2009-10-01

349

Karyomorphometry on three polyploid species of Arum L. (Araceae, Aroideae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study three polyploid Arum Linnaeus, 1753 species from Southern Italy were chromosomally investigated. Arum italicum Miller, 1768 was found to have 2n = 84 chromosomes and a karyotype composed of numerous asymmetric chromosomes. Arum maculatum Linnaeus, 1753 and Arum apulum (Carano) P. C. Boyce, 1993 were found to have 2n = 56 chromosomes. In the examined taxa some chromosome pairs were characterized by the presence of weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments. The karyotype morphology of Arum italicum was found to be similar to that of Arum maculatum, but the more asymmetrical karyotype and numerous weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments observed in the former suggest the existence of more extensive rearrangements. In contrast, Arum apulum was observed to have a symmetrical karyotype. The A1, A2 and SYi karyotype asymmetry indices are presented. The relationships between these taxa in terms of karyotype morphology and evolution are discussed.

Turco, Alessio; Medagli, Pietro; Albano, Antonella; D'Emerico, Saverio

2014-01-01

350

Lists as Research Technologies  

PubMed Central

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems – most notably the sexual system – and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions or his “natural system.” Taking our clues from the anthropology of writing, we want to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can only be overcome by the use of new media.

Muller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

2013-01-01

351

Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.

Johnston, C. G.; Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

1988-01-01

352

The history of the genus Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genusHomo was established by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758. During the course of the past 150 years, the addition of fossil species to the\\u000a genusHomo has resulted in a genus that, according to the taxonomic interpretation, could span as much time as 2.5 Myr, and include\\u000a as many as ten species. This paper reviews the fossil evidence for each of

B. A. Wood

2000-01-01

353

Primary production of Utricularia foliosa L., Egeria densa Planchonand Cabomba furcata Schult & Schult.f from rivers of the coastal plain of the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in gross primary production (GPP) of Utricularia foliosa Linnaeus, Egeria densa Planchon and Cabomba furcata Schult & Schult.f. in rivers of the coastal plain of the state of So Paulo, Brazil was examined in relation to water physico-chemistry.\\u000a These three species do not affect the multiple uses of the streams and are present throughout the year. The most

A. F. M. Camargo; M. M. Pezzato; G. G. Henry-Silva; A. M. Assumpção

2006-01-01

354

Primary production of Utricularia foliosa L., Egeria densa Planchon and Cabomba furcata Schult & Schult.f from rivers of the coastal plain of the State of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in gross primary production (GPP) of Utricularia foliosa Linnaeus, Egeria densa Planchon and Cabomba furcata Schult & Schult.f. in rivers of the coastal plain of the state of São Paulo, Brazil was examined in relation to water physico-chemistry.\\u000a These three species do not affect the multiple uses of the streams and are present throughout the year. The most

A. F. M. Camargo; M. M. Pezzato; G. G. Henry-Silva; A. M. Assumpção

355

Structure and function of floating bubble nests of three armoured catfishes (Callichthyidae) in relation to the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Armoured catfishes of the family Callichthyidae are represented in Suriname by 17 small-sized fishes of the well-known genus\\u000a Corydoras (Nijssen 1970) and three larger food fishes of the genera Hoplosternum and Callichthys (Hoedeman 1952). The latter three species Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock 1828) Hoplosternum thoracatum (Cuvier and Valenciennes 1840) and Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus 1758), are the most preferred and expensive food

Jan H. A. Mol

356

A Promising Evaluation Method for Dead Leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L.) in the Adsorption of Methyl Violet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile is an endemic species in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, dead leaves of P. oceanica (L.) which are accumulated on the beach seasonally were used as an alternative low cost biosorbent to remove methyl violet\\u000a (MV) from aqueous solution. In order to explain the adsorption kinetics, pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic\\u000a models were

Sevilay Cengiz; Levent Cavas

2010-01-01

357

Selection of rendezvous sites and reuse of pup raising areas among wolves Canis lupus of north-eastern Apennines, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coarse scale analysis was carried out of factors affecting rendezvous site selection and fidelity to pup raising areas in\\u000a wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 packs inhabiting the north eastern Apennines, Italy. From 1993 to 2004, 44 rendezvous sites were identified,\\u000a and compared with random sites for variables related to topography, habitat, and human presence. Rendezvous sites were significantly\\u000a more frequent

Claudia Capitani; Luca Mattioli; Elisa Avanzinelli; Andrea Gazzola; Paolo Lamberti; Lorenza Mauri; Massimo Scandura; Alessia Viviani; Marco Apollonio

2006-01-01

358

Dry season habitat selection by a recolonizing population of Asian elephants Elephas maximus in lowland Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to landclearing and human expansion, Asian elephantElephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 is declining throughout its range. In lowland Nepal, the species now only occurs in small remnant populations,\\u000a shared with India. In order to develop guidelines for conserving the species in the country, we studied the habitat use of\\u000a a small and recently re-established population in Bardia National Park. We

Narendra Man Babu Pradhan; Per Wegge

2007-01-01

359

Habitat use and potential interactions between the house mouse and lesser white-toothed shrew on an island undergoing habitat restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To forecast the potential impact of plant community and dry-stone wall restoration on an insular population of the lesser\\u000a white-toothed shrewCrocidura suaveolens Pallas, 1811, shrew and house mouseMus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 abundances were assessed in 3 anthropogenic habitats on Béniguet Island, Brittany, France, by a standardised\\u000a annual trapping system checked yearly for 9 years and in 6 “natural” habitats by

Michel Pascal; Olivier Lorvelec; Frédéric Bioret; Pierre Yésou; Daniel Simberloff

2009-01-01

360

In vitro control of Phthirus pubis with four pediculocides: Eurax, Elimite, Licid and Benzanil.  

PubMed

Phthirus pubis, Linnaeus 1758 that causes phthiriasis is a common infestation disease. However, it is commonly be acquired in jails, brothels, and other similar places. The efficacy of four insecticides commercially known as Eurax, Elimite, Licid, and Benzanil was evaluated for controlling pubic lice in vitro. The four test insecticides proved to be very effective. However, they differed in time needed for causing 100 percent mortality and they could be arranged descendingly as follows: Licid, Eurax, Elimite, and Benzanil. PMID:8586862

Ragheb, D A; Morsy, T A; Abdalla, H M; Abou Gamra, M M

1995-12-01

361

Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptidase sequences were analysed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow meal- worm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1528 sequences, 92 encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences were obtained, including serine and cysteine proteinases and metal- lopeptidases. Serine proteinase transcripts were pre- dominant

S. Prabhakar; M.-S. Chen; E. N. Elpidina; K. S. Vinokurov; C. M. Smith; J. Marshall; B. Oppert

2007-01-01

362

Reproductive compatibility and variation in survival and sex ratio between two geographic populations of Diadromus collaris , a pupal parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst)(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) has been recordedin many parts of the world as a major pupalendoparasitoid of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera:Plutellidae). Experiments were conducted tocompare reproductive compatibility andperformance as affected by temperature betweentwo geographic populations of D.collaris, one from Hangzhou, Zhejiang and theother from Lishan, Taiwan, China. The numbersand sex ratio of progeny in all possiblecrosses and

Shu-sheng Liu; F. B. Gebremeskel; Zu-hua Shi

2002-01-01

363

Reef coral reproduction in the eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, Panama, and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive ecology of two major reef-building corals in the eastern Pacific [Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) andPocillopora elegans Dana] was investigated between 1984 and 1990 in Costa Rica, Panama (Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Panama), and the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) following the 1982–83 El Niño disturbance. Mature spermatocytes and oocytes were found in both species and were usually present in the

P. W. Glynn; N. J. Gassman; C. M. Eakin; J. Cortes; D. B. Smith; H. M. Guzman

1991-01-01

364

John Clayton Herbarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the early collectors of plant specimens, John Clayton (1694-1773), has gained historical fame through his specimens, which were studied in Europe by the Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus. The Natural History Museum (London) hosts the John Clayton Herbarium homepage, providing historical information on John Clayton, a searchable database of Clayton's specimens (shown as JPEG images), a concise bibliography, and links to other historical botanical collections.

365

Nuclear DNA contents of all species of Helleborus (Ranunculaceae) discriminate between species and sectional divisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Genome size (C-values) and pollen viability staining were applied as new criteria to investigate the species of the genus\\u000a Helleborus Linnaeus (Ranunculaceae). All species have the same chromosome number (2n=32). However, the nuclear DNA content, as measured\\u000a by flow cytometry with propidium iodide, could be demonstrated to range between 19?pg to 35.7?pg. The different genome sizes\\u000a of the species coincided

B. J. M. Zonneveld

2001-01-01

366

Allozyme variation in global populations of striped mullet, Mugil cephalus (Pisces: Mugilidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The striped mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758, is one of the few species of marine shore fish with a worldwide circumtropical distribution. Because of this\\u000a distribution and the dependency of M. cephalus on coastal waters during various phases of its life cycle, as well as nearshore living habits, questions have been raised\\u000a regarding levels of genetic divergence and gene flow

A. R. Rossi; M. Capula; D. Crosetti; L. Sola; D. E. Campton

1998-01-01

367

TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON THE VEGETABLE PEST OF GENUS PLUTELLA SCHRÄNK (PLUTELLIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA) FROM NORTHWESTERN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic studies of Plutella xylostella Linnaeus from northwestern India was made based on the structural details of wing venation and external genitalia. ABBREVIATIONS IA+2A - Vein representing fused first and second anal vein; 3A - Third anal vein; CuA1 - First anterior cubital vein; CuA2 - Second anterior cubital vein; CuP - Posterior cubital vein; FRI - Forest Research Institute;

P. C. Pathania; H. S. Rose

368

Use of human buildings by Eurasian badgers in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains, Czech Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inspection of human buildings used by Eurasian badgersMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) in 28 sites in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains, Czech Republic, was carried out in 2001. The buildings\\u000a inhabited or visited by badgers were as follows: wooden barns (18 cases), masonry buildings used for residential purposes\\u000a (4), abandoned buildings (1), wooden sheds (2), wooden beehouses (2) and a non-residential

Lukáš Pavlaèík; Ivan Literák; Ji?í Klimeš; Martina Bojková

2004-01-01

369

Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

370

Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, internal N pools, and growth of Ulva lactuca : responses to long and short-term N supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast-growing macroalgae, including Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, respond rapidly to changes in nutrient conditions, particularly to short-term N supply. This ability to rapidly\\u000a take up and assimilate N contributes to the increasing occurrence of macroalgal blooms in heavily N loaded coastal ecosystems.\\u000a To determine whether long-term nutrient histories affect short-term responses in activity of N-assimilating enzymes, including\\u000a nitrate reductase (NRA) and

M. Teichberg; L. R. Heffner; S. Fox; I. Valiela

2007-01-01

371

Zum Auf und Ab des Meeresspiegels in Skandinavien: Langer Streit um Eustasie oder Isostasie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of the rise of the Scandinavian shield during the Holocene and the concomitant fall in level of the Baltic\\u000a Sea has been investigated for centuries. Already in medieval times, there were reports about the coastlines of the Gulf of\\u000a Bothnia that are full of relevant observations. During the eighteenth century, scientists such as Celsius and Linnaeus collected\\u000a observations

Eugen SeiboldIlse Seibold; Ilse Seibold

2011-01-01

372

Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.  

PubMed

The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

2011-04-01

373

Influence of grapevine cultivars on the leafhopper Empoasca vitis and its egg parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) can cause economic damage in European vineyards. Egg parasitoids, in particular Anagrus atomus (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), are the most important natural enemies of the leafhopper. In four different years, leaves\\u000a of ten grapevine cultivars, which were grown in a vineyard of north-eastern Italy, were collected at the end of the leafhopper\\u000a 2nd generation

Francesco Pavan; Patrizia Picotti

2009-01-01

374

Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), hake (Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits\\/km2) and

Roberto Carlucci; Lembo Giuseppe; Maiorano Porzia; Capezzuto Francesca; Marano Chiara Alessandra; Sion Letizia; Spedicato Maria Teresa; Ungaro Nicola; Tursi Angelo; Gianfranco D'Onghia

2009-01-01

375

Genetic Variation and Relative Catalytic Efficiencies: Lactate Dehydrogenase B Allozymes of Fundulus Heteroclitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate whether functional differences exist between allelic variants of a B type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) in the teleost fish Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus), the kinetic properties of pyruvate reduction were examined. While the pH dependence and the temperature dependence for maximal catalysis were indistinguishable among the allozymes, reaction velocities at low pyruvate concentrations were

Dennis A. Powers

1979-01-01

376

Space use of common genets Genetta genetta in a Mediterranean habitat of northeastern Spain: differences between sexes and seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal home range size and spatial relationships of 16 adult genetsGenetta genetta Linnaeus, 1758 (6 males and 10 females) were estimated in a Mediterranean habitat of northeastern Spain. Genets minimum density\\u000a was estimated as 0.98\\/km2. Mean annual home range was 113.1 ha in males and of 72.0 ha in females. Males had larger home ranges than females in all

David Camps Munuera; Francesc Llimona Llobet

2004-01-01

377

Whartonia (Fascutonia) natsumei (Acari: Trombiculidae): a new bat chigger collected from Plecotus auritus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Japan, with host and distribution records of the genus Whartonia.  

PubMed

We describe and illustrate a new bat chigger, Whartonia (Fascutonia) natsumei Takahashi, Takahashi & Kikuchi n. sp., ex. Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758), from Japan, and summarize the host and distribution records of the chiggers of the genus Whartonia Ewing, 1944. With the description of a new species here, the number of Whartonia species increases to 40 composed of 22 species from Asia, 14 from North and South America in addition to Central America, and four from Africa. PMID:16619590

Takahashi, Mamoru; Takahashi, Hisae; Kikuchi, Hirosato

2006-03-01

378

Spawning of the cobia, Rachycentron canadum , in the Chesapeake Bay area, with observations of juvenile specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic eggs collected in Atlantic coastal waters adjacent to Chesapeake Bay have been identified as those of the cobia,Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus). The egg diameters ranged from 1.16 mm to 1.42 mm with a mean of 1.27 mm. The single large oil globule had a mean\\u000a diameter of 0.38 mm.\\u000a \\u000a The presence of gravid females and the appearance of cobia eggs

Edwin B. Joseph; John J. Norcross; William H. Massmann

1964-01-01

379

The first valid publication of the Linnaean Mnium triquetrum (Musci) and other new names for mosses proposed by N. Jolyclerc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief biographical sketch of Nicolas-Marie-Thérèse Jolyclerc (1746–1817), the French naturalist and adherent of C. Linnaeus, is presented. The publication history of his Système sexuel des végétaux, the first French version of the Linnaean sexual system of the plants is outlined. Apart from the well-known editions of this work of 1797, 1798 and 1810, a neglected edition of 1803 is

Ryszard Ochyra; Denis Lamy

2001-01-01

380

Population structure of loggerhead turtle ( Carettacaretta ) nesting colonies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean as inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were analyzed for 249 Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead turtles (Carettacaretta Linnaeus, 1758) to elucidate nesting population structure and phylogeographic patterns. Ten haplotypes were resolved among\\u000a individuals sampled between 1987 and 1993, from ten major loggerhead nesting areas in the region. Two distinct phylogenetic\\u000a lineages were distinguished, separated by an average of 5.1% sequence divergence.

S. E. Encalada; K. A. Bjorndal; A. B. Bolten; J. C. Zurita; B. Schroeder; E. Possardt; C. J. Sears; B. W. Bowen

1998-01-01

381

Food digestibility of an Eurasian badger Meles meles with special reference to the Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding trials were carried out with a captive adult badgerMeles meles (Linnaeus, 1758) to establish relationships (digestibility coefficients) between the biomass of freshly consumed food and\\u000a the dry undigested remnants recovered from scats (bone, teeth, hair, feathers, exoskeleton parts, seeds, etc). The foods studied\\u000a were those revealed by our research to be the principal components of badger diet in a

Luís M. Rosalino; Filipa Loureiro; David W. Macdonald; Margarida Santos-Reis

2003-01-01

382

Late autumn trophic flexibility of the golden jackal Canis aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding habits of the golden jackal Canis aureus (Linnaeus, 1758) were compared using scat analysis in Hungary (temperate\\u000a climate agricultural area), Greece (Mediterranean marshland), and Israel (Mediterranean agricultural area). Samples (84, 70\\u000a and 64 scats, respectively) were collected during late autumn, a period with capital importance to the long term survival\\u000a of young jackals, during which they become independent.

József Lanszki; Giorgos Giannatos; Amit Dolev; Gilad Bino; Miklós Heltai

2010-01-01

383

Effect of fishing pressure on the spatio-temporal variability of the parrotfish, Sparisoma cretense (Pisces: Scaridae), across the Canarian Archipelago (eastern Atlantic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated spatio-temporal variability in the population structure of the parrotfish, Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus, 1758), throughout the Canarian Archipelago (eastern Atlantic Ocean) with underwater visual transects. By means of a multiscaled hierarchical sampling design spanning three orders of magnitude of spatial variability (from 10s of meters between replicated 100m2 transects to 100s of kilometres among islands) and four sampling times

F. Tuya; L. Ortega-Borges; P. Sanchez-Jerez; R. J. Haroun

2006-01-01

384

Cohort variation in the life-history parameters of stoats Mustela erminea in relation to fluctuating food resources: a challenge to boreal ecologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews field evidence suggesting that periodic temporary population irruptions of feral house miceMus musculus in New Zealand have a substantial effect on the reproductive success of stoatsMustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758. Stoats born during the summer of a peak in numbers of mice are more numerous and have higher fecundity (ovulation\\u000a rate) but lower productivity (independent offspring per female)

Carolyn M. King

2002-01-01

385

Identification and detection method for genetically modified papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus YK strain.  

PubMed

Unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya LINNAEUS) was detected in a commercially processed product, which included papaya as a major ingredient, in Japan. We identified the transgenic vector construct generated based on resistance to infection with the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) YK strain. A specific detection method to qualitatively monitor papaya products for contamination with the GM papaya was developed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. PMID:21963512

Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

2011-01-01

386

The melliferous potential of forest and meadow plant communities on Mount Tara (Serbia).  

PubMed

The apiflora of 34 forest and meadow plant communities in Tara National Park was studied with the aim of assessing their melliferous potential and their contribution to bee pasture during the vegetation period. The melliferous plants were analyzed individually from the aspect of their flowering phenology, abundance, and the intensity of nectar and pollen production, as well as the production of honeydew. The melliferous potential of each investigated plant community was theoretically assessed on the basis of the coenotic coefficient of melliferousness incorporating a phytocoenotic analysis, the coenotic coefficients of nectar and pollen production, and the percentage of melliferous species in relation to the total number of species that characterize the association. The highest percentage of the melliferous species was noted in the meadow association Petasitetum hybridi (70%) and the forest association Piceetum-Abietis serpentinicum (63.6%). The highest values of the coenotic coefficient of melliferousness were established for the forest association Querco-Carpinetum iliricum, and the meadow association Rhinantho-Cynosuretum cristati. Trees notable for their honeydew production in good quantities were Pinus nigra Arnold, Picea sp. Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus, Populus tremula Linnaeus, and Quercus cerris Linnaeus. Because, the vegetation in the study area is forest dominated, forest bee pasture including early flowering herbaceous and woody plants, is of the greatest significance for the honey bee, both in the early spring because of pollen and nectar production, and in the autumn as a source of honeydew. PMID:23905735

Jari?, Snežana; Ma?ukanovi?-Joci?, Marina; Mitrovi?, Miroslava; Pavlovi?, Pavle

2013-08-01

387

[Abundance and seasonality of Diptera (Insecta) in a poultry house in the northeast region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil].  

PubMed

Modern production systems accommodate broody hens in high densities, leading to the accumulation of excrement under the cages. This substrate is excellent for the development of sinantropic flies. Thus, the accomplishment of surveys in these places becomes essential, in order to plan better strategies of control. The present work aimed at studying the entomofauna and the seasonality of the species of dipterous present in the Crisdan poultry house located in the Municipality of São João da Boa Vista, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. In the period of January of 2001 to December of 2002, 1,012,595 flies were captured using the "jug-trap". The species were identified: Drosophila repleta (Wollaston, 1858), Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758), Ophyra spp., Hermetria illucens (Linnaeus, 1758), Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), and Sepsidae. More frequently D. repleta and M. domestica had added 99.47% of the dipterous. Increased rainfall and the collection months influenced the sampling of dipterous (P<0.05). Drosophila repleta was the most abundant species, representing 91% of all captured flies. However, this diptera did not develop at the surveyed site since immatures were not captured therein. PMID:18554436

Lopes, Welber Daniel Z; da Costa, Fábio H; Lopes, Wilton Carlos Z; Balieiro, Júlio César de C; Soares, Vando E; do Prado, Angelo P

2008-01-01

388

New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female), and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva). Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius) (16 nymphs) and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph). Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus), were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs), and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae). The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species. PMID:20943027

Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Barbieri, Fábio Silva; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Brito, Luciana Gatto; Ribeiro, Francisco Dimas Sales

2010-01-01

389

Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).  

PubMed

1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

2014-01-01

390

New and already known acanthocephalans mostly from mammals in Vietnam, with descriptions of two new genera and species in Archiacanthocephala.  

PubMed

Adults of 2 new species and 2 new genera of acanthocephalans in class Archiacanthocephala, collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam from the intestines of mammals, are described, i.e., Cucullanorhynchus constrictruncatus n. gen., n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from a leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and Paraprosthenorchis ornatus n. gen. n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the Chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Manidae). Adult Sphaerechinorhynchus macropisthospinus Amin, Wongsawad, Marayong, Saehoong, Suwattanacoupt, and Sey, 1998 (Plagiorhynchidae) are described for the first time from 2 females collected from a tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and from 1 male from a water monitor Varanus salvator Laurenti (Reptilia: Varanidae). Characteristic features distinguishing the new species or genera from related taxa are as follows. The trunk of C. constrictruncatus has an anterior hood in both sexes and a posterior constriction in females. The anterior trunk of P. ornatus has many small festoons and proboscis hooks are inserted in elevated papillae separated by beady, near hexagonal, ornate grids. PMID:18372641

Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

2008-02-01

391

Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.  

PubMed

An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (<3.5 kDa) and of high molecular weight (HMW) (3.5-100 kDa and >100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel

2013-08-15

392

Survey of Predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata.

Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad

2007-01-01

393

Multielemental analysis of purpleback flying squad using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS).  

PubMed

Forty-four elements were analyzed in 21 tissues of purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, by high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Greater concentrations of V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Bi were found in liver, pancreas, and ink sac than in other tissues. Ink sac concentrated remarkable levels of Ca and Sr in addition to the above-mentioned elements. Several alkalis, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements preferentially accumulated in muscle. Among the hard tissues, accumulation of V and U in beak, Ni, Zn, and Cd in gladius and Cr in skin was prominent. K, Rb, Cs, Pb, Bi and some transition elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the livers of adult than in juvenile squids. Sodium, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements were higher in the livers of juveniles than in adult squids. PMID:11505984

Ichihashi, H; Kohno, H; Kannan, K; Tsumura, A; Yamasaki, S I

2001-08-01

394

Effect of water quality parameters on the distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda-Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean: a statistical approach.  

PubMed

The region between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S latitude was known to be congenial for distribution of Pleuromamma species. Diel and ontogenetic migrations were observed for Pleuromamma xiphias. Multivariate analyses such as factor analysis on species' abundance and predictive step-up multiple regression models of water quality parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and their first order interaction effects on Pleuromamma species' abundance, were carried out in the regions, off 10 degrees N, 10 degrees N to 10 degrees S, 10 degrees S to 30 degrees S, along the Somali Coast (38 degrees S-40 degrees S) and a fifth region along the western boundary of the above four regions. Relation between Pleuromamma species' abundance and the water quality parameters showed a decreasing trend in the variability explained (VE) from region 1 (VE = 55.19%) to region 4 (VE = 31.15%) in the models, indicating that the influence of other ecological factors was of higher significance in the south than in the north, with a north south gradient. Indices of diversity (Shannon-Weaver) and evenness (Heips) were calculated and lognormal distributions fitted for these indices were found to be a good fit (p < 0.05). The five regions were compared, based on critical ratio of the diversity index. Shannon-Weaver diversity showed higher values during night collections than day collections, justifying the tendency for diurnal variations. Diversity and dominance were highly (r = 0.95) correlated. A multilinkage cluster analysis by group averaging method for the species, based on the standardised values of log(10) (X + 1) transformed species' abundance, showed that Pleuromamma indica, Pleuromamma gracilis and Pleuromamma abdominalis were not segregated in any of the five regions. Bray and Curtis (1957) coefficient of similarity for the species in the five regions combined together, showed 50% similarity for the cluster containing circum-global species, Pleuromamma piseki, P. gracilis, P. abdominalis and P. borealis. The species, P. indica and P. xiphias entered this cluster at 22% similarity level. Multivariate factor analysis by row normalisation (for species) and column normalisation (for stations), using varimax rotation to simple structure for unique grouping of species as well as stations, carried out in the five regions, showed that the maximum number of species' clusters were obtained in region 2, indicating a higher variability in the ecological conditions in this region than in the other four regions. The significance of the factor model and the differential factor groups of species were also determined in the studied regions. On a broader scale, based on the ecological aspect, the first four regions could be reduced to two regions, viz, region 1 including the north off 10 degrees N, Central Indian Ocean and the area of subtropical convergence, and region 2 consisting exclusively of the equatorial region between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S based on distribution of Pleuromamma species. The plot of the species abundance with respect to latitude also showed such a demarcation. PMID:18712613

Jayalakshmy, K V; Saraswathy, M; Nair, Maheswari

2009-08-01

395

Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, É. Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat.

Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

2009-01-01

396

A Rapid Genetic Assay for the Identification of the Most Common Pocillopora damicornis Genetic Lineages on the Great Barrier Reef  

PubMed Central

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758; Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae) has recently been found to comprise at least five distinct genetic lineages in Eastern Australia, some of which likely represent cryptic species. Due to similar and plastic gross morphology of these lineages, field identification is often difficult. Here we present a quick, cost effective genetic assay as well as three novel microsatellite markers that distinguish the two most common lineages found on the Great Barrier Reef. The assay is based on PCR amplification of two regions within the mitochondrial putative control region, which show consistent and easily identifiable fragment size differences for the two genetic lineages after Alu1 restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons.

Torda, Gergely; Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Peplow, Lesa M.; Lundgren, Petra; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

2013-01-01

397

A new genus of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) associated with mousebirds (Aves: Coliiformes).  

PubMed

A new monotypic genus Colisyringophilus n. g. is established for C. tanzanicus n. sp., quill mites parasitising two mouse bird species from Tanzania, Colius striatus Gmelin and Urocolius macrourus (Linnaeus). This new genus is closely related to Neoaulobia Fain, Bochkov & Mironov, 2000, but differs from it by the following features: the stylophore is rounded posteriorly, the propodonotal shield is reduced to triangular sclerite bearing bases of setae vi and ve, the hysteronotal shield is absent, legs I are longer than legs II, and apodemes I are distinctly elongated. This is the first record of syringophilid mites from hosts of the order Coliiformes. PMID:23793495

Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Ozminski, Micha?

2013-07-01

398

Latin abbreviations and words used in scale insect literature
(Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).
 

PubMed

Latin abbreviations and words have been used in the zoological literature since Linnaeus (1758), although some are now rare but were in common usage in the 18th and 19th centuries. The following list of Latin abbreviations and words is prepared to help students of scale insects who are not acquainted with Latin and those who may be just beginning to learn about the study of scale insects with its vast literature. There are many more abbreviations in zoological literature but the list concentrates on those used in scale insect literature. PMID:24872241

Williams, Douglas J; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

2014-01-01

399

California Academy of Sciences-Ichthyology: The Catalog of Fishes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Searching for a comprehensive fish information resource? The Catalog of Fishes from the California Academy of Sciences contains approximately 56,000 described species and subspecies of fishes making it "the first treatment of all described fishes since Linnaeus in 1758." The Catalog also contains approximately 21,700 references, and 10,600 genera and subgenera. The website includes an Introduction with brief sections for Species of Fishes, Genera of Fishes, Species of Classification, Genera in Classification, and Literature Cited. Site users can locate fish by searching separate databases for genera, species, and references. The site also provides instructions for searching the three respective databases.

400

A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.  

PubMed

The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region. PMID:24872050

Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

2014-01-01

401

Comparative properties of the inclusion body proteins of the nucleopolyhedrosis viruses of Neodiprion sertifer and Lymantria dispar.  

PubMed

A comparison was made on the properties of the inclusion body proteins of two insect viruses: the nucleopolyhedrosis viruses of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, Geoffroy, and the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, Linnaeus. The inclusion body proteins were characterized by the following parameters: amino acid composition, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the absence and presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate--mercaptoethanol, isoelectric focusing, and alkaline protease activity. The properties of the inclusion body proteins of the two viruses were similar in many respects, but clear differences were observed. A principal difference was the absence of alkaline protease activity associated with the inclusion body proteins of N. sertifer nucleopolyhedrosis virus. PMID:378184

Brown, S E; Kaczmarek, F S; Dubois, N R; Zerillo, R T; Holleman, J; Breillatt, J P; Mazzone, H M

1979-01-01

402

Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon.  

PubMed

Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon, is described and distinguished from its congeners. Monoecocestus thomasi is the sixth species of Monoecocestus to be described from nearctic rodents, and the first from a member of the family Sciuridae. Our comparisons of taxonomic characters of the nominal species of Monoecocestus in North American rodents have shown that M. giganticus Buhler 1970 is a synonym of M. americanus (Stiles 1895), both from the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum (Linnaeus). Insemination in Monoecocestus ssp. is discussed, with the conclusion that it takes place only by way of the vagina in early immature segments. PMID:915607

Rausch, R L; Maser, C

1977-10-01

403

Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region.  

PubMed

The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

2012-01-01

404

Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region  

PubMed Central

Abstract The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna.

Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

2012-01-01

405

[Preliminary studies on the cestodofauna of goosander Mergus merganser L., 1758 from West Pomerania].  

PubMed

The research included 54 individuals of the goosander Mergus merganser L., 1758 (Anseriformes, Mergini), wintering on Lake Dabie within the administrative limits of Szczecin. Seven species of cestoda from two families were found in those ducks. Two species from the family Diphyllobothriidae were recorded: Ligula intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776), and five species from family Hymenolepididae: Dicranotaenia mergi Yamaguti, 1940, Fimbriaria mergi Grytner-Ziecina et Cielecka, 1995, Microsomacanthus vistulae (Czaplinski, 1960), Retinometra macracanthos (von Linstow, 1877) oraz Tschertkovilepis tenuirostris (Rudolphi, 1819). Founding species Dicranotaenia mergi is the first observation of this type in Poland. PMID:18702321

Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

2008-01-01

406

[Aythya fuligula--new host for Retinometra pittalugai Lopez-Neyra, 1932 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) recorded in Poland for the first time].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. They were determined as Retinometra pittalugai (Lopez-Neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. This is the first record of this species in Poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in Anas platyrhynchos f. dom., Aythya marila, A. ferina and Bucephala clangula in Spain, in Kamchatka and in Novosibirsk. PMID:19338226

Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

2008-01-01

407

On the misidentification of Anagrus ustulatus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).  

PubMed

The cosmopolitan genus Anagrus Haliday is one of the largest in Mymaridae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), and includes very common egg parasitoids, mostly of leafhoppers. The smallest species (body length: 0.4-0.6 mm) are found in the atomus species group. This group at present includes about 20 species worldwide. Anagrus atomus (Linnaeus) is among the most common species in the Palaearctic region. Other populations very similar in morphology and biology to this species are also widespread and associated with several leafhoppers infesting wild and cultivated plants (Matteucig & Viggiani 2008). Some specimens of these populations were identified as A. ustulatus Haliday by Chiappini (1989), who presumably followed Graham (1982). PMID:24990057

Viggiani, Gennaro

2014-01-01

408

The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for Xylocopa sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of Xylocopa sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton) (Asclepiadaceae) and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae).

Hannan, Mohammed A.; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-01-01

409

New taxonomic data on the genus Ypsolopha Latreille (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) with descriptions of two new species from the Russian Far East  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two new species of the genus Ypsolopha Latreille, 1796 are described from Far East of Russia: Ypsolopha melanofuscella sp. n. and Ypsolopha straminella sp. n. Two new synomymies are proposed: Ypsolopha ulingensis Yang, 1977, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha costibasella (Caradja, 1939); and Cerostoma falculella Erschoff, 1877, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha asperella Linnaeus, 1761. The species Ypsolopha costibasella Caradja, 1939, Ypsolopha nigrofasciata Yang, 1977 and Ypsolopha nigrimaculata Byun et Park, 2001 are recorded from Far East of Russia for the first time. The male genitalia of Ypsolopha nigrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time, diagnostic genital characters are given.

Ponomarenko, Margarita G.; Zinchenko, Yuliya N.

2013-01-01

410

The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

Nowak R. M.; Federoff, N. E.

2002-01-01

411

Sex chromosome meiotic drive in hybrid males of the common shrew (Sorex araneus).  

PubMed

Patterns of sex chromosome segregation in six homozygous males of the common shrew (Sorex araneus LINNAEUS, 1758) belonging to two chromosomal races, as well as in 16 interracial hybrids were studied. Based on their karyotypes the hybrids can be subdivided into two groups: (a) complex heterozygotes, which form meiotic quadrivalents in chain and chain + ring configurations, and (b) complex heterozygotes, which form meiotic pentavalents in chain configurations. Random (1:1) segregation of sex chromosomes was found in homozygous as well as those heterozygous males which form meiotic complexes of four chromosomes. However, in some hybrids with meiotic pentavalents we observed a strong preferential segregation in favour of X chromosomes. PMID:19058534

Fedyk, Stanis?aw; Bajkowska, Urszula; Chetnicki, W?odzimierz

2005-01-01

412

Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazare; Timi, Juan Tomas; Luque, Jose Luis

2013-01-01

413

Names for Ixodidae (Acari: Ixodoidea): valid, synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, lapsus, incorrect and suppressed names--with notes on confusions and misidentifications.  

PubMed

A major, but not exhaustive, literature revision has been made to compile the names of Ixodidae from Linnaeus to present. Names are classified as valid, synonyms, lapsus, incertae sedis, nomina dubia, nomina nuda, incorrect and suppressed. Notes are included for confusions and misidentifications among different tick species. The lists included in this study are neither aimed to be consensual nor focusing to stabilize nomenclature, but rather part of a discussion on the species forming Ixodidae and a potential aid for research on tick taxonomy and phylogeny. PMID:24871038

Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

2014-01-01

414

Redescription of the male and first description of the female of Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a parasite of the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus.  

PubMed

A redescription of the male and the first description of the female of the intestinal nematode Capillaria carioca Freitas et Lent, 1935 are presented on the basis of specimens collected from the type host, the marine fish Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei, Tetraodontoidei), from the Lagoon of Yucalpetén in the northern coast of Yucatan (Gulf of Mexico), Mexico. This species is characterized by a well-sclerotized spicule and by the presence of two large ventrolateral lobe-like papillae on the male caudal end and, therefore, is assigned to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987. C. carioca is reported from Mexico for the first time. PMID:8570582

Moravec, F; Vargas Vázquez, J; Mendoza Franco, E; Vivas Rodríguez, C

1995-01-01

415

A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters.  

PubMed

Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters. PMID:24824677

MacKenzie, Brian R; Payne, Mark R; Boje, Jesper; Høyer, Jacob L; Siegstad, Helle

2014-08-01

416

Molecular identification of Anisakis spp. from fishes collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean).  

PubMed

The accurate identification of anisakid nematodes at any life cycle stage is important both to deepen the knowledge on their taxonomy, ecology, epidemiology and for diagnosis and control, as larval stages cause a clinical disease in humans known as anisakidosis. With the aim to investigate the presence of anisakid larvae, specimens of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), silver scabbardfish, Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen, 1788), European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) and opah fish, Lampris guttatus (Brunnich, 1788), were collected by trawling at depths ranging from 50 to 400 m. A molecular approach based on restriction profiles obtained after digestion of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region was used to identify Anisakis spp. larvae recovered in fish samples. Restriction profiles showed three banding patterns, corresponding to Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis physeteris and to heterozygote pattern between A. pegreffii and Anisakis simplex s.s. Specimens showing the heterozygote restriction pattern were also analyzed by sequencing of the entire ITS region, to confirm the heterozygote status. PMID:22360842

Cavallero, S; Ligas, A; Bruschi, F; D'Amelio, S

2012-07-01

417

Famous physicians-botanists.  

PubMed

Two hundred years ago a group of physicians laid the foundations of botany with their study of plants for medicinal purposes. Linnaeus of Sweden devised the binomial classification of plants, which is still in use today. Boerhaave of Leyden revitalized bedside teaching and was a major influence in the English-speaking medical schools. Sloane founded the still-existing Physic Garden in London; his natural history collection formed the foundation of the British Museum. Withering prepared digitalis from the purple foxglove and wrote a standard work on the cultivation of vegetables. The gardenia and poinsettia are named after New World physician-botanists Alexander Garden and Joel Poinsett. Swedish physicians Sparrman and Thunberg, pupils of Linnaeus, were the major and original describers of the Cape flora. Atherstone of Grahamstown--the first doctor to use a general anaesthetic (ether) outside America and Europe--is a 19th century example of the naturalist physician as an ardent botanist; he was also a geologist and identified the first diamond found in South Africa. PMID:3890219

Dubovsky, H

1985-06-01

418

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL-1) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g-1) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g-1) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries.

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2014-01-01

419

Two species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from sparid fishes (porgies) off Sicily, Italy, including Philometra obladae sp. n. from the body cavity of Oblada melanura (Sparidae).  

PubMed

Two species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae), were, for the first time, recorded from fishes of the family Sparidae (porgies) from the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sicily, Italy: Philometra obladae sp. n. from the body cavity of the saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus) and Philometra filiformis (Stossich, Boll Soc Adriat Sci Nat 17:121-136, 1896) from the gonads of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus). The new species (a single gravid female available) is characterised mainly by a large body (335 mm long, 3.4 mm wide), minute cephalic papillae (14 in number) arranged in two circles, a relatively short (1.29 mm) oesophagus with a distinct anterior inflation, a rounded caudal end without any projections and the length of larvae (549-600 mum) from the uterus. A key to species of Philometra with females located in the body cavity of marine and brackish-water fishes is given. Some new data on the female morphology of a little-known gonad-infecting species P. filiformis are provided; new observations revealed, for the first time in this species, the presence of lateral cephalic papillae and the absence of previously reported black intestinal corpuscles in the larvae. PMID:18762982

Moravec, F; Gaglio, G; Panebianco, A; Giannetto, S

2008-12-01

420

A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host.  

PubMed

A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Køie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.). PMID:23724734

Køie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil; Einen, Ann-Cathrine Bårdsgjtere; Nylund, Are

2013-05-01

421

Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

1999-01-01

422

Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL(-1)) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g(-1)) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g(-1)) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries. PMID:24734068

Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

2014-01-01

423

A comparative study of the mechanical properties of Mytilid byssal threads.  

PubMed

Mytilid bivalves employ a set of threads (the byssus) to attach themselves to both hard and soft substrates. In this study, we measured the mechanical properties of byssal threads from two semi-infaunal mytilids (Geukensia demissa Dillwyn and Modiolus modiolus Linnaeus) and two epifaunal mytilids (Mytilus californianus Conrad and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus). We compared material properties with and without the assumption that changes of length and area during tensile testing are insignificant, demonstrating that previous researchers have overestimated extensibility values by 30% and may also have underestimated strength values. We detected significant differences in thread properties among tested mytilid species, contrary to previous findings. Threads from semi-infaunal species were significantly thinner than those from epifaunal species, perhaps to allow the production of a greater number of threads, which form a dense network within the substrate. Geukensia demissa threads were weaker than those of the other species, and had a significantly lower stiffness at failure. Modiolus modiolus threads were significantly stiffer than M. edulis threads but also significantly less extensible, suggesting a trade-off between stiffness and extensibility. The only thread property that did not show significant differences across species was toughness - even when byssal threads differ in strength or stiffness, they seem to absorb similar amounts of energy per unit volume prior to failure. This study reveals notable differences between the byssal thread properties of different mytilid bivalves and provides a reliable and thorough methodology for future comparative studies. PMID:19411537

Pearce, Trevor; Labarbera, Michael

2009-05-01

424

The type series of Chloris sinica tschiliensis Jacobi, 1923 (Aves, Fringillidae).  

PubMed

The Oriental Greenfinch Carduelis sinica (Linnaeus, 1766) is currently regarded as consisting of five to six subspecies (Dickinson 2003: 749; Clement 2010: 543-544; Clements et al. 2012; Gill & Donsker 2012; treated as Chloris sinica by the latter two authors). In 1923, Arnold Jacobi, then working at the Zoological Museum in Dresden, described the subspecies Chloris sinica tschiliensis, but it was recognized for just a few years before being synonymised by Howell et al. (1968: 236) under Carduelis s. sinica (Linnaeus, 1766). The description is based on twelve specimens (six males, five adult females, one juvenile female) obtained by Hugo Weigold during his participation in Walt(h)er Stötzner's 1914-1916 Sichuan expedition (Jacobi 1923). Although most of the birds have ever since been present in different collections, the whereabouts of the type series remained unclear for several years (e.g., van den Elzen 2010). Thus, in the following I present a comprehensive overview of the identity and contemporary availability of the original specimens that Jacobi had at hand. PMID:24699588

Töpfer, Till

2013-01-01

425

Relative potency of lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin applied as thermal fogs for the control of houseflies (Musca domestica) and mosquitos (Aedes aegypti).  

PubMed

Two highly active synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin, were evaluated as thermal fogs against houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus) and mosquitos (Aedes aegypti Linnaeus). Lambdacyhalothrin (OMS 3021) showed an average of 2.5 times more knockdown activity and over 5 times more adulticidal activity than cypermethrin against Musca domestica and Aedes aegypti. These results demonstrate that lambdacyhalothrin is highly effective at very low rates as a thermal fog against Ae. aegypti and M. domestica. Commercially available formulations of 2.5% and 5% lambdacyhalothrin can be diluted either with water for ULV cold aerosol space-spraying or with diesel/kerosene for thermal fogging at recommended application rates of 0.5-1 g ai/ha for mosquito control and 2 g ai/ha for housefly control. Due to the very low rates of application, formulated products of lambdacyhalothrin are unlikely to present any acute hazards in normal use. The low dosages required to bring about rapid control of houseflies and mosquitos make this new pyrethroid insecticide particularly cost-effective. Coupled with its good residual activity (Jutsum et al, 1984), lambdacyhalothrin can be adopted as a powerful tool in integrated pest management program for the control of medically important pests and vectors. PMID:2402678

Lim, J L; Visvalingam, M

1990-03-01

426

Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

2013-05-01

427

Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties  

PubMed Central

Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process.

Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentao, Patricia

2012-01-01

428

PCR-based identification of Adriatic specimen of three scorpionfish species (Scorpaenidae, Teleostei).  

PubMed

The identification of three scorpionfish species, the black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758), the large-scaled scorpionfish (S. scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) and the small red scorpionfish (S. notata Rafinesque, 1810) is possible in adults by morphometry, but often problematic in juveniles due to their similar phenotypes. To develop a molecular species identification tool, first, we have analyzed the genetic similarity of the three species by a PCR-based 'blind method' that amplified bands from various locations of the genome. We found high levels of nucleotide similarity between S. porcus and S. scrofa, whereas S. notata showed a higher level of divergence from the other two species. Then, we have searched these patterns for differences between the genomes of Adriatic specimen of these three species and identified several species-specific products in two of them. For the third one a species-specific primer pair amplifying from the 16S ribosomal DNA was designed. One marker for each species was cloned, sequenced and converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers amplified by specific primer pairs. The SCAR markers amplified robust bands of limited variability from the target species, while no or only occasional weak products were obtained from the other two, proving that they can be used for molecular identification of these three species. These markers can help the conservation and future analysis of these three species as well as their possible selection programs for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24873907

Saju, J M; Németh, Sz; Sz?cs, Réka; Sukumaran, Rashmi; Lim, Z; Wong, L; Orbán, L; Bercsényi, M

2014-06-01

429

Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.  

PubMed

The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

2005-01-01

430

The hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Malagasy region taxonomic revision of the T. naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxonomy of the Tetramorium naganum, T. plesiarum, T. schaufussii, and T. severini species groups are revised for the Malagasy region. A total of 31 species are treated, of which 22 are newly described and nine redescribed. This increases the richness of the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium in the Malagasy region to 106 species, which makes it the most species-rich genus in the region. Twenty-nine of the treated species are endemic to Madagascar, one is endemic to the Comoros, and one species is found predominantly in Madagascar but also on the island of Reunion. The T. naganum species group contains five species, which are mainly distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar: T. alperti sp. n., T. dalek sp. n., T. enkidu sp. n., T. gilgamesh sp. n., and T. naganum Bolton, 1979. The T. plesiarum species group holds five species: T. bressleri sp. n., T. hobbit sp. n., T. gollum sp. n., T. mars sp. n., and T. plesiarum Bolton, 1979. All five are arid-adapted species occurring in the southwest and west of Madagascar. The second-most species-rich group in the region is the T. schaufussii species group with 20 species, most of which inhabit rainforests or montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. This group includes two species complexes each containing ten species: the T. cognatum complex with the species T. aspis sp. n., T. camelliae sp. n., T. cognatum Bolton, 1979, T. freya sp. n., T. gladius sp. n., T. karthala sp. n., T. myrmidon sp. n., T. proximum Bolton, 1979, T. rumo sp. n., and T. tenuinode sp. n.; and the T. schaufussii complex with the species T. merina sp. n., T. monticola sp. n., T. nassonowii Forel, 1892 stat. n., T. obiwan sp. n., T. pseudogladius sp. n., T. rala sp. n., T. schaufussii Forel, 1891, T. sikorae Forel, 1892 (= T. latior (Santschi, 1926)), T. scutum sp. n., T. xanthogaster Santschi, 1911. The last group treated in this study is the T. severini species group, which contains only the species T. severini (Emery, 1895). This very conspicuous species is widely distributed in the rainforests and montane rainforests of eastern and northern Madagascar. All four groups are fully revised with group diagnoses, illustrated species-level identification keys, and detailed descriptions for all species that include multifocused montage images and distribution maps.

Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

2014-01-01

431

Studies on the developmental potentiality of cultured cell nuclei of fish.  

PubMed

By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus). This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a sexually mature adult fish from short-term cultured kidney cell nucleus of an adult crucian carp. Results of the experiment implied that the subcultured cell nuclei of fish blastula cells and the specialized somatic cell nuclei of adult fish still retained their developmental totipotency, and thus, it indicated that there is a possibility of fish somatic cell breeding through the use of nuclear transplantation. PMID:20440385

Chen, Hongxi; Yi, Yonglan; Chen, Minrong; Yang, Xingqi

2010-01-01

432

Studies on the Developmental Potentiality of Cultured Cell Nuclei of Fish  

PubMed Central

By means of the serial nuclear transplantation technique, the authors obtained a nuclear transplant fish from subcultured cell originated from the blastula cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus Linnaeus). This nuclear transplant fish survived for three years, but its sexual glands were undifferentiated. The authors have also obtained a sexually mature adult fish from short-term cultured kidney cell nucleus of an adult crucian carp. Results of the experiment implied that the subcultured cell nuclei of fish blastula cells and the specialized somatic cell nuclei of adult fish still retained their developmental totipotency, and thus, it indicated that there is a possibility of fish somatic cell breeding through the use of nuclear transplantation.

Chen, Hongxi; Yi, Yonglan; Chen, Minrong; Yang, Xingqi

2010-01-01

433

Phthiriasis palpebrarum misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis in a 6-year-old girl.  

PubMed

Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an infestation of the eyelashes caused by the louse Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus, 1758). We report a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in a 6-year-old girl, which was initially misdiagnosed as allergic blepharoconjunctivitis. Parasites and their nits were found adhering to the eyelashes and eyelids of her right eye as well as scalp hairs. No abnormality was found in the left eye. The histopathology exam revealed the presence of adults and eggs of Pthirus pubis. We mechanically removed all the eyelashes of the right eye at their base, with lice and nits. The scalp was shaved and washed with phenothrin shampoo. No recurrence was found during 3 months of follow-up. Removal of the eyelashes, cutting of scalp hairs, and phenothrin shampoo may be effective in treating phthiriasis palpebrarum. In cases of blepharoconjunctivitis, eyelids and eyelashes should be carefully examined by slit lamp to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:24909484

Yi, Jun Wen; Li, Li; Luo, Da Wei

2014-01-01

434

Three-dimensional x-ray imaging and analysis of fungi on and in wood.  

PubMed

As wood is prone to fungal degradation, fundamental research is necessary to increase our knowledge aiming at product improvement. Several imaging modalities are capable of visualizing fungi, but the X-ray equipment presented in this article can envisage fungal mycelium in wood nondestructively in three dimensions with submicron resolution. Four types of wood subjected to the action of the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (Linnaeus) Quélet (CTB 863 A) were scanned using an X-ray-based approach. Comparison of wood volumes before and after fungal exposure, segmented manually or semiautomatically, showed the presence of the fungal mass on and in the wood samples and therefore demonstrated the usefulness of computed X-ray tomography for mycological and wood research. Further improvements to the experimental setup are necessary to resolve individual hyphae and enhance segmentation. PMID:19709462

Van den Bulcke, Jan; Boone, Matthieu; Van Acker, Joris; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

2009-10-01

435

Interaction Between Short-Term Heat Pretreatment and Avermectin On 2nd Instar Larvae of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linn)  

PubMed Central

Based on the cooperative virulence index (c.f.), the interaction effect between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), was assessed. The results suggested that the interaction results between short-term heat pretreatment and avermectin on the tested insects varied with temperature level as well as its duration and avermectin concentration. Interaction between heat pretreatment at 30°C and avermectin mainly resulted in addition. Meanwhile, pretreatment at 35°C for 2 or 4 h could antagonize the toxicity of avermectin at lower concentrations, which indicated a hormetic effect occurred. The results indicate that cooperative virulence index (c.f.) may be adopted in hormetic effect assessment.

Gu, Xiaojun; Tian, Sufen; Wang, Dehui; Gao, Fei

2009-01-01

436

Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).  

PubMed

Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-09-01

437

New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.  

PubMed

The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is, after Israel, the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project "The Ecology and Zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East," we regularly collected blood-feeding flies, resulting in 11 additional species of Tabanidae for Jordan. The new records are: Atylotus quadrifarius (Loew, 1874), Chrysops caecutiens (Linnaeus, 1758), Dasyrhamphis nigritus (Fabricius, 1794), Haematopota pallens Loew, 1871, Nemorius irritans (Ricardo, 1901), Philipomyia graeca (Fabricius, 1794), Tabanus cordiger Meigen, 1820, Tabanus taeniola Palisot de Beauvois, 1806, Tabanus quatuornotatus Meigen, 1820, Tabanus separatus Effllatoun, 1930, and Tabanus spectabilis Loew, 1858. Most of the new records (10/11) are of Palearctic origin; of these, six are of a Mediterranean and one each of West Palearctic, Euroasiatic, Irano-Turanian, and Eremic providence. Only one species, T. taeniola, is an Afrotropical-Eremic element. PMID:22129417

Müller, Günter C; Hogsette, Jerome A; Revay, Edita E; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Leshvanov, Andrey; Schlein, Yosef

2011-12-01

438

Effects of horsefly (Tabanidae) salivary gland extracts on isolated perfused rat heart.  

PubMed

The speed with which horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) obtain a bloodmeal suggests they have potent vasodilators. We used isolated perfused rat heart to examine the vasoactivity of salivary gland extracts (SGEs) of three horsefly species, Hybomitra bimaculata Macquart, Tabanus bromius Linnaeus and Tabanus glaucopis Meigen. Administration of horsefly SGEs to the heart produced biphasic coronary responses: a decrease and subsequent increase in coronary flow (CF), characterized by initial vasoconstriction followed by prolonged vasodilation of coronary vessels. However, although SGEs of H. bimaculata induced a significant decrease in left ventricular pressure (LVP), the effect on changes in CF was not significant except at the highest dose tested. The ability to reduce LVP without significantly lowering CF, or affecting heart rate and rhythm, represents a unique set of properties that have considerable therapeutic potential if they can be reproduced by a single molecule. PMID:18092977

Rajská, P; Knezl, V; Kazimírová, M; Takác, P; Roller, L; Vidlicka, L; Ciampor, F; Labuda, M; Weston-Davies, W; Nuttall, P A

2007-12-01

439

Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828) with description of a new genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n.

Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

440

New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Megalopodidae and Chrysomelidae  

PubMed Central

Abstract Zeugophora varians Crotch and the family Megalopodidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada. Twenty-eight species of Chrysomelidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, including Acalymma gouldi Barber, Altica knabii Blatchley, Altica rosae Woods, Altica woodsi Isely, Bassareus mammifer (Newman), Chrysolina marginata (Linnaeus), Chrysomela laurentia Brown, Crepidodera violacea Melsheimer, Cryptocephalus venustus Fabricius, Neohaemonia melsheimeri (Lacordaire), Neohaemonia nigricornis (Kirby), Pachybrachis bivittatus (Say), Pachybrachis m-nigrum (Melsheimer), Phyllobrotica limbata (Fabricius), Psylliodes affinis (Paykull), Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg), Ophraella communa (LeSage), Ophraella cribrata (LeConte), Ophraella notata (Fabricius), Systena hudsonias (Forster), Tricholochmaea ribicola (Brown), and Tricholochmaea rufosanguinea (Say), which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species.

Webster, Reginald P.; LeSage, Laurent; DeMerchant, Ian

2012-01-01