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1

Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1?9c, 16:0, 22:6?3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6?3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

2010-07-01

2

[Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health].  

PubMed

Total mercury (THg) was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca), and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26 microgg-1 (fresh weight), and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 +/- 0.48 microgg-1 (f.w.) and X. gladius, 0.62 +/- 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). In 16 % of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), namely 1 microgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 0.5 microgg-1. The ingestion of 100 g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990) suggested limit. PMID:18813682

Dias, Adriana C L; Guimarães, Jean R D; Malm, Olaf; Costa, Paulo A S

2008-09-01

3

CEPHALOPODS IN THE DIET OF THE SWORDFISH, XIPHIAS GLADIUS, FROM THE FLORIDA STRAITS  

E-print Network

CEPHALOPODS IN THE DIET OF THE SWORDFISH, XIPHIAS GLADIUS, FROM THE FLORIDA STRAITS RONALD B. TOLL AND STEVEN C. HESS' ABSTRACT An analysis was conducted on the cephalopod remains from the stomachs of 65 swordfish. Xiphias gladius, from the Florida Straits. Results indicated that cephalopods contribute a large

4

Global population structure of the swordfish ( Xiphias gladius L.) as revealed by analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global population structure of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) was examined by analyzing the DNA sequence variation contained within the hypervariable left domain of the mitochondrial control region of 247 individuals. A total of 330 base pairs (bp) of sequence from 112 individuals collected in the Pacific (n = 26), the Atlantic (n = 47) and the Mediterranean (n

Jaime R. Alvarado Bremer; Jaime Mejuto; Thomas W. Greig; Bert Ely

1996-01-01

5

The diet of the swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus,  

E-print Network

, with emphasis on the role of cephalopods Vicente Hernandez-Garcia Dpto. de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del on the basis of the presence of cephalopods in their stomachs. These were taken from catches made et al. (1993) from the Northeastern Atlantic where cephalopods were found to be the most important

6

Do endocrine disrupting chemicals threaten Mediterranean swordfish? Preliminary results of vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in Xiphias gladius.  

PubMed

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to alter hormone pathways that regulate reproductive processes in wildlife and fishes. In this research the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish) are potentially at risk due to EDCs is investigated. These marine organisms tend to accumulate high concentrations of EDCs such as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The potential effects of EDCs on a fish species of commercial interest, the top predator Xiphias gladius (swordfish), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Dramatic induction of typically female proteins (Vtg and Zrp) was detected by ELISA and Western Blot in adult males of the species. These results are the first warning of the potential risk for reproductive function of Mediterranean top predators, and suggest the need for continuous monitoring of this fragile marine environment. PMID:11763150

Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Ancora, S; Moscatelli, A; Ausili, A; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G

2001-12-01

7

Histological and immunohistochemical investigation on ovarian development and plasma estradiol levels in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).  

PubMed

The paper reports a histological and immunohistochemical description of oocyte growth and ultrastructural aspects of zona radiata (ZR) formation as well as the relationship between plasma estradiol-17beta, (E2) levels and ovarian development in swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) from the Mediterranean Sea. Ovaries were inactive during March to mid April; maturation occurred during late April to June and spawning in June and July. Zona radiata formation starts, as Pas positive material, in oocytes at the lipid stage. In this stage a deposit of electrondense material between oolemma and follicular cells appears. In the cortical alveoli stage and through the early vitellogenic stage, the deposition of a moderately electrondense material occurred on the inner side of the ZR. Finally, in late vitellogenic oocytes a third layer, made of microfibrillar material, appeared. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the initial internalisation of hepatic zona radiata proteins (Zrp) in the swordfish oocyte starts before the uptake of vitellogenin (Vtg) and that it is associated with the low previtellogenic E2 plasma levels, while a significant E2 increase in plasma is associated with the beginning of Vtg uptake. This would appear to confirm the hypothesis that the differential and sequential induction of zonagenesis and vitellogenesis may reflect a general feature of teleost oogenesis. PMID:15718208

Corriero, A; Acone, F; Desantis, S; Zubani, D; Deflorio, M; Ventriglia, G; Bridges, C R; Labate, M; Palmieri, G; McAllister, B G; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

2004-01-01

8

Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of endocrine disrupters during a four-year survey of the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius).  

PubMed

In this project we investigated the ecotoxicological effects of endocrine disrupters in a four-year survey of the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius). In the Mediterranean environment, top predators, such as swordfish, accumulate high concentrations of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) and toxic metals, potentially incurring high toxicological risk. The effects of organochlorines and trace elements (Hg, Cd and Pb) in 192 swordfish specimens, caught in the Strait of Messina, Sicily, Italy, were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and CYP1A (BPMO, EROD) activities. Vtg and Zrp were found to be dramatically induced in some adult male specimens, suggesting that this species is highly exposed to estrogens in the Mediterranean Sea. A role of organochlorines in this induction phenomenon is suggested by the statistically significant correlations between Zrp in plasma and PCB concentrations in muscle (p<0.032) and Vtg in plasma and PCB concentrations in liver (p<0.034) of male specimens. Levels of trace elements in liver were in the following ranges: Hg 1-22, Cd 1-28 and Pb 0-1.6 ppm d.w. These data indicate potential reproductive alterations in large pelagic fish and suggest the need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest. PMID:15178062

Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia; Ancora, Stefania; Mori, Gabriele; Neri, Giovanni; Romeo, Teresa; Ausili, Antonella

2004-01-01

9

Multi-Genetic Marker Approach and Spatio-Temporal Analysis Suggest There Is a Single Panmictic Population of Swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

2013-01-01

10

AbstractAge and growth of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Taiwan  

E-print Network

under a dissecting microscope equipped with an image analysis system. Trends in the monthly mar ginal metric tons (99%) to the by drift gillnet vessels off Baja Califor total swordfish landings from Taiwan variable of time needed to es- Pacific Ocean. Uchiyama et al. (1998) timate life history and biology

11

Total mercury content, weight and length relationship in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental pollutant that has been the cause of many public health concerns. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. Total Hg level was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of 176 Swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) samples ranging from 11.8-112.0 kg total weight and 45-278 cm total length, collected from major fish landing sites in Sri Lanka during July 2009 to March 2010. Total Hg concentration varied between 0.18-2.58 mg/kg wet weight (ww), with a mean value ± standard deviation of 0.90 ± 0.52 mg/kg ww. Of the investigated samples 32% exceeded Hg limits as set by the European Union and Sri Lankan legislation (1 mg/kg, ww). Hg concentration of swordfish showed a significant positive relationship (P value < 0.05) with the fish length and weight. Consequently, consumption of larger fish leads to an increase in the exposure level for consumers. PMID:24779931

Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

2013-01-01

12

Linnaeus turns 300... Carl Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article highlights the celebration of the 300th birthday of Carl Linnaeus, or Carl von Linne (as he is known in Scandinavi). Three centuries after his birth Linnaeus remains among the most famous and influential Swedes of all time, indeed his fame as a naturalist is eclipsed only by the great Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

Hans Wohlmuth

2007-01-01

13

Hydrodynamic characteristics of the sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in gliding postures at their cruise speeds.  

PubMed

The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

2013-01-01

14

Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds  

PubMed Central

The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

2013-01-01

15

Assessing fishing policies for northeastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a first contribution towards the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management in northeastern Brazil, through the exploration of fishing policies based on a trophic model (Ecopath with Ecosim). Our simulations for 1978-2028 indicated that current fishing effort is completely unsustainable for lobsters (Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) and Panulirus laevicauda (Latreille, 1817)) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758). The

KÁTIA M. F. FREIRE; VILLY CHRISTENSEN; DANIEL PAULY

2007-01-01

16

Physicochemical characterisation of ?-chitosan from Sepioteuthis lessoniana gladius.  

PubMed

?-Chitin and its chitosan from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana have been isolated, purified, characterised and compared with the commercial chitosan. Ash, moisture, mineral, metal and elemental content were analyzed using standard techniques. The optical activity of chitin was found to be levorotatory. The degree of deacetylation was calculated by potentiometric titration and (1)H NMR. Viscosity average molecular weight of ?-chitosan was calculated by viscometry and size average molecular weight by GPC. The structure of ?-chitosan was elucidated with FT-IR and NMR. Thermal nature, crystalline structure and morphology of ?-chitosan were characterised through DSC, XRD and SEM, respectively. The water and fat binding capacity of ?-chitosan presently studied was significantly higher than that of the commercial chitosan. The result of the present study adds that S. lessoniana gladius is also an additional source of ?-chitin and chitosan of higher yield, lower molecular weight and higher degree of deacetylation. PMID:23790866

Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Madeswaran, Perumal; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Shanmugam, Annaian

2013-11-15

17

Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

1997-01-01

18

Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization  

PubMed Central

Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

2014-01-01

19

Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

2012-03-01

20

Population differentiation in the open sea: insights from the pelagic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias.  

PubMed

Although a number of recent studies of marine holoplankton have reported significant genetic structure among populations, little is currently known about the biological and oceanographic processes that influence population connectivity in oceanic plankton. In order to examine how depth preferences influence dispersal in oceanic plankton, I characterized the genetic structure of a copepod with diel vertical migration (DVM) (Pleuromamma xiphias), throughout its global distribution, and compared these results to those expected given the interaction of this species' habitat depth with ocean circulation and bathymetry. Mitochondrial COI sequences from 651 individuals from 28 sites in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans revealed highly significant genetic differentiation both within and among ocean basins. Limited dispersal among distinct pelagic provinces seems to have played a major role in population differentiation in this species, with strong genetic breaks observed across known oceanographic fronts or current systems in all three ocean basins. The Indo-West Pacific (IWP) holds a highly distinct genetic population of this species that was sampled in both the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. This suggests that the IWP does not act as a strong barrier to gene flow between basins, as expected, despite the relatively shallow water depth (<200 m) and vertically extensive (>400 m) diel migration of this species. A pattern of isolation by distance was observed in the Indian Ocean with genetic differentiation among samples down to spatial scales of ?800 km, indicating that realized dispersal in P. xiphias occurs over much smaller spatial scales than in previously reported oceanic holoplankton. Given its highly regionalized population genetic structure, P. xiphias may have some capacity to adapt to local oceanographic conditions, and it should not be assumed that populations of this species in distinct pelagic biomes will respond in the same way to shared physical or climatic forcing. PMID:21940778

Goetze, Erica

2011-10-01

21

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

2012-10-01

22

50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...angustirostris. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Sailfish Istiophorus platypterus. Sharks: pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus. bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus. common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. silky...

2011-10-01

23

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus ) bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus )...

2010-10-01

24

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus ) bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus )...

2011-10-01

25

50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...angustirostris. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Sailfish Istiophorus platypterus. Sharks: pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus. bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus. common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. silky...

2014-10-01

26

50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...angustirostris. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Sailfish Istiophorus platypterus. Sharks: pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus. bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus. common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. silky...

2012-10-01

27

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

2014-10-01

28

50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

2013-10-01

29

50 CFR 665.800 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...angustirostris. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Sailfish Istiophorus platypterus. Sharks: pelagic thresher shark Alopias pelagicus. bigeye thresher shark Alopias superciliosus. common thresher shark Alopias vulpinus. silky...

2013-10-01

30

Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments  

PubMed Central

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Di Giosia, Matteo; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

31

Customizing properties of ?-chitin in squid pen (gladius) by chemical treatments.  

PubMed

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Giosia, Matteo Di; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

32

Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)  

PubMed Central

Background Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ?13C and ?15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius ?13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (?8–9 months), during which ?15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ ?15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21779391

Lorrain, Anne; Argüelles, Juan; Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

2011-01-01

33

Bayesian Analyses of Genetic Variation and Population Differentiation in Pacific Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) and the Development of High Resolution Melting Assays for Species Identification and Potential Sex-Linked Marker Survey in Istiophorid Billfish  

E-print Network

of the genetic population structure of Pacific swordfish. Unambigous identification of black marlin (Istiompax indica), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), striped marlin (Kajikia audax) and sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) was accomplished with two variants...

Lu, Ching-Ping

2014-08-06

34

Assessment of the Contemporary Population Structure and Admixture of Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) via Mixed Stock Analysis and Bayesian Clustering of Multiple Nuclear SNPS Genotyped through High Resolution Melting  

E-print Network

. ..................................................................... 29 Figure 5 An alignment of a segment of the zinc finger protein (ZnF) gene of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), sailfish (Istiphorus platypterus), and Atlantic white marlin (Kajikia albida...-Eocene (>55 Ma) (Fierstine & Applegate 1974). Swordfish are morphologically distinguished from istiophorid billfishes (spearfish, sailfish, and marlin) by the absence of pelvic fins, a long and broadly flattened bill, large keels on each side of the caudal...

Smith, Brad 1979-

2012-11-28

35

The Microscope of Linnaeus and His Blind Spot1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carl von Linné (Linnaeus) was the pioneering tax- onomist of the 18th century. His microscope survives along with the collections at his former residence in Sweden, though little has been known about it. The instrument is here described and its performance is demonstrated. Curiously, Linnaeus showed little in- terest in, or knowledge of, microscopic organisms. Very few of his drawings

Brian J. Ford

36

50 CFR 622.34 - Seasonal and area closures designed to protect Gulf reef fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...marine mammals and birds. Highly migratory species means tuna species, marlin (Tetrapturus spp. and Makaira spp. ), oceanic sharks, sailfishes (Istiophorus spp. ), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius ). (b) Seasonal closure of the recreational...

2013-10-01

37

50 CFR 622.34 - Seasonal and area closures designed to protect Gulf reef fish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...marine mammals and birds. Highly migratory species means tuna species, marlin (Tetrapturus spp. and Makaira spp. ), oceanic sharks, sailfishes (Istiophorus spp. ), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius ). (b) Seasonal closure of the recreational...

2014-10-01

38

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?  

E-print Network

of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact in Paradoxa because Linnaeus initially thought that they might be confused, or misplaced, earthworms. In later

Utrecht, Universiteit

39

LINNAEUS: BOOSTING NEAR EARTH ASTEROID CHARACTERIZATION RATES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types via the Minor Planet Center within 24 hours and a full archive of spectra and products will be provided.

Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.

2013-10-01

40

Abstract.-Gonad weights and re-sults of histological analyses from 85  

E-print Network

80 Abstract.-Gonad weights and re- sults of histological analyses from 85 swordfish, Xiphias offemale swordfish, Xiphias gladius. This study uses previously unpublished data as well as histological with data obtained from histological analyses, which provide a verifiable measure of the reproductive status

41

LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature  

PubMed Central

Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton) to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/. PMID:20149233

2010-01-01

42

Solid state characterization of ?-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (?-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (?-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray

Jessica D. Schiffman; Caroline L. Schauer

2009-01-01

43

Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies

Lorena Torres; Consuelo Almazán; Nieves Ayllón; Ruth C Galindo; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Héctor Quiroz-Romero; José de la Fuente

2011-01-01

44

Antioxidative activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide fractions isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus was evaluated. Polysaccharides were extracted with boiling water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, protein hydrolysis, dialysis, and fractionation with a DEAE–Sepharose CL-6B column. A total of 4 fractions, including 1 neutral polysaccharide (LBPN) and 3 acidic polysaccharides were obtained, and compared with crude polysaccharide (CP), crude extract of polysaccharide (CE),

C. L. Lin; C. C. Wang; S. C. Chang; B. Stephen Inbaraj; B. H. Chen

2009-01-01

45

Linnaeus’s natural and artificial arrangements of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linnaeus’s artificial and natural arrangements of plants are examined using a Spearman rank coefficient (which is explained) on his presentations of his own and others’ arrangements in theClasses plantarumand elsewhere. There is little alteration in his successive artificial arrangements. In contrast, between 1751 and 1764 his natural arrangements changed considerably, partly in the sequences of genera within orders but mostly

A. J. Cain

1995-01-01

46

Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect  

PubMed Central

Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

Müller-Wille, S.

2013-01-01

47

Chromatographic determination of polysaccharides in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharides in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus have been shown to be effective in preventing cancer. The objectives of this study were to develop an appropriate method for molecular weight determination of polysaccharides in L. barbarum. The most suitable analytical condition was: a volume-ratio of L. barbarum sample to deionized water at 1:10, followed by shaking in a 100°C water bath for

Chia Chi Wang; Shyh Chung Chang; Bing Huei Chen

2009-01-01

48

Am. Midl. Nat. 141:315322 Effects of Larval Food-limitation on Vanessa cardui Linnaeus  

E-print Network

315 Am. Midl. Nat. 141:315­322 Effects of Larval Food-limitation on Vanessa cardui Linnaeus of Vanessa cardui Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), the painted lady butterfly. Vanessa cardui is a major of a rare species, food limitation could cause extinction. Vanessa cardui (the painted lady but- terfly

Debinski, Diane M.

49

Human Lice: Body Louse, Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus and Head Louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De  

E-print Network

EENY-104 Human Lice: Body Louse, Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus and Head Louse, Pediculus humans: the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, also known as Pediculus humanus corporis than body lice. Head lice and pubic lice are highly dependent upon human body warmth and will die

Florida, University of

50

[Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].  

PubMed

In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan

2006-01-01

51

Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).  

PubMed

The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied. PMID:24871188

Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

2014-01-01

52

LINNAEUS: Boosting near-Earth asteroid characterization rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without knowing the size and composition of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) it is hard to assess their threat or their promise as either Earth-impactors or targets for exploration, retrieval or resources. The factor of about 10 uncertainty in albedo that exists with only an optical H magnitude in hand leads to a factor 30 uncertainty in volume and more in mass. A simple classification into carbonaceous, stony or metallic limits the albedo range to a factor about 2, the volume to a factor of about 2.5 and mass to about 5 (Mainzer et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). NEAs are being discovered at a rate of about 1000/year, and this rate will soon increase by a factor of several with upgrades to the Catalina Sky Survey and the greater use of Pan-STARRS-1 for NEA work from 2014 onwards. However, NEA characterization is falling well behind discovery, forming a bottleneck for programs. The largest program of 0.8-2.5 micron near-IR spectroscopy, the MIT-IRTF program, obtains about 100 NEA spectra/year, for an accumulated total of about 1000 spectra (mostly at H < 15, R.P. Binzel, priv.comm.). At current rates it will take 100 years to obtain compositions, sizes, and shapes of the roughly 20,000 H<22 NEAs. Moreover, NEAs fade quickly after discovery and are mostly much fainter on a subsequent apparition, so that rapid follow-up at discovery is essential (Beeson et al. 2014, see also Galache et al., this meeting). LINNAEUS is the program we have proposed in response to this need. Optical spectroscopy is sufficient to accomplish C/S/X classification and is much more sensitive than near-infrared spectroscopy. LINNAEUS combines 50% of the observing time on the Kitt Peak 2.1 meter telescope with an optimized low-resolution 0.4-0.9 micron optical spectrograph, the SED Machine (Ben-Mazi et al. 2013), to obtain 1200-2000 NEO spectra per year for a total of 4200 - 7000 spectra in 3.5 years of observing. LINNAEUS would provide an order of magnitude increase over current rates, keeping characterization up to the pace of expected discoveries. For a 20% extra investment LINNAEUS could use 100% of the Kitt Peak 2.1 meter, roughly doubling the number of NEAs with spectra.

Elvis, M.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; DePonte Evans, J.; Galache, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Spahr, T.

2014-07-01

53

Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

2012-01-01

54

Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in a population of Virginia Striatula Linnaeus (Reptilia, Colubridae  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTION AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN A POPULATION- OF VIRGINIA STRIATULA LINNAEUS (REPTILIA& COLUBRIDAE) A Thesis By DONALD RAY CLARK, JR Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Wildlife Management REPRODUCTION AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN A POPULATION OF VIRGINIA STRIATULA LINNAEUS (REPTILIA~ COLUBRIDAE) A Thesis By DONALD RAY CLARK& JR ~ Approved...

Clark, Donald Ray

1964-01-01

55

ESPÉCIES DO GÊNERO Eimeria (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) EM TAMANDUÁS-BANDEIRA (Myrmecophaga tridactyla LINNAEUS, 1758) EM CATIVEIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.

FAGNER LUIZ DA C. FREITAS; ANDRÉ S. ZANETTI; CÉLIO R. MACHADO; ROSANGELA Z. MACHADO

56

Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.  

PubMed

Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

Dove, Michael R

2015-04-01

57

Relative Abundance and Fishery Potential of Pelagic Sharks Along Florida's East Coast  

E-print Network

Relative Abundance and Fishery Potential of Pelagic Sharks Along Florida's East Coast STEVEN A. BERKELEY AND WILFREDa L. CAMPOS Introduction Relative abundance and fishery poten tial of pelagic sharks were investigated by sampling the shark by-catch aboard commercial swordfish, Xiphias gladius, longline

58

The Resurgence of the U.S. Swordfish Market DOUGLAS W. LIPTON  

E-print Network

by consumers because of mercury contamination, the sword- fish, Xiphias gladius, is today making a comeback the discovery of mercury contamination affected the swordfish market, historical trends are examined from 1965. The model incorporates a feature that allows the mercury discovery to affect the demand for swordfish

59

REVISED ESTIMATES OF BLUEFIN TUNA DEAD DISCARDS BY THE U.S. ATLANTIC PELAGIC LONGLINE FLEET, 1992-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Estimates of the dead discards of blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) by the US Atlantic pelagic longline fleet permitted to land and sell Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) are based on logbook reported fishing effort levels and scientific observer records of catch rates from a representative sample of the fleet. Estimates are constructed using the Delta-lognormal method as described by

Craig A. Brown

60

Pelagic shark bycatch in the tuna and swordfish-directed longline fishery off southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of pelagic sharks as bycatch of the South African pelagic longline fleet targeting tuna Thunnus spp. and swordfish Xiphias gladius was investigated during the period 1998-2005. In all, 26 species were caught, of which six are listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (lUCN) as Vulnerable and one (scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini) as Endangered. Blue shark

S. L. Petersen; M. B. Honig; P. G. Ryan; L. G. Underhill; L JV Compagno

2009-01-01

61

Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead

Luis Cardona; Irene Álvarez de Quevedo; Assumpció Borrell; Alex Aguilar

2012-01-01

62

JIMAR ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2009 P.I./SPONSOR NAME: Kevin Weng, William A. Walsh and Keith A. Bigelow  

E-print Network

, which targets swordfish, Xiphias gladius, and bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus, in shallow-set and deep-set sectors, respectively. The blue shark, Prionace glauca, was the predominant shark species caught in 2000 of shark finning in most circumstances. The second development, management measures taken in 2000

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

63

This article was downloaded by: [128.171.153.77] On: 27 January 2012, At: 16:10  

E-print Network

targets swordfish Xiphias gladius in the shallow-set sector and bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the deep-set sector. The blue shark Prionace glauca was the predominant shark species caught throughout the study of shark finning under most circumstances. The second development was that management measures were taken

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

64

Isotopic evidence of distinct foraging ecology and movement pattern in two migratory1 predators (yellowfin tuna and swordfish) of the western Indian Ocean2  

E-print Network

(yellowfin tuna and swordfish) of the western Indian Ocean2 3 Frédéric Ménard(1)* , Anne Lorrain(1) , Michel tissues of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) of various20 sizes were access to a larger size range of prey than yellowfin tuna. In contrast, yellowfin32 juveniles and adults

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

The distribution and abundance of threatened and endangered species  

E-print Network

200 The distribution and abundance of threatened and endangered species of sea turtles in offshore, Xiphias gladius, incidentally cap- tures threatened and endangered sea turtles, which have either in pelagic fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles were possible (Deaver1).Aerial sur- veys have since proven

66

Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on sea turtle by-catch observed in pelagic longline sets during research cruises in the south Atlantic in the vicinity of the shelf edge break in southern Brazil. The longline gear was set in a similar manner to that employed by the commercial longline fleet operating out of Santos, Brazil that targets swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Nineteen sea turtles

M. C Pinedo; T Polacheck

2004-01-01

67

Reconstructing ecosystem dynamics in the central Pacific Ocean, 1952?1998. II. A preliminary assessment of the trophic impacts of fishing and effects on tuna dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelagic fisheries in the Pacific Ocean target both large ( Thunnus spp.) and small tunas (juveniles of Thunnus spp; Katsuwonus pelamis) but also take billfishes (Xiphias gladius, Makaira spp., Tetrapturus spp., Istiophorus platypterus) and sharks (Prionace glauca, Alopias superciliosus, Isurus oxyrinchus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Galeocerdo cuvieri) as bycatch. We developed a multispecies model using the Ecopath with Ecosim software that incorporated

Sean P. Cox; Timothy E. Essington; James F. Kitchell; Steven J. D. Martell; Carl J. Walters; Christofer Boggs; Isaac Kaplan

2002-01-01

68

Submission of 2012-2013 U.S. Fishery Statistics for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean and Other Areas  

E-print Network

tunas and swordfish (Xiphias gladius); the albacore troll fishery targeting albacore (T. alalunga); the albacore pole-and-line fishery; the tropical troll and handline fisheries targeting various tunas, marlins, pelagic longline, and albacore troll fisheries are large-scale fisheries operating on the high seas

69

Submission of 2011-2012 U.S. Fishery Statistics for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean and Other Areas  

E-print Network

tunas and swordfish (Xiphias gladius); the albacore troll fishery targeting albacore (T. alalunga); the tropical troll and handline fisheries targeting various tunas, marlins, and other pelagic species troll fisheries are large-scale fisheries operating on the high seas and in the national zones of the U

70

Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

2011-01-01

71

The recent species of Megabalanus (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) with special emphasis on Balanus Tintinnabulum (Linnaeus) Sensu Lato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Darwin's (1854) description of 11 varieties of Megabalanus tintinnabulum (Linnaeus) [as Balanus tintinnabulum], 26 Recent taxa have been assigned to the genus. In this review, two taxa confounded by Darwin are reestablished [i.e., M. crispatus (Schroter) and M. dorbignii (Chenu)]. M. antillensis (Pilsbry) and M. intermedius (Darwin) are placed in synonymy with M. tintinnabulum sensu stricto. M. galapaganus (Pilsbry)

D. P. Henry; P. A. Mclaughlin

1986-01-01

72

Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRESENCE OF PUMA CONCOLOR (LINNAEUS) (FELIDAE, CARNIVORA) ON REMNANT HABITATS IN SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL. Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been done in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with the altitude and mostly with the habitat quality. In

Marcelo Mazzolli

1993-01-01

73

Do Canada geese ( Branta canadensis Linnaeus, 1758) carry infectious agents for birds and man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, large groups of Canada geese ( Branta canadensis Linnaeus, 1758) aggregate in recreational areas of north-western Germany. Questions have arisen as to whether these birds represent a special risk factor as a source of zoonotic agents for humans and as a source of viruses, causing notifiable or reportable diseases, for domestic poultry and waterfowl. To answer these questions, a

Brigitte M. Bönner; Walburga Lutz; Sabine Jäger; T. Redmann; B. Reinhardt; U. Reichel; V. Krajewski; R. Weiss; J. Wissing; W. Knickmeier; W. H. Gerlich; Ulrike C. Wend; E. F. Kaleta

2004-01-01

74

Halocynthia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as an indicator of SCUBA diving impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solitary ascidian Halocynthia papillosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is proposed as a good indicator of the deleterious effect of SCUBA diving on the Mediterranean coralligenous communities. A comparative survey of H. papillosa populations at frequented and unfrequented localities was carried out over a two-year period (during 2006 and 2007), before and after a peak diving season in the Sierra Helada Marine

B. Luna-Pérez; C. Valle; T. Vega Fernández; J. L. Sánchez-Lizaso; A. A. Ramos-Esplá

2010-01-01

75

The vertical distribution of black drum (Pogonias cromis Linnaeus) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus Linnaeus) in a power plant effluent subject to gas supersaturation  

E-print Network

THE VERI'ICAL DIBTRIBUI'ION OH BLACK DRUM (~N' LI)TNARUB) AHD BERTHED NIILLET (NNN'I ~BI + LINNAKIIB) IN A POWER PLANT EFFLUENT SUBJECT TO GAS SUPERSATURATION A Thesis by ROBERT RUSH WALDROP Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences TRR UERTIUAL DISTRIRUTION OP RIAUN DRUN (P~A 1. LINNAEVS) AND STRIPED NU11ET (~NAL ~tl LINNAEUS) IN A...

Waldrop, Robert Rush

1982-01-01

76

Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

2012-09-01

77

Severe neurotoxic envenoming by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus): response to antivenom and anticholinesterase.  

PubMed Central

Five patients were bitten by the Malayan krait Bungarus candidus (Linnaeus) in eastern Thailand or north western Malaya. Two patients were not envenomed but the other three developed generalised paralysis which progressed to respiratory paralysis in two cases, one of which ended fatally. One patient showed parasympathetic abnormalities. Anticholinesterase produced a dramatic improvement in one patient. Another patient probably benefited from paraspecific antivenom. The efficacy of antivenoms and adjuvants such as anticholinesterases in patients with neurotoxic envenoming requires further study. PMID:6402200

Warrell, D A; Looareesuwan, S; White, N J; Theakston, R D; Warrell, M J; Kosakarn, W; Reid, H A

1983-01-01

78

Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.  

PubMed

In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

2010-12-01

79

Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).  

PubMed

Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes.  PMID:25661964

Williams, D J

2015-01-01

80

Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

2009-01-01

81

Effect of Trachelobdella lubrica (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) on biochemical and haematological characteristics of black scorpion fish ( Scorpaena porcus , Linnaeus 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black Scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758) caught during monthly sampling carried out in 2003 in the Dardanelles, Turkey, were examined for the parasite. Trachelobdella lubrica. Infested fish were caught only during December 2003, and the clinical conditions of the 12 fish naturally infested with T. lubrica included fin rot, swollen foci of skin and haemorrhages of the gill and

Ekrem Sanver Celik; Seyit Aydin

2006-01-01

82

Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

83

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental  

E-print Network

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental cockroach prefers dampness and is sometimes called a "water bug). Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The American cockroach is large -- up to 1

Ginzel, Matthew

84

Induction of metamorphosis in queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larvae by cues associated with red algae from their nursery grounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strombus gigas Linnaeus larvae are induced to metamorphose by a selection of substrata from their nursery grounds. The most effective inducers are cues associated with red algae, specifically Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux) Howe and the epiphyte Fosliella sp. (Foslie) found on Thalassia testudinum Köenig detritus. Larvae metamorphose in response to these intact rhodophytes and to aqueous extracts of these species. The

Anne A. Boettcher; Nancy M. Targett

1996-01-01

85

Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical cues are important in the exoge- nous and endogenous control of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval metamorphosis is induced by low molecular weight compounds associated with dominant species of red algae found in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux). The responses of conch larvae

ANNE A. BOETTCHER; NANCY M. TARGETT

86

Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

George, Sam

2014-03-01

87

Decreases in Shark Catches and Mortality in the Hawaii-Based Longline Fishery as Documented by Fishery Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes catch data for sharks collected by fishery observers during two periods (1995–2000 and 2004–2006) in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery, which targets swordfish Xiphias gladius in the shallow-set sector and bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the deep-set sector. The blue shark Prionace glauca was the predominant shark species caught throughout the study period (84.5% of all sharks).

William A. Walsh; Keith A. Bigelow; Karen L. Sender

2009-01-01

88

Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish\\u000a predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in\\u000a the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae,

Teresa Romeo; Pietro Battaglia; Cristina Pedà; Patrizia Perzia; Pierpaolo Consoli; Valentina Esposito; Franco Andaloro

89

IMPACT OF SWORDFISH FISHERIES ON SEA TURTLES IN THE AZORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

FERREIRA , R.L., H.R. MARTINS , A.A. SILVA & A.B. BOLTEN 2001. Impact of swordfish fisheries on sea turtles in the Azores. Arquipélago . Life and Marine Sciences 18A: 75-79. Ponta Delgada. ISSN 0873-4704. The surface longline fishery around the Azores targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius ). Bycatch from this fishery includes loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta ) and occasionally leatherback

ROGÉRIO L. FERREIRA; HELEN R. MARTINS; ALEXANDRE A. DA SILVA; ALAN B. BOLTEN

90

Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century. Preface.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24,000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation. PMID:19654223

Fay, Michael F; Chase, Mark W

2009-08-01

91

Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

2014-09-01

92

Radical scavenging and amino acid profiling of wedge clam, Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Body, foot and viscera of Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) were hydrolyzed using commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin and papain) and tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power assays. In comparison between all the hydrolysates, papain viscera (28.513?±?0.165 & 0.186?±?0.008) and foot (33.567?±?0.132 & 0.166?±?0.013) hydrolysates showed highest DPPH and reducing power ability respectively. The active hydrolysates were purified with DEAE- cellulose followed by Sephadex G-25 columns connected to FPLC. Further, the isolated active fractions were loaded onto HPLC for their amino acid profiling and found with the presence of potential amino acids viz., histidine, cysteine, alanine etc. These results suggest that the isolated antioxidant peptide from viscera and foot hydrolysate of D. cuneatus can be used in treating human diseases where free radicals and oxidative damage are involved. PMID:25477664

Nazeer, R A; Saranya, M A V; Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf

2014-12-01

93

Summer Foods, Length-Weight Relationship, and Condition Factor of Juvenile Ladyfish, Elops saurus Linnaeus, from Louisiana Coastal Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 295 juvenile ladyfish Elops saurus Linnaeus were collected with surface trawls from Louisiana coastal streams in June 1968 and June 1969. The fish ranged from 45 to 201 mm in fork length. Of the 295 ladyfish stomachs examined, 229 (77.6%) contained food. Fish constituted 94.5% by occurrence of the food organisms and decapod crustaceans 5.5%. Gulf menhaden

Glenn B. Sekavec

1974-01-01

94

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals.\\u000a The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were\\u000a sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary,

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang; Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar

2011-01-01

95

Morphometric and allometric studies on eggshells and embryos of free-living Canada geese ( Branta c. canadensis Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 289 eggs laid by free-living Canada geese ( Branta canadensis canadensis Linnaeus, 1758) in the northwestern part of Germany were collected in spring 2002 and 2003 and examined for shell and embryo parameters. Mean egg mass was 160.88±19.68 g. Approximately 90% of all eggs had a mass between 140 and 185 g. About 90% of all clutches consisted of

Brigitte M. Bönner; Walburga Lutz; T. Redmann; Sabine Jäger; Brinja Reinhardt; J. Wissing; W. Knickmeier; E. F. Kaleta

2004-01-01

96

Simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection–mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionization mode (HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a widely used traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activity. Both phenolic acids and flavonoids were extracted with 50% ethanol and purified using a polymeric solid phase extraction cartridge followed by

B. Stephen Inbaraj; H. Lu; T. H. Kao; B. H. Chen

2010-01-01

97

Determination of carotenoids and their esters in fruits of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus by HPLC–DAD–APCI–MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Lycium barbarum Linnaeus, a traditional Chinese herb containing functional components such as carotenoids, flavonoids and polysaccharides, has been widely used in the health food industry because of its possible role in the prevention of chronic disease like age-related macular degeneration. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array detection–mass spectrometry

B. Stephen Inbaraj; H. Lua; C. F. Hung; W. B. Wu; C. L. Lin; B. H. Chen

2008-01-01

98

ON THE BIOLOGY AND BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION DYNAMIC OF THE DOG CONCH, STROMBUS CANARIUM LINNAEUS, 1758 (STROMBIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrak: Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 merupakan antara sumber perikanan gastropoda paling utama di perairan Selat Johor, Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, persampelan dilakukan secara rawak menggunakan kaedah jalur transek, bermula dari Januari hingga Disember 2005. Data panjang cangkerang dibahagikan mengikut jantina dan panjang, dengan sela-kelas 2 mm. Secara keseluruhannya, nisbah jantan kepada betina adalah pada kadar 1:1.73, yang tidak berbeza secara

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang

99

Naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in visual wulst of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The visual wulst (VW), the rostro-dorsal surface of the avian telencephalon extending from the midline to the lateral region of the brain, is a laminated "bulge" consisting in four histologically distinct rostro-caudally arranged laminae with a specific sequence: hyperpallium apicale, interstitial nucleus of hyperpallium apicale, hyperpallium intercalatum and hyperpallium densocellulare. The VW has been proposed to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian striate cortex. Various behavioral studies including lesion experiments have indicated the importance of the VW, which receives visual and/or auditory cues. We have investigated qualitatively and quantitatively the fascinating structural changes occurring in VW neurons of the seasonally breeding bird, Ploceus philippinus (Linnaeus, 1766). The Golgi method was used to study the seasonal fluctuations in the neuronal classes of the VW with regard to dendritic thickness, spine morphology and spine density during both the non-breeding and breeding periods of male Baya weaver birds. Significant variations in parameters studied among the various neuronal types located in the different well-demarcated regions of the VW are believed to contribute to the functional differences reported among the wulst regions. Thus, this study extends our view demonstrating naturally occurring neuronal plasticity in a seasonally dynamic avian brain of a bird that hones not only its learning and memorizing system but also its social and sexual system in preparation for the breeding season. PMID:23435992

Srivastava, U C; Gaur, Parul

2013-06-01

100

Metacercariae of Clinostomum schizothoraxi Kaw, 1950 (Digenea: Clinostomatidae) in Carassius carassius (Linnaeus) under different environmental conditions.  

PubMed

This report addresses the possible impacts of local habitat characteristics on the metacercariae of Clinostomum schizothoraxi Kaw, 1950 infecting crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus), from three lakes in Kashmir. The lakes chosen encompass an extremely wide gradient in trophic status--Manasbal (less polluted and mesotrophic), Dal (moderately polluted and eutrophic) and Anchar (strongly polluted and hypertrophic). The results indicate that infrapopulation-level descriptors of abundance of C. schizothoraxi in fish differed between the three lakes and revealed that the infection levels were greater at Anchar Lake. Furthermore, the prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection also changed during the period of investigation along the seasonal gradient of water temperature. The fact that the abundance patterns of the parasite differed in different populations of the same host provided a unique opportunity for a comparative study on the temporal variations in infection patterns attained during different seasons. In particular, the lake environments showed a high degree of variability in the density profiles of mollusc intermediate hosts and, thus, the differences in the infection status of crucian carp were derived on the basis of intermediate host population size which, in turn, was influenced by the trophic characteristics of the three lakes. PMID:23724736

Shah, Humaira Bashir; Yousuf, Abdul R; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

2013-05-01

101

The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.  

PubMed

The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939. PMID:20532854

Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

2010-07-01

102

Reproductive seasonality, settlement, and post-settlement mortality of Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus), at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) has seasonal gametogenesis and planula release at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, in contrast with several previous reports on the species at other locations. The number of planulae released and gonad development varied considerably among colonies sampled at the same time, but reproductive activity occurred predominantly in winter. P. damicornis planulae settled preferentially on algal-covered substrata, rather than bare coral substrata, but showed subsequent mortality inversely related to this settlement preference. Competition with algae and biological disturbance contribute to spat mortality at different stages of settlement and growth.

Harriott, Vicki J.

1983-12-01

103

Ontogenetic development of digestive functionality in golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus, Linnaeus 1758) larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 32 day post-hatch (DPH). The development of digestive system in golden pompano can be divided into three phases: phase I starting from hatching and ending at the onset of exogenous feeding; phase II starting from first feeding (3 DPH) and finishing at the formation of gastric glands; and phase III starting from the appearance of gastric glands on 15 DPH and continuing onward. The specific activities of trypsin, amylase, and lipase increased sharply from the onset of first feeding to 5-7 DPH, followed by irregular fluctuations. Toward the end of this study, the specific activities of trypsin and amylase showed a declining trend, while the lipase activity remained at similar levels as it was at 5 DPH. The specific activity of pepsin was first detected on 15 DPH and increased with fish age. The dynamics of digestive enzymes corresponded to the structural development of the digestive system. The enzyme activities tend to be stable after the formation of the gastric glands in fish stomach on 15 DPH. The composition of digestive enzymes in larval pompano indicates that fish are able to digest protein, lipid and carbohydrate at early developmental stages. Weaning of larval pompano is recommended from 15 DPH onward. Results of the present study lead to a better understanding of the ontogeny of golden pompano during the larval stage and provide a guide to feeding and weaning of this economically important fish in hatcheries. PMID:24448718

Ma, Zhenhua; Guo, Huayang; Zheng, Panlong; Wang, Long; Jiang, Shigui; Qin, Jian G; Zhang, Dianchang

2014-08-01

104

A review of the Afrotropical species of Meloe Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera Meloidae) with descriptions of first instar larvae, a key to species and an annotated catalogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Afrotropical species of Meloe Linnaeus 1758 are assigned to three subgenera, the nominate subgenus, Eurymeloe Reitter 1911 and Afromeloe Schmidt 1913. The former is primarily Holarctic with minor representation in southern and eastern Africa; Eurymeloe is almost entirely Palaearctic and represented by only one species in the desert area of Dijbouti. Afromeloe is restricted to Yemen, Sokotra Island, eastern

M. A. Bologna; J. D. Pinto

1998-01-01

105

Leaf litter removal by the snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus) and sesarmid crabs in an East African mangrove forest (Gazi Bay, Kenya)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative data on leaf litter removal activity of macrozoobenthic organisms in the mangrove forests of East Africa are virtually non-existent. In the present study, litter removal activity was determined in two contrasting types of mangrove stands in Gazi Bay (Kenya). In the relatively elevated Ceriops tagal vegetation, which is only flooded during spring tides, the detritivorous snail Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus)

F. J Slim; M. A. Hemminga; C. Ochieng; N. T Jannink; E Cocheret de la Morinière; G. Van der Velde

1997-01-01

106

Light trap transects – a field method for ascertaining the habitat preferences of night-flying Lepidoptera, using Mythimna turca (Linnaeus 1761) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat associations of the noctuid moth Double Line Mythimna turca (Linnaeus 1761) were studied in three areas in Britain by setting up light traps equidistant along transects which passed through different habitat types. Counts were made of M. turca at each trap station and the results compared with the habitat present in the vicinity of each trap. The results

Adrian Spalding; Mark Parsons

2004-01-01

107

Light trap transects – a field method for ascertaining the habitat preferences of night-flying Lepidoptera, using Mythimna turca (Linnaeus 1761) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat associations of the noctuid moth Double Line Mythimna turca (Linnaeus 1761) were studied in three areas in Britain by setting up light traps equidistant alon0g transects which passed through different habitat types. Counts were made of M. turca at each trap station and the results compared with the habitat present in the vicinity of each trap. The results

Adrian Spalding; Mark Parsons

2004-01-01

108

Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key pest of most pome fruit (apple, pear and quince) and walnut orchards in the temperate regions of the world. Efforts to control the codling moth have in the past mostly relied on the use of broad spectrum insecticide spra...

109

Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin  

PubMed Central

Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of ?-chain and ?-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure. PMID:24143042

Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

2013-01-01

110

Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.  

PubMed

A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area. PMID:18163362

Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

2007-10-01

111

Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).  

PubMed

A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28°C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:23299317

Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

2013-02-01

112

Application of the sequential elution technique to determine Cd and Cu cellular location in Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.  

PubMed

The sequential elution technique, used to determine the cellular location of metals in nonvascular plants, was adapted to the seaweed Ulva lactuca Linnaeus for the heavy metals Cu and Cd. The optimum conditions for the extraction of extracellular Cu and Cd were determined using specimens previously loaded with these metals. The best extracellular metal extraction media and the number of extracellular metal extraction steps obtained were the following: Two steps (1 h + 40 min) in a filtered sea water-20 mM Ni solution for Cd and two steps in a filtered sea water-50 mM Co solution for Cu. To find these extraction conditions the extracellular metal extraction capacity of the different media used as well as the alteration provoked in plasmalemma permeability were compared. The concentrations of the incubation solutions of Cd and Cu that allowed reliable comparisons between the different extracellular metal extraction media used were previously determined. PMID:11598779

Costas, R C; López, J

2001-11-01

113

Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future. PMID:20077130

O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

2010-01-01

114

Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by females for egg laying. Trips of unexplained nature are made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas are occasional transients through the study plot. Standardized census trips provided data for estimating the size of the population. Census data were taken after females had returned from egg laying. The samples were spaced at intervals of a week or more to allow free movement of turtles over their ranges and assure more nearly equal availability of all turtles. These standard samples were compared by a collection ratio. Assumptions involved in the use of this ratio are discussed. Correction factors were applied to make allowance for turtles whose ranges.were partly inside and partly outside the study area, and for transient turtles. A second estimate, on the basis of the entire season's collecting, gave closely comparable results. The population of the study area is estimated to be between four and five turtles per acre, with juveniles constituting less than ten per cent of the total.

Stickel, L.F.

1949-01-01

115

Use of Carbopol resin for carp pituitary administration improves the fertilization percentage of northern pike ( Esox lucius Linnaeus) eggs in commercial hatcheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius Linnaeus) fry production via hormonal treatment of wintered broodstock is, in general, relatively low due to low egg fertilization\\u000a percentage. It has been experimentally demonstrated that administration of acetone-dried carp pituitary extract in a slow-release\\u000a vehicle of aqueous dispersion of Carbopol 971 P resin (CP) resulted in a higher mean fertilization percentage, possibly

Tamás Szabó

2008-01-01

116

Agricultural land-use patterns and the decline of the helmeted guineafowl Numida meleagris (Linnaeus 1766) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land-use practices can impact on bird populations. This study set out to explain why the helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus 1766; Aves: Numididae) declined in the Midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, an agricultural area where these birds were once abundant in savannas mixed with cultivation. Within the Midlands, the potential roles of land-use practices and pesticides were investigated. Using a

Gerard Malan; Grant A. Benn

1999-01-01

117

Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

Schofield, Pamela J.

2010-01-01

118

Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe.  

PubMed

Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations. PMID:24455100

Sadílek, David; S?áhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

2013-10-01

119

Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe  

PubMed Central

Abstract Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations. PMID:24455100

Sadílek, David; Š?áhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka; Zima, Jan

2013-01-01

120

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia

2014-01-01

121

Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

2013-11-01

122

Aspergillus fumigatus infection in two wild Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus Linnaeus) with carbofuran insecticide poisoning: a case report.  

PubMed

Aspergillus spp. are opportunistic pathogens which cause pulmonary aspergillosis in animals and humans with compromised immune systems. Two Eurasian black vultures (Aegypius monachus Linnaeus) were found dead or clinically ill from carbofuran insecticide during the winter of 2004. Carbofuran was detected in the stomach contents by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Gross lesions showed severe granulomatous pneumonia and serofibrinous pleuropneumonia in both birds, with most lesions restricted to the pulmonary system. Histological lesions included pyogranulomatous pneumonia and suppurative parabronchiolitis/pleuritis/air sacculitis with a number of septated fungal hyphae, suggesting severe pulmonary aspergillosis. Fungal isolates from each vulture were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus by both lactophenol cotton blue staining and genetic analysis. This is the first report of pulmonary aspergillosis caused by A. fumigatus in wild Eurasian black vultures and suggests that Aspergillus infection could be an important cause of death in these birds which migrate from Mongolia to Korea during the winter. The incidence of the disease may be related to impaired immunity caused directly or indirectly by carbofuran poisoning. PMID:17962054

Jung, Kwonil; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Hang; Kim, Jong-Taek

2009-02-01

123

The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.  

PubMed

Abstract Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955?bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

2014-11-18

124

The helminth fauna study of European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) in the Volga basin.  

PubMed

In this paper we considered information on the helminth fauna of the European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) from 10 regions of the Volga basin. This study includes consolidated data of different authors over the last 30 years, supplemented by the results of our own research. There are reliably known finds of 29 species of helminths: Monogenea - 1, Trematoda - 21, Nematoda - 7. Trematodes Gorgodera asiatica Pigulevsky, 1945, Paralepoderma cloacicola (Luhe, 1909), mtc. and nematodes Icosiella neglecta (Diesing, 1851) were observed for the first time in a given host on the territory of Russia and the Volga Basin. Six species of worms make the basis of helminth fauna: nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum and Cosmocerca ornata, trematode Haplometra cylindracea and monogenea Polystoma integerrimum. These six species are the most common and widespread parasites of the brown frog. For each species of helminths there is the following information included: taxonomic position, localization, area of detection, biology, definitive hosts, geographic distribution, the degree of host-specificity. PMID:25119361

Chikhlyaev, Igor; Ruchin, Alexander

2014-09-01

125

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.  

PubMed

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

2011-07-01

126

Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, ?(9)-, ?(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased ?(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

2014-01-01

127

Induction of Gynogenetic and Androgenetic Haploid and Doubled Haploid Development in the Brown Trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

2015-04-01

128

Análisis sobre las Unidades de Manejo (UMAs) de ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) y wapiti (Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777) en México: problemática para la conservación de los ungulados nativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red deer, elk or wapiti are the largest cervid in Mexico and they are considered exotic species. The native subspecies in Mexico was Cervus canadensis merriami (Nelson, 1902), that was extirpated at the beginning of last century, and now it is considered extinct. Now, elk (Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777) and European red deer (C. elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) have been introduced

Sonia Gallina; Luis Arturo Escobedo-Morales

129

Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time. PMID:24294088

Pekarsky, Oleg

2013-01-01

130

[Taxonomic, topical and quantitative structure of the community of intestinal flukes (Digenea) of mallards, Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 from the area of Szczecin].  

PubMed

Taxonomic, topical and quantitative structure of the community of intestinal flukes (Digenea) of mallards, Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 from the area of Szczecin. A total of 55 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) from the area of Szczecin were examined for the presence of intestinal flukes (Digenea). This study covered the taxonomic structure (specific composition and taxonomic affiliation of the parasites), topical structure (parasites' distribution within the host's organism), and quantitative structure (infection intensity, abundance, prevalence, and infection index "Z"). Flukes were found in 69.1% of the birds studied. The highest intensity of infection and prevalence exhibited species of the family Echinostomatidae (Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma miyagawai, Echinostoma sp., Echinoparyphium recurvatum) and Notocotylus attenuatus of the family Notocotylidae. The mallards surveyed hosted 15 species of flukes, representing 6 families. Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 has been found for the first time in Poland. The present findings of Psilotrema similium and Prosthogonimus ovatus in mallard constitute new host records for these parasites. PMID:16894718

Betlejewska, Katarzyna M; Korol, Eleonora N

2002-01-01

131

[Quantitative aspects of metazoan parasites communities of American harvestfish, Peprilus paru (Linnaeus,1758) (Perciformes: Stromateidae), from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].  

PubMed

Eighty and one specimens of Peprilus paru (Linnaeus,1758) (Perciformes: Stromateidae), collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W) were necropsied between January 2003 to September 2003 to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. All fish were parasitized by two or more metazoan. Were collected eight species of metazoans parasites: four digeneans (Aponurus laguncula, Opechona sp. Lecithocladium sp. e Acanthocolphoides sp.), two nematodes (Hystherothylacium sp. e Raphidascaris sp.), one monogenean (Microcotyle sp.) and one copepod (Caligus sp.). No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The evaluation of the effect of host on parasite abundance and prevalence not showed significant results. The parasite species presented an aggregated distribution pattern. The metazoan parasite community of P. paru is characterized by the high species diversity and high values os prevalence. One pair adult endoparasites presented association. PMID:17588316

De Azevedo, Rodney K; Abdallah, Vanessa D; Luque, José L

2007-01-01

132

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

133

Linnaeus University Vxj, Sweden  

E-print Network

Management Tourism Studies Woodwork #12;Types of Accommodation The majority of students in Kalmar live near or within biking distance to the centre of town. There are both student dorms, halls of residence, student

Duchowski, Andrew T.

134

A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.  

PubMed

A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated. PMID:24621396

Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

2015-05-01

135

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

136

Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

2013-01-01

137

Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the MET diet was significantly higher than that of the fish fed the un-supplemented experimental diet and the fish in the other methionine supplementation groups ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that supplementation of crystalline Met in low-fish-meal diets promotes the growth performance of juvenile cobia.

Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

2014-11-01

138

Caligus solea n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the common sole Solea solea (Linnaeus) from the north-eastern Mediterranean off the Turkish coast.  

PubMed

A new species of caligid copepod, Caligus solea n. sp., is described from the common sole Solea solea (Linnaeus) caught off the north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Both sexes of the parasite were collected from all over the upper body surface of its host. The new species belongs to the macarovi-group of species as established by Boxshall & Gurney (Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist) (Zool), 39:161-178, 1980), with which it shares the following four characters: (i) leg 4 with two-segmented exopod, distal segment carrying three apical spines but no lateral spine; (ii) distal exopodal segment of leg 1 with three plumose setae posteriorly plus four distal margin elements, spine 1 naked, spines 2 and 3 with accessory process and spine 4 about twice length of the others; (iii) females with one-segmented abdomen while males with two-segmented abdomen; (iv) male maxilliped with myxal process opposing the tip of the subchela. However, the new species differs from its congeners within the macarovi-group in the number of sensillae on each papilla on and around the postantennal process, and also in the absence of serrations along the distal margin of the maxilla. This is the twenty-eighth species of Caligus to be reported from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:25079813

Demirkale, Ibrahim; Özak, Argun A; Yanar, Alper; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

2014-09-01

139

The noncosmopolitanism paradigm of freshwater zooplankton: insights from the global phylogeography of the predatory cladoceran Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Crustacea, Onychopoda).  

PubMed

A major question in our understanding of eukaryotic biodiversity is whether small bodied taxa have cosmopolitan distributions or consist of geographically localized cryptic taxa. Here, we explore the global phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Polyphemus pediculus (Linnaeus, 1761) (Crustacea, Onychopoda) using two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16s ribosomal RNA, and one nuclear marker, 18s ribosomal RNA. The results of neighbour-joining and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses reveal an exceptionally pronounced genetic structure at both inter- and intra-continental scales. The presence of well-supported, deeply divergent phylogroups across the Holarctic suggests that P. pediculus represents an assemblage of at least nine, largely allopatric cryptic species. Interestingly, all phylogenetic analyses support the reciprocal paraphyly of Nearctic and Palaearctic clades. Bayesian inference of ancestral distributions suggests that P. pediculus originated in North America or East Asia and that European lineages of Polyphemus were established by subsequent intercontinental dispersal events from North America. Japan and the Russian Far East harbour exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity at both regional and local scales. In contrast, little genetic subdivision is apparent across the formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America, areas that historical demographic analyses suggest that were recolonized just 5500-24 000 years ago. PMID:19912535

Xu, S; Hebert, P D N; Kotov, A A; Cristescu, M E

2009-12-01

140

Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*  

PubMed Central

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

2010-01-01

141

Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.  

PubMed

The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

2014-04-01

142

Unique extracellular matrix heparan sulfate from the bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) safely inhibits arterial thrombosis after photochemically induced endothelial lesion.  

PubMed

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing approximately 4.6 mg g(-1) of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional (1)H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg(-1), 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg(-1)), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC(50) = 0.835 microg ml(-1)) and thrombin (IC(50) = 9.3 microg ml(-1)) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg(-1), the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Pomin, Vitor H; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L; Pavão, Mauro S G

2010-03-01

143

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

2014-01-01

144

Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

2012-09-01

145

Seasonal Distributions and Migrations of Northwest Atlantic Swordfish: Inferences from Integration of Pop-Up Satellite Archival Tagging Studies  

PubMed Central

Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

Neilson, John D.; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D.; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

2014-01-01

146

Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

Schofield, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

147

The effect of Plantago major Linnaeus on serum total sialic acid, lipid-bound sialic acid, some trace elements and minerals after administration of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Plantago major Linnaeus (PM) extract on serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA), some trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron) and mineral levels (magnesium, calcium and sodium) in Wistar albino rat administrated 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Rats were divided into three equal groups (n = 6). Group I comprised the control group, group II was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg, single dose) and group III was treated with DMBA (100 mg/kg single dose) and aqueous extract of PM 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days. After 60 days, statistical analyses showed that TSA and LSA levels in DMBA and DMBA + PM groups were significantly higher compared to the control group (TSA: p < 0.01, p < 0.05; LSA: p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). Serum Zn levels were decreased in subjects treated with DMBA (p < 0.01) and DMBA + PM (p < 0.05) compared to the control group values. Serum Cu levels were increased in DMBA group and PM-treated group compared to the control group values. The results of this investigation showed that the levels of TSA and LSA changed significantly, which are sensitive markers for detecting the toxic effects of DMBA. On the other hand, observed decline in Zn levels in rats from DMBA + PM group might be due to decreased generation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Results from this study suggest that PM may be partially effective in preventing carcinogenesis initiated by environmental carcinogen DMBA. PMID:21996710

Oto, Gokhan; Ekin, Suat; Ozdemir, Hulya; Levent, Abdulkadir; Berber, Ismet

2012-05-01

148

The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.  

PubMed

The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred. PMID:21071161

Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

2011-04-15

149

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

2014-12-01

150

Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

2013-10-01

151

Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

PubMed Central

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

152

Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

153

Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.  

PubMed

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

154

Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools  

SciTech Connect

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

Fossi, M.C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Marsili, L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

2007-05-15

155

The responses of the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a polluted site: implications for their use in environmental risk assessment.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the response of three hepatic biomarkers in adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a wastewater outlet of an oil refinery with fish caged at a pristine site used as controls. The biomarkers that were investigated were the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, we have measured the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc) in sediment samples at the polluted site. Although the polluted site had high environmental levels of PAHs and heavy metals, there was no difference in hepatic EROD activity and HSI between fish caged at the polluted site and controls. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly lower in fish caged at the polluted site compared to controls. Our results point out that the studied biomarkers have limited use in environmental risk assessment studies, at least when caged adult sea bass is used as the sentinel species and complex toxicant mixtures are involved. PMID:23644668

Traven, Luka; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Vuki? Luši?, Darija; Smital, Tvrtko

2013-11-01

156

Kyphosus gladius, a new species of sea chub from Western Australia (Teleostei: Kyphosidae), with comments on Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley.  

PubMed

Two morphologically distinct forms of the nominal species Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther, 1886) (Kyphosidae) were discerned while collecting off Western Australia near Perth in 2009. A morphological comparison with recognized species of Kyphosus and an analysis of mtDNA (Cytochrome b, control region, 12S and 16S) and three nDNA markers (RAG1, RAG2 and Tmo-4C4) demonstrated that the more elongate of these forms was an undescribed species of Kyphosus. It differs from congeners in the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the combination of the following characters: green bar on the operculum, 11-12 dorsal soft fin rays, depth of caudal peduncle 9.9-11.8 % SL, body depth 33.3-41.6 % SL, 55-63 scales in lateral line, 12-16 interorbital scales, 44-55 pored scales in the lateral line, 3-5 gill rakers on upper limb of first gill arch internally, 11-15 gill rakers on lower limb of first gill arch internally, 15-19 total gill rakers on first gill arch, and by having 10 precaudal vertebrae and 16 caudal vertebrae. Examination of museum specimens and available underwater photographs suggests that the new species is restricted to Western Australia, and to date it has been recorded between the Houtman Abrolhos Islands and Albany. Discrepancies between the type specimen and original description of Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley made it impossible to determine the relationship between this taxon and the new species from Western Australia, and thus we consider S. klunzingeri a nomen dubium. PMID:24583811

Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall D

2013-01-01

157

Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are discussed with regard to biogeographic province, marine predator, fishing gear to catch the large pelagic fishes, and size of the beaks recovered in the stomachs.

Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

2013-10-01

158

Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

2010-07-01

159

Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some evidence that mesoscale features in the Mozambique Channel do not strongly affect the distribution of the mid-trophic level organisms such as micronekton and most of the large predatory fishes, and hypotheses are proposed to support this result.

Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

2014-02-01

160

Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m?2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m?2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m?2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m?2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

161

The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological oceanography may persist over longer time periods, particularly during the Austral spring.

Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

2011-03-01

162

Defining dynamic pelagic habitats in oceanic waters off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many species in the pelagic ocean are widespread, they are not randomly distributed. These species may have associations with particular water masses or habitats, but to best understand patterns in the ocean, these habitats must be identified. Previous efforts have produced static or seasonal climatologies, which still represent smearing over habitats. The Eastern Tuna and Billfish Longline Fishery (ETBF) targets a range of high trophic level species in oceanic waters off eastern Australia. In this study, dynamic ocean habitats in the region were identified for each month based on cluster analysis of five oceanographic variables averaged at a monthly time scale and a spatial scale of 0.5° for the period 1995-2006. A total of seven persistent habitats were identified off eastern Australia with intra and interannual variation in size and location, indicating the importance of spatial and temporal variation in the dynamics of the region. The degree to which these dynamic habitats were distinguished was tested using (i) stable isotope analysis of top fish predators caught in the region and (ii) estimates of variation in estimated abundance generated from catch data from the fishery. More precise estimates (measured as lower total CV) of isotopic values from swordfish ( Xiphias gladius), yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) and albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) were obtained for 4 of 6 isotope comparisons using the dynamic habitat groupings, which indicate that stratifying by pelagic habitat improved precision. Dynamic habitats produced more precise abundance estimates for 7 of 8 large pelagic species examined, with an average reduction in total CV of 19% compared to when abundance was estimated based on static habitat stratification. These findings could be used to guide development of effective monitoring strategies that can distinguish patterns due to environmental variation, and in the longer term, climate change.

Hobday, A. J.; Young, J. W.; Moeseneder, C.; Dambacher, J. M.

2011-03-01

163

Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.  

PubMed

Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage for fisheries and bycatch species that are heavily influenced by dynamic oceanographic conditions. PMID:24640535

Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

2014-01-01

164

The cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus 1758, occurs throughout trop-  

E-print Network

, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea (Jiang et al., 1991), and about 15% of the catch on northern pop- ulations in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Bo Hai. Similar work on populations (Wang et al., 1992, 1993, 1994). Populations of T. lepturus in the Bo Hai, the Yellow Sea, and the East

165

KTH ACCESS is a Linnaeus Centre Young people are the  

E-print Network

and Associate Professor of Computer Science: "At ACCESS we have a bottom-up perspective, the organisation Professor of Computer Science,whose background spans the fields of economics,security and computer a system secure. "Many factors are in play and affect security. Hackers are driven by a variety of motives

Lagergren, Jens

166

INTRODUCCIN El lucin, Anguis fragilis Linnaeus, 1758, es  

E-print Network

espe- cies de plantas herbáceas (Oenanthe crocata, Anthoxantum odoratum, Lolium multiflorum, Dactylis glomerata, Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium MUNIBE (Suplemento / Gehigarria) 25, 2007 S.C. Aranzadi. Z

Galán, Pedro

167

Cytoplasmic male killing elements in Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wild sample of Adalia bipunctata larvae and pupae were collected from Surrey, and F1 virgin adults mated. The sex ratio produced by these pairs was found be be variable, 22 pairs produced a sex ratio consistent with a 1:1 sex ratio, but four produced a strong female bias. Daughters and males from biased broods were mated to adults from

Gregory D D Hurst; Michael E N Majerus; Linda E Walker

1992-01-01

168

Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

2015-04-01

169

The existence of Dracunculus medinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Turkana, Kenya.  

PubMed

Dracontiasis has been previously reported in southern Sudan, northern Uganda and north-west Eritrea but this is the first report of autochthonous cases in Turkana, Kenya. Five Turkana tribesmen, three females from the same family, one young boy and an adult male were being treated for guinea-worm at the dispensary in Lokichogio, northern Turkana District. The three women had recently returned from southern Sudan, where the disease is endemic, but the two male tribesmen had only lived in and around the Lokichogio region. The methods used in obtaining water from water-holes dug in dry river beds provide an ideal situation for Dracunculus transmission amongst the tribesmen; this parasite may therefore become a problem in this remote impoverished area. PMID:6460352

Macpherson, C N

1981-01-01

170

Geographic variation in Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus) (Serpentes: Colubridae  

E-print Network

variation of greatest number of mid-body dorsal scale rows in ~ 37 38 ~Ela he guttat ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 42 7. Method of addition and reduction in number of dorsal scale rows observed in ~Ela he guttat ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 8 ~ Summation of scale row formulae for ~Ela he... of the nomenclatorial status of ehe speoies, his sole treatment of E. g ttata was one section of his dissertation (1951b, published ~o ~te). Dowling's main interest in the genus concerned Th style folio d is that of the ~Jou al of ~He )mto~lo E. ~ ~ j ' ~ 'j...

Thomas, Robert Allen

1974-01-01

171

Fossil Macaca nemestrina ( Linnaeus , 1766) from Java, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a description of the fossil macaque specimen registered as G. M. B. K 102 at the Geological Museum in Bandung. It\\u000a is consisted of a left half maxilla and a mandible. The fossils are assigned toMacaca nemestrina (L., 1766) being a large macaque with long mandibular symphysis, big canines and marked lateral flares in molars. They were\\u000a unearthed

Mitsuru Aimi

1981-01-01

172

Recursively invoking Linnaeus: A Taxonomy for Naming Systems  

E-print Network

Naming is a central element of a distributed or network system design. Appropriate design choices are central. This paper explores a taxonomy of naming systems, and engineering tradeoffs as an aid to the namespace designer. ...

Sollins, Karen R.

2002-03-01

173

Helminth fauna of the stoat ( Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758) and the weasel ( M. nivalis Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminthological examinations of 30 stoat and 31 weasel carcasses were carried out in Belorussian Polesie (southern part of Belarus, Brest and Gomel regions) between 1980 and 1999. The total rate of helminth infection of these animals was 78.7%. A total of 23 stoats and 25 weasels were infected by helminths. The animals were hosts for 20 species of helminths.

V. V. Shimalov; V. T. Shimalov

2001-01-01

174

Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from eastern Germany and Poland since 1979 indicated an increase in concentrations during the 1990s. Livers of Atlantic salmons did not contain quantifiable concentrations of any of the fluorochemicals monitored. PFOS is a widespread contaminant in wildlife from the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas, while FOSA and PFOA were detected only in certain locations indicating their sporadic spatial distribution. PMID:12188342

Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Günter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P

2002-08-01

175

Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

2014-06-01

176

Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11?±?0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

2013-01-01

177

Distribution of pigments in the shell of the gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns of pigment distribution in the shell of the gastropod Littorina obtusata were studied. It was determined that the background coloration of the periwinkle shell resulted from the coloration interaction\\u000a of the external and internal parts of the ostracum. The coloration of the latter can be monochromatic or twolayer. The external\\u000a and\\/or internal zones of the ostracum can be

E. V. Kozminsky; P. A. Lezin

2007-01-01

178

Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species. PMID:23337491

Speck, Stephanie; Perseke, Lea; Petney, Trevor; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Taraschewski, Horst; Bunnell, Toni; Essbauer, Sandra; Dobler, Gerhard

2013-04-01

179

Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

Schoppe, Sabine

1991-09-01

180

Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup.  

PubMed

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues Dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo

2015-02-28

181

Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek  

PubMed Central

Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

2012-01-01

182

Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).  

PubMed Central

The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

Vukusic, P.; Wootton, R. J.; Sambles, J. R.

2004-01-01

183

Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar

2008-01-01

184

The energetics of growth, respiration, and egestion of juvenile striped mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus  

E-print Network

the problems of determining growth efficiency using maintenance requirements. In her experiments, brown trout altered their maintenance ration by lowering and raising their standard metabolism. Another weakness of this method is that the fish and its food... size and instead have reported it as ', being merely above or below maintenance requirements. In light of these general considerations, the present study was designed with the following objectives: (1) to measure the energetics of growth...

Muska, Carl Frank

1973-01-01

185

Predation and searching efficiency of a ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus in laboratory environment.  

PubMed

The predation and searching efficiency of fourth instar of predatory C. septempunctata at various densities of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and predator was investigated under laboratory conditions. The feeding rate of predatory stage decreased at increased prey- and predator densities. Highest percent (92.80%) prey consumption was observed at initial prey density and lowest percent (40.86%) prey consumption at highest prey density by the fourth instar, though the total prey consumption increased with increase in either prey- or predator densities. Similarly, the individual prey consumption was also highest at initial predator density and lowest at highest predator density owing to the mutual interference between the predators at higher densities. The area of discovery (searching efficiency) also decreased with increase in prey- and predator densities. Handling time of predator was highest at lower prey densities, which decreased with increased prey densities. The highest percentage of prey consumption at the prey density of 50 revealed that 1:50 predator-prey ratio was the best to reduce the pest population. PMID:15267141

Omkar; Srivastava, Shefali

2003-01-01

186

Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

187

Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

Lavery, Shane D; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G

2014-01-01

188

International Relations Office, Linnaeus University Information updated 2010-04-08  

E-print Network

address SE-391 82 Kalmar Sweden SE-351 95 Växjö Sweden Head of institution Professor Stephen Hwang, Rector Sciences School of Design School of Education, Psychology and Sports Science School of Engineering School Sciences School of Social Work Other institutes Institute of Police Education Institute for Further

Petriu, Emil M.

189

Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

2013-03-01

190

NOTES ON THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD OF THE PINFISH LAGODON RHOMBOIDES (LINNAEUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were collected during September and October, 1974 and 1975. Following a minimum of one week holding period, females were initially injected with 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and injected with 400 IU every second day thereafter until matur...

191

Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

1965-01-01

192

GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

193

Haemocyte persistence after grafting for pearl production in Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The grafting process used for pearl production in pearl oysters triggers a significant haemocyte response which has an influence on the quality of pearls formed. One hundred and ten selected healthy adult Pinctada margaritifera were grafted for pearl production. Beginning two days after grafting, oysters were sacrificed regularly until the 48th day and the pearl-sacs of sampled oysters were sectioned for histological analysis. The level of haemocytes present in the pearl-sacs decreased overtime with the samples from day 2 showing the highest levels. Haemocyte levels also varied between samples from a particular day. The exact cause(s) of varying levels of haemocyte accumulation during pearl-sac development in P. margaritifera is not known. However, it is reasonable to assume that haemocyte production is positively related to the degree of damage caused to host oyster tissues during the grafting procedure. While haemocytes have an important wound healing role in pearl oysters, excessive haemocyte presence may be detrimental to maximizing pearl quality. PMID:25482059

Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

2015-02-01

194

Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO(2). During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn(2+), and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response. PMID:18639346

Oweson, Carolina; Sköld, Helen; Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria; Hernroth, Bodil

2008-08-29

195

Absorption and metabolism of carbaryl, malathion, DDT, aldrin and permethrin by larvae of Aedes Aegypti (Linnaeus)  

E-print Network

and water using 2 ml of each. From the chloroform fractions, 0. 5 ml was used for quantitating the organosoluble, radioactive metabolite by scintillation counting. A liquid scintillation spectrometer (Model 3003, Packard Instrument Co. , Inc. ) was used... (4:1) 0. 5 ml of the water fractions from the chloroform/water par- titions were used to quantitate the water soluble radioactive metabo- lites. To separate the conjugated metabolites, 0. 5 ml of the water from the chloroform/water partitions were...

Martinez, Alberto

1977-01-01

196

High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations  

PubMed Central

Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination.

Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

2015-01-01

197

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

198

AbstractThe tautog, Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus), ranges from Nova Scotia  

E-print Network

), although it is most abun dant between Cape Cod and New Jersey (Bigelow and Schroeder, 1953). In Virginia. Contr., vol 34, 47 p. [Deposited at South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Marine Resources, or alongside (Olla et al., 1974). Adult tautog inhabit hard-bottom environments including natural reefs

199

[Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity].  

PubMed

The parasitism of the two giant anteaters adults (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), one male and one female, infected naturally with Eimeria escomeli, E. tamanduae e E. marajoensis was related in the present research. In E. escomeli oocysts were 23.9 +/- 1.89 by 19.7 +/- 1.60 microm and its sporocysts were 11.47 +/- 1.25 by 6.48 +/- 0.80 microm. In E. tamanduae oocysts were 23.52 +/- 0.95 by 20.59 +/- 0.92 microm and its sporocysts were 12.19 +/- 0.65 by 7.15 +/- 0.55 microm. In E. marajoensis oocysts were 13.5 +/- 1.7 by 13.1 +/- 1.8 microm and its sporocysts were 7.4 +/- 0.58 by 5.4 +/- 0.8 microm. Eimeria escomeli was described before parasitizing giants anteater from Bolivia, and it was point out as the first time in Brazil. The presence of E. tamanduae and E. marajoensis parasitizing giant anteaters indicate the possibility of having co-infection of them among animals of the family Myrmecophagidae. PMID:16646999

Freitas, Fagner Luiz da C; Almeida, Katyane de S; Zanetti, André S; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Machado, Cé Lio R; Machado, Rosangela Z

2006-01-01

200

Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins’ system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

2013-01-01

201

Cytological investigations and new chromosome number reports in yarrow (Achillea millefolium Linnaeus, 1753) accessions from Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, a new chromosome number for Iranian yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) accessions was reported. Cytological analyses on four Achillea millefolium accessions, indicated that two accessions were diploids (2n=2x=18) and two tetraploids (2n=4x=36). Cluster analysis based on chromosomal characteristics and karyotype asymmetry, categorized the four accessions separated into two groups. In terms of the Stebbins' system, the karyotype of diploid accessions grouped in 2A class. The average value of the total form percentage (TF%) in the group one (diploid accessions) and two (tetraploid accessions) were 40.85 and 41.15, respectively. The group one had the highest mean value for the symmetry index (S%=57.5). Consequently, it can be inferred that diploids belonging to the group one are the earlier evolutionary forms. PMID:24455101

Afshari, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Akbari, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa

2013-10-24

202

Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).  

PubMed

The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

Vukusic, P; Wootton, R J; Sambles, J R

2004-03-22

203

Multiplexing of novel microsatellite loci for the vulnerable slipper lobster Scyllarus arctus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The marine slipper lobster Scyllarus arctus represents an important economic resource in the NE Atlantic, and in some regions it has been severely exploited for decades. Even so, the basic aspects of the biology and ecology of S. arctus remain largely unknown and there is very little information available for the species, especially in terms of stock assessment and population dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop novel microsatellite markers using 454 sequencing for the slipper lobster S. arctus. Ten novel loci were described and amplified in 114 individuals using 3 multiplex reactions. Overall, microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, and the number of detected alleles per locus across all individuals ranged from 6 to 29. Conservation strategies in the NE Atlantic region may consider these novel markers to study the population structure of S. arctus throughout its distribution area so that future efforts could be focused on identifying scales of connectivity and preserving stocks that have been severely depleted. PMID:24311522

Faria, João; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Cabezas, Patricia; Alexandrino, Paulo; Froufe, Elsa

2014-02-01

204

Gross and microscopic anatomy of the pineal gland in Nasua nasua--coati (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

Nasua nasua, coati, is a mammal of the Carnivora order and Procyonidae family. It lives in bands composed of females and young males. The pineal gland or epiphysis of brain is endocrine, producing the melatonin. Its function is the control of the cycle of light environment, characteristic of day and night. For this research, five adult coatis were used, originating from CECRIMPAS-UNIfeob (Proc. IBAMA 02027.003731/04-76), Brazil. The animals were killed and perfusion-fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Pineals were measured and a medium size was found to be 2.3-mm-long and 1.3-mm-wide. Pineal gland was located in the habenular commissure in the most caudal portion of the third ventricular roof, lying in a dorso-caudal position from the base to the apex. Pinealocytes were predominantly found in the glandular parenchyma. Distinct and heterogeneous arrangements of these cells throughout the three pineal portions were observed as follows: linear cords at the apex, circular cords at the base of the gland, whereas at the body a transition arrangement was found. Calcareous concretions could be observed in the apex. The pineal gland was classified as subcallosal type [Rec. Méd. Vét.1, 36 (1956)] and as AB type [Prog. Brain Res. 42, 25 (1979); The Pineal Organ, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag (1981)]. PMID:18803633

Favaron, P O; Mançanares, C A F; De Carvalho, A F; Ambrósio, C E; Leiser, R; Miglino, M A

2008-12-01

205

Die orbitotemporale Region im Schädel von Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Chelonia) und Lacerta sicula Rafinesque (Lacertilia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the ontogenesis of the chondrocran¡um gives the following homologies in the skull of Lacerta and Chelydra: Chelydra Lacerta Pila metoptica subiculum infundibuli cartilago hypochiasmatica Pila antotica pila antotica pila accessoriaDorsal border of planum supraseptale part of the taenia marginalis closing the fenestra epioptica dorsally Caudal process of the pila antotica dorsal to the incisura prootica part of

Olivier Rieppel

1976-01-01

206

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

207

Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Goiás.  

PubMed

The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947), Hartley (1961) and Guimarães & Papavero (1999). Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated. PMID:15821797

Garcia-Zapata, Marco Tulio A; de Souza Júnior, Edson Sidião; Fernandes, Fernando Freitas; Santos, Sônia F O

2005-01-01

208

Haematology of great sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to clove powder as an anaesthetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaesthetic effects of clove powder were studied in juvenile great sturgeon. Haematological parameters were assessed before,\\u000a immediately after and 24 h after 10 min of anaesthesia using clove powder at 175, 225, 275 and 350 mg\\/L concentrations. The\\u000a 10-min exposure to clove powder caused a significant increase (P?

Asad Mohammadizarejabad; Kazem Darvish Bastami; Mohammad Sudagar; Somayeh Pourali Motlagh

2010-01-01

209

Hematology of great sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to brackish water environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental salinity on hematological parameters of great sturgeon Huso huso juveniles was studied. Five-month-old juveniles (mean body weight 28.3 ± 2.1 g) were subjected to 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 ppt\\u000a salinities. The hematological parameters were assessed after a period of 20 days rearing at these salinities. After transfer\\u000a from fresh water to brackish water, red blood cells, hematocrit, haemoglobin and

Asad Mohammadi Zarejabad; Mohammad Ali Jalali; Mohammad Sudagar; Somayeh Pouralimotlagh

2010-01-01

210

Effect of photoperiod on blood parameters of young beluga sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of manipulated photoperiod on haematological parameter in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). One hundred eight fish (24-month old) were randomly allocated into 18 tanks. Each tank received one of six photoperiod regimes\\u000a for 73 days: natural photoperiod, 24Light (L):0Dark (D), 16L:8D, 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 0L:24D. Different photoperiods had no\\u000a significant effects on hormonal and cytological features of

Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Hadi Poorbagher; Mehdi Sohrabnejad; Hamid Reza Jamalzadeh; Mahmoudreza Ovissipour; Abbas Esmaeili Molla; Moosa Zarei

211

Determination of some blood and seminal plasma ions in the beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters are essential for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses, fish stock conservation and development of artificial propagation methods via extender improvement. In this study, comparison of blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters in beluga, Huso huso (30-45 kg, 1-2 m, n = 10), was made. The results obtained show that Na(+) (82.54 ± 5.46), Cl(-) (15.95 ± 0.72) and K(+) (3.57 ± 0.15) were predominant ions in the seminal plasma (as mM). Blood ionic values (as mM) were determined for Na(+) (110.2 ± 1.26), K(+) (3.77 ± 0.081), Cl(-) (60.12 ± 1.5), Ca(2+) (2.05 ± 0.35) and Mg(2+) (1.9 ± 0.16). Results of the comparison between ionic parameters of seminal and blood plasma indicated that the concentrations of all parameters of blood plasma with the exception of K(+) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of seminal plasma. PMID:25041321

Aramli, M S; Habibi, E; Aramli, S; Nouri, H A

2015-02-01

212

Individual variation related to testicular biometry and semen characteristics in collared peccaries (Tayassu Tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the individual variation with regard to the morphometry of the testes evaluated by ultrasonography and semen characteristics and to verify the existence of relationship between these variables in collared peccaries. In addition, the testes of the animals were evaluated by histology in order to determine the proportion occupied by the seminiferous tubules. A total of 52 ejaculates were obtained from ten adult specimens that had been restrained by anesthesia. The testicular measurements (length, height, and width) were performed by ultrasonography, and the testicular volume was calculated according to Lambert's formula. The scrotal circumference was measured by encircling the thickest portion of the testicle with a graduated nylon tape. The semen was collected by electroejaculation. Testicular fragments were analyzed through classic histology for the determination of the area occupied by the seminiferous tubules. The results show a great amount of individual variation with regard to testicular morphometry and semen characteristics. No significant correlations were obtained between testicular measurements and semen characteristics. The histometric analysis revealed that 67.8% of the testes are occupied by seminiferous tubules. Results show that the measurement of testicular dimensions does not serve as an indicator of the quality of semen obtained by electroejaculation in collared peccaries, as there is no correlation between testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in this species that presents large variations among individuals. PMID:22964034

Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Castelo, T S; Silva, A M; Bezerra, J A B; Souza, A L P; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

2012-10-01

213

Redescription of Taenia solium Linnaeus, 1758 and Taenia saginata Goeze, 1782  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having redescribed the two species Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, it has been established that T. solium is not so rare as is usually supposed. The apparent scarcity is often due to a mis-identification of the proglottids of T. saginata. The apparent greater frequency of T. saginata can be explained insomuch that gravid proglottids of this species are voided spontaneously

Anna Verster; JEAN G. BAER

1967-01-01

214

Olfactory sensilla of the antennal flagellum of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae)  

E-print Network

~re ina, appears analogous to the common chemical sense of vertebrates (Dethier, 1972). A second type of thick-walled sensi lla with numerous pores over the entire surface has been reported for Antheraea ~em i (Ernst and Steinbrecht, unpubl. quoted...- tion exists in the number of pores per sensillum; male Antheraea ~em i have up to 50, 000 pores per sensillum (Ernst and Steinbrecht, unpubl. quoted by Schneider and Steinbrecht, 1968) while the black blow fly, Phormia ~re ina, has only 180 to 360...

White, Sandy Lee

1978-01-01

215

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

216

Morphometric analysis of fetal development of Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) by ultrasonography--pilot study.  

PubMed

Measurements on the growth process and placental development of the embryo and fetuses of Cavia porcellus were carried out using ultrasonography. Embryo, fetus, and placenta were monitored from Day 15 after mating day to the end of gestation. Based on linear and quadratic regressions, the following morphometric analysis showed a good indicator of the gestational age: placental diameter, biparietal diameter, renal length, and crown rump. The embryonic cardiac beat was first detected at an average of 22.5 days. The placental diameter showed constant increase from beginning of gestation then remained to term and presented a quadratic correlation with gestational age (r(2) = 0.89). Mean placental diameter at the end of pregnancy was 3.5 ± 0.23 cm. By Day 30, it was possible to measure biparietal diameter, which followed a linear pattern of increase up to the end of gestation (r(2) = 0.95). Mean biparietal diameter in the end of pregnancy was 1.94 ± 0.03 cm. Kidneys were firstly observed on Day 35 as hyperechoic structures without the distinction of medullar and cortical layers, thus the regression model equation between kidney length and gestational age presents a quadratic relationship (r(2) = 0.7). The crown rump presented a simple linear growth, starting from 15 days of gestation, displaying a high correlation with the gestational age (r(2) = 0.9). The offspring were born after an average gestation of 61.3 days. In this study, we conclude that biparietal diameter, placental diameter, and crown rump are adequate predictive parameters of gestational age in guinea pigs because they present high correlation index. PMID:24560548

Santos, Juliana; Fonseca, Erika; van Melis, Juliano; Miglino, Maria Angélica

2014-04-15

217

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2008-04-24

218

Seminoma in hybrid catfish [Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus) female x Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) male].  

PubMed

Spontaneous testicular tumors, seminoma, were noticed in four male hybrid catfish (C. batrachus female x C. gariepinus male) after the age of two years. The hybrids showed massive abdominal swelling with catchectic body and free lobulated, encapsulated tumors (> 325 g) within the serosanguinous fluid-filled peritoneal cavities. The tumor cells were large and polyhedral with prominent centrally located nuclei. Other vital organs appeared normal. It seems to be the first report of seminoma in hybrid catfish and possibly of genetic cause. PMID:15260117

Sahoo, P K; Sahoo, S K; Giri, S S; Swain, T; Sahu, A K

2004-06-01

219

Hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild-caught Indian cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja. Results Blood samples, taken from the ventral tail vein, were assessed for erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, considering the sex of snakes. Results revealed the erythrocyte numbers (male, 390000?±?12503.33/mm3 and female, 347500?±?7505.55/mm3), shapes and the centrally located oval nuclei. Leukocytes were round, circular or disk-shaped, and the mean size was larger in male than female snakes. The maximum number of leukocytes was found to be 11700?±?100/mm3 in male and 12100?±?200/mm3 in female snakes, and mean values of differential leukocyte count differed statistically between male and female snakes. The total leukocyte levels were found to be higher in female snakes, but the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV values were higher in male snakes. However, the MCH and MCHC values remained higher in female snakes throughout the study period. Mean protein and cholesterol contents differed significantly between male (45.32?±?1.76 and 3.76?±?0.06 mg/mL) and female (12.47?±?0.82 and 4.72?±?0.2 mg/mL) snakes. Conclusions In conclusion, monitoring snake hematological and biochemical parameters can serve as a means to evaluate the physiological and health status of N. naja populations, which may be a useful indicator of their environmental status. PMID:24735569

2014-01-01

220

Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958) from Ceará coast, NE Brazil.  

PubMed

Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from <0.34 to 856.6 ng.g(-1) d.w., and were highest (average of 154.8 ng.g(-1) d.w.) in juveniles (n = 22), whereas lowest concentrations (average of 2.5 ng.g(-1) d.w.) were observed in adult/sub-adult animals (n = 3). There was a significant negative correlation between animal size and Hg concentration probably due to different diets between juveniles and sub-adults/adults. Carapace fragments, which are non-invasive, non-lethal substrates, may be of importance for monitoring purposes of these generally endangered species. PMID:22441601

Bezerra, Moisés F; Lacerda, Luiz D; Costa, Breno G B; Lima, Eduardo H S M

2012-03-01

221

Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70–75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV. PMID:22953014

Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat

2012-01-01

222

Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ?) and 10 g (T7, ?) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ? 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture(®) may be economically important for fish hatcheries. PMID:25240678

Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

2015-04-01

223

The Eastern Belted Kingfisher, Megaceryle Alcyon Alcyon (Linnaeus), in Relation to Fish Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kingfisher is the most common and universally distributed bird predator of fish in Michigan. Its principal migration routes are along the Great Lakes shores. Nesting territories are established along streams and lake shores; they are usually larger in the former than in the latter. The kingfisher is diurnal in its feeding with three peaks of activity–morning, afternoon, and early

J. Clark Salyer II; Karl F. Lagler

1949-01-01

224

Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

George, Sam

2014-01-01

225

Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

Bailey, Merryll M.

1972-01-01

226

Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

2013-12-01

227

Preliminary health screening and possible pathogen determination in a Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of the common toad, Bufo bufo, on Jersey (Channel Islands, UK) has undergone a marked decline over recent years. Hypothesized causes for this decline include land use change, pollution, climate change and predation. We examined the carcasses of 97 wild adult common toads for gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths. In addition, 31 adult toad carcasses were examined for the

A. Fernández Loras; J. Hidalgo-Vila; C. Hermosilla; G. García; J. López; A. L. J. Duffus; A. A. Cunningham; V. Roca

2010-01-01

228

Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late\\u000a 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the\\u000a local distribution, seasonal abundance and sex ratio of A. manicatum from samples collected in an

James P. StrangeJonathan; Jonathan B. Koch; Victor H. Gonzalez; Lindsay Nemelka; Terry Griswold

229

Nanomechanical properties of wing membrane layers in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Many insect wings change shape dynamically during the wingbeat cycle, and these deformations have the potential to confer energetic and aerodynamic benefits during flight. Due to the lack of musculature within the wing itself, the changing form of the wing is determined primarily by its passive response to inertial and aerodynamic forces. This response is in part controlled by the wing's mechanical properties, which vary across the membrane to produce regions of differing stiffness. Previous studies of wing mechanical properties have largely focused on surface or bulk measurements, but this ignores the layered nature of the wing. In our work, we investigated the mechanical properties of the wings of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) with the aim of determining differences between layers within the wing. Nanoindentation was performed on both the surface and the interior layers of cross-sectioned samples of the wing to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of the outer- and innermost layers. The results demonstrate that the interior of the wing is stiffer than the surface, and both properties vary across the wing. PMID:25660065

Sample, Caitlin S; Xu, Alan K; Swartz, Sharon M; Gibson, Lorna J

2015-03-01

230

DESCRIPTION OF BLACK SEA BASS, CENTROPRISTIS STRIATA (LINNAEUS), LARVAE AND THEIR OCCURRENCES NORTH  

E-print Network

by characteristic ventral pigment patterns, body shape, mpristic counts, and lack of extensive armature. The 147, and a single oil globule. They hatch in 75 hI' at 16°C and in 38 hI' at 23°C (Wilson, 1891; Hoff, 1970 England using the ventral pigment pattern and fin ray counts. Apparently Merri- , National Marine

231

Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ulva, one of the first Linnaean genera, was later circumscribed to consist of green seaweeds with distromatic blades, and Enteromorpha Link was established for tubular forms. Although several lines of evidence suggest that these generic constructs are artificial, Ulva and Enteromorpha have been maintained as separate genera. Our aims were to determine phylogenetic relationships among taxa currently attributed to Ulva,

Hillary S. Hayden; Jaanika Blomster; Christine A. Maggs; Paul C. Silva; Michael J. Stanhope; J. Robert Waaland

2003-01-01

232

Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements.  

PubMed

The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport through the permeable interstice and formed an inverted cone of porewater with 93% air saturation in front of the mouth. From dye experiments the mean ventilatory flow rate was estimated at 0.26+/-0.02 ml min(-1) (86.9+/-7.3 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) (N=3). Expelled water from the gills induced a 1 cm circular plume with <15% air saturation around the gills. During this quasi-steady ventilation mode, fish extracted 86.2+/-4.8% (N=7) of the oxygen from the inspired water. However, 13% of the investigated fish (2 of 15) occasionally wriggled their bodies and thereby transported almost fully air-saturated water down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached the sediment surface, but remained in the sediment until the inspired water reached 5-10% air saturation. PMID:17337713

Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F; Glud, Ronnie N

2007-03-01

233

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta Linnaeus 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae) in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve juvenile specimens of Caretta caretta were examined and results showed five of them (41.7%) were parasitized by helminthes species, as: Sulcascaris sulcata, Kathlania leptura, Orchidasma amphiorchis, Pyelosomum renicapite, and Calycodes anthos.

MAX RONDON WERNECK; CAMILA MARTOS THOMAZINI; EDUARDO SHIGUERU MORI

234

Evolutionary Divergence of Geographic Subspecies within the Scalloped Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. “Brown” subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

Lavery, Shane D.; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G.

2014-01-01

235

Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).  

PubMed

This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group. PMID:22717095

Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2013-05-01

236

Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

2014-06-01

237

Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

2013-01-01

238

Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Abstract The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

2014-09-01

239

[Intestinal digeneans of Gavia stellata (Pontoppidan, 1763) and Gavia arctica (Linnaeus, 1758) from West Pomerania, Poland].  

PubMed

In 2000 and 2006 a total of 20 divers including 15 Gavia stellata and 5 Gavia artica from Pomeranian Bay and Szczecin Lagoon were examined. G. stellata were found to be infected with 3 digenean species: Stephanoprora pseudoechinata (Olsson, 1876), Cryptocotyle concava (Creplin, 1825) and Diplostomum gavium (Guberlet, 1922). G. arctica were host to Echinochasmus spinulosus (Rudolphi, 1809). This is the first record of Stephanoprora pseudoechinata in G. stellata and Echinochasmus spinulosus in G. arctica in Poland. The prevalence of S. pseudoechinata infection (46.7%) was higher than that of other digeneans. PMID:19338230

Rzad, Izabella; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna

2008-01-01

240

Sustainable Fisheries: Multi-Level Approaches to a Global Problem, 197225 2011 by the American Fisheries Society  

E-print Network

management of these harvested stocks requires cooperation between all fishing nations. An international mammals (Order Cetacea), sharks (Superorder Euselachii), and billfishes (Family Istiophoridae gladius, and sharks, with gears such as pelagic longlines, shark bottom longlines, and shark gill nets

Newman, Michael C.

241

Headspace profiles of modified atmosphere packaged fresh red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) by gas liquid chromatography  

E-print Network

* fe. ' ll 18 Rockfish (Sebastes miniatus) h Red hake, ch'nook salmon** Swordfish (~Xi hias gladius) '1"* 21"' Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) Killefer (1930) Stansby and Griffiths (1935) Coyne (1933...

Scorah, Craig Darrell Allen

1988-01-01

242

Choloepus hoffmanni (Pilosa: Megalonychidae) VIRGINIA HAYSSEN  

E-print Network

Bradypus Linnaeus, 1758:34. Part. Myrmecophaga Linnaeus, 1758:35. Part. Choloepus Illiger, 1811:108. Type species Bradypus didactylus Linnaeus, 1758, by subsequent designation (Gray 1827:275). Unaues Rafinesque:305. Type species Bradypus didactylus Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy. Cholaepus Schinz, 1821:328. Incorrect

Hayssen, Virginia

243

Selection of nest platforms and the differential use of nest building fibres by the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus 1766  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice by the Baya weaver between different plant species as nesting platforms and sources of nesting fibre was analysed on an agricultural study plot at Chorao (15°30?N, 73°50?E), an island in the Mandovi estuary in Goa, India. The bird chose eucalyptus over coconut palms, as shown by a higher ratio of utilised trees to available trees and by the

S. D. Borges; M. Desai; A. B. Shanbhag

2002-01-01

244

Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ? = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

2014-12-01

245

Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47) on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina). PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta). The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain. PMID:23564589

Angioni, Salvatora Angela; Scortichini, Giampiero; Diletti, Gianfranco; Perletta, Fabrizia; Ceci, Roberta; Ferri, Nicola

2013-01-01

246

Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

2013-05-01

247

Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day?1), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day?1 (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 1.77±0.253 from control where it was 2.56±0.25. Serum protein level increased from 9.33±2.90 mg/ml (control) to 11.67±1.45 mg/ml after MLT treatment while there was depressed serum triglycerides (86.16±1.078 mg/dl) and cholesterol (126.66±0.88 mg/dl) as compared to control values where these were 123.0±1.23 mg/dl and 132.0±1.65 mg/dl respectively. Histological structure of ovary showed small eggs of early perinucleolus stage after MLT treatment while testicular structure of control and MLT treated fish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day?1, GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes. PMID:25049476

Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, Madhu

2012-01-01

248

Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).  

PubMed

Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lödl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

2012-10-30

249

Differential responses of juvenile and adult South African abalone (Haliotis midae Linnaeus) to low and high oxygen levels.  

PubMed

Marine invertebrates have evolved multiple responses to naturally variable environmental oxygen, all aimed at either maintaining cellular oxygen homeostasis or limiting cellular damage during or after hypoxic or hyperoxic events. We assessed organismal (rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) and cellular (heat shock protein expression, anti-oxidant enzymes) responses of juvenile and adult abalone exposed to low (~83% of saturation), intermediate (~95% of saturation) and high (~115% of saturation) oxygen levels for one month. Using the Comet assay, we measured DNA damage to determine whether the observed trends in the protective responses were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Juveniles were unaffected by moderately hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Elevated basal rates of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were sufficient to prevent DNA fragmentation and protein damage. Adults, with their lower basal rate of anti-oxidant enzymes, had increased DNA damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions, indicating that the antioxidant enzymes were unable to prevent oxidative damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The apparent insensitivity of juvenile abalone to decreased and increased oxygen might be related to their life history and development in algal and diatom biofilms where they are exposed to extreme diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels. PMID:22975222

Vosloo, Andre; Laas, Anél; Vosloo, Dalene

2013-01-01

250

Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)  

PubMed Central

The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

2012-01-01

251

Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland of Eurygaster maura (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

The morphology and ultrastructure of the metathoracic scent glands (MTG) of Eurygaster maura were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In SEM investigations, MTG are composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir by a duct. MTG are open in between the meso- and the metacoxae. These areas, called evaporation areas, are composed of mushroom-like elements. In TEM investigations, the reservoir walls contained two types of cells. Generally, a reservoir is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells, type I cells, which have numerous organelles. Type II cells are found only in a certain area of the reservoir wall. These cells have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands are lined by secretory cells and a secretory duct found in their cytoplasm. Nuclei of secretory cells are closed to the basal region of the cells and circular-shaped. In GC-MS investigations, the MTG exhibited a typical scutellerid composition. In general, (E)-2-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, n-tridecane, n-hexanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, and n-dodecane compounds were present, while diisooctyl acetate and 14-Beta-H-Pregna were detected only in the male extracts of Eurygaster maura. PMID:18274257

Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

2007-01-01

252

Fine structure and chemical analysis of the metathoracic scent gland secretion in Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae).  

PubMed

Morphology and ultrastructure of metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) of Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Extracts of the volatile fraction of the MTG secretion from males and females were subjected to initial analysis. One pair of the MTG is composed of a reservoir and a pair of lateral glands connected to the reservoir with a duct. MTGs are open in between the meso- and metacoxae, on evaporation areas with a mushroom-like structure. Reservoir walls embody two types of cells, type I and type II, respectively. Cells of type I have numerous organelles, while type II cells have only been found in a certain area of the reservoir wall. They have large secretory ducts lined by a cuticular intima layer. The lateral glands connected to reservoir have two further types of cells. Lateral glands are lined by type A secretory cells and secretory duct is found in their cytoplasm. Type B cells are poor in organelles and are smaller than type A cells. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry examinations revealed that both in males and females of G. lineatum MTGs 14 chemical compounds occur, among which only 10 are common. These secretions indicate information such as defensive and pheromonal activities, other functions could be attributed to the secretion of the MTG of G. lineatum by comparison with other closely related bug species. In the analyses of MTGs of females of G. lineatum, n-octadecanoic acid was observed at the most and n-undecane was determined at lowest level, while males of G. lineatum n-tridecane was determined at the highest level; and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate has been observed at the lowest. PMID:19200924

Durak, Dilek; Kalender, Yusuf

2009-01-01

253

Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control. PMID:23569922

Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O

2012-01-01

254

Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO 2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean ( Glycine max Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability\\u000a as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf\\u000a palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid

Bridget F. O’Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Orla Dermody; Damla D. Bilgin; Clare L. Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

2010-01-01

255

Speciation analysis of arsenic in Mya arenaria Linnaeus and Shrimp with capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved sheath-flow interface used to couple capillary electrophoresis (CE) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a microwave-assisted extraction used to extract each arsenic species in seafood were developed in this work. The improved sheath-flow interface completely avoids laminar flow in CE capillary caused by the suction from ICP-MS, makes electric supply more stable in CE, and transports

GuiDi Yang; JinHua Xu; JinPing Zheng; XueQin Xu; Wei Wang; LiangJun Xu; GuoNan Chen; FengFu Fu

2009-01-01

256

[Parasite fauna and features of the parasite community structure in the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus) from Yenisei and Kacha rivers].  

PubMed

Phoxinus phoxinus is a species widely distributed throughout Palaearctic and is a good model for investigation of parasite communities. Species composition and structure of parasite communities in the minnow from the streams if different types, namely Yenisei river near Krasnoyarsk City and its left affluent Kacha River, were examined. Indices of Shannon, Simpson, and Berger-Parker were used to describe the component parasite communities. Twenty five parasite species of seven classes were revealed, and ectoparasite were found to be dominating among them. The host-specific parasite species Paratrichodina phoxini (Infusoria), Dactylogyrus borealis (Monogenea), Parahemiurus merus and Diplostomum phoxini (Digenea) constitute the peculiarity of the parasite fauna in minnow. Parasite community of minnow in the Kacha river is the most various one. It is caused by the following factors--favorable temperature conditions, composition of ichthyofauna, and a high density of fish population in the Kacha river. Metacercaria of Diplostomum phoxini, the specific parasites of minnow's brain, are dominating in both streams. PMID:20349627

German, Iu K; Pronin, N M

2010-01-01

257

An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

2014-01-01

258

[Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene variation in brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) from southern part of Russian Far East].  

PubMed

The genetic variability of brown bear Ursus arctos from the southern part of the Russian Far East was first ex- amined based on the variations in the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence. The presence of two phylogenetic groups of haplotypes described previously for other parts of the species range was demonstrated. Part of the samples belonged to the haplotype group distributed across the whole range, while another part belonged to the rare group previously only reported for Japan and Alaska. These findings partially clarify the pattern of brown-bear colonization on the territory of the Russian Far East and Japan. PMID:25438600

Gus'kov, V Yu; Sheremet'eva, I N; Seredkin, I V; Kryukov, A P

2013-12-01

259

[Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene variation in brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) from southern part of Russian Far East].  

PubMed

The genetic variability of brown bear Ursus arctos from the southern part of the Russian Far East was first ex- amined based on the variations in the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence. The presence of two phylogenetic groups of haplotypes described previously for other parts of the species range was demonstrated. Part of the samples belonged to the haplotype group distributed across the whole range, while another part belonged to the rare group previously only reported for Japan and Alaska. These findings partially clarify the pattern of brown-bear colonization on the territory of the Russian Far East and Japan. PMID:25508131

2013-12-01

260

Levels of heavy metals in green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (Linnaeus) from Muar Estuary, Johore, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption. PMID:19137835

Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ong, M C; Zaleha, K; Shahbudin, S

2008-09-15

261

Induction of larval settlement and metamorphosis in the donkey-ear abalone, Haliotis asinina Linnaeus, by chemical cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the chemical inducers, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and potassium chloride (KCl), on the larval settlement and metamorphosis of the donkey-ear abalone, Haliotis asinina, was investigated. H. asinina larvae (5–6 h post-hatch) were exposed to a range of GABA (0.125–2.00 M) and KCl (1.00–12.00 mM) concentrations for 72 h. Results of the dose response experiments showed that settlement and metamorphosis vary according to the

Rolando S. J. Gapasin; Bernice B. Polohan

2004-01-01

262

Reproductive biology of male skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) in the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology of male skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis was examined from May 2005 to December 2007 in the tropical western and central Pacific Ocean. Testis maturity was classified\\u000a into five stages (i.e., immature, early maturation, mid maturation, late maturation, and regression) on the basis of morphological\\u000a changes in the germinal epithelium. The testis duct system (TS), which was characterized

Hiroshi Ashida; Toshiyuki Tanabe; Keisuke Satoh; Atsushi Fukui; Sho Tanaka; Nobuhiro Suzuki

2010-01-01

263

Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia  

PubMed Central

The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes. PMID:22348080

Drotz, Marcus K.; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

264

Genetic differentiation and natural hybridization between two morphological forms of the common woodlouse, Oniscus asellus Linnaeus 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common woodlouse Oniscus asellus can be divided into two forms on the basis of morphology, particularly male accessory genitalia. Where these taxa meet, morphological intermediates are found, and the forms were therefore described as subspecies; O. a. asellus and O. a. occidentalis. In this study allozyme loci are used to test the hypothesis that intermediate forms result from hybridization,

D. T. BILTON; D. GOODE; J. MALLET

1999-01-01

265

Acclimation rate and resistance to lethal temperatures of 20-35 mm striped mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, at various salinities  

E-print Network

Student's t-test for results of regression of accli- mation time on death time at lethal temperatures of 37. 0 and 37. 3 C. . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Analysis of variance due to regression of length on death time. The lethal temperature was 37. 0 C. A... definite relationship of length to death time is seen here. The larger fish are more resistant to thermal stress 51 5 Analysis of variance due to regressions of length on death time. The lethal temperature was 37. 3 C. . 52 viii LIST OF FIGURES Pacae...

Pfeiffer, Gerald Patrick

1971-01-01

266

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

267

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

268

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

269

EVALUATION OF THE MOLLUSCICIDAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 ON Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)  

PubMed Central

The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

Pereira, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

2014-01-01

270

Reproductive cycle and embryonic development of the gastropod Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ellobiidae) in the Brazilian Northeast.  

PubMed

Melampus coffeus belongs to a primitive group of pulmonate mollusks found mainly in the upper levels of the marine intertidal zone. They are common in the neotropical mangroves. Little is known about the biology of this species, particularly about its reproduction. The aim of this study was to 1) characterize the morphology and histology of M. coffeus' gonad; 2) describe the main gametogenesis events and link them to a range of maturity stages; 3) chronologically evaluate the frequency of the different maturity stages and their relation to environmental factors such as water, air and sediment temperatures, relative humidity, salinity and rainfall; and 4) characterize M. coffeus' spawning, eggs and newly hatched veliger larvae. Samples were collected monthly between February, 2007 and January, 2009 from the mangroves of Praia de Arpoeiras, Acaraú County, State of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. The characterization of the gonad development stages was carried out using routine histological techniques. The results of this study show that Melampus coffeus is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. The follicles have masculine and feminine elements, interleaved within the gonad. M. coffeus presents a well-defined synchronous reproductive cycle, showing successive maturation, release and resting periods. The average diameter of the oocytes was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with rainfall. The results show that no reproductive activity occurs during periods of drought. After the dry season, the increasing rainfall levels and reduced salinity lead to the appearance of very dense populations, predominantly composed of small individuals. PMID:23295525

Maia, R C; Rocha-Barreira, C A; Coutinho, R

2012-11-01

271

Field effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) in ornamental ceramic containers with common aquatic plants.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the impact of larvaciding using a Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) formulation (VectoBac WG) against Aedes aegypti larvae in earthen jars containing aquatic plants. Aquatic plants commonly used for landscaping, Pistia stratiotes (L.) (Liliopsida: Araceae) and Sagittaria sp. (Liliopsida: Alismataceae) were placed inside earthen jars filled with 50 L tap water. All earthen jars were treated with Bti formulation at 8g/1000L. Untreated jars with and without aquatic plants were also set up as controls. Fifty laboratory-bred 2nd instar larvae were introduced into each earthen jar. All earthen jars were observed daily. Number of adults emerged was recorded and the larval mortality was calculated. The indicators of effectiveness of Bti for these studies were (i) residual activities of Bti, and (ii) larval mortality in earthen jars with or without aquatic plants. The treated earthen jars containing P. stratiotes and Sagittaria sp. showed significant residual larvicidal effect up to 7 weeks, in comparison to untreated control (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 77.34% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 80.66% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Earthen jars treated with Bti without aquatic plants also exhibited significantly longer residual larvicidal activity of up to 10 weeks (p < 0.05). The larval mortality ranged from 12.66% - 100% for jars with aquatic plants vs 59.34% - 100% for jars without aquatic plant. Thus, earthen jars without aquatic plants exhibited longer residual larvicidal effect compared to those with aquatic plants. This study suggested that containers with aquatic plants for landscaping should be treated more frequently with Bti in view of the shortened residual activity. PMID:19696734

Chen, C D; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Seleena, B; Lau, K W; Daliza, A R; Ella Syafinas, S; Mohd Sofian, A

2009-04-01

272

Diverse Microbiota Identified in Whole Intact Nest Chambers of the Red Mason Bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-01-01

273

I can think of few changes that I would make beyond correcting a few proofreading lapses (Linnaeus's great  

E-print Network

sexually selected mand- ibles, not horns, and when will we ever stop hearing about the `peacock's tail ­ and the back feathers, i.e. the train, of peacocks.) Coyne is clearly skeptical of most of evolution- ary

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

274

Bioavailability of heavy metals in fresh water Tilapia nilotica (Oreachromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758): potential risk to fishermen and consumers.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to assess the accumulation of some heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd) in different tissues (muscle, gills, heart, liver, brain, bone and skin) of Tilapia nilotica. It is one of the most edible fish species in Egypt and was collected from a commercial fish farm in order to evaluate their potential risk to fishermen and consumers. This fish farm is fed with discharged water containing agricultural, industrial, sewage and domestic wastes. The length-weight relation and condition factor calculation of Tilapia nilotica samples showed a significant linear regression (r(2) = 0.920) and an average condition factor of 4.1 g/cm(3). This indicated that the health status for the studied fish samples was good. Metal pollution index (MPI) values for the determined heavy metals in the different tissues reflected that the muscle was the only tissue that had the lowest content. Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values for the investigated heavy metals were lower than those reported for the permissible limits. The data were evaluated by using ANOVA statistical analysis. For appraising the human health risk effects of heavy metals in fish muscle, estimated dietary intake (EDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were determined. HQ levels indicated that Cr and Co were the only heavy metals among the determined ones that had values more than unity. Also, their relative contributions in fish consumptions were Cr> Co> Pb> Ni> Cu> Cd> Zn. The highest average HQ value of chromium determined in this study referred to the possible adverse effects of Cr on human health. Accordingly, the potential public health risks from dietary exposure to hazardous contaminants in fish species from fish farms must be continually subjected to research, regulation and debate. PMID:23431978

El-Sadaawy, Manal M; El-Said, Ghada F; Sallam, Neama A

2013-01-01

275

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-10-01

276

Effects of rearing temperature on hematological and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental temperature changes on hematological and biochemical parameters of Huso huso juveniles was studied. Six-month-old juveniles with mean body weight of 69.2?±?4.1 g were subjected to different temperatures\\u000a (9–14°C, 15–20°C, and 21–26°C, respectively). The hematological parameters, ion Ca2+, glucose, and the cortisol concentrations\\u000a were assessed after a period of 21 days rearing at these temperatures. The results show that

Asad Mohammadi Zarejabad; Mohammad Sudagar; Somayeh Pouralimotlagh; Kazem Darvish Bastami

2010-01-01

277

Comparatively examining of the apelin-13 levels in the Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843) and Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues in the various vertebrates and fish. Apelin has been suggested to have role in regulation of many diverse physiological functions including food intake, energy homoeostasis, immunity, osmoregulation and reproduction. In this study, apelin-13 levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio and Capoetta trutta were determined. Then the results were compared between two species and sexes of each species. Apelin-13 level was analysed using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit (Rat apelin-13 ELISA kit, catalog no: CSB-E14367r). Apelin-13 level in the blood serum of C. trutta was significantly higher than those of the C. carpio (p < 0.05). However, its levels were observed to be no significant difference (p > 0.05) that compared to between sexes of each species. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.829, p = 0.0001) between the apelin-13 level and body weight of C. carpio. However, no significant correlation (r = -0.022, p = 0.924) between the apelin-13 level and weight of C. trutta observed. PMID:25124358

Köprücü, S; Algül, S

2015-04-01

278

Inapparent Virus Infections and their Interactions in Pupae of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When honey bee pupae from seemingly healthy Australian colonies were injected with various salt solutions, inapparent infections of black queen-cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and, occasionally, cricket paralysis virus were activated. The activated viruses replicated to detectable concentrations after pupae were incubated at 35 °C for 3 days. Inapparent infections of SBV, but not

D. L. Anderson; A. J. Gibbs

1988-01-01

279

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids,

Sherif Hassan; Sanaa Abd El-Twab; Mona Hetta; Basant Mahmoud

2011-01-01

280

Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

2014-09-01

281

Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cheel) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Linnaeus.) Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Seed Borne Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) essential oils were tested for their antifungal activity to investigate the possibility of their use for seed treatment. The ability of the two oils to inhibit mycelial growth was studied by in vitro assay on agar medium containing different concentrations of the essential oils (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% v\\/v). Seven

Luca Riccioni; Laura Orzali

2011-01-01

282

Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil.  

PubMed

Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Blood samples were tested for Babesia/Theileria, Anaplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, msp4, ITS, and cathepsin L genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences from GenBank using BLAST software. Forty-six (77%) pampas deer were positive for at least one hemoparasite, according to PCR assays. Co-infection occurred in 13 (22%) animals. Based on the sequencing results, 29 (48%) tested positive for A. marginale. Babesia/Theileria were detected in 23 (38%) samples, and according to the sequencing results 52% (12/23) of the samples were similar to T. cervi, 13% (3/23) were similar to Babesia bovis, and 9% (2/23) were similar to B. bigemina. No samples were amplified with the primers for T. vivax, while 11 (18%) were amplified with the ITS primers for T. evansi. The results showed pampas deer to be co-infected with several hemoparasites, including species that may cause serious disease in cattle. Pampas deer is an endangered species in Brazil, and the consequences of these infections to their health are poorly understood. PMID:23567028

Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Lacerda, Ana C R; Borges, Paulo A L; Tomás, Walfrido M; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Tomich, Renata G P; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

2013-06-01

283

Pollen from the exoskeletons of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), in Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable flies are an important pest of humans and livestock. Despite being blood feeders, they also visit flowers to eat nectar. Stable flies with pollen adhering to their exoskeletons were collected at the University of Florida Horse Teaching Unit and taken to the Paleobotany and Palynology Laboratory at the Florida Museum of Natural History for processing and identification. The pollen

David M. Jarzen; Jerome A. Hogsette

2008-01-01

284

Identification of a Novel Metalloproteinase and Its Role in Juvenile Development of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:105–117, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475557

Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J

2013-01-01

285

Investigation of the leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843).  

PubMed

Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissues in the various teleost fish and vertebrates. Leptin has been suggested to have an important role in a range physiological function, including regulation of food intake, reproduction, immune function, energy expenditure, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta trutta were determined. Then the results were compared between two species and between sexes of each species. In addition, leptin levels were also compared with the body weight and length of both C. carpio and C. trutta. Leptin level was analysed using available enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit (Rat leptin ELISA kit, catalog no: SK00050-08). Leptin levels showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) that in relation to between two species and between sexes of each species. It has been shown that not significantly correlated when examined correlations between the leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.192, p = 0.380) or length (r = 0.102, p = 0.644) of C. carpio. Similarly, the correlations between leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.021, p = 0.959) or length (r = 0.123, p = 0.595) of C. trutta were also not significant. PMID:25440001

Köprücü, S; Algül, S

2014-12-01

286

Helminth fauna of the stoat (Mustela erminea Linneaus, 1758) and the weasel (M. nivalis Linnaeus, 1758) in Belorussian Polesie.  

PubMed

Helminthological examinations of 30 stoat and 31 weasel carcasses were carried out in Belorussian Polesie (southern part of Belarus, Brest and Gomel regions) between 1980 and 1999. The total rate of helminth infection of these animals was 78.7%. A total of 23 stoats and 25 weasels were infected by helminths. The animals were hosts for 20 species of helminths. PMID:11511009

Shimalov, V V; Shimalov, V T

2001-08-01

287

Untersuchungen zum Gesundheitsstatus von Kanadagänsen ( Branta canadensis , Linnaeus, 1758) in Nordrhein-Westfalen an Hand der Analyse von Eiern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 107 Eier der Kanadagans aus Gelegen im Bereich des Naherholungsgebietes „Saaler Mühle“ in Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden morphometrisch, mikrobiologisch und serologisch untersucht. Untersucht wurde auf Erreger oder gegen diese gerichtete Antikörper von (i) Zoonosen (Salmonella sp.,Campylobacter sp.,Chlamydia sp.), (ii) die Erreger oder deren Antikörper von Tierseuchen (Virus der Newcastle Disease, Influenza A-Virus der Hämagglutinin (HA-)-Subtypen H5 und H7), (iii) Erreger oder

Brigitte M. Bönner; Sabine Jäger; Ursula Reichel; Walburga Lutz; J. Wissing; W. Knickmeier; W. H. Gerlich; Ulrike C. Wend; Annette L. Bolte; E. F. Kaleta

2003-01-01

288

Ontogenetic profile of innate immune related genes and their tissue-specific expression in brown trout, Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The innate immune system is a fundamental defense weapon of fish, especially during early stages of development when acquired immunity is still far from being completely developed. The present study aims at looking into ontogeny of innate immune system in the brown trout, Salmo trutta, using RT-PCR based approach. Total RNA extracted from unfertilized and fertilized eggs and hatchlings at 0, 1 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 weeks post-fertilization was subjected to RT-PCR using self-designed primers to amplify some innate immune relevant genes (TNF-?, IL-1?, TGF-? and lysozyme c-type). The constitutive expression of ?-actin was detected in all developmental stages. IL-1? and TNF-? transcripts were detected from 4 week post-fertilization onwards, whereas TGF-? transcript was detected only from 7 week post-fertilization onwards. Lysozyme c-type transcript was detected early from unfertilized egg stage onwards. Similarly, tissues such as muscle, ovary, heart, brain, gill, testis, liver, intestine, spleen, skin, posterior kidney, anterior kidney and blood collected from adult brown trout were subjected to detection of all selected genes by RT-PCR. TNF-? and lysozyme c-type transcripts were expressed in all tissues. IL-1? and TGF-? transcripts were expressed in all tissues except for the brain and liver, respectively. Taken together, our results show a spatial-temporal expression of some key innate immune-related genes, improving the basic knowledge of the function of innate immune system at early stage of brown trout. PMID:23765117

Cecchini, Stefano; Paciolla, Mariateresa; Biffali, Elio; Borra, Marco; Ursini, Matilde V; Lioi, Maria B

2013-09-01

289

SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). PMID:23733631

Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

2013-08-01

290

An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.  

PubMed

A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo. PMID:24471438

Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-02-19

291

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2014-01-01

292

Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23569831

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

293

Physiological rates in different classes of sizes of Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) submitted to experimental laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Physiological studies of the mussel Perna perna in Brazil are almost 30 years behind those of other, more exhaustively investigated species, such as Mytilus edulis. Little is known about the variations in physiological rates due to size and the consequences of maintaining P. perna in laboratory conditions. This work investigated the variations in respiration, clearance, excretion and absorption efficiency rates of P. perna, classified by size and acclimatized in a laboratory, monitoring the mussels respiration rates and biometry over a period of 30 days, in laboratory conditions. The respiration, clearance and excretion rates presented an allometric relation with the dry weight of the organisms, with b values of 0.66, 0.48 and 0.91 respectively. On the other hand, these same rates, when considered by weight (specific rates) showed a relationship that was inverse to the size of the organisms. Only the absorption efficiency was independent of the weight of the mussel. In terms of acclimatization, it was observed that it takes 10 days for the respiration rate of the mussel P. perna to stabilize in laboratory conditions, after which it follows a routine metabolism. PMID:16710525

Resgalla, C; Brasil, E S; Salomão, L C

2006-02-01

294

Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China  

PubMed Central

Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

2014-01-01

295

First Molecular Identification and Phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a Symptomatic Sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758)?  

PubMed Central

Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:21490184

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2011-01-01

296

Characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) population of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. Cats submitted to a spay/neuter program in the city of Rio de Janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from a city with a tropical climate. Independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination. Ectoparasites were collected, and blood samples were taken to determine packed cell volume. The majority of the 292 cats were female (71%), and most of them were categorized as domestic short hair cats (92%). Different species of ectoparasites that produced both single agent and multi-agent infestations were detected in these cats. Most cats were infested by Ctenocephalides felis (60%); however, other ectoparasites were found to a lesser degree in the sampled population (Felicola subrostratus (5.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.4%), Lynxacarus radovskyi (1%), and Otodectes cynotis (6.2%)). Within the infested cats, 16.3% were also anemic, and there was a significant association between the occurrence of anemia and flea infestation. Of all sampled cats, 65% were infested by at least one species of ectoparasites, which suggests both a heavy infestation of the environment and owner negligence. Ectoparasites are not only nuisances to both cats and owners, but they are also significant carriers of disease. Therefore, the implementation of rigorous, safe preventive measures is of great importance. PMID:21181196

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Crissiuma, Ana Lucia; Gershony, Liza Crissiuma; Willi, Liliane Maria Valentin; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Guerrero, Jorge; Labarthe, Norma

2011-06-01

297

Characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat ( Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) population of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. Cats submitted to a\\u000a spay\\/neuter program in the city of Rio de Janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from\\u000a a city with a tropical climate. Independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination.\\u000a Ectoparasites were

Flavya Mendes-de-Almeida; Ana Lucia Crissiuma; Liza Crissiuma Gershony; Liliane Maria Valentin Willi; Jonimar Pereira Paiva; Jorge Guerrero; Norma Labarthe

2011-01-01

298

Occurrence of neuropeptides and tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory epithelium of the lesser-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Immunohistochemical studies using antisera against various neuropeptides (Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and cholecystokinin octapeptide) and tyrosine hydroxylase revealed both olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) polymorphisms and transepithelial-subepithelial nerves in the olfactory epithelium of the cartilaginous fish, Scyliorhinus canicula. This study provides the first evidence of three morphological types of OSNs within the olfactory epithelium of cartilaginous fish that are similar to those found in the teleosts. In fishes there is evidence that OSNs differ functionally, including their differential olfactory bulb projections and molecular properties. The Substance P positive olfactory neurons in S. canicula may have a separate bulbar projection site that is not known, but may indicate a characteristic found in olfactory neuron subtypes in both lampreys and teleost fish. Numerous Substance P immunopositive nerves are found at the base of and in the olfactory epithelium. Some of them were observed to extend outwards almost reaching the epithelial surface. Their presumptive origin from the trigeminal nerve and their interrelationship with chemosensory cells in the nasal passages of vertebrates are discussed. PMID:20951411

Zaccone, Daniele; Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Lauriano, Rita; Pergolizzi, Simona; Sfacteria, Alessandra; Marino, Fabio

2011-11-01

299

Chlorobiphenyls, HCB, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Some Tissues of Caretta caretta (Linnaeus) Specimens Beached Along the Adriatic Sea, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine turtle species present in the Mediterranean Sea are: Loggerhead (Caretta caretta), Green (Chelonia mydas) and Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) (Arnold and Burton 1985). Caretta caretta is regarded as threatened, and it is therefore protected by the authorities in all Countries in which this species dwells. In Italy, it has been protected since February 24, 1976 (G.U. 1993). Of the world

M. M. Storelli; G. O. Marcotrigiano

2000-01-01

300

The Feeding Ecology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758), at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs. PMID:25210585

Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

2014-01-01

301

Intestinal ciliated protozoa of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 with the description of Triplumaria izmirae n. sp.  

PubMed

Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates excreted in the feces of three Asian elephants living in Sasal? National Park, Izmir, Turkey, were investigated. Seven ciliate genera consisting of 36 species were identified. This is the first report on intestinal ciliates in elephants living in Turkey; one new species, T. izmirae n. sp., was described. This new species has a special macronucleus shape, skeletal rod plates with two wings and posterior contractile vacuole lying beneath the dorsal left base of the tail flap. The buccal infraciliary bands of T. izmirae are similar to those of T. selenica and T. suwako known from elephants. Triplumaria ovina and Raabena bella occurred in highest percentages in two elephants, whereas Latteuria polyfaria was highest in the third one. Ciliate densities in the three fecal samples were 3.5, 1.5 and 5.0 × 10(4)/mL. PMID:24280461

Gürelli, Gözde; Ito, Akira

2014-02-01

302

Effects of dietary DHA and ?-tocopherol on bone development, early mineralisation and oxidative stress in Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae.  

PubMed

DHA deficiency has been related to skeletal malformations in fish, but high DHA levels have produced controversial results that could relate to the oxidative status of fish tissues in the different reports. In the present study, gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) larvae were fed deficient, adequate or high DHA levels, or high DHA levels supplemented with the antioxidant ?-tocopherol. Larvae fed deficient DHA levels tended to be smaller, and showed the highest incidence of urinary bladder calculi, lordosis and kyphosis and the lowest number of mineralised vertebrae for any given size class. Elevation of dietary DHA increased larval growth and significantly enhanced the expression of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene. However, a DHA level increase up to 5 % raised the degree of lipid oxidation in larval tissues and deformities in cranial endochondral bones and in axial skeletal haemal and neural arches. The increase in dietary ?-tocopherol supplementation in high-DHA feeds reduced again the occurrence of skeletal deformities. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for specific antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase, which neutralised reactive oxygen substances formed by increased dietary DHA, was significantly decreased in larvae fed high ?-tocopherol levels. These results denoted the importance of DHA for early bone formation and mineralisation. Low dietary DHA levels delay early mineralisation and increase the risk of cranial and axial skeletal deformities. Excessive DHA levels, without an adequate balance of antioxidant nutrients, increase the production of free radicals damaging cartilaginous structures before bone formation. PMID:23046500

Izquierdo, M S; Scolamacchia, M; Betancor, M; Roo, J; Caballero, M J; Terova, G; Witten, P E

2013-05-28

303

Evaluation of the molluscicidal potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).  

PubMed

The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

2014-01-01

304

Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).  

PubMed

This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-03-01

305

Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

2012-10-01

306

SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST2005 4(3):435446 Abundance and Community Composition of Waterbirds  

E-print Network

). Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) were the most abundant wading bird species during the wet season (64 ± 22% of individuals); White Ibis (Eudocimus albus Linnaeus) were most common during the dry

Dugger, Bruce

307

216 (2010/3) Territoire, Paysage, Anthropisation, Perception, Conservation, Restauration  

E-print Network

'un agrosystème. Le cas de la Guifette noire Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) dans le Marais poitevin au sein d'un agrosystème. Le cas de la Guifette noire Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758) dans le cas de la Guifette noire CHLIDONIAS NIGER (Linnaeus, 1758) dans le Marais poitevin Alain Thomas 11

Boyer, Edmond

308

The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 2. The structure and changes over time.  

PubMed

During the last century the recorded parasite fauna of Bison bonasus includes 88 species. These are 22 species of protozoa, 4 trematode species, 4 cestode species, 43 nematode species, 7 mites, 4 Ixodidae ticks, 1 Mallophaga species, 1 Anoplura, and 2 Hippoboscidae flies. There are few monoxenous parasites, the majority of parasites are typical for other Bovidae and Cervidae species and many are newly acquired from Cervidae. This is an evident increased trend in the parasite species richness, in both the prevalence and intensity of infections, which is associated with the bison population size, host status (captive breeding or free-ranging) and the possibility of contact with other ruminant species. In light of the changes to parasite species richness during the last decades, special emphasis shall be given to new parasite species reported in European bison, their pathogenicity and potential implications for conservation. PMID:25119349

Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

2014-09-01

309

Redescription of Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (Nematoda: Spirurida) infecting stray cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in Qena, Egypt and overview of the genus taxonomy.  

PubMed

Members of the family Physalopteridae are small or large worms parasitic in various regions of the alimentary tract of amphibians (3 species), reptiles (45 species), birds (24 species), mammals (more than 90 species) and humans (more than 82 reported cases). This study estimated the prevalence of Physalopteridae in stray cats in Qena and identify the encountered species and to overview the taxonomic features of different species of the family from which more than 200 species were recovered besides the unnamed species. The gastrointestinal tracts of 39 necropsied stray cats were examined for Physaloptera spp. The encountered species was mounted and prepared to be studied by ordinary and scanning electron microscopy. Ph. praeputialis adults and larvae were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of 28 (71.2%) of 39 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus). Species was redescribed by light and scanning electron microscopy, compared with the other related species of the same genus and larval stages are described for the first time. SEM examination of the parasite revealed that oral aperture is surrounded by 2 massive rounded lateral pseudolabia; pseudolabium roughly rectangular in apical view bearing 2 large sub- median (dorsolateral and ventrolateral) cephalic papillae. PMID:23469641

Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

2012-12-01

310

A Stock Assessment of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Sustainable Management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand  

PubMed Central

A stock assessment of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus was conducted with crab gill nets and collapsible crab traps at Kung Krabaen Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, from 2008 to 2009. Several key indicators show that P. pelagicus population is in crisis. Fishing mortality shows an increase to 4.14. The exploitation rate is 0.71, higher than the optimal value of 0.38. The size of the mature females has also decreased from 8.10±0.39 cm to 7.52±1.14 cm. The average fecundity is 0.572×106±0.261×106 eggs per batch, and the sex ratio (male:female) is 1:0.92. Based on these results, a sustainable management program for P. pelagicus was proposed as follows: (i) closing the bay during the spawning season, (ii) restoration of the Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds, (iii) restocking crab larvae in the bay and (iv) educating and networking all stakeholders to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the crab to support sustainable fishery management in Kung Krabaen Bay. PMID:25210587

Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

2014-01-01

311

Reconciling Deep Calibration and Demographic History: Bayesian Inference of Post Glacial Colonization Patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using Bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales. PMID:22164307

Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

312

[Genetic study of pike perch Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) and bersh Sander volgensis (Gmelin, 1789) from the fishery water-bodies of Kazakhstan].  

PubMed

The genetic polymorphism of the pike perch Sander lucioperca, sampled on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Lake Balkhash, Urals River, Syrdarya River and Shardara water reservoir, North Aral Sea) and in the Volga River, and the bersh Sandler volgensis (Lake Balkhash, Volga River) populations was examined at six microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA cytochirome b gene. All examined loci were successfully amplified in both species and produced quite different allele profiles, whichallows them to be used for accurate species identification of pike perch and bersh. At the same time, neither nuclear nor mitochondrial markers revealed statistically significant differentiation betweenthe examined pike perch samples, excluding some isolation of the population from Volga River. PMID:25720143

Barmintseva, A E; Shalgimbayeva, G M; Koishibayeva, S K; Sarbakanova, S T; Asylbekova, S Z; Isbekov, K B; Mugue, N S

2014-07-01

313

Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).  

PubMed

In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

2014-09-15

314

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

315

Insecticide residues in cotton soils of Burkina Faso and effects of insecticides on fluctuating asymmetry in honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Four insecticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, endosulfan and profenofos) are used quarterly in the cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. These insecticides were investigated in soils collected from traditionally cultivated and new cotton areas. Also, the effects of insecticide exposure on the developmental instability of honey bees, Apis mellifera, were explored. In soil samples collected three months after insecticide treatments, endosulfan and profenofos concentrations varied in the range of 10-30 ?g kg(-1) in the traditionally cultivated zones and 10-80 ?g kg(-1) in the new cotton zones, indicating a pollution of agricultural lands. However, only profenofos concentrations were significantly higher in the new cotton zone than the traditionally cultivated zones. In addition, the index of fluctuating asymmetry, FA1, in the length of second tarsus (L(HW)) was increased for bees when exposed to pesticide treated cotton fields for 82d, and their FA levels were significantly higher than those in the control colony in an orchard. The other studied traits of bees exposed to insecticides were not significantly different from controls. Our results indicate that FA may be considered as a biomarker reflecting the stress induced by insecticide treatments. However, the relationship between FA and stressors needs further investigations. PMID:21190716

Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Alibert, Paul; Dousset, Sylvie; Savadogo, Paul W; Savadogo, Moussa; Sedogo, Michel

2011-04-01

316

Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

2010-11-01

317

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

318

Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

319

The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2002-01-01

320

Characterization of 13 microsatellite loci for the deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758), from the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A suite of 13 polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from the ahermatypic deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa. Among 51 individuals collected from three disjunct oceanic regions, allelic diversity ranged from six to 38 alleles and averaged 9.1 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 9.1 to 96.8% and averaged 62.3% in the Gulf of Mexico population. For some loci, amplification success varied among collections, suggesting regional variation in priming site sequences. Four loci showed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in certain collections which may reflect nonrandom mating. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Morrison, C.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

2008-01-01

321

Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found at a relatively high prevalence of infection (4.6% and 5.2%, respectively). The infection by both parasites showed annual and spatial variability. C. elongatus showed a higher prevalence in 1992 compared to the following years, whereas the prevalence of H. aduncum increased from 1992 to 2001.We observed a relation between parasite distribution and parameters such as latitude and water depth. Adult digeneans (Lecithaster gibbosus and Derogenes varicus) and larval cestodes were also found with lower infection rates. Since changes of infection levels coincided with increasing North Sea water temperature in the studied period, it is hypothesized that temperature may affect parasite population levels. However, it is likely that other environmental factors may contribute to the observed variations. Absence of infection intensities higher than one nematode per fish in small larvae and post-larvae suggests that host survival may be affected by a high infection pressure. The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections should be considered in the understanding of the early life dynamics of the species. PMID:24827100

Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kuhn, Jesper A; Kania, Per W; Munk, Peter; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-06-01

322

Effects of Hatching Time Interval on Growth Performance, Survival Rate, Sedimentation Behavior, and Exogenous Feeding Onset of Great Sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of different hatching times on growth and survival of beluga, Huso huso, over a 28-day period. Larvae from a single pair of beluga, Huso huso, were divided according to hatching time into four groups: early, mid (between 6–9 h after the first group), late (23–26 h after the first group), and a mixture of first to

Asad Mohammadi Zarejabad; Mohammad Sudagar; Mohammad Reza Imanpour; Valiolah Jaafari

2011-01-01

323

Hematological, serum biochemical parameters, and physiological responses to acute stress of Beluga sturgeon ( Huso huso , Linnaeus 1785) juveniles fed dietary nucleotide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotide on serum biochemical and hematological parameters\\u000a as well as stress response in Beluga sturgeon Huso huso juveniles. Fish (12.6?±?0.5 g) were fed diets containing 0%, 0.15%, 0.25%, 0.35%, and 0.50% nucleotide over a 62-day period.\\u000a The experiment was carried out in 600-L tanks with 30 fish per tank. Fish were

Morteza Yousefi; Behrooz Abtahi; Abdolmohammad Abedian Kenari

324

Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, survival, body composition, and some hematological parameters in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).  

PubMed

The effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; activeMOS®) on growth, survival, and body composition in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso) with initially average weight 46.89 ± 2.57 was investigated for a period of 46 days. Basal diet were supplemented with 0 (control), 2, and 4 g kg(-1) MOS in a totally randomized design trial in triplicate groups. The results showed no significant differences in growth and feeding parameters between control and treatment groups (MOS supplementation diets) (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in feed per fish level in only group treated with 4 g kg(-1) MOS. The highest and the lowest growth performances were observed in 2 and 4 g kg(-1) MOS, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival rate among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). In group treated with 2 g kg(-1) MOS was a significant difference in lipid carcass (P < 0.05), whereas protein, ash, and moisture remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in intestinal lactic acid bacteria between all treatment groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between control and MOS treatment groups (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide did not influence the growth performance in giant sturgeon juvenile, and it is not appropriate for supplementation in the diet of cultured juvenile giant sturgeon. PMID:22068455

Razeghi Mansour, M; Akrami, R; Ghobadi, S H; Amani Denji, K; Ezatrahimi, N; Gharaei, A

2012-06-01

325

Biogeography of helminth parasitism in Lemmus Link (Arvicolinae), with the description of Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

We describe the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of true lemmings (Lemmus spp., Arvicolinae) based on published and original material throughout the Holarctic range of these hosts. According to the existing data, the helminth fauna of true lemmings consists of three widespread and/or locally common taxa: Hymenolepis horrida (sensu lato) (Hymenolepididae), Anoplocephaloides lemmi (Anoplocephalidae) and Heligmosomoides spp. (Heligmosomidae). Despite the taxonomic boundaries and ancient phylogenetic splits in the hosts, there are no major faunistic differences for parasites within western (Siberian) L. sibiricus and L. bungei, and eastern (North American) L. trimucronatus throughout their distribution range. In contrast, the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus, which is a Fennoscandian endemic and closely related to the western populations of L. sibiricus, has only a single host-specific helminth, the cestode Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae). We describe the new species and show that it differs consistently from related species by its long and slender cirrus-sac. However, there are also a number of other significant differences, e.g., P. fellmani n. sp. and Andrya primordialis in Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Sciuridae) evidently have a unique (sub)type of uterine development among Andrya/Paranoplocephala spp. Because P. fellmani n. sp. was also found to occur in Alaska (host L. trimucronatus), this species seems to follow the same biogeographical pattern as the other specialist helminths of Lemmus. We suggest alternative explanations for the absence of three major helminth taxa in the Norwegian lemming in Fennoscandia. PMID:11389326

Haukisalmi, V; Henttonen, H

2001-05-01

326

Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  

PubMed

The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

2012-07-01

327

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AND SHELL MORPHOLOGY OF TROCHULUS OREINOS (WAGNER, 1915) AND T. HISPIDUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) (PULMONATA: HYGROMIIDAE) IN THE NORTHEASTERN ALPS  

PubMed Central

Trochulus oreinos oreinos and T. oreinos scheerpeltzi are two land snail taxa endemic to the Northeastern Austrian Alps, which have been regarded as subspecies of the highly variable, widespread land snail T. hispidus. We analysed these three taxa morphologically and genetically to evaluate whether a delimitation between them is possible and, if so, to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Shell morphological results revealed high similarity between the two T. oreinos taxa, and that they are clearly separated from T. hispidus. Additionally, the T. oreinos subspecies concur with respect to their habitat preferences, as they are both restricted to rocky high alpine areas, whereas the local form of T. hispidus is distributed over a wider altitudinal range in moist areas and scrubby perennial herb vegetation near water bodies. While the morphological and ecological results allow clear differentiation between T. hispidus and T. oreinos only, analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA genes revealed high sequence divergences between all three taxa, which indicates that they represent old lineages. The two T. oreinos taxa appear as distantly related sister groups, well separated from T. hispidus. Whether T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi should be considered as species cannot be decided at the current state of knowledge. PMID:25197157

DUDA, MICHAEL; SATTMANN, HELMUT; HARING, ELISABETH; BARTEL, DANIELA; WINKLER, HANS; HARL, JOSEF; KRUCKENHAUSER, LUISE

2014-01-01

328

Egg morphology update based on new chorionic data of Potamanthus luteus (Linnaeus), Ephemera danica Müller and Oligoneuriella rhenana (Imhoff) (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) obtained by scanning electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chorionic patterns of Ephemeroptera eggs are very diverse and these have often been used for taxonomic and sys- tematic purposes. In a great number of species, including Potamanthus luteus, Ephemera danica and Oligoneuriella rhenana, these egg features have been studied using light microscopy. However, current trends in egg morphology stud- ies use scanning electron microscopy (SEM), so that the

NICOLÁS UBERO-PASCAL; M. ANGELS PUIG

2007-01-01

329

Effects of the passage in chicks on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 (Syn. A. lumbricoides var. suum, A. suum, A. suis  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ o 31 Collection of ~ ~QgQg~ ova ~ ~ . ~. . . . . . . . . ~. . . ~ 31 meant of chicks ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3i Hanag dana g omen t of rabbits ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ i... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 34 Infection of rabbits with A. ~~~ ova, . ?, . ?. Collection of ~ larvae . . . . ~ . . ~. . . ~. . ". ", , . . . ~ HMhQL14al hatching of ~ larvae a ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 35 gsasursmsnt of ~ larvae ~ 4...

Manuel, Mauro Fernando

1966-01-01

330

Microbiological properties and biogenic amines of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca, linnaeus 1758): a perspective on fish safety during postharvest handling practices and frozen storage.  

PubMed

The biogenic amines (tyramine, histamine, cadaverine, and puterscine) and microbiological properties (mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and Pseudomonas spp.) of whole pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) was investigated during 2 d prestorage icing and 90 d frozen storage (-24 °C). At the end of ice storage, a noticeable increase only was found for puterscine level (P < 0.05), and microbial loads of fish increased in comparison with fresh fish (P < 0.05). During the frozen storage, as time passed, a continuous increase of biogenic amines and decrease of bacterial load (except for Pseudomonas spp. at the last 30 d) was detected (P < 0.05). The total contents of biogenic amines ranged from 6.24 to 91.76 ?g/g during the investigated period. Puterscine was the major amine detected in pike-perch and its concentration varied between 1.75 and 56.95 ?g/g; due to a more step-wise increase it was a good quality indicator. At the end of storage, all of the obtained values are below the tolerable maximum amounts based on available regulations. Based on biogenic amines content and microbial load, it could be concluded that pike-perch can be consumed without any health risks after 2 d icing condition and 90 d frozen storage. PMID:23106405

Ehsani, Ali; Jasour, Mohammad Sedigh

2012-12-01

331

Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of flavonoids isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of flavonoids isolated from Lycium barbarum fruits, a traditional Chinese medicine, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. Initially, flavonoids were extracted with 80% ethanol and separated using a Cosmosil 140 C18-OPN column, with the acidic fraction eluted with deionized water being composed of chlorogenic acid, caffeoyl quinic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid and the neutral fraction eluted with methanol composed of quercetin-diglycoside, rutin and kaempferol-O-rutinoside. Flavonoid extract was effective in inhibiting expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) induced by TNF-? in HUVECs. The RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICAM-1 mRNA induced by TNF-? was inhibited by flavonoid extract. The flavonoid extract attenuated TNF-?-induced I?B phosphorylation as well as NF-?B, p65 and p50 translocation from cytosol to nucleus, through inhibition on TNF-?- and H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. For the anti-angiogenic study, the flavonoid extract inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation and migration in HUVECs, as well as angiogenesis. However, the flavonoid extract did not inhibit VEGF signaling. Surprisingly, HUVECs adhesion to the extracellular matrix was compromised and adhesion-induced signaling was retarded by the flavonoid extract. PMID:22751795

Wu, Wen-Bin; Hung, Dian-Kun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Ong, Eng-Thaim; Chen, Bing-Huei

2012-10-01

332

[Post-embrionic development of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus,1758) (Diptera: Muscidae)feed in feces of treated bovines with different avermectins].  

PubMed

Stomoxys calcitrans is one of the most important ectoparasites of the livestock in Brazil. This dipteran transmits many pathogenic agents to domestic animals, and in Latin America the stable fly is a common vector of Dermatobia hominis eggs. The insecticidal effect of feces from treated bovines with different avermectins was tested against larvae and pupae of S. calcitrans and was studied at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Groups of bovines were, treated with eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin, and one group was left untreated. Approximatly 100 g of feces was colleted frorn the recturri of each animal at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The animal feces were mixtured with basic diet 1:1 and inoculated with first instar larvae of S. calcitrans. The results of this trial showed that percentage of viability of S calcitrans, from larvae to adult, was reduced by 85,00; 84,00; 91,00 and 92,00 per cent for eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin, and doramectin, respectively after 14 days post-treatment. PMID:16153344

de Macedo, Douglas M; Chaaban, Amanda; Moya Borja, Gonzalo E

2005-01-01

333

Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling. PMID:19965962

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

2011-01-01

334

Comparison of conservative DNA extraction methods for two Galliformes: grey partridge ( Perdix perdix italica, Hartert 1917) and red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa , Linnaeus 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grey partridge and Red-legged partridge are Galliformes needing special conservation strategies. Reintroduction may represent\\u000a conservation solutions solely with the support of an in-depth genetic and ecologic evaluation, particularly of grey partridge,\\u000a of which an Italian subspecies was described. Protocols for conservative DNA isolation are fundamental to study breeders and\\u000a wild samples. For these reasons, two DNA extraction protocols on different

L. Lucentini; L. Gigliarelli; M. E. Puletti; L. Volpi; F. Panara

2010-01-01

335

Histopathology findings in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus Linnaeus, 1758) with chronic weight loss associated with bile tract obstruction by infestation with Platynosomum (Loos, 1907).  

PubMed

Chronic weight loss in marmosets is often associated with wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS), an important disease that occurs in callitrichid colonies around the world. Even though its etiology is very difficult to determine, particular variables, such as weight loss, diarrhea and alopecia, associated or not with infestation in the pancreatic ducts with Trichospirura leptossoma (Nematoda: Thelazioidea), seem to be linked with the syndrome. This study investigated the histopathology of the lungs, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and pancreatic ducts of six common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) suffering from severe non-diarrheic weight loss. Three individuals died naturally and the other three were euthanized. Microscopic findings showed the presence of adult flukes (Platynosomum) in the liver. These flukes, which provoke common infection in cats, were also observed inside the gallbladder as well as in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts in common marmosets. Portal fibrosis was observed in two animals, which developed chronic fibrosing hepatopathy (biliary pattern, grade 3). The disease progresses without diarrhea and without pancreatic lesions or infestation. With the progression, the animals presented with ascending cholangitis, cholestasis and portal fibrosis, sometimes culminating in secondary biliary cirrhosis. Therefore, this infirmity, associated with chronic weight loss in common marmosets, could be another etiological factor linked with WMS. PMID:18841441

Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Leão, Adriano Castro; Coutinho, José Flávio Vidal; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

2008-10-01

336

Action of Brazilian propolis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propolis use on hematological and serum biochemical parameters in Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva). For this, 12 adult birds were distributed randomly into individual cages, divided into treatments with different propolis levels (A = 0.0%; B = 0.5%; and C = 1.0%), in 3 distinct phases (I, II, and III), with 15-d duration for phases I and III and 30 d for phase II, totaling 60 d. In phases I and III, all birds received treatment A ration, and in phase II received A, B, or C (4 birds per treatment). At the end of each phase, blood was collected for biochemical and hematological evaluations. The variables were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05). Results suggest that 0.5% propolis reduced lactate dehydrogenase levels, whereas treatment B augmented hemoglobin concentrations and eosinophil count. It is concluded that 0.5% propolis improves levels of lactate dehydrogenase, hemoglobin, and eosinophils. PMID:24864289

Silva, Cínthia R B; Putarov, Thaila C; Fruhvald, Erika; Destro, Flavia C; Marques Filho, Wolff C; Thomazini, Camila M; Barbosa, Tatiana S; Orsi, Ricardo O; Siqueira, Edson R

2014-07-01

337

SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-01-01

338

Morphological description of the developmental stages of Parauchenipterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae) on the floodplain of the upper Paraná River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide morphological and morphometric descriptions of the developmental stages of Parauche- nipterus galeatus, from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River. Specimens were obtained by induced spawning. The species has large adhesive eggs with a double membrane. The incubation period is long, 65 hours at 27°C. The larvae are well developed at hatching, with relatively rapid larval develop- ment.

P. V. SANCHES; K. NAKATANI; A. BIALETZKI

1999-01-01

339

[New data on the phylogeography and genetic diversity of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 of northeastern Eurasia (mtDNA control region polymorphism analysis)].  

PubMed

An analysis of polymorphism of the fragment of the control region of mitochondrial DNA of 53 tissue samples of the brown bear Ursus arctos from several regions of the eastern part of Russia was carried out. It was found that most of the described haplotypes belong to cluster 3a, the most common in Eurasia, and do not form regionally specific haplogroups. However, among the bears from Western and Eastern Siberia, as well as the island of Kunashir, three haplotypes were identified, which are close to the haplogroup typical of Eastern Hokkaido bears. The assumption was made of the existence in Siberia and the Far East of one or more Pleistocene refugia. PMID:25735154

2014-01-01

340

Urgent call for further breeding of the relic zoo population of the critically endangered Barbary lion ( Panthera leo leo Linnaeus 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barbary lion became extinct in the wild around 1942. Since the end of the 19th century, a last purebred captive breeding\\u000a stock existed at the court of Morocco. The rest of these animals became the core exhibition of the new Rabat Zoo after passing\\u000a through repeated bottlenecks and possibly some introgression events by foreign lions. This study uses mitochondrial

Joachim Burger; Helmut Hemmer

2006-01-01

341

A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae  

PubMed Central

Background The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage map and match it with the Apis mellifera genome using homologous markers. This genome-wide comparison allows insights into structural conservations and rearrangements and thus the evolution on a chromosomal level. Results The high density linkage map covers ~ 93% of the B. terrestris genome on 18 linkage groups (LGs) and has a length of 2'047 cM with an average marker distance of 4.02 cM. Based on a genome size of ~ 430 Mb, the recombination rate estimate is 4.76 cM/Mb. Sequence homologies of 242 homologous markers allowed to match 15 B. terrestris with A. mellifera LGs, five of them as composites. Comparing marker orders between both genomes we detect over 14% of the genome to be organized in synteny and 21% in rearranged blocks on the same homologous LG. Conclusions This study demonstrates that, despite the very high recombination rates of both A. mellifera and B. terrestris and a long divergence time of about 100 million years, the genomes' genetic architecture is highly conserved. This reflects a slow genome evolution in these bees. We show that data on genome organization and conserved molecular markers can be used as a powerful tool for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, opening up new avenues of research in the Apidae. PMID:21247459

2011-01-01

342

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) and retroviral status of client-owned pet cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-01-01

343

Biochemical compounds' dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase. Three different feeding regimes were applied: starvation and two mono-specific microalgal diets ( Isochrysis aff galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans). A comparison between fed and unfed larvae highlighted the importance of egg lipid reserves, especially neutral lipids, during a brief endotrophic phase of embryonic development (first 2 days after fertilization). Egg reserves, however, may energetically contribute to the maintenance of larvae beyond the embryonic development. In fed larvae, the endotrophic phase is followed by a mixotrophic phase extending to days 5-8 after fertilization and a subsequent exotrophic phase. Metamorphosis starts around day 20. The intense embryonic activities are supported by energy derived from lipids, mainly from neutral lipids, and the metamorphic activities are supported by energy derived essentially from proteins accumulated during the planktonic phase and depend on the nutritional value of diets. The diet of I. aff galbana proves to be more adequate to R. decussatus larval rearing. The results provide useful information for the successful production of R. decussatus aquaculture.

Matias, Domitília; Joaquim, Sandra; Ramos, Margarete; Sobral, Paula; Leitão, Alexandra

2011-09-01

344

Seasonal and local variation of Cr, Ni and Co concentrations in Ulva rigida C. Agardh and Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt, nickel and chromium concentrations were determined in Enteromorpha linza and Ulva rigida in seawater and sediment after seasonal collection from Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Industrial waste and sewage is poured into this Gulf. The relative abundance of metals in the seaweeds and seawater decreased in the order Ni > Cr > Co, whereas in the sediment the order was Cr

S. Haritonidis; P. Malea

1995-01-01

345

Feeding and nutritional ecology of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) and Arbacia punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) Echinodermata: Echinoidea): the importance of animal foods  

E-print Network

Analysis of gut contents of Echinometra lucunter and Arbacia punctulata revealed that A. punctulata consumes significantly greater amounts of animal material--barnacles, mollusks, and bryozoans--than E. lucunter. Where these two species live...

Pestovic, Jennifer Beth

1995-01-01

346

Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355 mg/kg), copper (107 ?g/kg), iron (0.81 mg/kg), potassium (3481 mg/kg), magnesium (322 mg/kg), manganese (0.04 mg/kg), selenium (0.47 mg/kg), sodium (700 mg/kg) and zinc (4.46 mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70 kg male and a 65 kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A

2013-10-01

347

Subchronic effects of environment-like cadmium levels on the bivalve Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus 1758): III. Effects on carbonic anhydrase activity in relation to calcium metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of subchronic cadmium (Cd exposure at environment-like levels (water- and algae-borne Cd) on carbonic anhydrase (CA), its distribution in various body compartments and subcellular fractions, and its correlation to Cd and Ca concentrations in the freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina were investigated. CA activity in the hemolymph (HML) and extrapallial fluid were strongly affected in both directions, i.e. inhibition

Huong Thi Thuy Ngo; Silke Gerstmann; Hartmut Frank

2010-01-01

348

Comparative study of pikeperch Sander lucioperca (Percidae; Linnaeus, 1758) eggs and larvae from wild females or from captive females fed chopped marine fish.  

PubMed

Morphometric characteristics, proximal composition and fatty acids profiles of eggs and larvae at hatching and mouth opening were studied as indicators for assessing the potential differences between spawns obtained from wild or captive females of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Captive females were acclimated to hatchery conditions and fed to satiation with chopped marine fish for more than a year, guaranteeing that captivity covered the full cycle of gonad maturation. The number of larvae obtained from the spawnings did not differ between captive and wild females, but both mean diameter and mean weight of the eggs collected from the captive females were significantly larger. Proximal compositions were similar in eggs and larvae from both groups, but fatty acids (FA) profiles showed striking differences: polyunsaturated FA consisted mainly of linoleic acid in eggs and larvae from wild females, while they consisted mainly of long chains of n-3 series in eggs and larvae from captive females. The diet of captive females largely modified the FA profiles of eggs and of hatching or mouth opening larvae, but did not affect the growth potential of early larvae, demonstrating that they were able to satisfy their early physiological needs regardless of the striking differences in their FA. PMID:23995948

Ben Khemis, I; Hamza, N; Ben Messaoud, N; Ben Rached, S; M'Hetli, M

2014-04-01

349

A Linnaeus NG TM interactive key to the Lithocolletinae of North-West Europe aimed at accelerating the accumulation of reliable biodiversity data (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an interactive key that is available online through any web browser without the need to install any additional software, making it an easily accessible tool for the larger public. The key can be found at http://identify.naturalis.nl/lithocolletinae. The key includes all 86 North-West European Lithocolletinae, a subfamily of smaller moths (“micro-moths”) that is commonly not treated in field guides. The user can input data on several external morphological character systems in addition to distribution, host plant and even characteristics of the larval feeding traces to reach an identification. We expect that this will enable more people to contribute with reliable observation data on this group of moths and alleviate the workload of taxonomic specialists, allowing them to focus on other new keys or taxonomic work. PMID:25061390

Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Haren, Merel M.; Schermer, Maarten; Pieterse, Sander; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

2014-01-01

350

Dorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Goldfish, or Swordfish—sometimes shown as Xiphias; abbrev. Dor, gen. Doradus; area 179 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Pictor and Reticulum, and culminates at midnight in early December. It was first shown on Petrus Plancius' celestial globe of c. 1598, though it is usually attributed to the Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser (also known as Petrus Theodorus) and F...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

351

JIMAR ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2012 P.I. NAME: (Mark A. Merrifield, Ph. D.), William A. Walsh  

E-print Network

data for oceanic whitetip and silky sharks reported by fishery observers in the Hawaii-based longline from being selected to serve as a member of the ISC SHARKWG (Sharks Working Group). This necessitated other species of interest to the ISC Billfish and Shark Working Groups (BILLWG: swordfish Xiphias

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

352

The blue shark (Prionace glauca) is an oceanic species that occurs in tem-  

E-print Network

fleets that operate to supply the world's growing demand for tunas and swordfish (Xiphias gla- dius); numerically, the blue shark is the top nontarget species captured by the U.S. longline pelagic Atlantic fleet includes waters overly- ing the Grand Banks. Data resulting from experimental fishing conducted from 2001

353

Natural diets of vertically migrating zooplankton in the Sargasso Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding preferences of three common diel vertically migrating zooplankton were investigated from December 1999 to October 2000 at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) station in the Sargasso Sea. Gut content analysis of the copepods Pleuromamma xiphias (Giesbrecht) and Euchirella messinensis (Claus) and of the euphausiid Thysanopoda aequalis (Hansen) indicated that all three species fed on a

A. Schnetzer; D. K. Steinberg

2002-01-01

354

The component helminth community in six sympatric species of Ardeidae.  

PubMed

We studied the helminth communities in 6 sympatric species of Ardeidae (Ixobrychus minutus (Linnaeus, 1766), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758), Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758), Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766), Ardea cinerea (Linnaeus, 1758), and Ardea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1766)) from "La Albufera de Valencia," Spain. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites: 5 digeneans, 2 cestodes, and 6 nematodes. The component helminth communities of the Ardeidae examined are depauperate and conform to the pattern typically found in isolationist communities, probably because of their high trophic dependence on a few prey species. Evenness was positively correlated with richness and abundance, but host body weight was not correlated with the number of helminth species or with the total number of helminths. Ardea cinerea is more heavily infected than E. garzetta by Apharyngostrigea cornu, and B. ibis is more heavily infected than both Ardea cinerea and E. garzetta by Desportesius spinulatus. Apharyngostrigea cornu was positively associated with Desmidocercella numidica and D. spinulatus in A. cinerea. PMID:17089743

Navarro, Pilar; Lluch, Javier; Font, Enrique

2005-08-01

355

Sambia succinica, a crown group tenthredinid from Eocene Baltic amber (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)  

E-print Network

,* and Michael S. Engelb aNatural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark bDivision of Entomology (Paleoentomology), Natural History Museum and Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 1501...); Pachyprotasis rapae (Linnaeus, 1767); Perineura rubi (Panzer, 1805); Rhogogaster viridis (Linnaeus, 1758); Sciapteryx consobrina (Klug, 1816); Siobla sturmii (Klug, 1817); Tenthredo (T.) scrophulariae Linnaeus, 1758; Tenthredo (Elinora) koehleri Klug, 1817...

Vilhelmsen, Lars; Engel, Michael S.

2012-12-17

356

Assimilation efficiencies and turnover rates of trace elements in marine bivalves: a comparison of oysters, clams and mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and physiological turnover-rate constants (k) of six trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se, Zn) in four marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, Macoma balthica Linnaeus, Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus, and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus) were measured in radiotracer-depuration experiments. Egestion rates of unassimilated elements were highest during\\u000a the first 24?h of depuration and declined thereafter. Significant egestion of unassimilated

J. R. Reinfelder; W.-X. Wang; S. N. Luoma; N. S. Fisher

1997-01-01

357

Avian visual system configuration and behavioural response to object approach Bradley F. Blackwell a,*, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic b,1  

E-print Network

mourning dove Zenaida macroura Antipredator behaviour theory provides a framework to understand), and mourning doves, Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus), to object approach (a ground-based vehicle) and vehicle

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

358

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed)...

2012-01-01

359

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed)...

2013-01-01

360

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Jepson) Heckard Striga spp. (witchweeds) (c) Terrestrial weeds: Acacia nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed)...

2014-01-01

361

Accepted by Z.-Q. Zhang: 26 Nov. 2007; published: 21 Dec. 2007 127 ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)  

E-print Network

.mapress.com/zootaxa/ The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus* MARYMEGAN DALY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 PHYLUM CNIDARIA

Fautin, Daphne

362

Systematic & Applied Acarology (2007) 12, 167176. 167 2007 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society  

E-print Network

ondatrae from deutonymphs collected from muskrats, Ondontra zibethicus (Linnaeus), in North America. Upon ondatrae Rupes and Whitaker, 1968; by original designation. Diagnosis Idiosoma with wart-like mammilations

Fashing, Norman

2007-01-01

363

ORIGINAL PAPER Demographic parameters of reintroduced grey partridges  

E-print Network

decreased brood production rate. Keywords Perdix perdix . Reintroduction success . Annual changes . Weather Introduction The European populations of Grey partridge (Perdix perdix Linnaeus 1758) declined from mid-1950s

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

364

Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland  

E-print Network

. Johnston Cuscuta obtusiflora Humboldt, Bonpland, & Kunth Cuscuta occidentalis Millspaugh ex Mill & Nuttall Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed) Alternanthera sessilis (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex

Nowak, Robert S.

365

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/EL TN-13-1  

E-print Network

), Foster's tern (Sterna forsteri Nuttall), least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin)), merlin (Falco columbarius Linnaeus), and Hine's emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana Williamson). There are nine groups

US Army Corps of Engineers

366

Texas 4-H Forestry Invitational Handbook  

E-print Network

Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) *Whitepineweevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) Nativeelmbarkbeetle Hylurgopinus rufipes(Eicchoff) Gypsymoth Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) *Birchleafminer Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) Easterntentcaterpillar Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius...

Bruton, Derrick

2009-04-05

367

Effect of water quality parameters on the distribution of Pleuromamma (Copepoda–Calanoida) species in the Indian Ocean: a statistical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region between 10° N and 10° S latitude was known to be congenial for distribution of Pleuromamma species. Diel and ontogenetic migrations were observed for Pleuromamma xiphias. Multivariate analyses such as factor analysis on species’ abundance and predictive step-up multiple regression models of\\u000a water quality parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and their first order interaction effects on Pleuromamma species’

K. V. Jayalakshmy; M. Saraswathy; Maheswari Nair

2009-01-01

368

Hierarchical, self-similar structure in native squid pen.  

PubMed

The structure of native squid pen (gladius) was investigated in two different species on different length scales. By combining microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction, the experiments probed length scales from millimetres down to nanometres. The gladii showed a hierarchical, self-similar structure in the optical experiments with fibres of different size oriented along the long axis of the gladius. The fibre-like structure was reproduced at the nanoscale in AFM measurements and fibres with diameters of 500 ?m, 100 ?m, 10 ?m, 2 ?m and 0.2 ?m were observed. Their molecular structure was determined using X-ray diffraction. In the squid gladius, the chitin molecules are known to form nano-crystallites of monoclinic lattice symmetry wrapped in a protein layer, resulting in ?-chitin nano-fibrils. Signals corresponding to the ?-coil protein phase and ?-chitin crystallites were observed in the X-ray experiments and their orientation with respect to the fibre-axis was determined. The size of a nano-fibril was estimated from the X-ray experiments to be about 150 × 300 Å. About 100 of these nano-fibrils are needed to form a 0.2 ?m thick micro-fibre. We found that the molecular structure is highly anisotropic with ?90% of the ?-coils and ?-chitin crystallites oriented along the fibre-axis, indicating a strong correlation between the macroscale structure and molecular orientation. PMID:24957525

Yang, Fei-Chi; Peters, Robert D; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2014-08-14

369

Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization rate, larval establishment and survival of juvenile tunicates. All these elements can potentially be key factors on limiting the establishment of a population of C. intestinalis in the Orwell Bay aquatic system. Keywords: Invasive species, watershed, biogeography, tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, universal soil loss equation, hydrodynamic modeling, correspondence analysis, turbidity, environmental tolerance.

Mclaughlin, Janelle

370

Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert

2000-08-23

371

Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758) in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil.  

PubMed

We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm) were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest. PMID:20231959

Lazure, L; Bachand, M; Ansseau, C; Almeida-Cortez, J S

2010-02-01

372

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

373

Reproductive biology of female Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leach, in Icelandic waters during the period 1960-2010: comparative overview of distribution areas in the Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Maturity size, reproductive cycle, sex ratio and fecundity of female Nephrops were investigated at SW, S and SE Iceland for the period 1960-2010. Time series of biological parameters and fisheries data displayed significant relationships. In addition, female biological data from 20 areas in the Atlantic and Mediterranean were compared. Fifty percentage maturity estimates had an overall range of 23.9-34.4mm CL with some anomalies in the 2000s. The reproductive cycle in Iceland has been biennial during the whole study period from mid-1960s to 2010 with minor change in phase in the 2000s. Biennial moulting retards female growth more than annual spawning, and the length of incubation and hatch time of year show significant relationships with latitude and sea temperature. Variations in sex ratio were observed and relationships found between female sex ratio and CL, CPUE and stock biomass during 1961-2010, displaying apparent fishery-induced effects on sex ratio. Potential and realized fecundity estimates in Iceland are 35-50% of those reported from more southerly waters. Biennial spawning and low fecundity limit the number of progeny in Icelandic Nephrops and necessitate lower fishing mortality. Ambient temperature in Icelandic waters has risen by 1°C since the late 1990s, generating around 30 days shorter incubation time in the 2000s, but around 3°C rise is necessary for possible annual spawning. PMID:24981733

Eiríksson, Hrafnkell

2014-01-01

374

Systematic notes on Asian birds. 15. Nomenclatural issues concerning the common sand martin Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) and the pale sand martin R. diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893), with a new synonymy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A female of Riparia diluta in the ZISP collection and collected by Severtsov, which has sometimes been supposed to belong to the type series, is found to be this species but not the same subspecies and only a topotype. We designate a lectotype for R. diluta as Severtsov’s material was composite. Names introduced by Zarudny (1916) are evaluated and the

V. M. Loskot; E. C. Dickinson

2001-01-01

375

Systematic notes on Asian birds. 61. New data on taxonomy and nomenclature of the Common Sand Martin Riparia riparia (Linnaeus, 1758) and the Pale Sand Martin R. diluta (Sharpe & Wyatt, 1893)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main diagnostic characters of Riparia riparia and R. diluta are discussed based on fresh examinations of extensive material. The opinion of Zarudny that his subspecies innominata belongs to R. riparia is validated, but the series of syntypes of R. riparia innominata includes birds of both these sand martin species, and a lectotype is designated for R. r. innominata Zarudny

V. M. Loskot

2006-01-01

376

Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31 microg/g), Pb (38.49 microg/g) and Zn (206.52 microg/g) were accumulated in the BYS than in the total ST (Cd: 0.29 microg/g; Pb: 8.27 microg/g; Zn: 102.6 microg/g). Semi-static and short period controlled laboratory experiments were also conducted for the accumulation and depuration of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total ST and BYS of P. viridis. The ratios (BYS/ST) for Pb and Cd from the laboratory experiments showed that the total ST accumulated more metals than the BYS. Therefore, these laboratory results disagreed with those found for the field samples. However, the laboratory results for the Zn ratio (BYS/ST) agreed with those of the field samples. It was evident that when compared to the ST, the BYS was a more sensitive biomonitoring organ for Zn while it could be a complementary organ for Cd and Pb in the total ST. Since total ST of P. viridis had been reported to have regulative mechanism for Zn, its BYS can be used as a biomonitoring organ for the identification of coastal areas exposed to Zn pollution. PMID:12705949

Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

2003-07-01

377

[Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].  

PubMed

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation. PMID:19239118

Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

2009-01-01

378

POLICY PERSPECTIVES Removing protections for wolves and the future of the U.S.  

E-print Network

(Canis lupus, Linnaeus) from Endangered Species Act (ESA) protections throughout the conterminous United wolves (Canis lupus, Linnaeus) throughout the lower 48 U.S. states, except for the Mexican wolf subspecies (C. l. baileyi; 78 Fed. Reg. 35,664). After decades of listing C. lupus throughout its historic

Nelson, Michael P.

379

LarvaL deveLopment and mortaLity of the painted Lady butterfLy, vanessa cardui (Lepidoptera: nymphaLidae), on foLiage grown under eLevated carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the indirect effects of elevated CO2 on larval Lepidoptera, we compared the growth and development of larvae of Vanessa cardui Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Glycine max Linnaeus (soybean) foliage grown under ambient or elevated levels of CO2 from first instar to pupation. There was no significant difference in larval survivorship or the duration of larval develop- ment between

Bridget F. O'Neill; Arthur R. Zangerl; Clare L. Casteel; Jorge A. Zavala; Evan H. DeLucia; May R. Berenbaum

380

2008 THE GREAT LAKES ENTOMOLOGIST 103 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Department of Entomology, 320 Morrill  

E-print Network

L deveLopment and mortaLity of the painted Lady butterfLy, vanessa cardui (Lepidoptera: nympha of Vanessa cardui Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Glycine max Linnaeus (soybean) foliage grown under difference in pupal size in V. cardui was lost when individuals were reared on a diet of G. max foliage grown

DeLucia, Evan H.

381

Scat detection dogs in wildlife research and management: application to grizzly and black  

E-print Network

arctos Linnaeus, 1758) and black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) scats over a 5200-km2 area présence de fèces d'ours noirs (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) et de grizzlis (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1758 play drive, and willingness to strive for a reward. Dogs were trained to detect grizzly bear (Ursus

Wasser, Samuel

382

Ecological Entomology (2013), 38, 7682 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01408.x Chinese mantids gut toxic monarch caterpillars  

E-print Network

of invertebrate aposematism involves the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus). This species' black toxic monarch caterpillars: avoidance of prey defence? J A M I E L . R A F T E R ,1 A N U R A G A . A G, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. Abstract. 1. Monarch caterpillars, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus

Agrawal, Anurag

2013-01-01

383

Collection and collation: theory and practice of Linnaean botany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) as an ‘essentialist’, ‘Aristotelian’, or even ‘scholastic’ one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that:

Staffan Müller-Wille

2007-01-01

384

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

385

Bulletin of Entomological Research (2004) 94, 283289 DOI: 10.1079/BER2004299 Effectiveness of the defence mechanism  

E-print Network

lizard Anolis carolinensis Voigt as a model predator. Caterpillars of Pieris rapae Linnaeus and Pieris brassicae Linnaeus served as control prey species that do not sequester glucosinolates. Lizards attacked far. However, P. rapae larvae topically treated with extracts of haemolymph of A. rosae had no deterrent effect

Candolin, Ulrika

2004-01-01

386

Effects of Fire on the Abundance of Xenarthrans in Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important ecological factor in Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil, and in other savanna ecosystems. The effect of fire on the abundance of some Xenarthran mammal species Priodontes maximus Kerr, 1792 (giant armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (yellow armadillo) and Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (giant anteater)) was studied at Reserva Xavante do Rio das Mortes, a 329 000

Manrique Prada; Jader Marinho-Filho

2004-01-01

387

2/12/12 11:08 AMUC-JEPS: Updates of California Seaweed Species List Page 1 of 39http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/californiaseaweeds.html  

E-print Network

) Greville Current name: Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh Former name: Enteromorpha clathrata var. crinita (Nees) Hauck Current name: Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh Former name: Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Greville Current name: Ulva compressa Linnaeus Former name: Enteromorpha flexuosa (Roth) J. Agardh Current

California at Berkeley, University of

388

Geese and grazing lawns: responses of the grass Festuca rubra to defoliation in a subarctic coastal  

E-print Network

Hudson Bay, Canada, the grass Festuca rubra L. is heavily used for forage by both Snow (Chen caerulescens caerulescens (Linnaeus)) and Canada Geese (Branta canadensis (Linnaeus)). On Akimiski Island, James Bay Canada, la gramine´e Festuca rubra L. est largement utilise´e comme fourrage, par l'oie des neiges (Chen

389

Reference: Bid. Bull. 194: 132-142. (April, 1998) Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis  

E-print Network

Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems ANNE A of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux

Boettcher, Anne

390

Leaf Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Suffer From Feeding on Fern Leaves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two age groups of larvae of Agelastica alni (Linnaeus, 1758) and Phratora vitellinae (Linnaeus, 1758) were provided with treated or untreated leaves of their actual host plant (Alnus glutinosa or Salix spp., respectively) or of the ferns Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris austriaca and D. filix-mas. \\

Michael SCHMITT; Sigrun BOPP

391

Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (JBWR) represents the largest protected area for over 300 species of migratory and resident birds on Long Island (LI), New York, and occupies a key position along the Atlantic flyway. We identified changes in nesting populations for 18 species of colonial waterbirds in JBWR and on LI, during 1974 - 1998, to provide a basis for future wildlife management decisions in JBWR and also at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport. None of the populations was stable over the past 25 years in JBWR or on LI. Some populations in JBWR increased (Laughing Gull L. atricilla Linnaeus, Great Black-backed Gull L. marinus Linnaeus, Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall) while others decreased (Herring Gull Larus argentatus Coues, Snowy Egret Egretta thula Molina), but only Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) have disappeared from the refuge. Common Tern (S. hitundo Linnaeus), Least Tern (S. antillarum Lesson), Roseate Tern (S. dougallii Montagu), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger Linnaeus), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus) and Great Egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus) populations all increased on LI over the sampling period although the Common Tern colonies in JBWR have been declining since 1986. The continued protection of the colony sites, particularly saltmarsh islands, in JBWR will be important to the conservation efforts of many colonial waterbird populations on Long Island. The JBWR colonies may serve as a source of emigrants to other Long Island colonies, and in some cases, act as a 'sink' for birds immigrating from New Jersey and elsewhere.

Brown, K.M.; Tims, J.L.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.

2001-01-01

392

Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

2010-01-01

393

An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts  

E-print Network

that the most frequently encountered indoor pests, in order of importance, were German cockroaches [Blattella gerinanica (Linnaeus)], Pharaoh [Monomotium pharaonis (L.)] or crazy ants [Paratrechina longicomis (Latreille)], followed by house crickets [Acheta...

Shodrock, Damon Leon

1994-01-01

394

Journal of Insect Behavior, Vol. 16, No. 1, January 2003 ( C 2003) Efficiency of Fruit Juice Feeding in Morpho peleides  

E-print Network

selected natural and artificial food sources in comparison with the nectarvorous Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus. The ability of M. peleides to feed more effi- ciently from wet surfaces than V. cardui is discussed in context

Krenn, Harald W.

395

378 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS Review of research methodologies for tigers: Telemetry  

E-print Network

-4877.2010.00216.x #12;379© 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS collars on free-ranging grizzly bears (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758), they greatly increased the quantity and quality of data collected, and followed

Hebblewhite, Mark

396

Habitat use, growth, and mortality of post-settlement lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) on natural banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

Three low-relief banks (Heald Bank, Sabine Bank, Freeport Rocks) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were evaluated as lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758) nursery habitat. Trawl surveys were conducted in three habitat types (inshore mud...

Mikulas, Joseph John

2009-05-15

397

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

398

Ecology 2006 20, 812818  

E-print Network

in a wild population of breeding Dark-Eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) T. J. GREIVES, J. W. MCGLOTHLIN, J. M. 3. In a wild breeding population of Dark-Eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis Linnaeus), we asked whether

399

Indiana Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Committee Core Work Plan Federal FY 2008  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus) European spruce bark beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope Japanese pine sawyer beetle Orthotomicus Coordinator: Larry Bledsoe State: Indiana Project: Risk Based (Exotic invasive bark and wood boring beetles beetle Hylurgops (Hylurgus) palliatus Gyllenhal (conifer) Exotic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda

Ginzel, Matthew

400

SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST2007 6(2):191202 An Assessment of Leech Parasitism on Semi-aquatic  

E-print Network

because they are larger and provide more surface for leech attachment. Chelydra serpentina (Snap- ping. Bottom-dwelling species such as Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Common Snapping Turtle) and the mud

Dorcas, Michael E.

401

MATING BEHAVIOR OF CEPHALONOMIA TARSALIS (ASHMEAD)(HYMENOPTERA: BETHYLIDAE) AND THE EFFECT OF FEMALE MATING FREQUENCE ON OFFSPRING PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The courtship behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead), a solitary semi-ectoparasitoid of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), was investigated in the laboratory. Courtship behavior includes a series of stereotypic movements. Males play the most active role, executing th...

402

7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Gypsy moth. The live insect known as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), in any life stage (egg, larva, pupa, adult). Inspector. Any employee of APHIS, a State government, or any other person, authorized by the...

2014-01-01

403

7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Gypsy moth. The live insect known as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), in any life stage (egg, larva, pupa, adult). Inspector. Any employee of APHIS, a State government, or any other person, authorized by the...

2013-01-01

404

7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Gypsy moth. The live insect known as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), in any life stage (egg, larva, pupa, adult). Inspector. Any employee of APHIS, a State government, or any other person, authorized by the...

2012-01-01

405

7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Gypsy moth. The live insect known as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), in any life stage (egg, larva, pupa, adult). Inspector. Any employee of APHIS, a State government, or any other person, authorized by the...

2011-01-01

406

Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea  

E-print Network

Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea R macroalgae, Fucus radi- cans (L. Bergstrom & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We

407

Feral Africanized honey bee ecology in a coastal prairie landscape  

E-print Network

latifolium (A. Michaux) H. Yates), Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus C. Linnaeus var. virginicus), southwestern bristlegrass (Setaria scheelei (E. von Steudel) A. Hitchcock), and Texas wintergrass (unpublished data, Welder Wildlife Foundation). Plants...

Baum, Kristen Anne

2004-09-30

408

Fisheries Research 110 (2011) 9297 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Cyprinus carpio population in relation to thermal influences on invasive populations Dalmas O. Oyugia carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) population of Lake Naivasha between June 2008 and November 2009

Cucherousset, Julien

409

William Roxburgh (1751-1815)   

E-print Network

Refared to as the greatest botanist since Linnaeus and the founding father of Indian botany by his contemporaries, it is surprising that William Roxburgh has never before been the study of a full-length biography. Some ...

Robinson, T. F.

410

Published in Without Nature: A New Condition for Theology (David Albertson and Cabell King, Eds.), Fordham Univ. Press, 2009  

E-print Network

-Enlightenment founders of modern biology: Carl Linnaeus, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Gregor Mendel, Matthias introduced Mendel's ideas to the English-speaking world and coined the term "genetics," were published under

Newman, Stuart A.

411

Tamandua mexicana (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae) DAYA NAVARRETE AND JORGE ORTEGA  

E-print Network

mexicana (Saussure, 1860) Northern Tamandua Myrmecophaga tamandua var. Mexicana Saussure, 1860:9. Type listed. Tamandua tetradactyla var. leucopygia Gray, 1873b:469. Nomen nudum. Myrmecophaga quadridactyla tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758. Myrmecophaga sellata Cope, 1889:133. Type locality: ``Honduras.'' T

Hayssen, Virginia

412

Impact of Elevated Levels of Atmospheric CO2 and Herbivory on Flavonoids of Soybean  

E-print Network

Linnaeus) Bridget F. O'Neill & Arthur R. Zangerl & Orla Dermody & Damla D. Bilgin & Clare L. Casteel Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA C. L. Casteel :E. H. DeLucia Urbana-Champaign, Department of Plant

DeLucia, Evan H.

413

Host recognition in Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera :Pteromalidae): a parasitoid of the house fly  

E-print Network

The pteromalid ectoparasitoid Muscidifurax zaraptor was studied in an attempt to understand the behavior and isolate the cues related to the recognition of its host, Musca domestica Linnaeus, the common house fly. Section I of this study involved...

Jones, Randy Russel

2002-01-01

414

First isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Brazilian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus) and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans, (Spix and Agassiz) from Brazil is reported. The commercial bacterial identification system, Biolog Microlog®, confirmed the identity of L. garvieae. Infectivity tri...

415

Biological and Biochemical Characterization of a Tick Feeding Stimuli Responsive Amblyomma americanum Acidic Chitinase in Tick Feeding Physiology  

E-print Network

study, 40 genes were discovered that are differentially up regulated in Amblyomma americanum (Aam) (Linnaeus) females when exposed to feeding stimuli. The purpose of this study was to biologically and biochemically characterize one...

Kim, Tae Kwon

2014-04-01

416

An investigation of key blow fly (Diptera:Calliphoridae) species of forensic importance occurring in Brazos and Burleson Counties of Central Texas  

E-print Network

Diptera Famil Sarcophagidae Muscidae enus and S ecies Musca domestica (Linnaeus) Fannia Hydrotaea/Ophyra Rural Urban Piophilidae Piophila casei (Linneaus) Sepsidae Phoridae Stratiomyidae Asilidae Hermetia illucens (Linn acus) Coleoptera...

Tenorio, Felix Mariana

2001-01-01

417

38 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-print Network

38 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction The Northern Hemisphere blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus muscu- lus Linnaeus 1758; the pygmy blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus brevi- cauda Ichihara 1966; and the true blue whale65 , Balaenoptera musculus inter- media Burmeister 1871, are members

418

Mimulus suksdorfii in NM ............................1  

E-print Network

Mimulus suksdorfii in NM ............................1 Plant Distribution Reports cognitiorem tradit. -- Linnaeus Number 51 Verification of Mimulus suksdorfii in New Mexico Chick Keller 4470 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544 [Ed. Note: Mimulus suksdorfii Gray was listed for New Mexico by Kartesz

Johnson, Eric E.

419

Venezuelan Columnar Cacti  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three most abundant Venezuelan columnar cacti, from left to right, Pilosocereus lanuginosus (Linnaeus) Byles & Rowley, Stenocereus griseus (Haworth) Buxbaum, and Cereus repandus (Linnaeus) Miller. These species depend strictly on nectar-feeding bats for their pollination. Bat-mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three species, a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations.

Janet Castro

2004-03-09

420

Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific  

E-print Network

pinnipeds: harbor seal (Phoca vitulina Linnaeus Phocidae) and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris Gill Phocidae). The Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens Linnaeus Odobenidae) is also a species of interest. As an undergraduate... of Steller sea lions. Thus, many indigenous hunters probably concentrated on the medium sized, sexually monomorphic phocids, such as ringed seals (Pusa hispida Schreber Phocidae) and harbor seals which are less aggressive and dangerous than otariids...

Pierotti, Raymond

2013-03-07

421

Experimental integrated aquaculture of fish and red seaweeds in Northern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three potentially valuable red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus Stackhouse, Gracilaria bursa pastoris (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva and Palmaria palmata (L.) O. Kuntze, collected in northern Portugal, were cultivated using the nutrient-rich effluents from a local turbot (Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus) farm. The algae were cultivated in a two level cascade system. Several arrangements of the cascade

J. Matos; S. Costa; A. Rodrigues; R. Pereira; I. Sousa Pinto

2006-01-01

422

INDEX TO VOLUME 61 ABUNDANCE AND AGE O~' KVICHAK RIVER RED  

E-print Network

, and comparison of rudder fishes, Kyphosu8 secta.trix (Linnaeus) and K. i'l£i80l' (Cuvier) in 451-480 western at 53-60 CALANOID COPEPODS FROM EQUATORI....L W.~TERS OF THE P ....CIFIC OCE....N, by George D. Grice, DISTRIBUTION, AND COMPARISON OF RUDD);R b'ISHES, Kyphof1lts sectatrix (Linnaeus) AND K. incisor (Cuvier

423

Food habits of stoats Mustela erminea and weasels Mustela nivalis in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

StoatsMustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758 and weaselsMustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 exploit the same array of prey species at different frequencies according to body size. The rabbitOryctolagus cuniculus, which typically is the dominant prey for stoats in temperate parts of Europe, is absent in Denmark. The present study based\\u000a on gastrointestinal tract contents examines the food habits of sympatric stoats (n=112) and

Morten Elmeros

2006-01-01

424

[Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].  

PubMed

We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

2006-09-01

425

High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.  

PubMed

One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

2014-12-01

426

Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

B?naru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

2009-11-01

427

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758), Egretta thula (Molina 1782), and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766). The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004) with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health. PMID:24346796

Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

2013-01-01

428

Quill mites of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from North American birds.  

PubMed

Seven mite species belonging to the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) are recorded from 10 passeriform host species from the USA. Three new species are described and illustrated: Syringophilopsis polioptilus sp. n. from Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus) (Polioptilidae); S. empidonax sp. n. from Empidonax hamrnmondii (Vesey) and Empidonax wrightii Baird (Tyrannidae); and S. sialiae sp. n. from Sialia mexicana Swainson (Turdidae). In addition, records of new hosts are given: Turdus migratorius Linnaeus (Turdidae) for Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958); three tyrannid species (Tyrannidae), Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), M. cinerascens (Lawrence) and Tyrannus verticalis Say for S. tyranni Bochkov et Galloway, 2004; Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) (Icteridae) for S. elongatus (Ewing, 1911); and two parulid species (Parulidae), Dendroica graciae Baird and Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) for S. dendroicae Bochkov et Galloway, 2001. All known species of the genus Syringophilopsis from the Nearctic Region are summarized in tabular form. Syringophilopsis porzanae Bochkov et Galloway, 2004 is reassigned to the genus Ascetonmylla Kethley, 1970. PMID:19175207

Skoracki, Maciej; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S

2008-12-01

429

No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

2011-01-01

430

Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

1998-01-01

431

New species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) from lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes).  

PubMed

Five new species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) are described from parrots of the subfamily Loriinae (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae): Protolichus ornatus sp. n. from Trichoglossus ornatus (Linnaeus, 1758), P. lorinus sp. n. from Lorius lory (Linnaeus, 1758), P. placentis sp. n. from Charmosyna placentis (Temminck, 1835), P. pulchellae sp. n. from C. pulchella (Gray GR, 1859), and P. rubiginosus sp. n. from T. rubiginosus (Bonaparte, 1850). Protolichus ornatus belongs to the brachiatus species group; the other new species belong to the crassior species group. PMID:24871411

Mironov, Sergey V; Ehrnsberger, Rainer; Dabert, Jacek

2014-01-01

432

A checklist of Linneana, 1735-1835, in the University of Kansas Libraries  

E-print Network

of some 25,000 books in the fields of ornithology, mammalogy, natural history, voyages and travels, and bibliography, and the Thomas Jefferson Fitzpatrick Collec tion of about eight thousand items in botany and early American science. We have... and the publication of the Systema Naturae afforded the young Linnaeus an introduction to the scientific com munity of Holland, to the great Herman Boerhaave, to Johannes Bur- man of Amsterdam, and to others, and Linnaeus stayed on in Holland for three of the most...

Williams, Terrence

1964-01-01

433

Clinostomum complanatum and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea: Clinostomidae) are separate species based on differences in ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

Infections by metacercariae of Clinostomum (Leidy, 1856) species adversely affect aquacultured fish and are potentially transmissible to humans. Molecular methodologies are efficient tools, which enable diagnosis of all life-history stages of trematodes in their diverse hosts. The small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of adults of the Old World Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) and the New World Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), obtained from a little egret Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) and the great blue heron Ardea herodias (Linnaeus, 1758), respectively, were amplified, sequenced, and aligned. The resulting alignment was used to develop a genetic assay to differentiate between these species. PMID:15165071

Dzikowski, R; Levy, M G; Poore, M F; Flowers, J R; Paperna, I

2004-04-01

434

Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

2014-01-01

435

Microsatellites for Next-Generation Ecologists: A Post-Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

436

Microsatellites for next-generation ecologists: a post-sequencing bioinformatics pipeline.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A

2013-01-01

437

Avian visual system configuration and behavioural response to object approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antipredator behaviour theory provides a framework to understand the mechanisms behind human- wildlife interactions; however, little is known about the role of visual systems in the responses to humans. We quantified responses of brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater (Boddaert), and mourning doves, Zenaida macroura (Linnaeus), to object approach (a ground-based vehicle) and vehicle lighting regimen, and we examined two visual properties

Bradley F. Blackwell; Esteban Fernández-Juricic; Thomas W. Seamans; Tracy Dolan

2009-01-01

438

2007 The Authors Journal compilation 2007 The Royal Entomological Society 1  

E-print Network

surface protein gene wspB by a transposable element in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera Hole, MA, USA Abstract Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say and Culex pipiens pipiens Linnaeus for discriminating Wolbachia symbionts in Culex. Keywords: Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia, insertion element, gene

Bordenstein, Seth

439

We collected mosquitoes from six caves and found Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, Cx. territans, A. punctipennis, A.  

E-print Network

S.Taylor Culex pipiens pipiens Auctioneer Cave Monroe Co., Illinois Culex pipiens pipiens Auctioneer Cave Monroe-made "caves" tend to have large numbers of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and occasionally Anopheles species and otherDiscussion We collected mosquitoes from six caves and found Cx. pipiens, Cx. erraticus, Cx

Taylor, Steven J.

440

Furuncular Myiasis Caused by the Human Botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in the Domestic Rabbit: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae), is geographically found throughout Neotropical America, is considered the major causal agent of furuncular myiasis. This parasite generates considerable damage in affected livestock. Its low host specificity leads to reports of parasitism in several domestic species. The goal of the present study is to report a case of natural infestation

G. G. Verocai; J. I. Fernandes; F. A. Ribeiro; R. M. P. S. Melo; T. R. Correia; F. B. Scott

2009-01-01

441

Duckling response to changes in the trophic web of acidified lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reared American Black Duck (Anas rubripes Brewster) and Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus) ducklings on two Quebec laurentian lakes in which we manipulated brook trout populations (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill), lake acidity and lake productivity to relate waterfowl foraging to trophic status of lakes. We developed a preliminary model to assess the effects of lake acidity and productivity, fish predation

Jean-Luc DesGranges; Christian Gagnon

1994-01-01

442

Glis glis (Rodentia: Gliridae) BORIS KRYSTUFEK  

E-print Network

and Croatia. DOI: 10.1644/865.1. Key words: beech mast, edible dormouse, fat dormouse, glirid, hibernation Linnaeus, 1766:87. Type locality ``Habitat in Europa australi,'' restricted to Southern Carniola (5 southern Slovenia), by Violani and Zava (1995:111). Sciurus persicus Erxleben, 1777:417. Type locality

Hayssen, Virginia

443

Santa Rosa Wetlands .. .................................1  

E-print Network

· Santa Rosa Wetlands .. .................................1 · Botrychium................6 · What cognitiorem tradit. -- Linnaeus January 5, 2004Number 29 VASCULAR PLANTS OF SOME SANTA ROSA WETLANDS, EAST wetland habitat in New Mexico is less well known. Relatively large expanses of municipal and private

Johnson, Eric E.

444

Beitr. Palont., 26:195, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozn  

E-print Network

Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas von Doris D�PPES*) D�PPES, D., 2001. Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas. -- Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien. Inhalt 1. Biologie des rezenten Gulo gulo (LINNAEUS, 1758

Döppes, Doris

445

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 721, pp. 18, 3 figs. Mellivora capensis. By Jana M. Vanderhaar and Yeen Ten Hwang  

E-print Network

. Meles: Thunberg, 1811:306. Part, not Meles Linnaeus (vide Sclater 1900). Gulo Desmarest, 1820:176. Type species Gulo capensis ( Gulo mellivora Smith). Ratellus Gray, 1827:118. Based on Viverra capensis Schreber). Gulo capensis Desmarest, 1820:176. Type locality ``Vicinity of Cape of Good Hope.'' Gulo mellivora

Hayssen, Virginia

446

In vitro protein synthesis capacities in a cold stenothermal and a temperate eurythermal pectinid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translational system was isolated from the gills of the Antarctic scallop Adamussium colbecki (Smith) and the European scallop Aequipecten opercularis (Linnaeus) for in vitro protein synthesis capacities (µg protein mg FW -1 day -1) and the translational capacities of RNA (k RNA in vitro mg protein mg RNA -1 day -1). In vitro protein synthesis capacity in the cold-adapted

D. Storch; O. Heilmayer; I. Hardewig; H.-O. Pörtner

2003-01-01

447

BIMODALITY IN THE BODY SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MEDITERRANEAN TARANTULA JUVENILES: HUMPHREYS' RUSSIAN ROULETTE REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimodality in the distribution of body sizes within a cohort of organisms can be originated by different mechanisms. In the Mediterranean tarantula, Lycosa tarantula (Linnaeus, 1758), spiderlings disperse in two bouts, with approximately half of the spiderlings in the population dispersing before winter and the other half remaining in the burrow with their mothers until the onset of spring. Humphreys

Jordi Moya-Laraño; Mar Cabeza

448

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 19, 3 figs. Canis mesomelas. By Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly  

E-print Network

familiaris ( Canis lupus Linnaeus). Thos Oken, 1816:1037. Type species Thos vulgaris ( Canis au- reusMAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 715, pp. 1­9, 3 figs. Canis mesomelas. By Lyle R. Walton and Damien O. Joly Published 30 July 2003 by the American Society of Mammalogists FIG. 1. Adult Canis mesomelas from

Hayssen, Virginia

449

Wolf survival and population trend using non-invasive capturerecapture techniques in the Western Alps  

E-print Network

-ranging species such as wolves Canis lupus. This species has naturally recolonized parts of its former habitat those listed as endangered or threatened (IUCN 2001). In Italy, wolves Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758, now and temporal scales for other elusive and wide-ranging species in Europe and elsewhere. Key-words: Alps, Canis

450

Morphological variation of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Iberian and North African Atlantic: implications for stock identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current delimitation of the Atlanto-Iberian stock of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), is based on scant biological evidence. Here, the location of the southern boundary of this stock is investigated through the analysis of several morphometric and meristic characteristics. A total of 384 horse mackerel were sampled from three areas off the Portuguese, one off the Spanish (Gulf

Alberto G. Murta

2000-01-01

451

Medical and Veterinary Entomology (1987) 1, 103-106 Diel rhythms of tick parasitism on incubating African penguins  

E-print Network

African penguins DAVID CAMERON DUFFY and AUGUSTA DATURI Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology most abundant on incubating host African penguins (Spheniscus demersus Lin- naeus) at 24.00 hours, on incubating African penguins, Spheniscus demel'sus Linnaeus, at a breeding colony on Marcus Island, 33°03'S 17

Duffy, David Cameron

452

The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus  

E-print Network

The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), is the sec- ond largest of the whales in the family Balaenopteridae, second only to the blue whale, B. musculus. Fin whales range in length up to 27 m

453

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

454

Redescription of Sphaerirostris picae (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from magpie, Pica pica, in northern Iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.  

PubMed

Adults of Sphaerirostris picae (Rudolphi, 1819) Golvan, 1956 are described from European magpie, Pica pica Linnaeus (Corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern Iranian town of Tonekabon by the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Other specimens also were collected from Corvus cornix Linnaeus, Corvus corone Linnaeus, and Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus (Corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. Our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook rows on the ovoid anterior proboscis and 27-36 spine rows on the cylindrical- to cone-shaped posterior proboscis, each with 8-10 hooks and 2-5 spines per row, respectively. They are distinguished from those of all other species of the genus by having a unique prominent expansion of the dorsal inner receptacle wall, called the receptacle process (RP), anteriorly into the anterior proboscis and by the presence of longitudinal alveolar lobes throughout the receptacle and proboscis. The RP is described using histological sections. Sphaerirostris picae is further distinguished from 2 closely related species, namely, Sphaerirostris lancea (Westrumb, 1821) Golvan, 1956 and Sphaerirostris pinguis (Van Cleave, 1918) Golvan, 1956, by characteristics of proboscis armature, position of female gonopore, and other reproductive system and receptacle features. Histological sections revealed damage to host intestinal tissue. PMID:20557203

Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; Eslami, Ali

2010-06-01

455

Life Table and Laboratory Rearing of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on two Artificial Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus), is a rather destructive pest and has been reported responsible for an estimated $ 6.5 millions dollars in costs associated with crop loss and insecticide costs across the US. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for using artifici...

456

MECHANICS, POWER OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY OF THE SWIMMING MUSKRAT (ONDATRA ZIBETHICUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The surface swimming of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus Linnaeus) was studied by forcing individual animals to swim against a constant water current, of velocity ranging from 0.2 to 0.75 m s-', in a recirculating water channel. Lateral and ventral views of the swimming muskrats were filmed simultaneously for analysis of thrust by the propulsive appendages. Drag measurements and flow visualization

F. E. FISH

457

Efficiency of Fruit Juice Feeding in Morpho peleides (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described the feeding behavior of the frugivorous butterfly Morpho peleides (Butler 1872) under various conditions and tested its ability to take up fluid from selected natural and artificial food sources in comparison with the nectarvorous Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus 1758). Both nymphalids showed similar probing behavior except for one particular proboscis movement and the fact that M. peleides was

M. C. N. Knopp; H. W. Krenn

2003-01-01

458

Effects of Temperature and Diet on the Growth Rate of Year 0 Oyster Toadfish, Opsanus tau  

E-print Network

Effects of Temperature and Diet on the Growth Rate of Year 0 Oyster Toadfish, Opsanus tau A. F. The effects of temperature and diet on the growth of captive year 0 specimens of Opansus tau were examined The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau Linnaeus, is a benthic marine fish that inhabits the eastern coast

Mensinger, Allen F.

459

[Mealworm allergy].  

PubMed

A 24 year-old female employed in a pet shop developed occupationally related asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and contact urticaria caused by exposure to the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus) sold as food for birds and reptiles. A wholebody extract of the mealworm showed positive prick test and histamine release. PMID:9411975

Bygum, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C

1997-10-27

460

Reproductive performance of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in captivity under different management systems in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent of great eco- nomic interest and is easily domesticated. Variations in reproductive parameters for the capybaras depend on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which modulate the different stages of its reproduc- tion either in captivity or wildlife. In captivity, an intensive production system is feasible, offering an economical profit under

Martin R. Alvarez; Fernando O. Kravetz

2006-01-01

461

Coagulation and fibrinolysis in capybara ( Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris), a close relative of the guinea-pig ( Cavia porcellus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrinolytic and coagulation properties of capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, LINNAEUS, 1766) plasma were analysed and the results compared to the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus), a close relative. Capybara fibrinogen was isolated and fibrinolysis of its plasma was carried out in a homologous system and with bovine fibrin. Undiluted plasma did not have fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plates; euglobulins gave a dose-related response.

D. P. S Leitão; A. C. M Polizello; Z Rothschild

2000-01-01

462

Mus spretus (Rodentia: Muridae) L. JAVIER PALOMO, ENRIQUE R. JUSTO, AND J. MARIO VARGAS  

E-print Network

:230) determined that this is a synonym of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758. Mus spicilegus lynesi Cabrera, 1923, 1923:431. Type locality ``alrededores de Melilla, Rif oriental,'' Morocco. Mus musculus spretus: Mus musculus. They recognized 15 subspecies, including M. m. spretus, and proposed the evolutionary

Hayssen, Virginia

463

On some birds observed in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the birds and the eggs from the Netherlands received by 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie in 1930 there are some ones of special interest, which I mention in the following lines: Daption capense (Linnaeus). Some days ago I received from Mr. J. J. TER PELKWIJK at the Hague the imperfect skull of a petrel, that has been found

Oort van E. D

1930-01-01

464

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 647, pp. 111, 3 figs. Ursus americanus. By Serge Larivie`re  

E-print Network

of Thalarctos Gray. Myrmarctos Gray, 1864:694. Type species Myrmarctos eversmanni Gray ( Ursus arctos Linnaeus arctos yesoensis Lydekker ( Ursus arctos lasiotus Gray). Melanarctos Heude, 1898:18. Type species) and consider 4 living species of Ursus: americanus, arctos, maritimus, and thibetanus. Other extant bears

Hayssen, Virginia

465

Evidence of Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillidae) in the Upper Volga River (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

*2) Synopsis: Microscopical observations of diatom mounts, processed from material of the Upper Volga Expedition 2005, revealed the presence of sponge spicules that corresponded to Spongilla lacustris (LINNAEUS 1758), Ephydatia mülleri (LIEBERKÜHN 1855), Trochospongilla horri- da WELTNER 1893, and likely Heteromeyenia baileyi (BOWERBANK 1863). These species have three different zoogeographical distributions, namely, cosmopolitan, holarctic and holarctic-amphiatlantic. In the paper illustrations

Martin SCHLETTERER; Thomas Ols EGGERS

466

Positive and negative effects of riverine input on the estuarine green alga Ulva intestinalis (syn. Enteromorpha intestinalis ) (Linneaus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater inputs from rivers alter salinity of estuaries, and are also important conduits for the delivery of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. We studied the impact of freshwater inputs on primary producers in the lower Housatonic River estuary in Long Island Sound, U.S.A. We conducted a laboratory experiment with Ulva intestinalis (syn. Enteromorpha intestinalis) (Linnaeus), a common green macroalgae

K. M. McAvoy; Jennifer L. Klug

2005-01-01

467

Maintenance of living space by sweeper tentacles of Montastrea cavernosa , a caribbean reef coral  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reef-building coral Montastrea cavernosa Linnaeus possesses sweeper tentacles which have enlarged nematocyst batteries. Sweeper tentacles appear to be used in defense of the coral's living space and may successfully deter mesenterial filament attacks from the more aggressive coral M. annularis. M. cavernosa therefore possesses a specialized defensive strategy that has not been taken into account by present models describing

C. A. Richardson; P. Dustan; J. C. Lang

1979-01-01

468

Division of Mammals The Museum of Southwestern BiologyMammal Division, established in  

E-print Network

voucher the largest archive of ultra-frozen mammalian tissues worldwide in the Division of Genomic,5 Alces americanus (Clinton, 1822) Elk2 Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817) White-tailed Deer Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780) Antilocapridae Pronghorn

469

Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

470

INTRODUCTION Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have the remarkable ability to form  

E-print Network

979 INTRODUCTION Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have the remarkable ability to form and use of flowering plants bloom at different times of day (Linnaeus, 1751), and nectar and pollen are available., 2004). Honey bees are thus an attractive organism for such studies. Although it is becoming

Robinson, Gene E.

471

A method of marking larval lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological investigations of lamprey populations in central New York have indicated a need for developing a method of marking larvae of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur) Since lamprey larvae live in burrows in the soft sediments of the stream bottom, the use of an external tag is impractical.

Wigley, Roland L.

1952-01-01

472

PHYSIOLOGY 237 Reference: Biol. Bull. 197: 237-238. (October 1999)  

E-print Network

-term Health of Cultured Cuttlefish Janice S. Hanley, Nadav Shashar', Roxanna Smolowitz, William Mebane). The common European cuttlefish, Sepia ojkinalis Linnaeus, 1758, is being cultured in captivity to provide-scale mariculture. This species adapts quite well to captivity, and several generations of cuttlefish have been

Hanlon, Roger T.

473

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

474

The Web and the Structure of Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easily accessible taxonomic knowledge base is critically important for all biodiversity-related sciences. At present, taxonomic information is organized and regulated by a system of rules and conventions that date back to the introduction of binomial nomenclature by Linnaeus. The taxonomy of any particular group of organisms comprises the sum information in the taxonomic literature, supported by designated type specimens

H. C. J. Godfray; B. R. Clark; I. J. Kitching; S. J. Mayo; M. J. Scoble

2007-01-01

475

HELMINTH FAUNA OF SANDHILL CRANE POPULATIONS IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of trematode (Orchipedium jolliei Schell, 1967; Prohyptiamus grusi Kocan, Waldrup, Ramakka, and Iverson, 1982; Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802)), three species of nematode (Tetrameres grusi Shumakovich, 1946; Synhimanthus sp.; Contracaecum sp.), and one species of cestode (Anomotaenia sp.) were recovered from 146 sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), collected in Alaska, Canada, and two areas in Texas. The only common

Glen D. Gaines; Robert J. Warren; Danny B. Pence

476

Movements of blue sharks ( Prionace glauca ) in depth and course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic telemetry was used to follow 22 blue sharks,Prionace glauca (Linnaeus), over the continental shelf and slope in the region between George's Bank and Cape Hatteras between 1979 and 1986. The sharks frequently made vertical excursions between the surface and depths of several hundred meters. The oscillations, which were repeated every few hours, were largest in the daytime and were

F. G. Carey; J. V. Scharold; Ad. J. Kalmijn

1990-01-01

477

Voelt de medicinale bloedzuiger Hirudo medicinalis zich wel zo lekker in Nederland (Hirudinea)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis feel well in the Netherlands (Hirudinea)? This paper provides information on the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus, 1758 particularly in The Netherlands. Although this species was common in The Netherlands in the 18th century, nowadays it is very rare. Most animals were found in waters on sandy soil (71%): dune pools (10%) and pleistocene

R. P. W. H. Felix; Velde van der G

2000-01-01

478

Israel Journal of Entomology Vol. XXVII 1993 pp. 25-30  

E-print Network

of the Hula. Some animal extinctions have been well documented but certainly many others have not and may and some additional records for the previously reported extinction of Donacia bicolor Zschach, including are provided. Galerucella nymphaeae Linnaeus is reported as a second case of extinction from the Hula. KEY

Mathis, Wayne N.

479

Ibis (2006), 148, 174178 2006 The Authors  

E-print Network

Island Ravens Corvus corax tingitanus have distinct mtDNA JASON M. BAKER & KEVIN E. OMLAND* Department The Common Raven Corvus corax (Linnaeus 1758) breeds throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere in the species, although eight races have been described (Vaurie 1959). Recent phylogenetic studies of the Corvus

Machery, Edouard

480

Indiana Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Committee Core Work Plan Federal FY 2007  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus) European spruce bark beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope Japanese pine sawyer beetle Orthotomicus Coordinator: Dr. Christopher M. F. Pierce State: Indiana Project: Hot Zone (Exotic invasive bark and wood longhorned beetle Hylurgops (Hylurgus) palliatus Gyllenhal (conifer) Exotic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda

Ginzel, Matthew

481

Indiana Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Committee Core Work Plan Federal FY 2006  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus) European spruce bark beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope Japanese pine sawyer beetle Orthotomicus Coordinator: Dr. Christopher M. F. Pierce State: Indiana Project: Hot Zone (Exotic invasive bark and wood longhorned beetle Hylurgops (Hylurgus) palliatus Gyllenhal (conifer) Exotic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda

Ginzel, Matthew

482

Larval growth of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus , in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in July\\/August 1985 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; they were aged by means of growth rings in the sagittal otoliths. Daily growth rings were observed and subdaily rings were visible starting with the third or fourth daily increment. The Gompertz growth equation, commonly employed in larval growth analysis, suitably describes the growth of this

I. Palomera; B. Morales-Nin; J. Lleonart

1988-01-01

483

Evaluation of extracts and oils of tick-repellent plants from Sweden.  

PubMed

Abstract. Leaves of Myrica gale Linnaeus (Myricaceae), Rhododendron tomentosum (Stokes) H. Harmaja (formerly Ledum palustre Linnaeus: Ericaceae) and Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) were extracted with organic solvents of different polarities and the essential oils of leaves were obtained by steam distillation. The extracts or oils were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus (Acari: Ixodidae). Rhododendron tomentosum oil, 10%, diluted in acetone, exhibited 95% repellency; R. tomentosum and A. absinthium extracts in ethyl acetate, > 70% repellency; A. absinthium extract in hexane, approximately 62% repellency; and M. gale oil, 10%, approximately 50% repellency on I. ricinus nymphs. Compounds in the leaf extracts or in the oils were collected by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and/or MS. Characteristic volatiles detected from oil or extract of M. gale were the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol and thujenol; and of R. tomentosum myrcene and palustrol. Characteristic volatiles from leaf extracts of A. absinthium were sabinene, oxygenated monoterpenes, e.g. thujenol and linalool, and geranyl acetate. Each plant species synthesized numerous volatiles known to exhibit acaricidal, insecticidal, 'pesticidal' and/or arthropod repellent properties. These plants may be useful sources of chemicals for the control of arthropods of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance. PMID:16336298

Jaenson, T G T; Pålsson, K; Borg-Karlson, A-K

2005-12-01

484

Occurrence and nest survival of four thrush species on a managed central Appalachian forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina Gmelin) is a species of concern in the central Appalachians, and is sympatric there with three related species, the American robin (Turdus migratorius Linnaeus), hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus Pallas), and veery (Catharus fuscescens Stephens). Our objectives were to quantify use of mature forests and areas subjected to even-aged harvesting and partial harvesting by these four

Rachel L. Dellinger; Petra Bohall Wood; Patrick D. Keyser

2007-01-01

485

A new species of Haliotis (Gastropoda) from São Tomé & Príncipe Islands, Gulf of Guinea, with comparisons to other Haliotis found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.  

PubMed

The Haliotidae from the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa are reviewed. The distribution of the mainland species Haliotis marmorata Linnaeus, 1758 is confirmed and compared to the insular species from the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe which is described as Haliotis geigeri n. sp. Both species are illustrated and compared to the other known Haliotidae from the eastern Atlantic. PMID:25081762

Owen, Buzz

2014-01-01

486

Chenopodium in New Mexico.......................1  

E-print Network

· Chenopodium in New Mexico.......................1 · What's In a Name? ....5 · Abutilon in New cognitiorem tradit. -- Linnaeus March 8, 2005Number 32 Chenopodium in New Mexico Kelly W. Allred Range Science A 50-year-old quote from Herbert Wahl's preliminary study of North American Chenopodium will suffice

Johnson, Eric E.

487

Diptera as vectors of mycobacterial infections in cattle and pigs.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria were isolated from 14 (4.5%) of 314 samples, containing 7791 adult Diptera, which were collected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1997-2000. These flies were collected from three cattle herds with paratuberculosis, two pig herds with mycobacterial infections and one farm that kept both cattle and pigs and that did not have problems of mycobacterial infections. Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated from Eristalis tenax Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae) captured from a pig herd. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (serotype 8) was isolated from flies of the genera Drosophila Fallen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Musca Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from a pig herd. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from Musca spp. and Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from dung flies of the genus Scatophaga Meigen (Diptera: Scatophagidae), Musca spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) captured in the same herd. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was isolated from S. calcitrans from the farm with both cattle and pigs. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from Scatophaga spp. collected from pastures grazed by one of the cattle herds and from Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Lucilia caesar Linnaeus (Diptera: Calliphoridae) captured in a slaughterhouse, where cattle infected with paratuberculosis were slaughtered. Mycobacterium phlei was isolated from flies of the genus Lucilia captured at a waste bin. These data indicate that mycobacteria may be spread by adult flies that have been in contact with material contaminated with these pathogens. PMID:11434556

Fischer, O; Mátlová, L; Dvorská, L; Svástová, P; Bartl, J; Melichárek, I; Weston, R T; Pavlík, I

2001-06-01

488