Science.gov

Sample records for xiphias gladius linnaeus

  1. [Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Dias, Adriana C L; Guimarães, Jean R D; Malm, Olaf; Costa, Paulo A S

    2008-09-01

    Total mercury (THg) was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca), and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26 microgg-1 (fresh weight), and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 +/- 0.48 microgg-1 (f.w.) and X. gladius, 0.62 +/- 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). In 16 % of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), namely 1 microgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 0.5 microgg-1. The ingestion of 100 g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990) suggested limit. PMID:18813682

  2. CEPHALOPODS IN THE DIET OF THE SWORDFISH, XIPHIAS GLADIUS, FROM THE FLORIDA STRAITS

    E-print Network

    CEPHALOPODS IN THE DIET OF THE SWORDFISH, XIPHIAS GLADIUS, FROM THE FLORIDA STRAITS RONALD B. TOLL AND STEVEN C. HESS' ABSTRACT An analysis was conducted on the cephalopod remains from the stomachs of 65 swordfish. Xiphias gladius, from the Florida Straits. Results indicated that cephalopods contribute a large

  3. Mercury concentrations in South Atlantic swordfish, Xiphias gladius, caught off the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Yamatogi, Ricardo Seiti; Sudano, Mateus José; Galvão, Júlia Arantes; de Pérez, Agar Costa Alexandrino; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the concentrations of mercury in fillets (anterior, middle, and end regions) from the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, and the relationships between mercury concentration and fish weight, as well as the region of collection. Of a total of 697 swordfish analyzed, 11 had mercury concentrations above 1 mg/kg, 421 were between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, and 265 were below 0.5 mg/kg. The anterior and posterior regions had greater concentrations of mercury than the middle region, and fish caught off the northern coast of Brazil had a higher concentration than those caught off the southern coast. PMID:23553504

  4. Bayesian Analyses of Genetic Variation and Population Differentiation in Pacific Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) and the Development of High Resolution Melting Assays for Species Identification and Potential Sex-Linked Marker Survey in Istiophorid Billfish 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Ching-Ping

    2014-08-06

    Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) and istiophorid billfish fisheries in all ocean basins are important commercially and recreationally. Proper assessments of these fisheries are hampered by species misidentification, unknown ...

  5. The diet of the swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus,

    E-print Network

    , with emphasis on the role of cephalopods Vicente Hernandez-Garcia Dpto. de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del on the basis of the presence of cephalopods in their stomachs. These were taken from catches made et al. (1993) from the Northeastern Atlantic where cephalopods were found to be the most important

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds and chlorinated pesticides in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano

    2008-06-15

    The relative isolation of the Mediterranean population, their feeding habits, and the widespread use of their fillets for human consumption make the Mediterranean swordfish, Xiphias gladius, an interesting species from an ecotoxicological and commercial point of views. High resolution gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detected 19 PBDE congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p' and o,p' isomers of DDT, DDE, and DDD in all samples. The presence of PBDEs was reported for the first time in Mediterranean swordfish from the South Tyrrhenian Sea; total PBDE concentrations were 2218 +/- 3291 and 612 +/- 598 pg/g wet wt in the liver and in the muscle, respectively. Significant correlations were identified between BDE47 and sigmaPBDE liver concentrations versus sex and sexual maturity of specimens. The lipid-normalized concentrations ratio BDEn(liver)/BDEn(muscle+liver) suggested that this species mostly accumulates POPs in the liver. PFOS and PFOA were below the LOD (1.5 and 3 ng/g wet wt, respectively) in all the samples. The sigmaDDTs was 155 +/- 125 and 309 +/- 273 ng/g wet wt in the muscle and the liver, respectively. The estimated daily ingestion of PBDEs and DDTs through diet was lower than the acceptable weekly intakes proposed by the World Health Organization. PMID:18605553

  7. Total mercury levels in muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of total mercury in the muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean Sea with the purpose of ascertaining whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision. In addition, specimens of each species were divided into different ranges of weight to investigate the influence of size on mercury accumulation in order to provide data upon which commercial fishing strategies and marketing of swordfish and bluefin tuna may be based. Higher mean levels of total mercury were found in bluefin tuna (1.02 microg g(-1) wet wt) than in swordfish (0.49 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 4.3% of swordfish and in 44.3% of bluefin tuna analyzed, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt). Besides, for bluefin tuna the total mercury level variability observed, due to size, suggests that there should be greater regulatory control by the authorities. PMID:11456192

  8. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brad L.; Lu, Ching-Ping; García-Cortés, Blanca; Viñas, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish. PMID:26057382

  9. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; García-Cortés, Blanca; Viñas, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish. PMID:26057382

  10. Forecasts of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) off Chile under the A2 IPCC climate change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Claudio; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Barbieri, María Angela; Bernal, Claudio; Aranis, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effects of climate change on both oceanographic conditions and the relative abundance and distribution of fisheries resources. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) fisheries using predictions of changes from global models (according to the NCAR model and IPCC emissions scenario A2), bioclimate envelope models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. The results show an SST trend of 0.0196 °C per year in the study area, equivalent to 0.98 °C for the simulation horizon and for a high CO2 emission scenario (A2). The bioclimate envelope models were developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly environmental and fisheries data. These data included the local relative abundance index of fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), corresponding to the total catch (kg) by 1000 hooks in a 1° latitude × 1° longitude fishing grid for swordfish and to the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (100 m3) in a 10? latitude × 10? longitude grid for common sardine. The environmental data included temporal (month), spatial (latitude) and thermal conditions (SST). In the first step of the bioclimate modelling performed in this study, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used as an exploratory tool to identify the functional relationships between the environmental variables and CPUE. These relationships were then parameterised using general linear models (GLMs) to provide a robust forecasting tool. With this modelling approach, environmental variables explained 58.7% of the variation in the CPUE of swordfish and 60.6% of the variation in the CPUE of common sardine in the final GLMs. Using IDRISI GIS, these GLMs simulated monthly changes in the relative abundance and distribution of the studied species forced by changes in the regionalised SST projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a slight decline of 6% (17 kg/1000 hooks) and 7% (3.8 ton/100 m3) for swordfish and common sardine, respectively, in the spatial mean of the potential relative abundance (CPUE) by 2065.

  11. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns. PMID:19284308

  12. Multi-genetic marker approach and spatio-temporal analysis suggest there is a single panmictic population of swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

  13. Multi-Genetic Marker Approach and Spatio-Temporal Analysis Suggest There Is a Single Panmictic Population of Swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

  14. Total mercury content, weight and length relationship in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental pollutant that has been the cause of many public health concerns. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. Total Hg level was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of 176 Swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) samples ranging from 11.8-112.0 kg total weight and 45-278 cm total length, collected from major fish landing sites in Sri Lanka during July 2009 to March 2010. Total Hg concentration varied between 0.18-2.58 mg/kg wet weight (ww), with a mean value ± standard deviation of 0.90 ± 0.52 mg/kg ww. Of the investigated samples 32% exceeded Hg limits as set by the European Union and Sri Lankan legislation (1 mg/kg, ww). Hg concentration of swordfish showed a significant positive relationship (P value < 0.05) with the fish length and weight. Consequently, consumption of larger fish leads to an increase in the exposure level for consumers. PMID:24779931

  15. Abstract--Lengths and ages of sword-fish (Xiphias gladius) estimated from

    E-print Network

    on otoliths of larvae col lected in the Caribbean Sea, Florida Straits, and off the southeastern United States in the Caribbean Sea, or possibly to the east, in winter, and in the western Gulf of Mexico in spring. Elsewhere PSL from the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and off the southeastern United States eat exclusively

  16. Isolation and characterization of 18 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for the swordfish, Xiphias gladius.

    PubMed

    Kasapidis, P; Pakaki, V; Kotoulas, G; Magoulas, A

    2009-09-01

    Eighteen microsatellite loci (13 di- and 5 tri-repeats) were isolated from swordfish and characterized in two populations from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 29 and the observed heterozygosity from 0.302 to 0.953. All but one locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci. PMID:21564913

  17. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FMP, specifically: Billfish/Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius...: Billfish/Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks: common...

  18. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  19. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Brad L.; Lu, Ching-Ping; Garcí a-Corté s, Blanca; Viñ as, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Bremer, Jaime R. Alvarado

    2015-06-09

    to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments...

  20. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in gliding postures at their cruise speeds.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

  2. Total and organic mercury concentrations in the white muscles of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the Indian and Atlantic oceans.

    PubMed

    Chen, M-H; Chen, C-Y; Chang, S-K; Huang, S-W

    2007-09-01

    A total of 226 swordfish samples collected from Taiwanese fishing vessels in the Indian and Atlantic oceans were examined for total mercury (THg) and organic Hg (OHg). Analysis of 56 pooled white muscle samples showed that THg and OHg concentrations ranged from 0.056 to 3.97 (1.3 +/- 0.97) and from 0.043 to 3.92 (1.01 +/- 0.82) microg g(-1) flesh mass, respectively. These values were similar to those from various previous studies during the past three decades. THg and OHg were significantly linearly correlated with fork length (FL, cm) of the fish from Indian and Atlantic oceans; however, there was no significant OHg%-FL relationship. OHg and THg also were significantly correlated. Fishes with FL < or = 140 cm met the methyl Hg (meHg) regulatory standard set by the European Commission Decision (meHg < or = 1.0); and fish with FL < or = 211 cm met the Taiwanese Food and Hygiene Standard (meHg < or = 2.0). Weekly swordfish consumption rates and amounts are recommended accordingly. PMID:17691010

  3. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  4. Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

  5. Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as "biological tags" and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

  6. Effect of chitosan treatments on quality parameters of fresh refrigerated swordfish (Xiphias gladius) steaks stored in air and under vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsiligianni, Maria; Papavergou, Eikaterini; Soultos, Nikolaos; Magra, Taxiarhoula; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of chitosan (1.0% w/v) in combination with packaging on the shelf-life of fresh swordfish steaks. Treatments included the following: A (untreated, control samples stored in air), A-CH (treated with chitosan 1.0% w/v, stored in air), VP (untreated, stored under vacuum packaging) and VP-CH (treated with chitosan, stored under vacuum packaging). VP-CH significantly affected Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Production of TMA-N and TVB-N for A-CH, VP and VP-CH swordfish samples was significantly lower than for control (A) samples at day 8 of storage. Histamine formation for all treatments was low. A-CH and VP-CH resulted in significantly lower levels of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (day 8) as compared to A and VP swordfish samples. Results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of swordfish steaks can be extended using, either aerobic or vacuum packaging and in combination with chitosan, by approximately 4 (A-CH), 8 (VP) and 12 (VP-CH) days. Swordfish steaks treated with chitosan and stored under VP were sensorially acceptable up to 17days. The presence of chitosan (A-CH and VP-CH) did not negatively influence the taste of cooked swordfish. PMID:23072694

  7. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

  8. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus ) bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus )...

  9. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

  10. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus ) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus ) blue shark (Prionace glauca ) Tunas: north...

  11. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) blue shark (Prionace glauca) Tunas: north Pacific...

  12. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) blue shark (Prionace glauca) Tunas: north Pacific...

  13. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) blue shark (Prionace glauca) Tunas: north Pacific...

  14. 50 CFR 300.211 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...angustirostris; Tetrapturus audax; Makaira mazara; Makaira indica; Makaira nigricans. Sail-fishes Istiophorus platypterus. Swordfish Xiphias gladius. Dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus; Coryphaena equiselis. Oceanic sharks Hexanchus griseus;...

  15. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Migratory Species (HMS) means species managed by the FMP, specifically: Billfish/Swordfish: striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax ) swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus )...

  16. Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function

    E-print Network

    4RJ The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying In December 1783, Sara Elisabeth Moræa, widow of the famous Swedish naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus, wroteLinnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function Staffan Mu¨ ller-Wille ESRC

  17. Linnaeus' Peloria: The history of a monster.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, A

    1979-11-01

    The so-called Peloria case has been discussed repeatedly in world literature since the discovery of the five-spurred Linaria in 1742 and its description by Linnaeus in 1744. In 1742 a young Uppsala botanist found a peculiar specimen of the common toad-flax (now named Linaria vulgaris L.) on an island in the Stockholm archipelago. The plant, which had spread vegetatively, possessed five spurs instead of one spur, a characteristic of the common toad-flax. The material was presented to Linnaeus, who became quite excited. The finding was contrary to his concept that genera and species had universally arisen through an act of original creation and remained unchanged since then. In a famous thesis of 1744, Linnaeus called the deviating plant 'Peloria', Greek for 'monster'. The case of pelorism was discussed later on by a great number of famous writers and scientists including, for example, Goethe, Darwin, Naudin, De Vries and Stubbe. Parallel types were found in numerous species of other genera and families. Such aberrant forms are caused by spontaneous mutation. The history, mode of origin, morphology, inheritance and distribution of different Peloria mutants are discussed in the paper. PMID:24310481

  18. Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Alessandro; Di Giosia, Matteo; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

  19. In the field: exploring nature with Carolus Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hodacs, Hanna

    2010-06-01

    Teaching his students the art of observing nature outdoors was central to the Swedish naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus (1707-1778). These exercises came to influence both their progress and his work. The open-air classroom was a stage where Linnaeus could demonstrate his skills and mobilize support. It was also a testing, training and recruitment ground: the students' field observations helped Linnaeus to develop his new scientific nomenclature, and it was in the field that students could train their observational skills and progress from novices to naturalists. PMID:20061029

  20. Assessment of the Contemporary Population Structure and Admixture of Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) via Mixed Stock Analysis and Bayesian Clustering of Multiple Nuclear SNPS Genotyped through High Resolution Melting 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Brad 1979-

    2012-11-28

    stocks, sampling coverage has not been uniform or representative of all areas and estimates of admixture in areas of contact have not been provided. In this study, we examined: 1) the applicability of high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) in population...

  1. LINNAEUS: BOOSTING NEAR EARTH ASTEROID CHARACTERIZATION RATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.

    2013-10-01

    Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types via the Minor Planet Center within 24 hours and a full archive of spectra and products will be provided.

  2. Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2006-06-01

    The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying the foundations of modern taxonomy through the invention of binominal nomenclature. However, another innovation of Linnaeus' has largely gone unnoticed. He seems to have been one of the first botanists to leave his herbarium unbound, keeping the sheets of dried plants separate and stacking them in a purpose built-cabinet. Understanding the significance of this seemingly mundane and simple invention opens a window onto the profound changes that natural history underwent in the 18th century. PMID:16600379

  3. 50 CFR 660.702 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Tetrapturus audax) swordfish (Xiphias gladius) Sharks: common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) pelagic thresher shark (Alopias pelagicus) bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus) shortfin mako or bonito shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) blue shark (Prionace glauca) Tunas: north Pacific albacore (Thunnus...

  4. Blue Marlin, Makaira nigricans, Movements in the Western North Atlantic Ocean: Results of a Cooperative

    E-print Network

    Blue Marlin, Makaira nigricans, Movements in the Western North Atlantic Ocean: Results al., In press). Presenttagging efforts target the following pelagic species: Blue marlin, Makaira nigricans; white marlin, Te trapturus albidus; sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus; swordfish, Xiphias gladius

  5. Nematodes in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758) (Anatidae) from Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Daria I; Yakovleva, Galina A; Ieshko, Evgeny P

    2015-10-01

    There are first data on nematodes of Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 (mallard) and Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758 (common goldeneye) from Northern Europe (Ladoga Lake region). The ducks were found to be infected with nine nematode species. A. platyrhynchos hosted eight nematode species and B. clangula was host to four nematode species. All species except Capillaria anatis were found in the region for the first time. Nematodes Amidostomum acutum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Tetrameres fissispina parasitized on both hosts and were the most abundant. The biggest number of parasites revealed was biohelminths with a direct life cycle. PMID:26323580

  6. Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

  7. Abstract.-Gonad weights and re-sults of histological analyses from 85

    E-print Network

    80 Abstract.-Gonad weights and re- sults of histological analyses from 85 swordfish, Xiphias offemale swordfish, Xiphias gladius. This study uses previously unpublished data as well as histological with data obtained from histological analyses, which provide a verifiable measure of the reproductive status

  8. Further studies on Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) (Ascaridida: Ascarididae) from Felis lynx (Linnaeus) and Panthera leo (Linnaeus) (Carnivora: Felidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Mei; Chai, Jing-Bo; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) is a most common intestinal parasite of various animals in Felidae and Canidae. In the present paper, light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the morphological aspects of adult worms of this nematode in detail, based on the material collected from Panthera leo (Linnaeus) and Felis lynx (Linnaeus) (Carnivora: Felidae) in China. The results showed that there were some morphometric differences between the present material and the previous studies, including the body size, the width and length of cervical alae, the number of denticles on each lip and the tail length of the female. Previously unreported morphological features were also revealed. These supplementary morphological and morphometric data contributed to a more accurate identification of this worldwide distributed ascarid nematode. PMID:26204033

  9. [Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].

    PubMed

    Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

  10. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

  11. The phylum Cnidaria: A review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus

    E-print Network

    Daly, Marymegan; Brugler, Mercer R.; Cartwright, Paulyn; Collins, Allen G.; Dawson, Michael N.; Fautin, Daphne G.; France, Scott C.; McFadden, Catherine; Opresko, Dennis M.; Rodriguez, Estefania; Romano, Sandra L.; Stake, Joel L.

    2007-12-21

    Systema Naturae includes representatives of every major lineage of the animal phylum Cnidaria. However, Linnaeus did not classify the members of the phylum as is now done, and the diversity of the group is not well ...

  12. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    PubMed

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250 years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  13. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  14. [Purification and characterization of hemolymph lectin from Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin Shan; Ke, Jia Ying; Rao, Xiao Zhen

    2006-10-01

    Agglutinin with hemagglutinating activity was found in hemolymph of Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. By extraction, fraction with saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and followed by affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B, an agglutinin was purified from the hemolymph of T. granosa. The purified lectin contains 5.02% neutral saccharide. The molecular weights is about 123 KDa, which showed 2 bands on SDS-PAGE, and the relative molecular weights of these subunits were 15 KDa and 16 KDa, respectively. In its amino acid composition, Asp has the highest content, followed by Glu and His, but there is a lack of Met. Assays for erythrocyte agglutination and sugar inhibition were done in microtiter plates. The result indicared that TGL-hemolymph could agglutinate erythrocytes from the natural and enzyme-treated erythrocytes of human and animals, and the highest activity was found in the agglutination with rabbit erythrocytes. The agglutinic activity of TGL-hemolymph was inhibited by lactose and D-galactose. The hemagglutination activity of TGL-hemolymph depended on Ca2+, and it showed the highest hemagglutination activity in pH 7.0. Thermostability was not high. The agglutinating activities changed from 2(5) to 2(1) between 30-70 degrees C, and was completely destroyed beyond 80 degrees C. PMID:17117556

  15. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-01-01

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance. PMID:26249392

  16. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  17. Cryopreservation of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Asa; Arge, Regin

    2015-01-01

    This study has established a successful protocol to cryopreserve lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt. Three cryosolutions were tested based on Mounib’s medium; the original medium including reduced l-glutathione (GSH), the basic sucrose and potassium bicarbonate medium without GSH, or with hen’s egg yolk (EY). Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as the cryoprotectant along with all three diluents in a 1–2 dilution. Cryopreservation was performed with the mentioned cryosolutions at two freezing rates. Motility percentages of spermatozoa were evaluated using ImageJ with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) plug-in. Findings revealed that spermatozoa cryopreserved in Mounib’s medium without GSH had a post-thaw motility score of 6.4 percentage points (pp) higher than those in the original Mounib’s medium, and an addition of EY to the modified Mounib’s medium lowered the post-thaw motility score by 19.3 pp. The difference in motility between both freezing rates was 13.0 pp, and samples cryopreserved on a 4.8 cm high tray resulted in a better post-thaw motility score. On average, cryopreserved milt had a 24.1 pp lower post-thaw motility score than fresh milt. There was no significant difference in fertilisation success between cryopreserved and fresh milt. Cryopreservation of lumpfish milt has, to our knowledge, never been successfully carried out before. The established protocol will be a main contributing factor in a stable production of lumpfish juveniles in future. PMID:26056612

  18. DESCRIPTION OF BLACK SEA BASS, CENTROPRISTIS STRIATA (LINNAEUS), LARVAE AND THEIR OCCURRENCES NORTH

    E-print Network

    DESCRIPTION OF BLACK SEA BASS, CENTROPRISTIS STRIATA (LINNAEUS), LARVAE AND THEIR OCCURRENCES NORTH OF CAPE LOOKOUT, NORTH CAROLINA, IN 1966 ARTHUR W. KENDALL, JR.' ABSTRACf Larvae of black sea bass in tows from the surface to 33 m in water varying in surface temperature from 14.3° to 28.00 C and surface

  19. Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier synonym of Cleptes semiauratus (Linnaeus)
    and description of Cleptes striatipleuris sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae, Cleptinae).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paolo; Forshage, Mattias; Paukkunen, Juho; Soon, Villu

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of Linnaeus' name Sphex semiaurata Linnaeus, 1761 has been controversial. After type examinations, we conclude that it is identical with the common Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier, 1806 and thus re-establish the old synonymy: Cleptes semiauratus (Linnaeus, 1761) (=Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier, 1806, syn. reinst.). We have been unable to find an available name for the species with which it has been confused. In order to be able to designate a suitable type specimen, we prefer to describe it as a new species rather than suggest a replacement name: Cleptes striatipleuris Rosa, Forshage, Paukkunen & Soon sp. nov. (=Cleptes semiauratus sensu Lepeletier, 1806, nec Linnaeus, 1761; =C. splendens sensu Linsenmaier 1959, nec Fabricius, 1798). PMID:26624640

  20. Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

    2012-09-01

    Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

  1. Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

    2010-12-01

    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

  2. JIMAR ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY2000 PROJECT PROPOSAL TITLE

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence was used to determine population structure in the Pacific. A paper submitted. The importance of testing the mtDNA results with nuclear markers is that if the pattern is different, then it may in Pacific Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using Microsatellite DNA Techniques (2076/2129) P.I. NAME: Barbara A

  3. Australian Vessel Performance in the East Coast Introduction

    E-print Network

    fish, Xiphias gladius (11.5 %), and 770 t marlin (12.5%) (148 t black marlin, Makaira indica, 281 t blue marlin, Makaira mazara, and 341 t striped mar lin, Tetrapturus audax) (McIlgorm, 1995 t swordfish (1 %), and 7 t striped marlin (2%) (McIlgorm, 1995). The overwhelming concentration of yellowfin

  4. Analyses of Catch Data for Blue and Striped Marlins (Istiophoridae)

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Analyses of Catch Data for Blue and Striped Marlins (Istiophoridae) William A. Walsh 1,2 JIMAR and striped marlins (Istiophoridae) and swordfish Xiphias gladius (Xiphiidae). Contributions to ISC stock assessments from this project: Corrected catch histories for marlins CPUE standardizations for marlins #12

  5. Relative Abundance and Fishery Potential of Pelagic Sharks Along Florida's East Coast

    E-print Network

    Relative Abundance and Fishery Potential of Pelagic Sharks Along Florida's East Coast STEVEN A. BERKELEY AND WILFREDa L. CAMPOS Introduction Relative abundance and fishery poten tial of pelagic sharks were investigated by sampling the shark by-catch aboard commercial swordfish, Xiphias gladius, longline

  6. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...following: (1) Direct fishing effort toward the harvest of swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) using longline gear deployed on the...subject to this section may land or possess no more than 10 swordfish from a fishing trip where any part of the trip included...

  7. 50 CFR 223.206 - Exceptions to prohibitions relating to sea turtles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (i) Direct fishing effort toward the harvest of swordfish (Xiphias gladius ) using longline gear. (ii) Possess...subject to this section may land or possess no more than 10 swordfish from a fishing trip where any part of the trip included...

  8. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  9. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  10. Evolutionary developmental genetics of floral symmetry: the revealing power of Linnaeus' monstrous flower.

    PubMed

    Theissen, G

    2000-03-01

    Actinomorphic flowers have several planes of reflectional symmetry while zygomorphic flowers have just one. In a number of independent cases, actinomorphic flowers have arisen from zygomorphic ones during evolution. A famous example, studied by Linnaeus, is an actinomorphic variety of the common toadflax Linaria vulgaris. It has been shown now that this mutant carries a defect in LCYC, a homolog of the CYC gene, which controls zygomorphy in Antirrhinum majus.((1)) Interestingly, the mutant phenotype is not due to changes in the LCYC nucleotide sequence but rather to an extensive, heritable methylation of the gene.((1)) A second gene controlling zygomorphy in snapdragon, DICH, has recently also been shown to be a CYC homolog and both genes share significant sequence similarity with TB1, one of the key genes of maize domestication. The respective family of genes, probably encoding transcription factors, might thus become both a useful instrument and a target of future plant evolutionary developmental genetics. PMID:10684579

  11. Subulura halli (Ascaridida: Subuluridae) from the endangered great bustard Otis tarda Linnaeus (Aves: Gruiformes) in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Qiang; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shun-Cai; Li, Liang

    2014-02-01

    Subulurid nematodes identified as Subulura halli Barreto, 1918 were collected from the endangered bird Otis tarda Linnaeus (Gruiformes: Otididae) in China. A detailed redescription of the hitherto poorly known species is presented using both light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy. Previously unreported and erroneous morphological features of taxonomic significance are revealed. This species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the relatively long oesophagus (1.47-1.92 mm long, representing 10.6-16.9% of body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae (11 pairs in total, arranged as five pairs of precloacal and six pairs of postcloacal papillae), the equal length of spicules (1.35-1.52 mm long, representing 10.7-13.7% of body length) and the presence of a small medioventral, precloacal papilla in the male. PMID:24684055

  12. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  13. On a new species of the genus Cobboldina (Nematoda: Atractidae) from Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

    2012-10-01

    The specimens of the genus Cobboldina Leiper, 1911 and family Atractidae (Railliet, 1917) Travassos, 1919 recovered from the faecal matter of Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) from the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India recognized as a new species after careful observation. The collected nematode differs from the only valid species Cobboldina vivipara Leiper, 1911, in the presence of gubernaculum (13.2-29.7 ?m in length) and the number of caudal papillae (10 pairs) and named as Cobboldina gubernacularia sp. n., This is the second species of the genus Cobboldina recorded from the host Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captive in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. PMID:24082537

  14. The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2010-07-01

    The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939. PMID:20532854

  15. Bite performance and feeding kinematics in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) within the context of longline fishery interactions 

    E-print Network

    Guzman, Alejandra

    2009-05-15

    ?Reilly 2006), freshwater turtles (Herrel et al., 2002; Herrel and O?Reilly, 2006), alligators (Erickson et al., 2003), sharks (Snodgrass and Gilbert, 1967; Huber et al., 2005), finches (Herrel et al., 2005; Vanhooydonck et al., 2005), bats (Dumont... industry have become a growing concern. Global pelagic longline fishing methods target various species of tuna (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, T. alalunga), billfish (Xiphias gladius, Tetrapturus audax), shark (Carcharhinus longimanus, C. falciformis...

  16. Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766)

    PubMed Central

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Bolina, Cristina de Sousa; de Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; da da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Miglino, Maria Angélica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2013-01-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae. PMID:23701183

  17. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  18. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid–liquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid–liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of ?-chain and ?-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure. PMID:24143042

  19. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-01-01

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (P<0.05) and was in agreement with morphological differences. Pairwise differences were significant between Java and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P < 0.05). Closest relationships were found between samples from Brunei/Borneo and Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation. PMID:26249385

  20. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely covered the area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. The average range of adult males was 330 feet, adult females 370 feet. The difference between male and female ranges was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of defense of territory. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlapped grossly. Turtles were frequently found near each other and no antagonistic behavior was observed. A trail-laying device was developed in order to follow individual travel routes. The trailer consists of a light weight housing fastened to the turtle's back. It contains a spool of white thread that unwinds as the turtle moves, thus marking its exact route. Turtles selected for this more detailed study were followed with trailers for a total of 456 turtle days. Maps illustrating their travels are shown. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by, (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths completely covering the area, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain paths or routes. Trailer records and mapped collection records both show that the maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks. This general procedure is varied by some turtles to include intensive coverage of only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges and travel between them at infrequent intervals. One turtle showing this behavior was followed with a trailer for 161 days during 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by some turtles. These include egg laying trips by females as well as trips of unexplained nature made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas occasionally occur as transients in the study plot. The size of the population was estimated on the basis of collections during on

  1. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by females for egg laying. Trips of unexplained nature are made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas are occasional transients through the study plot. Standardized census trips provided data for estimating the size of the population. Census data were taken after females had returned from egg laying. The samples were spaced at intervals of a week or more to allow free movement of turtles over their ranges and assure more nearly equal availability of all turtles. These standard samples were compared by a collection ratio. Assumptions involved in the use of this ratio are discussed. Correction factors were applied to make allowance for turtles whose ranges.were partly inside and partly outside the study area, and for transient turtles. A second estimate, on the basis of the entire season's collecting, gave closely comparable results. The population of the study area is estimated to be between four and five turtles per acre, with juveniles constituting less than ten per cent of the total.

  2. Redescription of immatures and bionomy of the Palaearctic species dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Hispini), a leaf-mining hispine beetle.

    PubMed

    Swi?toja?ska, Jolanta; Borowiec, Lech; Stach, Ma?gorzata

    2014-01-01

    Dicladispa testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) is a member of the tribe Hispini Gyllenhal, 1813 associated with plants of the family Cistaceae Juss. and is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. Immature stages are described in detail, including line drawings, chaetotaxy, sculpture of integument, and SEM photos of morphological details. This is the first detailed description of immatures in the tribe Hispini, and this can be regarded as a model description for studies of other species in the tribe. Diagnostic characters for this species in comparison with other described larvae and pupae of the genus Dicladispa and the sympatric Hispa atra Linnaeus, 1767 are discussed. Some remarks on the biology of Dicladispa testacea, such as host plants, feeding patterns of adults, structure of larval and pupal mines, are also given. PMID:24943146

  3. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  4. A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae.

    E-print Network

    Stolle, Eckart; Wilfert, Lena; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Moritz, Robin F A

    2011-01-19

    generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae Eckart Stolle1*, Lena Wilfert2,4, Regula Schmid-Hempel2, Paul Schmid-Hempel2, Michael Kube3, Richard Reinhardt3,5, Robin FA... for understanding genome evolution in social bees. The genome of A. mellifera revealed several excep- tional traits including an extremely high recombination * Correspondence: eckart.stolle@zoologie.uni-halle.de 1Institut für Biologie, Martin...

  5. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    PubMed

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column iron, total organic carbon, ammonia, and total kjedahl nitrogen, and a negative relationship with alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Results from principle component analysis revealed patterns between waterbody type and water chemistry variables that suggests hydrologic modification can have profound effects on the levels of fish tissue Hg in riverine systems. From 1993 to 2007, fish tissue Hg levels have trended lower. A spike in tissue Hg levels was observed in 2003-2005. The drying and rewetting of the landscape after the 2002 drought is hypothesized to have caused an increase in the methylation efficiencies of the system. PMID:20058074

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

  7. Bioaccumulation of trace metals in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Zauke, G-P

    2008-07-30

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the suitability of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea as a biomonitor for the trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn and to analyse whether the two-compartment model sensu OECD could be used as a predictive tool to assess environmental quality. The tested decapods accumulated Cd and Pb upon exposure and it was possible to estimate significant model parameters of two-compartment models, while they did not respond to waterborn Cu and Zn. Kinetic BCFs at theoretical equilibrium were 860 for Cd and 750 for Pb. A tentative estimation showed the following sensitivity of C. crangon to an increase of soluble metal exposure: 0.4 microg Cd l(-1) and 0.9 microg Pb l(-1). Available information can be used to quantify a measure of agreement or disagreement between bioaccumulation in various decapods. This can be regarded as an important step in the calibration of biomonitors, which is necessary to assess the potential for bioaccumulation on different temporal and geographical scales. PMID:18571744

  8. Characterisation of Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Tomás, André; Thode, Fátima Regina P B; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2015-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olhão, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 26.4 × 23.4 ?m, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.0 × 10.9 µm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. The morphological and morphometric data for the new species were compared with those for species parasitising birds of the Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Timaliidae, Troglodytidae and Cinclidae, which are considered phylogenetically close. The original histograms of Isospora turdi Schwalbach, 1959 were redrawn for comparison with I. lusitanensis n. sp. and a linear regression of width against length of the oöcysts is presented for characterisation. This is the first isosporoid coccidian described from T. merula in mainland Portugal. PMID:26358076

  9. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  10. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  11. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-12-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522nm to 480nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11nm and 126±16nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states. PMID:26470811

  12. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Jirk?, Miloslav

    2014-05-01

    A new nematode species, Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the cornish jack Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Osteoglossiformes; Mormyridae) in the Sangha River (Congo River basin) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species differs from the only other congeneric species parasitising fishes in Africa, D. malapteruri (Baylis, 1923), mainly in the presence of dentigerous ridges on lips, absence of lateral caudal alae in the cloacal region, in the anteriorly curved, non-bifid distal tip of the gubernaculum and larger eggs (60-90 × 52-78 vs 45 × 30 ?m); males of D. mormyropsis are characterised by the presence of a ventral precloacal cuticular ornamentation not observed in other Dujardinascaris spp. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis and D. malapteruri also differ in the order of their fish hosts (Osteoglossiformes vs Siluriformes). Specimens previously reported as Dujardinascaris graberi Troncy, 1969, a junior synonym of D. malapteruri, from Mormyrops engystoma Boulenger in Chad belong to the new species D. mormyropsis. PMID:24711112

  13. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (?ST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in fact a convergent trait. Thus the polyphyletic nature of the Isididae lies in its type species I. hippuris, being unrelated to the rest of its family members. PMID:26312170

  14. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (?ST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in fact a convergent trait. Thus the polyphyletic nature of the Isididae lies in its type species I. hippuris, being unrelated to the rest of its family members. PMID:26312170

  15. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

  16. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 ?g/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 ?g/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 ?g/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 ?g/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  17. Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

  18. Two new species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and A. triostegus (Linnaeus) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Yang, Chaopin; Yang, Tingbao

    2015-07-01

    Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. and Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. are described respectively from the gills of Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) and Acanthurus triostegus (Linnaeus) in the South China Sea. Haliotrema nanhaiense n. sp. differs from other existing congeneric species by its male copulatory complex, comprising a C-shaped copulatory tube, a saucer-shaped base and a sickle-shaped accessory piece. Haliotrema triostegum n. sp. can be differentiated from all other members of Haliotrema by having a unique copulatory complex, a cup-shaped base, inverted L-shaped copulatory tube with a small sclerotised piece arising from its distal portion, and a large accessory piece from the proximal portion of copulatory tube. PMID:26063302

  19. Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time. PMID:24294088

  20. The discovery of male Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on tub gurnard, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus) from the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, Ibrahim; Ozak, Argun Akif; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-01-01

    Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901, a common but poorly known species of parasitic copepod, is redescribed from newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the body surface of tub gurnards, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus), caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are redescribed and illustrated in detail and the male of C. brevicaudatus is described for the first time. The new material of C. brevicaudatus is compared with material collected by A. Scott and stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. In addition, a voucher specimen of Caligus uranoscopi Vaissière, 1955, stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris is re-examined. Caligus uranoscopi is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of C. brevicaudatus since it does not differ in any substantive characters. PMID:26449272

  1. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35). PMID:21980777

  2. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. PMID:21565009

  3. Redescription and new host record of Capsala laevis (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae: Capsalinae) from gill of roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barse, Ann M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-08-01

    Specimens of a capsalid collected from the gill arches of 2 roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii Lowe, 1840, (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean were identified as Capsala laevis (Verrill, 1875) Johnston, 1929 by having the combination of papillae on the ventral surface of haptor, dorsomarginal body sclerites in a single column extending the entire body length, haptoral accessory sclerites, conical papillae distributing over the ventral body surface, and an anterior attachment organ with a fimbriated posterior margin. The new specimens plus the holotype were used to conduct a taxonomic redescription of C. laevis using light and scanning electron microscopy. We documented that the holotype (USNPC No. 7179) and the new specimens of C. laevis from roundscale spearfish each had papillae on the ventral surface of the anterior attachment organs and sensory papillae on the dorsal body surface. Although data are insufficient at this time to justify proposal of a new species, the new specimens differed from the holotype and published accounts of C. laevis by having a sinistral dorsomarginal patch comprising 27-35 sclerites whereas the holotype has a dorsomarginal patch comprising 60 sclerites. Capsala laevis morphologically most closely resembles Capsala ovalis (Goto, 1894) Price, 1938 , but can be most easily differentiated from it by having dorsomarginal body sclerites. This represents the first record of any parasite from the recently taxonomically resurrected roundscale spearfish, long considered by some as a junior subjective synonym of white marlin, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, 1860 and, concomitantly, a new host record for Capsalidae Baird, 1853. An updated list of host records for C. laevis is provided. A perusal of that literature reveals that the identity of the type host for C. laevis is indeterminate beyond Istiophoridae species and that subsequent reports of the type host as ' T. albidus ' are presumptuous (originally reported in 1875 by Verrill as "bill-fish" only). Our results indicated that 2 records of C. laevis from the swordfish, Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, (Perciformes: Xiphiidae) are dubious, i.e., study of the museum voucher USNPC No. 8154 indicates that Linton's 1940 record from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean likely represents a new species of Capsala Bosc, 1811 and that the Kayi? et al. 2010 record from the Aegean Sea likely depicts a species of Capsaloides Price, 1938. PMID:22448751

  4. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    PubMed

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr?>Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake. PMID:25567060

  6. A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the intestine of the Mediterranean house gecko Hemidactylus turcicus Linnaeus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Duszynski, Donald W; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 was discovered in the Mediterranean house gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus) in Saudi Arabia. Both exogenous (sporulated oöcysts) and endogenous developmental stages (meronts, gamonts) were studied and measured. Sporulated oöcysts are spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, 17-22 (18) µm wide, with a smooth, bi-layered oöcyst wall; micropyle, polar granule and oöcyst residuum are all absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 9-11 × 6-8 (10 × 7) µm, with both Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies, a dispersed granular sporocyst residuum, and four sporozoites. Endogenous stages develop extranuclearly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the small intestine. Early uninucleate meronts are spheroidal, c.3-5 (4) µm wide. Multinucleated meronts are subspheroidal, 11-15 × 9-12 (13 × 10) µm, but mature meront and merozoites were not seen. Mature microgamonts, with up to 60 microgametes, are spheroidal, 11-15 (13) µm; macrogamonts are subspheroidal, with a prominent central nucleus, and measured 11-14 × 7-10 (12 × 8) µm. PMID:25693463

  7. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sejung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Jiae; Cho, Saeyoull

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36%) compared to controls (5.08%), as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing. PMID:26030396

  8. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the MET diet was significantly higher than that of the fish fed the un-supplemented experimental diet and the fish in the other methionine supplementation groups ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that supplementation of crystalline Met in low-fish-meal diets promotes the growth performance of juvenile cobia.

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  10. A novel anti-tumor protein extracted from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces cell death by increasing cell permeability and inhibiting tubulin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xuanxuan; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Yuyan; Cao, Subing; Liu, Ming; Ling, Peixue; Lin, Xiukun

    2009-10-01

    Discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals from marine organisms are attracting increasing interest. Several agents derived from marine organisms are under preclinical and clinical evaluation as potential anti-cancer drugs. We extracted and purified a novel anti-tumor protein from the coelomic fluid of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus by ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The molecular weight of the highly purified protein, designated MML, was 40 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE analysis. MML exhibited significant cytotoxicity to several cancer cell types, including human hepatoma BEL-7402, human breast cancer MCF-7 and human colon cancer HCT116 cells. However, no inhibitory effect was found when treating murine normal fibroblasts NIH3T3 and benign human breast MCF-10A cells with MML. The cell death induced by MML was characterized by cell morphological changes. The induction of apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells by MML was weak by DNA ladder assay. The possible mechanisms of its anti-tumor effect might be the changes in cell membrane permeability and inhibition of tubulin polymerization. MML may be developed as a novel, highly selective and effective anti-cancer drug. PMID:19724916

  11. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

  12. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  13. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  14. Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

    2012-09-01

    The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

  15. Seasonal Distributions and Migrations of Northwest Atlantic Swordfish: Inferences from Integration of Pop-Up Satellite Archival Tagging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, John D.; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D.; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

  16. Seasonal distributions and migrations of Northwest Atlantic swordfish: inferences from integration of pop-up satellite archival tagging studies.

    PubMed

    Neilson, John D; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

  17. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Popp, Brian N.; Kaneko, J. John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  18. Postharvest correlation between swordfish (Xiphius gladius) size and mercury concentration in edible tissues.

    PubMed

    Cladis, Dennis P; Zhang, Rongrong; Tan, Xi; Craig, Bruce; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    Total mercury was measured via thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy in the muscle tissue of 82 swordfish originating in the Pacific Ocean and was found to range from 228 to 2,090 ppb. The relationships between total mercury concentration and the size of the fish (i.e., length and weight) were analyzed. It was found that dressed weight (DW) was a better predictor of mercury concentration than cleithrum-to-caudal keel length in a single variable model, and DW was the only significant predictor of mercury concentration in a multivariable model. Based on these relationships, swordfish with a DW greater than 96.4 kg (213 lb; 95% confidence interval, 88 to 107 kg [195 to 235 lb]) will exceed 1,000 ppb of mercury-the action level in the United States, Canada, and Europe-and should not be sold in commercial markets. Additionally, a logistic regression model was created to illustrate the probability of a swordfish at any DW being unsafe to consume (i.e., containing more than 1,000 ppb of mercury). In this model, the probability of a swordfish being unsafe exceeds the probability of being safe at 94.6 kg (209 lb). Taken together, the models presented in this report give regulators valuable postharvest tools to use for rapid determination of the safety of swordfish intended for sale in commercial markets. PMID:25710157

  19. Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  20. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  1. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, M.C. . E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-05-15

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  2. Feeding in billfishes: inferring the role of the rostrum from a biomechanical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Dean, Mason N; Dunlop, John W C; Mullins, Gray; Stokes, Michael; Huber, Daniel R; Winters, Daniel; Motta, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Perhaps the most striking feature of billfishes is the extreme elongation of the premaxillary bones forming their rostra. Surprisingly, the exact role of this structure in feeding is still controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the use of the rostrum from a functional, biomechanical and morphological standpoint to ultimately infer its possible role during feeding. Using beam theory, experimental and theoretical loading tests were performed on the rostra from two morphologically different billfish, the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Two loading regimes were applied (dorsoventral and lateral) to simulate possible striking behaviors. Histological samples and material properties of the rostra were obtained along their lengths to further characterize structure and mechanical performance. Intraspecific results show similar stress distributions for most regions of the rostra, suggesting that this structure may be designed to withstand continuous loadings with no particular region of stress concentration. Although material stiffness increased distally, flexural stiffness increased proximally owing to higher second moment of area. The blue marlin rostrum was stiffer and resisted considerably higher loads for both loading planes compared with that of the swordfish. However, when a continuous load along the rostrum was considered, simulating the rostrum swinging through the water, swordfish exhibited lower stress and drag during lateral loading. Our combined results suggest that the swordfish rostrum is suited for lateral swiping to incapacitate their prey, whereas the blue marlin rostrum is better suited to strike prey from a wider variety of directions. PMID:25617457

  3. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  4. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  5. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals to assess the health status of swordfish in a comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Atlantic areas.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Simone; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    During the last few decades, the combined effects of natural and human activities acting on the Mediterranean Sea basin have caused a reduction in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) population. In this project, we investigated the accumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of swordfish during a five-year survey. In the marine environment, top predators such as swordfish accumulate high concentrations of toxic metals, and thus, potentially incur a high toxicological risk. Furthermore, heavy metals, such as chemical pollutants, have strong long-term effects on fish, and thus, constitute a high risk for the resource and humans that consume it. The aim of this work is to contribute to the assessment of the state of European swordfish population health. We analyzed muscle tissue from 56 specimens captured in Mediterranean and Atlantic areas for trace elements. Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the following ranges: 0.66-2.41, 0.04-0.16, and 0.97-1.36 mg/kg ww, respectively. These data suggest a need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest. PMID:21719037

  7. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  8. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Linnaeus (complex) (wild blackberry) Rubus moluccanus Linnaeus (wild raspberry) Saccharum spontaneum Linnaeus (wild sugarcane) Salsola vermiculata Linnaeus (wormleaf salsola) Senecio inaequidens DC. (South African ragwort) Senecio...

  9. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Linnaeus (complex) (wild blackberry) Rubus moluccanus Linnaeus (wild raspberry) Saccharum spontaneum Linnaeus (wild sugarcane) Salsola vermiculata Linnaeus (wormleaf salsola) Senecio inaequidens DC. (South African ragwort) Senecio...

  10. INTRODUCTION The waggle dances of honeybees, Apis mellifera Linnaeus,

    E-print Network

    Towne, William F.

    that honeybees learn the relationship between the sun's pattern of azimuthal movement (the solar ephemeris to detect the sun directly, the bees located the sun (erroneously) using a memory of the solar ephemeris between the solar ephemeris and the bees' natal landscape can sometimes strongly resist revision: if bees

  11. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g ± 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0°C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  12. Diurnal patterns of skeleton formation in Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tissier, Martin D'a. A.

    1988-11-01

    Scanning, transmission and X-ray microanalytical electron microscopy were used to investigate the skeleton, organic matrix and calicoblastic ectoderm of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis over a diurnal cycle. All skeletal surfaces, both during day and hight, are “fasciculate” except for skeletal spines on the branch tip apex at night where small (0.5 ?m) fusiform crystals are deposited. X-ray microanalysis shows that the fusiform crystals and needle-shaped crystals that compose the fasciculi are distinct forms of calcium carbonate. Demineralization of the skeleton reveals an organic matrix with two components which are related to the formation of fusiform crystals and fasciculi. During the day the calicoblastic ectoderm overlying all skeletal surfaces is 1 3 ?m thick. At night ultrastructural evidence suggests that skeletal deposition occurs only on those skeletal spines at the branch tip apex which are growing parallel with the branch growth axis. The calicoblastic ectoderm overlying apical skeletal spines at night shows a greater degree of cellular activity, and is thicker, than calicoblastic ectoderm overlying both other skeletal surfaces at night (<8 ?m cf. >6 ?m) and all skeletal surfaces during the day (<8 ?m cf. >3 ?m). The deposition of fusiform crystals on skeletal spines at the branch tip apex is proposed to promote deposition of fasciculi during the day, relative to other skeletal surfaces, providing a mechanism determining apical growth of branch tips. The results are discussed with respect to previous concepts of skeletal deposition in scleractinian corals.

  13. Molecular studies on larvae of Pseudoterranova parasite of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) off Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliana N; Cunha, Luiz F G; Miranda, Daniele F; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Santos, Cláudia P

    2015-12-01

    Pseudoterranova larvae parasitizing cutlassfish Trichiurus lepturus and bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix from Southwest Atlantic coast of Brazil were studied in this work by morphological, ultrastructural and molecular approaches. The genetic analysis were performed for the ITS2 intergenic region specific for Pseudoterranova decipiens, the partial 28S (LSU) of ribosomal DNA and the mtDNA cox-1 region. We obtained results for the 28S region and mtDNA cox-1 that was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between sequences of this study and sequences from the GenBank. The morphological profile indicated that all the nine specimens collected from both fish were L3 larvae of Pseudoterranova sp. The genetic profile confirmed the generic level but due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites on GenBank for the regions amplifyied, it was not possible to identify them to the species level. The sequences obtained presented 89% of similarity with Pseudoterranova decipiens (28S sequences) and Contracaecum osculatum B (mtDNA cox-1). The low similarity allied to the fact that the amplification with the specific primer for P. decipiens didn´t occur, lead us to conclude that our sequences don't belong to P. decipiens complex. PMID:26408586

  14. Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some evidence that mesoscale features in the Mozambique Channel do not strongly affect the distribution of the mid-trophic level organisms such as micronekton and most of the large predatory fishes, and hypotheses are proposed to support this result.

  15. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m?2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m?2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m?2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m?2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

  16. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are discussed with regard to biogeographic province, marine predator, fishing gear to catch the large pelagic fishes, and size of the beaks recovered in the stomachs.

  17. Distribution and habitat associations of billfish and swordfish larvae across mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rooker, Jay R; Simms, Jeff R; Wells, R J David; Holt, Scott A; Holt, G Joan; Graves, John E; Furey, Nathan B

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006-2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m(-2)) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m(-2)), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m(-2)), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m(-2)). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

  18. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values. PMID:20738644

  19. Mercury and methylmercury bioaccessibility in swordfish.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escribano, S; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) present a food safety problem for many countries. This study analyses total Hg (t-Hg) concentrations in 27 samples of swordfish marketed in Spain in 2005 and in their bioaccessible fractions (soluble concentration in gastrointestinal medium), obtained after applying an in vitro digestion method. Methylmercury (MeHg) was also determined in the bioaccessible fractions. t-Hg concentrations in the samples were 0.41-2.11 mg kg(-1) wet weight, with a mean of 0.96 +/- 0.47 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A total of 37% of the samples exceeded the Hg limit set by Spanish legislation (1.0 mg kg(-1) wet weight). Bioaccessible t-Hg concentrations were 0.17-1.72 mg kg(-1) wet weight (0.63 +/- 0.4 mg kg(-1) wet weight), corresponding to 38-83% (64% +/- 14%) of t-Hg. Bioaccessible MeHg concentrations, representing 94% of the bioaccessible t-Hg concentrations, were 0.16-1.53 mg kg(-1) wet weight, with a mean of 0.49 +/- 0.32 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Children and adults who regularly consume this product in Spain have Hg and MeHg intakes that exceed the tolerable daily intake limits recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). These results show the need for recommendations about swordfish consumption by population groups at risk in Spain. PMID:20155538

  20. Methodological streamlining of SNP discovery and genotyping via high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) in non-model species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R

    2013-03-01

    The exponential growth of genetic resources is fueled by continued advances in genomic technologies and the adoption of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population studies. Concomitant to these developments, there is growing need for rapid screening and subsequent genotyping of SNPs in non-model organisms. Here we provide a rapid and low-cost workflow utilizing high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for nuclear marker development and genotyping of 774 Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) that is amendable to other species. Preliminary HRMA screening of amplicons (>290bp) for 10 nuclear loci revealed the presence of nucleotide polymorphisms, however, length and variability precluded diagnostic genotyping. Two variants of HRMA were therefore utilized to provide diagnostic genotyping assays. Short-amplicon HRMA (SA-HRMA), in which primers flank closely a SNP of interest, was identified as a low cost, rapid, closed-tube diagnostic genotyping assay that could distinguish between homozygous genotypes by ?Tm, and heterozygous genotypes by heteroduplex melting curve profiles. When the patterns of sequence variation were not suitable for SA-HRMA, unlabeled probe (UP)-HRMA was utilized. UP-HRMA has the advantage of being capable of genotyping multiple linked SNPs in a single closed-tube assay without Bayesian haplotype reconstruction, and can identify new SNPs while genotyping populations. Almost 37% of the SNPs genotyped via UP-HRMA were discovered while genotyping populations and not from preliminary screening. Analysis of swordfish in the North Atlantic (NA, n=419), South Atlantic (SA, n=296), and Mediterranean (MED, n=59) found no significant linkage disequilibrium. To assess whether deviations in HWE could be the result of genotyping error rather than population admixture only swordfish from reported spawning areas in the NA (n=49), MED (n=59), and SA (n=42) were analyzed and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant genetic differentiation (P<0.001) was identified among populations. PMID:23123289

  1. Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage for fisheries and bycatch species that are heavily influenced by dynamic oceanographic conditions. PMID:24640535

  2. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  3. Respiratory performance and behavioral responses of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) under sublethal chlorpyrifos exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, H; David, M

    2009-01-01

    A short-term definitive test by static renewal bioassay method was conducted to determine the acute toxicity (LC50) of an organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos on the fish, Cyprinus carpio. Carp fingerlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.120 to 0.200 mg/L) of chlorpyrifos for 96 h. The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos was found to be 0.160 m g/L. One-seventh (1/7th, 0.0224 mg/L) and one-fourteenth (1/14th, 0.0112 mg/L) of the acute toxicity value were selected as sublethal concentrations for subchronic studies. The fish were exposed to both the sublethal concentrations for 1, 7, and 14 days and allowed to recover in toxicant-free medium for 7 days. Behavioral responses and respiratory rate were studied in experimental periods. Fish in toxic media exhibited irregular, erratic, and darting swimming movements, hyperexcitability, and loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom. Caudal bending was the chief morphological alterations during the exposure tenures. The behavioral and morphologic changes might be due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. The carp were found under stress but mortality was insignificant at both the sublethal concentrations. Considerable variation in respiratory rates (-71.85 to 119.52%; -75.65 to 17.58%) were observed in the 1/7th and 1/14th of lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos respectively. The alteration in respiratory rate is due to respiratory distress, this may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response during chlorpyrifos exposure. The impairments in fish respiratory physiology and behavioral responses even under recovery periods may be due to slow release of sequestered chlorpyrifos from storage tissues. PMID:19662716

  4. Morphometry, Morphology and Ultrastructure of Ring-tailed Coati Sperm (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Hvr; Magalhães, F F; Ribeiro, L R; Souza, Alp; Freitas, Cia; de Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R; Silva, Ldm

    2015-12-01

    The ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a procyonid whose population is in sharp decline. Therefore, studies are needed to better understand the reproduction of this animal. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the morphology, morphometry and sperm ultrastructure of ring-tailed coati sperm. Four captive adult males were used for this study. Slides stained with Bengal Rose were used for the morphometric and morphologic analyses. The length and width of the head were measured, as well as the length of the midpiece and tail and the total length of the sperm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for the ultrastructural analyses. The most obvious morphological abnormalities observed were coiled tails (6.1 ± 8.7%) and the lack of acrosomes (5.4 ± 4.4%). Regarding the morphometry, the measurements of the head (length × width), midpiece (length) and tail (length) were (mean ± SD) 6.2 ± 0.4 × 8.1 ± 0.6 ?m, 14.1 ± 0.5 and 63.9 ± 4.1 ?m, respectively, and the total length of the sperm was 86.1 ± 4.3 ?m. Through electron microscopy, the presence of electron-lucent points in the nucleus and the presence of approximately 55 mitochondrial spirals in the midpiece were identified. The data obtained in this study provide detailed information on the sperm characteristics of coatis and may inform future research on germplasm conservation, both for this species and other threatened procyonids. PMID:26446691

  5. Effect of lower pH on settlement and development of coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyakarn, Voranop; Lalitpattarakit, Wipada; Chinfak, Narainrit; Jandang, Suppakarn; Kuanui, Pataporn; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Chavanich, Suchana

    2015-06-01

    The effects of pH reduction on the settlement and development of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were investigated. Three different pH treatments (pH = 7.6, 7.9, and 8.1) were used. In addition, water quality (temperature, salinity, total alkalinity) around the study site was monitored. The results showed significant differences in the settlement rates of Pocillopora damicornis larvae between pH treatments (p ? 0.05). A decrease in pH levels caused a strong decline in larval settlement rate. In addition, at pH 7.6 and 7.9, all larvae were unable to complete metamorphosis, and metamorphosis delay was observed. Field monitoring showed low fluctuation of all seawater parameters within 24 hours, and there was no difference between seasons. From this study, a strong negative effect of pH reduction on P. damicornis larvae was observed. Although the function of physiology is still not clearly understood, correlations are likely to exist.

  6. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11?±?0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  7. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  8. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500?bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species. PMID:25187501

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  10. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals – lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

  11. Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

    1965-01-01

    The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

  12. Updated 01May2013 by J. Otani Pea Leaf Weevil : Sitona lineatus Linnaeus

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    , specifically dry beans, faba beans but economic damage caused in peas and faba beans. Identification, Life movement into peas and faba beans is achieved primarily through flight. Adults are slender, greyish seedlings (alfalfa, clover, dry beans, faba beans, peas) and produce a characteristic, scalloped (notched

  13. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  14. Global invasion by Anthidium manicatum (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Assessing potential distribution in North America and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wool carder bee, Anthidium manicatum, is the most widely distributed unmanaged bee in the world. It was unintentionally introduced to North America in the late 1960s from Europe, and subsequently, into South America, New Zealand and the Canary Islands. We provide information on the local distr...

  15. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoppe, Sabine

    1991-09-01

    The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

  16. Predation and searching efficiency of a ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus in laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Omkar; Srivastava, Shefali

    2003-01-01

    The predation and searching efficiency of fourth instar of predatory C. septempunctata at various densities of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and predator was investigated under laboratory conditions. The feeding rate of predatory stage decreased at increased prey- and predator densities. Highest percent (92.80%) prey consumption was observed at initial prey density and lowest percent (40.86%) prey consumption at highest prey density by the fourth instar, though the total prey consumption increased with increase in either prey- or predator densities. Similarly, the individual prey consumption was also highest at initial predator density and lowest at highest predator density owing to the mutual interference between the predators at higher densities. The area of discovery (searching efficiency) also decreased with increase in prey- and predator densities. Handling time of predator was highest at lower prey densities, which decreased with increased prey densities. The highest percentage of prey consumption at the prey density of 50 revealed that 1:50 predator-prey ratio was the best to reduce the pest population. PMID:15267141

  17. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  18. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de Las; Prado, Gema Del; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-08-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthium Spanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence of trans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  19. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  20. Two new species of the genus Cobitis linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  1. Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat

    2012-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70–75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV. PMID:22953014

  2. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  3. Cornus mas (Linnaeus) Novel Devised Medicinal Preparations: Bactericidal Effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Anthony M; Dinda, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal properties of Cornus mas L. (=Cornus mascula L.), Cornaceae, are well described in Hippocratian documents, and recent research provides experimental evidence for some of these properties. However, the chemical components of Cornus mas L. that may be of pharmaceutical importance are relatively unstable. In this respect a novel methodology for plant nutrient element extraction that provides favorable conditions for simultaneous stabilization of such fragile and unstable structures has been devised. Using this methodology, medicinal preparations derived from Cornus mas L. fresh fruits, proved to possess significant antimicrobial activity selective against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. This effect became apparent with the addition of sodium bromide in the extraction procedure and varied with the ion availability during extraction. The identification of novel agents with potent antimicrobial activity against these species is of medical importance to overcome the problem of universal antibiotic resistance. PMID:26091077

  4. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), belongs to the order Lepidoptera and

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    .org) Figure 3. Diamondback moth larva. (Knodel, Department of Entomology, NDSU) 2 #12;Life Cycle (Figure 5) Very few pupae survive the long, cold, harsh winters of North Dakota. Diamondback moths are generally. In North Dakota, migrating diamondback moths usually arrive in late May or early June. The complete life

  5. [New record of a bat species from China, Megaderma spasma (Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Biao; Gong, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hong, Ti-Yu; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Mao, Xiu-Guang

    2010-06-01

    One male bat was collected in a cave in Cuibi Hill (N: 21 degree 53', E: 101 degree 18', H: 683 m a.s.l.), Menglun Town, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, on November 26, 2006. This bat is of medium body size, with 60.7 mm forearm and 21.4 g body mass. Its ears are large ovals and joined medially to the forehead at about 15% of the height of inner margin. The tragus of each ear is slender and distinctly bifid. The noseleaf is simple, and the posterior noseleaf is oval with obtuse tip and convex sides, a significant longitudinal ridge laying middle, which connects to intermediate noseleaf at the base. Intermediate noseleaf presents triangle with a W-shaped tip. Frontal noseleaf is horseshoe shape and attached directly to the muzzle. The tail is absent, and the second finger of each wing has only one phalanx. There are no upper incisors, Pm3 and Pm3. The upper canine has an anterior and a large posterior basal cusps. This bat is identified as lesser false vampire, Megaderma spasma, which is a new record of China. Its external and craniodental measurements were presented and compared with those of M. lyra. The specimen is preserved in Guangdong Entomological Institute. PMID:20672423

  6. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  7. Ectoparasite load in the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emiliano; Sforzi, Andrea; Menchetti, Mattia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Lovari, Sandro; Pisanu, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata is a large body-sized rodent, occurring in Europe only in the Italian Peninsula, where it may have been introduced in early Medieval times. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. We have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy). Both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. Abundance of ectoparasites was higher in areas with higher habitat richness, with respect to densely wooded areas. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25%), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5%, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. The second most prevalent species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus (21%). An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. The low richness in dominant ectoparasite species, built up by locally acquired generalist taxa, provides support to the allochthonous origin of this rodent in Italy. PMID:25773184

  8. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF TWO PARASITES INFECTING DOMESTICATED TURKEY MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO LINNAEUS, 1758 (GALLIFORMES: MELEAGRIDINAE) QENA, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abdel-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The work gave a detailed systematic morphology by optic and scan electron microscopy of two parasites; Raillietina echinobothriida Megnin, 1880 and Spirora meleagaris n. sp. infecting domesticated turkey, with some important description characters. SEM revealed that tegument of R. echinobothriida exhibits, filamentous, microtriches and sensory papillae densely covered the tegument of entire body, rostellum armed with two rows of hummer-shaped hooks and provide by 16-20 rows of small, rose thorn-shaped accessory spines. In addition, a number of taxonomic features in S. meleagaris n. sp. that differ from other species of the genus, mouth circular, bounded by a cuticular three circles plates, five pairs of cephalic papillae, an inner circle of two pairs situated on the wall of the buccal cavity, one pairs of larges sub-median amphids, and an outer circle of two pairs papillae. Buccal cavity supported by four chitinious cusped molar teeth anteriorly directed .Vulva near the end of the first third of the body, vulvular lips prominent. The male has unique rose like shaped pedunculated and unarranged numerous distributed sessile cervical papillae at the second third of the body that are distinguishable from other spirorid. PMID:26485852

  9. NOTES ON THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD OF THE PINFISH LAGODON RHOMBOIDES (LINNAEUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were collected during September and October, 1974 and 1975. Following a minimum of one week holding period, females were initially injected with 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and injected with 400 IU every second day thereafter until matur...

  10. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide. PMID:23295821

  11. REDESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE PIGFISH, ORTHOPRISTIS CHRYSOPTERA LINNAEUS (PISCES, HAEMULIDAE)

    E-print Network

    in the Cape Fear River Estuary. 'Marine Ecological Consultants of Southern California, 531 Encinitas Blvd specimens collected from the lower Cape Fear River Estuary, North Carolina. and from the gulf coast of Cape Fear River Estuary, N.C., differed from Hildebrand and Cable's (19:W) description

  12. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Mendes, S L; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101), in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates. PMID:26421765

  13. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  14. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  15. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus (Hemiptera, Aphididae) living on Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barjadze, Shalva; Blackman, Roger L; ?zdemir, I?il

    2015-01-01

    Aphis polii sp. n. living on Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae) is described, based on apterous and alate viviparous females and oviparous females. It has been collected from seventeen localities in mainland France, Corsica, Italy, Ukraine, Lebanon and Iran. The new species is similar to two other Aphis species that feed specifically on plants of the genus Teucrium, but has a relatively longer ultimate rostral segment. Characters are provided to discriminate between the three Teucrium-feeding species, and to distinguish the new species from other morphologically similar Aphis species that feed on Lamiaceae. Type specimens are deposited in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), the UMR Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montpellier, France and the Natural History Museum, London, UK (BMNH). PMID:26701477

  16. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

  17. The nature and construction of skeletal spines in Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Barbara E.; Hewit, Robert; Le Tissier, Martin D.

    1983-06-01

    Extreme variability in the size, shape and spacing of skeletal spines of Pocillopora damicornis has been demonstrated both within single colonies and also between colonies from different environments. Preliminary studies indicated that the majority of spines from branch tips at the apex of the colony display a ‘fasciculate’ growth surface in contrast to partly fasciculate or ‘smooth’ growth surfaces exhibited by spines from branch tips at the base of the colony. No significant differences in the height and width of costal spines from apical and basal branch tips within a single colony were observed, although spines from colonies exposed to strong wave action tended to be significantly shorter and narrower than those from more sheltered environments. Both costal and coenosteal spines from wave-exposed colonies displayed branching and divided extremities while those from sheltered environments consisted of simple cones. Spines develop as an outgrowing of the calicoblastic ectoderm which secretes the skeleton. Growing costal and coenosteal spines are enveloped by a layer of calicoblastic ectoderm which penetrates through mesogloea, aboral gastroderm, coelenteron, oral gastroderm, mesogloea and finally oral ectoderm. Spines within the corallite are surrounded by calicoblastic ectoderm, mesogloea and aboral gastroderm only. A scheme for the growth of the spines is discussed.

  18. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  19. Tetrameres numida n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae) from Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris (Linnaeus, 1758), in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Junker, K; Boomker, J

    2007-06-01

    Tetrameres numida n. sp. from the proventriculus of Helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, in South Africa is described from eight male and four female specimens. The new species shares some characteristics with other Tetrameres species, but can be differentiated by a unique combination of characters. It bears two rows of cuticular spines extending over the whole length of the body and possesses two spicules. The left spicule measures 1699-2304 microm and the right one 106-170 microm. Caudal spines are arranged in three ventral and three lateral pairs and the tail is 257-297 microm long. Diagnostic criteria of some of the previously described species of the genus Tetrameres from Africa and other parts of the world have been compiled from the literature and are included here. PMID:17883198

  20. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Bortoluci, C H F; Simionato, L H; Rosa Junior, G M; Oliveira, J A; Lauris, J R P; Moraes, L H R; Rodrigues, A C; Andreo, J C

    2014-08-01

    A general analysis of the behaviour of "Cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG), Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG) and Slow Twitc (SO). In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities. PMID:25627383

  1. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  2. ESTUDIOS DEL MUSEO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES DE

    E-print Network

    Ribera, Ignacio

    . Especies destacables son Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1790) o Graphoderus cinereus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Dytiscidae) (Dytiscidae), Hydraena rugosa Mulsant, 1844 (Hydraenidae) or Microcara testacea (Linnaeus, 1767) (Scirtidae Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1790) edo Graphoderus cinereus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Dytiscidae), Hydraena rugosa

  3. Microbes on mountainsides: Contrasting elevational patterns of bacterial and plant diversity

    E-print Network

    Enquist, Brian Joseph

    ecology phylogenetic diversity macroecology biogeography Roughly 250 years ago, Carolus Linnaeus (1 and biotic turnover over short geographic distances. The patterns observed by Linnaeus and his contemporaries

  4. Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lödl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

    2012-10-30

    Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

  5. Study of Toxoplasma infection in Brazilian wild mammals: serological evidence in Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and Euphractus sexcinctus Wagler, 1830.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Sandra; Langoni, Helio; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2006-01-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that affects man and most warm-blooded animals, with a great economic impact in animal and public health. Serum samples from nine 9-banded armadillos, three 6-banded armadillos, three coatimundis, two opossums and one nutria were submitted for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection by means of a modified direct agglutination method. Encephalic tissue of three 6-banded armadillos, one 9-banded armadillo, one coatimundi and one nutria were digested in acid pepsin solution and inoculated into Swiss mice for parasite isolation. Only one serum sample from a nine-banded armadillo and two from six-banded armadillos reacted producing titers equal to 256, 512 and 512, respectively. T. gondii was isolated in two 6-banded armadillos, one of which was not positive in the serological test. PMID:16188389

  6. Effects of a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls on reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B.; McElroy, A.E.

    1998-07-01

    To assess the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction, female Fundulus heteroclitus were exposed to a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs, mimicking the mixture found in fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, a PCB-contaminated estuary. Exposure was by intraperitoneal injection of the mixture dissolved in corn oil. Doses of 0.76, 3.8, and 19 {micro}g PCB mixture per gram of wet weight produced liver concentrations of 2.99, 12.2, and 32.8 {micro}g non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs per gram of dry liver, with dioxin toxic equivalency concentrations (TEQs) of 0.0963, 0.409, and 0.720 ng/g, respectively. Female mortality was 58%, and egg production was reduced by 77% at the highest dose, compared to controls. Food consumption declined with increasing PCB concentration, suggesting that PCBs act indirectly to reduce fecundity through an energetic effect. Pituitary gonadotropin content appeared to be suppressed at the highest dose, but the ability of ovarian follicles to produce estradiol and testosterone in vitro was not impaired. Significant residue-effects linkages were found, with TEQ emerging as a potential indicator of adverse effects. Mortality was directly related, and egg production was inversely related to log{sub 10}TEQ. Multiple regression analysis indicated that egg production was directly related to pituitary gonadotropin content and food consumption.

  7. The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

    1992-03-01

    The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23569831

  9. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 ?g and 3.0 ?g-TiO2-NP g(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

  10. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  11. Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ? = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

  12. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5?kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3?kHz to 90?kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18?kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2?kHz and 3 to 8?kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5?kHz to 8?kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats. PMID:26340942

  13. Nutritional Ecology of a Generalist Herbivore Vanessa cardui Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Variable Larval and Adult Diets

    E-print Network

    VanOverbeke, Dustin R.

    2011-01-01

    plastic cups (3 cm H x 4 cm ID) and provided them with chemically defined diet which contained casein andplastic cups (3 cm H x 4 cm ID) and provided with one of three chemically defined diets that contained casein andplastic cups (3 cm H x 4 cm ID) and provided with one of three chemically defined diets that contained casein and

  14. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200?m up to 1000?m size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20?m are not able to translocate into the tissues. PMID:26456303

  15. 1.GRANARYWEEVIL,Sitophilus granarius(Linnaeus). This weevil, along with the closely related rice weevil, is among the most

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    in stored grain and cereal products. The larvae develop in flour, cereal products, and many other dried rice weevil, is among the most destructive of all stored grain insects. The larvae develop inside kernels of whole grain in storage, thus making an infestation difficult to remove in the milling process

  16. Structure, attachment, replacement and growth of teeth in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1776), a teleost with deeply socketed teeth.

    PubMed

    Bemis, William E; Giuliano, Anne; McGuire, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Tooth replacement poses many questions about development, pattern formation, tooth attachment mechanisms, functional morphology and the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Although most vertebrate species have polyphyodont dentitions, detailed knowledge of tooth structure and replacement is poor for most groups, particularly actinopterygians. We examined the oral dentition of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a pelagic and coastal marine predator, using a sample of 50 individuals. The oral teeth are located on the dentary and premaxillary bones, and we scored each tooth locus in the dentary and premaxillary bones using a four-part functional classification: absent (A), incoming (I), functional (F=fully ankylosed) or eroding (E). The homodont oral teeth of Pomatomus are sharp, deeply socketed and firmly ankylosed to the bone of attachment. Replacement is intraosseus and occurs in alternate tooth loci with long waves of replacement passing from rear to front. The much higher percentage of functional as opposed to eroding teeth suggests that replacement rates are low but that individual teeth are quickly lost once erosion begins. Tooth number increases ontogenetically, ranging from 15-31 dentary teeth and 15-39 premaxillary teeth in the sample studied. Teeth increase in size with every replacement cycle. Remodeling of the attachment bone occurs continuously to accommodate growth. New tooth germs originate from a discontinuous dental lamina and migrate from the lingual (dentary) or labial (premaxillary) epithelium through pores in the bone of attachment into the resorption spaces beneath the existing teeth. Pomatomus shares unique aspects of tooth replacement with barracudas and other scombroids and this supports the interpretation that Pomatomus is more closely related to scombroids than to carangoids. PMID:16351980

  17. The Feeding Ecology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758), at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-01-01

    The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs. PMID:25210585

  18. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  19. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5?kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3?kHz to 90?kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18?kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2?kHz and 3 to 8?kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5?kHz to 8?kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats. PMID:26340942

  20. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  1. Diverse Microbiota Identified in Whole Intact Nest Chambers of the Red Mason Bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

  2. Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

    2014-09-01

    Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

  3. Thyroid calcitonin cells in response to glucagon-induced hypocalcaemia in the Indian jackal, Canis aureus (Linnaeus--lex).

    PubMed

    Swarup, K; Tewari, N P

    1980-01-01

    Jackal (Canis aureus) puppies (10) were subjected to hypocalcaemia by a single intravenous injection of crystalline porcine glucagon (Eli Lilly and Co.) in a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg body weight. Fasting blood samples from each specimen were collected 30 minutes before injection. Then again after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 minutes blood samples were taken. For histological study animals were killed after 30, 90, 120, 240 and 300 minutes of the injection. The mean serum calcium level records a fall upto 90 minutes but it tends to return to normal and at 300 minutes it returns to the preinjection level. The mean serum inorganic phosphate level records a fall upto 180 minutes and therafter the value increases approaching the preinjection levles after 300 minutes. Specific stains were used for staining the calcitonin cells. Animals killed 30 minutes after the injection exhibit beginning of degranulation of secretory granules in their C cells, while those killed after 300 minutes show marked degranulation. A progressive degranulation of calcitonin cells at the various stages of experimentation displays correspondingly poorer response to the staining reaction. There is no change in the histological picture of the parathyroid. PMID:7424080

  4. Effect of copper on morphology, weight, and chromosomal aberrations in the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Maharajan, A; Vaseeharan, B; Rajalakshmi, S; Vijayakumaran, M; Kumarasamy, P; Chen, J C

    2011-12-01

    Spiny lobster Panulirus homarus which had been exposed to cupric ion at 9.55 and 19.1 ?g/l for 28 days was examined for sub-lethal effects including morphology, wet weight, and induced genotoxic effect on the chromosome. Following cupric exposure, the color of lobster P. homarus changed from yellowish-brown to greenish black in the hepatopancreas, changed from normal creamy white to yellowish white in the muscle, and changed to greenish black in the gill. A significant change in the percentage of wet weight of muscle (28.70?±?0.41-23.47?±?0.45), hepatopancreas (4.03?±?0.12-2.63?±?0.17), and gills (3.63?±?0.45-3.87?±?0.12) were observed in the copper-treated lobsters. The diploid number of chromosomes of P. homarus was over 200 metaphases from ten lobsters, as 2n?=?58, and consisted of 16 acrocentric, seven metacentric, and six sub-metacentric chromosomes. The lobsters exposed to cupric ion at 9.55 and 19.1??g/l showed different types of chromosomal aberrations such as centromeric gaps, chromatid breaks, centromeric fusion, stickiness, ring chromosomes, and acrocentric association region. The frequency of aberrations increased with duration of exposure. In conclusion, it was suggested that cupric ion interacts with the spindle formation and consequently distorts the normal karyomorphology, indicating cytogenetic effect on lobster. PMID:21691798

  5. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-09-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management. PMID:26444060

  6. Supplementation with imuno-2865(®) in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    Župan, Ivan; Tkal?i?, Suzana; Šari?, Tomislav; ?ož-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Topi?-Popovi?, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubi?, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Polji?ak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865(®) on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865(®) kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865(®) in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream. PMID:26455665

  7. Millipedes faced with drought: the life cycle of a Mediterranean population of Ommatoiulussabulosus (Linnaeus) (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

    PubMed

    David, Jean-François; Coulis, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Growth, development and life-cycle duration of the millipede Ommatoiulussabulosus (f.aimatopodus) were studied in a Mediterranean shrubland of southern France and compared with previous data from northwest Europe. Changes in the proportions of stadia during the course of the year were analysed in several generations. The results show that stadia VII and VIII are consistently reached after the first year of growth, and stadia IX and X after the second year. First reproduction may occur at the age of two years in males reaching maturity at stadium X, but not until the age of three in those reaching maturity at stadia XI and XII. Reproduction cannot occur until at least the age of three in females, which carry mature eggs from stadium XI onwards. In comparison with more northern populations, life-cycle duration is not shorter in the Mediterranean population but there are marked differences in its phenology: the breeding period is in autumn, so that juveniles of stadia II to VI are never faced with the summer drought, and larger individuals are mostly inactive in summer; moreover, all individuals moult once every winter. The results illustrate how julid millipedes of humid temperate regions could respond to higher temperatures and drier summer conditions in the context of climate change. PMID:26257538

  8. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

  9. An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-02-19

    A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo. PMID:24471438

  10. Aploparaksis demshini n. sp. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), a parasite of the woodcock Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus, and its life-cycle.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Svetlana; Kontrimavichus, Vytautas

    2005-05-01

    Aploparaksis demshini n. sp. is described from a woodcock Scolopax rusticola L. from different parts of the Palaearctic (Lithuania, Karelia, the Urals, Primorskiy Kray). It differs from the most similar species A. belopolskajae Bondarenko, 1988, a parasite of snipes Gallinago spp., in the form and length of the rostellar hooks and the smaller cirrus, and from two other similar species, A. clavata Spasskaya, 1966 and A. schilleri Webster, 1955, by having an embryophore with polar thickenings and a spindle-shaped cirrus. The life-cycle of the parasite was studied under experimental conditions. The metacestodes were commonly located under the chlorogogenous tissue of the intestine of the earthworms Eisenia foetida(Savigny), Dendrobaena octaedra (Savigny) and E. nordenskioldi(Eisen), and in the wall of the intestine of the enchytraeid Briodrilus arcticus(Bell). The metacestodes exhibit a pattern of postembryonal development typical for the cysticercoid modification termed an 'ovoid diplocyst'. PMID:15928992

  11. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). PMID:23733631

  12. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

  13. Millipedes faced with drought: the life cycle of a Mediterranean population of Ommatoiulus sabulosus (Linnaeus) (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae)

    PubMed Central

    David, Jean-François; Coulis, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Growth, development and life-cycle duration of the millipede Ommatoiulus sabulosus (f. aimatopodus) were studied in a Mediterranean shrubland of southern France and compared with previous data from northwest Europe. Changes in the proportions of stadia during the course of the year were analysed in several generations. The results show that stadia VII and VIII are consistently reached after the first year of growth, and stadia IX and X after the second year. First reproduction may occur at the age of two years in males reaching maturity at stadium X, but not until the age of three in those reaching maturity at stadia XI and XII. Reproduction cannot occur until at least the age of three in females, which carry mature eggs from stadium XI onwards. In comparison with more northern populations, life-cycle duration is not shorter in the Mediterranean population but there are marked differences in its phenology: the breeding period is in autumn, so that juveniles of stadia II to VI are never faced with the summer drought, and larger individuals are mostly inactive in summer; moreover, all individuals moult once every winter. The results illustrate how julid millipedes of humid temperate regions could respond to higher temperatures and drier summer conditions in the context of climate change. PMID:26257538

  14. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  15. Molecular phylogeography of the asp viper Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Italy: evidence for introgressive hybridization and mitochondrial DNA capture.

    PubMed

    Barbanera, F; Zuffi, M A L; Guerrini, M; Gentilli, A; Tofanelli, S; Fasola, M; Dini, F

    2009-07-01

    Owing to its temperature dependence and low vagility, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) is an interesting model species to study the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on vertebrate genomes. We genotyped 102 specimens from the whole Italian distribution range at three mitochondrial DNA regions (2278 characters, total) and six microsatellite DNA loci (Short Tandem Repeats, STR). The molecular phylogeny was constructed according to Bayesian, Neighbour Joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood procedures. All methods grouped individuals of the three morphological subspecies (V. a. aspis, V. a. francisciredi, V. a. hugyi) into five different haploclades. Specimens assigned to hugyi clustered in two highly differentiated clades, one being sister group to the complex comprising the second clade of hugyi (i.e., a paraphyletic status), plus two clades of francisciredi. The Bayesian clustering of the STR variability disclosed only two groups, the first including aspis and francisciredi, the second all hugyi. Introgressive hybridization and capture of francisciredi-like lineages in the hugyi mitochondrial genome were suggested to explain the discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data. The phylogeographic pattern was compatible with population contractions in three glacial refuges. Plausibility of derived hypothesis was checked using coalescence simulations as post hoc tests. Long-term drift and serial founder effects, rather than selection, appeared the main factors affecting the genetic make-up of the Italian asp viper. PMID:19236928

  16. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ratnesh Kumar; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Akanksha; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Rahasya Mani; Jena, Joy Krushna

    2013-06-01

    With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98 +/- 0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia. PMID:23660672

  17. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  18. Senilia senilis (Linnaeus, 1758), a biogenic archive of environmental conditions on the Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, Romain; Thébault, Julien; Lorrain, Anne; van der Geest, Matthijs; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Environmental archives are useful tools for describing past and current climate variations and they provide an opportunity to assess the anthropogenic contribution in coastal ecological changes. Along the West African coast, few studies have focused on such archives in coastal ecosystems. The bloody cockle Senilia senilis, an intertidal bivalve mollusk species, is widely distributed from Western Sahara to Angola, and has been harvested by humans over thousands of years. Therefore, this species appears to be a good candidate for assessing past variations of key environmental parameters such as temperature, primary production, and Saharan dust advection within West African coastal ecosystems. In the present paper, we focused (i) on the identification of growth rhythms of S. senilis shells in Mauritania (Banc d'Arguin), and (ii) on the potential of these shells as (paleo-)environmental archives. The method we used combined environmental survey, sclerochronology, and geochemical analyses of aragonite samples. We showed that microgrowth line formation was controlled by a tidal forcing, leading to the formation of two lines per lunar day. Brightness and thickness of these microgrowth lines progressively decreased from spring to neap tides (fortnightly cycle). Lunar daily growth rates displayed strong seasonal variations, with highest values (> 300 ?m per lunar day) recorded in summer. The oxygen isotope composition of S. senilis shells (?18Oaragonite) accurately tracked seawater temperature seasonal variations, with a precision of 0.8 °C. Finally, we discussed the opportunity to use Ba:Ca ratio in shells as a proxy for primary production or for Saharan dust transport. We also hypothesized that either Canary Currentvariations or, more probably, massive aerosol transfers from Sahara to the Atlantic Ocean could control uranium availability in coastal waters and explain the occurrence of U:Ca peaks within S. senilis shells.

  19. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Sánchez, O; Galván-Magaña, F; Rosíles-Martínez, R

    2010-04-01

    We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

  20. Detailed morphological description of Habronema clarki Foster & Chitwood, 1937, a nematode parasite of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Ferreira, Daniel Fontana

    2014-01-01

    The genus Habronema has four valid species, of which only two are properly known. The present study aimed to describe in detail the morphology of Habronema clarki through optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Our results showed that the labial morphology of this parasite is closer to H. muscae than to H. microstoma. Even so, the characteristic pseudolabia and the slightly convex border of the dorsal and ventral lips are sufficient to distinguish these nematodes. Additional morphological data are presented, thus contributing to the knowledge on this little known nematode. In addition, this study provides new locality records for this species. PMID:25054508

  1. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  2. Double valvular insufficiency in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus, Linnaeus, 1758) suffering from concomitant bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Tréhiou-Sechi, Emilie; Petit, Amandine M P; Misbach, Charlotte; Chetboul, Valérie

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasonography, and, to a lesser extent, echocardiography are now well-established, noninvasive, and painless diagnostic tools in herpetologic medicine. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles, but valvulopathy is rarely documented in these animals and, consequently, is poorly understood. In this report, sinoatrial and atrioventricular insufficiencies were diagnosed in a 5-yr-old captive dyspneic Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) on the basis of echocardiographic and Doppler examination. This case report is the first to document Doppler assessment of valvular regurgitations in a reptile. PMID:21370663

  3. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ?SSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  4. 77 FR 53236 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... 137-Northwest White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay to conduct a review of... White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay. Dates August 15, 2012 to August...

  5. 3Systems Biomedicine 2010, Elsevier Inc. C H A P T E R

    E-print Network

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    of investigative biology and medicine. Carl Linnaeus' creation of the binary nomenclature (Systema Naturae, Carolus Linnaeus, 1735) marked the origin of biologic taxonomy and provided the basis for phylogenic analysis

  6. 75 FR 45675 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) to review the sites' management plans and...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) Dates: September 1, 2010 to August 31,...

  7. TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES USING THE CSE FORMAT

    E-print Network

    as its initial citation. Ex: Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany1 scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany13 , but other disciplines2, 16 were not many

  8. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  9. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) and Arbacia punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) Echinodermata: Echinoidea): the importance of animal foods 

    E-print Network

    Pestovic, Jennifer Beth

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of gut contents of Echinometra lucunter and Arbacia punctulata revealed that A. punctulata consumes significantly greater amounts of animal material--barnacles, mollusks, and bryozoans--than E. lucunter. Where ...

  10. [A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].

    PubMed

    Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

    2005-01-01

    The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

  11. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    PubMed

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds. PMID:25001213

  12. A Stock Assessment of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Sustainable Management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-01-01

    A stock assessment of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus was conducted with crab gill nets and collapsible crab traps at Kung Krabaen Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, from 2008 to 2009. Several key indicators show that P. pelagicus population is in crisis. Fishing mortality shows an increase to 4.14. The exploitation rate is 0.71, higher than the optimal value of 0.38. The size of the mature females has also decreased from 8.10±0.39 cm to 7.52±1.14 cm. The average fecundity is 0.572×106±0.261×106 eggs per batch, and the sex ratio (male:female) is 1:0.92. Based on these results, a sustainable management program for P. pelagicus was proposed as follows: (i) closing the bay during the spawning season, (ii) restoration of the Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds, (iii) restocking crab larvae in the bay and (iv) educating and networking all stakeholders to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the crab to support sustainable fishery management in Kung Krabaen Bay. PMID:25210587

  13. Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355 mg/kg), copper (107 ?g/kg), iron (0.81 mg/kg), potassium (3481 mg/kg), magnesium (322 mg/kg), manganese (0.04 mg/kg), selenium (0.47 mg/kg), sodium (700 mg/kg) and zinc (4.46 mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70 kg male and a 65 kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

  14. Evolution of arthropod visual systems: development of the eyes and central visual pathways in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; Vilpoux, Kathia; Blackburn, David C; Platchetzki, David; Brown, Nadean L; Melzer, Roland; Kempler, Karen E; Battelle, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite ongoing interest into the architecture, biochemistry, and physiology of the visual systems of the xiphosuran Limulus polyphemus, their ontogenetic aspects have received little attention. Thus, we explored the development of the lateral eyes and associated neuropils in late embryos and larvae of these animals. The first external evidence of the lateral eyes was the appearance of white pigment spots-guanophores associated with the rudimentary photoreceptors-on the dorsolateral side of the late embryos, suggesting that these embryos can perceive light. The first brown pigment emerges in the eyes during the last (third) embryonic molt to the trilobite stage. However, ommatidia develop from this field of pigment toward the end of the larval trilobite stage so that the young larvae at hatching do not have object recognition. Double staining with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and an antibody against L. polyphemus myosin III, which is concentrated in photoreceptors of this species, confirmed previous reports that, in the trilobite larvae, new cellular material is added to the eye field from an anteriorly located proliferation zone. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that these new cells differentiate into new ommatidia. Examining larval eyes labeled for opsin showed that the new ommatidia become organized into irregular rows that give the eye field a triangular appearance. Within the eye field, the ommatidia are arranged in an imperfect hexagonal array. Myosin III immunoreactivity in trilobite larvae also revealed the architecture of the central visual pathways associated with the median eye complex and the lateral eyes. Double labeling with myosin III and BrdU showed that neurogenesis persists in the larval brain and suggested that new neurons of both the lamina and the medulla originate from a single common proliferation zone. These data are compared with eye development in Drosophila melanogaster and are discussed with regard to new ideas on eye evolution in the Euarthropoda. PMID:16788994

  15. Karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Tapajós River basin, Southern Amazon: occurrence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L C; Ribeiro, M O; Dutra, E S; Zawadzki, C H; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2015-01-01

    Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and struc-tural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecos-tomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Flo-resta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were identified in two pairs of chromosomes at different positions: short arm of the pair 21and long arm of the pair 27, matching the signals displayed by 18S FISH and indicating multiple NORs. Analysis of band C detected few blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and the telomeric regions of some pairs, includ-ing the nucleolar pair 21. However, large blocks on the long arm of the nucleolar pair 27 still stood out. GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA3) was visualized only coincidently with nucleolar sites. Mapping of 5S rDNA sites with FISH revealed markings in eight chromosomes, demonstrat-ing synteny between the 18S and 5S sites. The data obtained for H. cf. plecostomus are important for taxonomic studies of this Amazon com-plex "H. plecostomus group". The occurrence of sex chromosomes in Amazon species of Hypostomus suggests an evolutionary event that is independent of other species in the group. PMID:26125870

  16. [Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Fátima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Knoff, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345

  17. Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

  18. Nest-building behavior by the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata (Kroyer) on the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh from Northern-Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Osvaldo; Hinojosa, Iván A; Thiel, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Many small arthropod herbivores from terrestrial and marine environments construct tubicolous nest-like domiciles on their host plants or algae by rolling up selected portions of the leaf or blade. Nests serve as both shelter and food, which results in conflicting needs for the grazers because feeding activity continuously destroys parts of the nests. While the nesting habit of ampithoid amphipods and other peracarid crustaceans is widely known, very little is known about the nest dynamics and how the conflict between shelter and food requirements is resolved. Herein we examined the nest-building behavior and nest occupancy of the kelp-dwelling amphipod Peramphithoe femorata on the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Domiciles on the distal-most part of the blades were occupied by amphipods and were steadily advanced toward the blade base. Since the blades grow from a basal growth meristem, blades and nests develop in opposite directions. Thus, the amphipods exploit the kelp growth pattern to maintain their nests in the medium-distal part of the blades. During a 2-week-long experiment, we observed that blade elongation equaled nest advancement during the first 8 days after nest construction. Thereafter, blade growth slowed down and was surpassed by nest advancement rates, possibly forcing amphipods to seek out new blades. Nest occupancy was generally short (1-4 days), but some amphipods resided longer (>4 days) in their nests. The sophisticated nest-building behavior of P. femorata and other ampithoids maximizes nest persistence, offers optimal protection against predators, and promotes feeding on nutritive or, alternatively, on less defended tissues. PMID:20570848

  19. Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

    2010-11-01

    We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

  20. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    SciTech Connect

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  1. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  2. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 2. The structure and changes over time.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2014-09-01

    During the last century the recorded parasite fauna of Bison bonasus includes 88 species. These are 22 species of protozoa, 4 trematode species, 4 cestode species, 43 nematode species, 7 mites, 4 Ixodidae ticks, 1 Mallophaga species, 1 Anoplura, and 2 Hippoboscidae flies. There are few monoxenous parasites, the majority of parasites are typical for other Bovidae and Cervidae species and many are newly acquired from Cervidae. This is an evident increased trend in the parasite species richness, in both the prevalence and intensity of infections, which is associated with the bison population size, host status (captive breeding or free-ranging) and the possibility of contact with other ruminant species. In light of the changes to parasite species richness during the last decades, special emphasis shall be given to new parasite species reported in European bison, their pathogenicity and potential implications for conservation. PMID:25119349

  3. Characterization of 13 microsatellite loci for the deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758), from the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of 13 polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from the ahermatypic deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa. Among 51 individuals collected from three disjunct oceanic regions, allelic diversity ranged from six to 38 alleles and averaged 9.1 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 9.1 to 96.8% and averaged 62.3% in the Gulf of Mexico population. For some loci, amplification success varied among collections, suggesting regional variation in priming site sequences. Four loci showed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in certain collections which may reflect nonrandom mating. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage map and match it with the Apis mellifera genome using homologous markers. This genome-wide comparison allows insights into structural conservations and rearrangements and thus the evolution on a chromosomal level. Results The high density linkage map covers ~ 93% of the B. terrestris genome on 18 linkage groups (LGs) and has a length of 2'047 cM with an average marker distance of 4.02 cM. Based on a genome size of ~ 430 Mb, the recombination rate estimate is 4.76 cM/Mb. Sequence homologies of 242 homologous markers allowed to match 15 B. terrestris with A. mellifera LGs, five of them as composites. Comparing marker orders between both genomes we detect over 14% of the genome to be organized in synteny and 21% in rearranged blocks on the same homologous LG. Conclusions This study demonstrates that, despite the very high recombination rates of both A. mellifera and B. terrestris and a long divergence time of about 100 million years, the genomes' genetic architecture is highly conserved. This reflects a slow genome evolution in these bees. We show that data on genome organization and conserved molecular markers can be used as a powerful tool for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, opening up new avenues of research in the Apidae. PMID:21247459

  5. SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

    2014-01-01

    Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

  6. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  7. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. PMID:26067169

  8. Biogeography of helminth parasitism in Lemmus Link (Arvicolinae), with the description of Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Haukisalmi, V; Henttonen, H

    2001-05-01

    We describe the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of true lemmings (Lemmus spp., Arvicolinae) based on published and original material throughout the Holarctic range of these hosts. According to the existing data, the helminth fauna of true lemmings consists of three widespread and/or locally common taxa: Hymenolepis horrida (sensu lato) (Hymenolepididae), Anoplocephaloides lemmi (Anoplocephalidae) and Heligmosomoides spp. (Heligmosomidae). Despite the taxonomic boundaries and ancient phylogenetic splits in the hosts, there are no major faunistic differences for parasites within western (Siberian) L. sibiricus and L. bungei, and eastern (North American) L. trimucronatus throughout their distribution range. In contrast, the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus, which is a Fennoscandian endemic and closely related to the western populations of L. sibiricus, has only a single host-specific helminth, the cestode Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae). We describe the new species and show that it differs consistently from related species by its long and slender cirrus-sac. However, there are also a number of other significant differences, e.g., P. fellmani n. sp. and Andrya primordialis in Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Sciuridae) evidently have a unique (sub)type of uterine development among Andrya/Paranoplocephala spp. Because P. fellmani n. sp. was also found to occur in Alaska (host L. trimucronatus), this species seems to follow the same biogeographical pattern as the other specialist helminths of Lemmus. We suggest alternative explanations for the absence of three major helminth taxa in the Norwegian lemming in Fennoscandia. PMID:11389326

  9. Biochemical compounds' dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, Domitília; Joaquim, Sandra; Ramos, Margarete; Sobral, Paula; Leitão, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase. Three different feeding regimes were applied: starvation and two mono-specific microalgal diets ( Isochrysis aff galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans). A comparison between fed and unfed larvae highlighted the importance of egg lipid reserves, especially neutral lipids, during a brief endotrophic phase of embryonic development (first 2 days after fertilization). Egg reserves, however, may energetically contribute to the maintenance of larvae beyond the embryonic development. In fed larvae, the endotrophic phase is followed by a mixotrophic phase extending to days 5-8 after fertilization and a subsequent exotrophic phase. Metamorphosis starts around day 20. The intense embryonic activities are supported by energy derived from lipids, mainly from neutral lipids, and the metamorphic activities are supported by energy derived essentially from proteins accumulated during the planktonic phase and depend on the nutritional value of diets. The diet of I. aff galbana proves to be more adequate to R. decussatus larval rearing. The results provide useful information for the successful production of R. decussatus aquaculture.

  10. Development and function of pearl-sacs grown from regenerated mantle graft tissue in the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

    2015-08-01

    Current pearl grafting techniques were developed in the early 1900s and have changed little since. They involve the sacrifice of donor pearl oysters to provide graft tissue (saibo) that is implanted into host oysters. This study assessed the feasibility of using regenerated graft tissue for pearl production in the 'black-lip' pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera. Twelve days after grafting with regenerated graft tissue, there was complete encapsulation of the nucleus by the fully developed pearl-sac and the first layer of organic matrix had been secreted. Sixteen days after grafting, the pearl-sac was completely integrated with host tissue. The epithelial cells in the pearl-sac continued to secrete the organic matrix layer but there were no signs of nacre deposition at this stage. However, after three months of culture, nuclei in oysters grafted with regenerated mantle tissue were completely covered with nacre. The average nacre thickness on pearls produced from regenerated (0.547 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) and normal (0.532 ± 0.01 mm, n = 8) mantle tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Nacre secretion rates, over the 80 day period subsequent to pearl-sac formation were 6.84 ± 0.1 ?m day(-1) and 6.66 ± 0.1 ?m day(-1) for oysters grafted with regenerated and normal mantle tissue, respectively. These means were not significantly different (p = 0.258). Our results clearly show that regenerated mantle tissue can function successfully as saibo for pearl production in P. margaritifera. This finding could provide significant benefits to pearl farmers and a basis for further development of current pearl grafting practices. PMID:25982400

  11. Redescription of Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (Nematoda: Spirurida) infecting stray cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in Qena, Egypt and overview of the genus taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2012-12-01

    Members of the family Physalopteridae are small or large worms parasitic in various regions of the alimentary tract of amphibians (3 species), reptiles (45 species), birds (24 species), mammals (more than 90 species) and humans (more than 82 reported cases). This study estimated the prevalence of Physalopteridae in stray cats in Qena and identify the encountered species and to overview the taxonomic features of different species of the family from which more than 200 species were recovered besides the unnamed species. The gastrointestinal tracts of 39 necropsied stray cats were examined for Physaloptera spp. The encountered species was mounted and prepared to be studied by ordinary and scanning electron microscopy. Ph. praeputialis adults and larvae were recovered from the pyloric region of the stomach of 28 (71.2%) of 39 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus). Species was redescribed by light and scanning electron microscopy, compared with the other related species of the same genus and larval stages are described for the first time. SEM examination of the parasite revealed that oral aperture is surrounded by 2 massive rounded lateral pseudolabia; pseudolabium roughly rectangular in apical view bearing 2 large sub- median (dorsolateral and ventrolateral) cephalic papillae. PMID:23469641

  12. Lernanthropus kroyeri (Van Beneden and Hesse 1851) parasitic Copepoda (Siphonostomatoidae, Lernanthropidae) of European cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) from Corsica: ecological and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-05-01

    Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) is a gill parasite found on the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. During a survey of sea bass of Corsican fish farms, we studied the biology of this parasite under culture conditions. We first chose to conduct a scanning electron microscopic study to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Our examinations made it possible to reveal some unreported superficial structures including details not described previously. Specializations associated with the tegument, in particular, sensory structures and anchoring systems were studied to understand the mechanisms of survival and dispersal of the species. Patterns variation of parasites communities was examined by taking into account environmental factors, such as temperature or salinity, and physiological parameters related to host. The relation between parasites and location of fish was also studied to quantify the importance of site influence on parasite communities. Prevalence and abundances of the infections in different culture systems, fish stocks, and sampling seasons are given. L. kroyeri was significantly present during spring and summer, coinciding with a period of increasing temperature. Significant differences were found grouping data by host size, with higher infection levels in the larger-sized fish. PMID:22179262

  13. The Canadian large pelagic longline fishery extends from Georges Bank

    E-print Network

    on gangions spaced at regular intervals (Fig. 1). Al- though the general design of pelagic longline gear gladius, and other pelagic species from Canadian longline gear configured with alternating monofilament the early to mid 1960s, the Canadian fleet rapidly converted to surface longline gear which proved to be far

  14. Sustainable Fisheries: Multi-Level Approaches to a Global Problem, 197225 2011 by the American Fisheries Society

    E-print Network

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) are responsible for management of highly mammals (Order Cetacea), sharks (Superorder Euselachii), and billfishes (Family Istiophoridae gladius, and sharks, with gears such as pelagic longlines, shark bottom longlines, and shark gill nets

  15. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Ji?í

    2015-01-01

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Duméril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Duméril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed. PMID:25781112

  16. Bibliography & natural history; essays presented at a conference convened in June 1964

    E-print Network

    Buckman, Thomas R.

    1966-01-01

    as its author. Thus Linnaeus both wrote and defended the Dissertatio medica in qua exhibetur Hypothesis nova de Febrium intermittentium Causa . . . Academia quae est Harderovici . . . submittit Carolus Linnaeus Smol.-Svecus wherewith on 23 June 1735... and early nineteenth centuries in Europe and America, and inevitably the work, the v personality, and the influence of Linnaeus are pervasive, although several of the papers range more widely. I have no doubt that there will be few readers who...

  17. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...calendula (Linnaeus) Levyns Asphodelus fistulosus L. Avena sterilis L. (including Avena ludoviciana Durieu) Azolla pinnata R. Brown Carthamus oxyacantha M. Bieberstein Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retzius) Trinius Commelina...

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  19. Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, Janelle

    Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization rate, larval establishment and survival of juvenile tunicates. All these elements can potentially be key factors on limiting the establishment of a population of C. intestinalis in the Orwell Bay aquatic system. Keywords: Invasive species, watershed, biogeography, tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, universal soil loss equation, hydrodynamic modeling, correspondence analysis, turbidity, environmental tolerance.

  20. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ? 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  1. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    PubMed

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation. PMID:19239118

  2. Information www.hammarby.uu.se, www.botan.uu.se

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    in 1935 and are administered by the National Property Board. The Linnaean Gardens of Uppsala Linnaeus with the Botanical Garden and the Linnaeus Garden it constitutes the Linnaean Gardens of Uppsala. Cultural reserve In 2007 Hammarby and the surrounding agricultural land and forest became a cultural reserve. Pastures

  3. ECOS Inquiry 1. Contributor's Name: Sarah Bisbing

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Carol

    . Centuries later, a Swedish botanist, Carolus Linneaus, developed the basic principles still followed in the modern classification of living organisms. Linnaeus wrote 180 books describing plant species in extreme detail, but his system of classification first arose in his 1735 publication, Systema Naturae. Linnaeus

  4. Texas 4-H Forestry Invitational Handbook 

    E-print Network

    Bruton, Derrick

    2009-04-05

    Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) *Whitepineweevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) Nativeelmbarkbeetle Hylurgopinus rufipes(Eicchoff) Gypsymoth Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) *Birchleafminer Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) Easterntentcaterpillar Malacosoma americanum (Fabricius... Spinyelmcaterpillar Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) Southernpinebeetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmerman) Tussockmoth Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae *Locustleafminer Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Whiteoakborer Goes tigrinus (DeGeer) Palesweevil Hylobius pales (Hbst...

  5. 77 FR 53236 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ...White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay to conduct a review of their management plans. The Antarctic...White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay. Dates August 15, 2012 to August 31, 2017. Nadene...

  6. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, Fred A. Seaton, Secretary FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner

    E-print Network

    OF THE THREESPINE STICKLEBACK Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus IN' KARLUK LAKE AND BARE LAKE, KODIAK ISLAND, ALASKA, Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner LIFE HISTORY OF THE THREESPINE STICKLEBACK Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus IN KARLUK LAKE AND BARE LAKE KODIAK ISLAND, ALASKA BY JOHN GREENBANK AND PHILIP R. NELSON FISHERY

  7. Reference: Bid. Bull. 194: 132-142. (April, 1998) Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Anne

    Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems ANNE A of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval metamorphosis is induced by low molecular weight compounds associated with dominant species of red algae found

  8. 28 Marine Fisheries Review C. A. Sepulveda and S. A. Aalbers are with the

    E-print Network

    interactions, the deep-set gear was designed to fish at depths between 270 and 320 m during day- light hours@pier.org).. doi: dx.doi.org/10.7755/MFR.76.4.2 Development and Trial of Deep-set Buoy Gear for Swordfish, Xiphias of alterna- tive domestic operations. This study used swordfish depth distribution data to aid in the design

  9. Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, K.M.; Tims, J.L.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (JBWR) represents the largest protected area for over 300 species of migratory and resident birds on Long Island (LI), New York, and occupies a key position along the Atlantic flyway. We identified changes in nesting populations for 18 species of colonial waterbirds in JBWR and on LI, during 1974 - 1998, to provide a basis for future wildlife management decisions in JBWR and also at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport. None of the populations was stable over the past 25 years in JBWR or on LI. Some populations in JBWR increased (Laughing Gull L. atricilla Linnaeus, Great Black-backed Gull L. marinus Linnaeus, Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall) while others decreased (Herring Gull Larus argentatus Coues, Snowy Egret Egretta thula Molina), but only Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) have disappeared from the refuge. Common Tern (S. hitundo Linnaeus), Least Tern (S. antillarum Lesson), Roseate Tern (S. dougallii Montagu), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger Linnaeus), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus) and Great Egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus) populations all increased on LI over the sampling period although the Common Tern colonies in JBWR have been declining since 1986. The continued protection of the colony sites, particularly saltmarsh islands, in JBWR will be important to the conservation efforts of many colonial waterbird populations on Long Island. The JBWR colonies may serve as a source of emigrants to other Long Island colonies, and in some cases, act as a 'sink' for birds immigrating from New Jersey and elsewhere.

  10. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  11. Discovery of microRNAs of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) by high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus), is a serious ectoparasite affecting animal production and health of both animals and humans. Stable fly control relies largely on chemical insecticides; however, the development of insecticide resistance, as well as environmental considerations, requir...

  12. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    PubMed

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

  13. BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 89(0):000000. 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2011.1134

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    , and Richard Bell ABSTRACT Predation by clupeoid species (e.g., Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus Linnaeus feedback process ("trophic triangle") that may result in alternative dominance patterns of cod or herring

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Estimating biodiversity: a case study on true bugs

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    natural order in the organic world date back at least to Aristotle. The great natural scientist Carolus Linnaeus (1758) proposed a simple method to name and record species systematically, now known as taxonomy

  15. Cranial Variability in Amazonian Marmosets 

    E-print Network

    Aguiar, John Marshall

    2011-02-22

    dune forest. Linnaeus (1758) first described a small, resplendent monkey which he named Simia rosalia, included in his overarching genus for the primates. The genus Leontopithecus was first established by Lesson (1840), and was submerged...

  16. Effects of red imported fire ant baits on some non-target ants 

    E-print Network

    Mokkarala, Pallavi

    2002-01-01

    , Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus). The former two species were each tested with a metabolic inhibitor, Amdro® and an insect growth regulator, Logic®, whereas the latter two species were tested with two metabolic inhibitors, Amdro® and Combat®, and two insect...

  17. Phylogenetics of Crabronini, with a consideration of the evolution of predatory and nesting behaviors (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Crabronidae)

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Daniel J.

    2010-12-17

    ........................................... 181 1 INTRODUCTION Ever since Linnaeus named four of them in Systema Naturae (1758), crabronine wasps have sparked the interest of entomologists. These curious folks, upon finding one perched on a leaf, rock, or log, are seemingly unable...

  18. Host recognition in Muscidifurax zaraptor (Hymenoptera :Pteromalidae): a parasitoid of the house fly 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Randy Russel

    2002-01-01

    The pteromalid ectoparasitoid Muscidifurax zaraptor was studied in an attempt to understand the behavior and isolate the cues related to the recognition of its host, Musca domestica Linnaeus, the common house fly. Section I of this study involved...

  19. Biogeographic Patterns, Predator Identity, and Chemical Signals Influence the Occurrence and Magnitude of Non-lethal Predator Effects 

    E-print Network

    Large, Scott Isaac

    2011-10-21

    risk; and 5) how genetic structure might vary according to prey geographic location and habitat. To address these questions, I used a common intertidal model system consisting of the rocky intertidal whelk Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus, 1758) and a suite...

  20. Biology of Aprostocetus Hagenowii (Ratzeburg), a parasitoid of cockroaches, and insect community composition in an interiorscape 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Elizabrth N.M

    1999-01-01

    The insect community of the rainforest pyramid at Moody Gardens, Galveston. Texas, was determined. The insect community within the rainforest pyramid consisted of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius), Evania...

  1. An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts 

    E-print Network

    Shodrock, Damon Leon

    1994-01-01

    that the most frequently encountered indoor pests, in order of importance, were German cockroaches [Blattella gerinanica (Linnaeus)], Pharaoh [Monomotium pharaonis (L.)] or crazy ants [Paratrechina longicomis (Latreille)], followed by house crickets [Acheta...

  2. Fishery Bulletin Index Volume 89 11-4), 1991

    E-print Network

    , growth, and structure of vertebra in the school shark Galeorkinus galeus (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Brazil, by Beatrice Padovani Ferreira and Carolus Maria Vooren 33 Chaetognatha from the central

  3. A Reevaluation of the Taxonomy of the Mesocoelium monas Complex (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Mesoceliidae) 

    E-print Network

    Calhoun, Dana Marie

    2012-07-16

    [20?24]), therefore 072881.00 is most likely M. crossophorum. USNPC 090335.00 Host: Mediterranean house gecko, turkish gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus) (Squamata: Gekkonidae) (Appendix A7) Locality: Louisiana, USA Description: Based...

  4. Why Descriptive Science Still Matters

    E-print Network

    Grimaldi, David A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2007-09-01

    - finements, of course) that were estab- lished by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758 for biological classifications, by William Smith in 1815 for the geological timescale, and by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 for the periodic table of the elements. More recent architects...

  5. A Study of Selected Chemical and Biological Conditions of the Lower Trinity River and the Upper Trinity Bay 

    E-print Network

    Baldauf, R. J.

    1970-01-01

    , but the actual extent to which commercially important species were utilizing these threatened wetlands was unknown. This paper attempts to demonstrate the extent to which the marsh has been utilized by the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus Linnaeus), the brown...

  6. Erasmus Darwin's pedagogical purpose in The Loves of the Plants: reconfiguring images of women in Linnaean botany 

    E-print Network

    Peery, Brenda Langworthy

    1997-01-01

    Linnaeus encoded into botany with his own more liberal social vision. Two of Loves' most prominent characteristics, (1) the parallel presentation of information in poetic.couplets linked with scientific footnotes and (2) a discontinuous narrative structure...

  7. Field Guide to the Insects and Mites Associated with Pecan 

    E-print Network

    Ree, Bill; Knutson, Allen E.

    1997-08-29

    ligata (Say) Green stink bug Acrosternum hilare (Say) Southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) Damage: Adults have piercing sucking mouth parts and feed on plant juices. Feeding by adult stink bugs prior to shell hardening results in a...

  8. Biological and Biochemical Characterization of a Tick Feeding Stimuli Responsive Amblyomma americanum Acidic Chitinase in Tick Feeding Physiology 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae Kwon

    2014-04-01

    study, 40 genes were discovered that are differentially up regulated in Amblyomma americanum (Aam) (Linnaeus) females when exposed to feeding stimuli. The purpose of this study was to biologically and biochemically characterize one...

  9. 75 FR 23151 - Noxious Weeds; Old World Climbing Fern and Maidenhair Creeper

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ...Lygodium flexuosum (Linnaeus) Swartz) to the list of terrestrial noxious weeds. This action is necessary to prevent the artificial spread of these noxious weeds within and into the United States. DATES: Effective on May 3, 2010, we are adopting as...

  10. `With Grains in Her Hair': Rice in Colonial Brazil

    E-print Network

    -11524. Slavery and Abolition, Vol.25, No.1, Month 2004, pp.1­27 PUBLISHED BY FRANK CASS, LONDON #12;This paper to pro- vision slave ships throughout the era of transatlantic slavery, but neither Linnaeus nor his

  11. William Roxburgh (1751-1815) 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, T. F.

    Refared to as the greatest botanist since Linnaeus and the founding father of Indian botany by his contemporaries, it is surprising that William Roxburgh has never before been the study of a full-length biography. Some ...

  12. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

  17. Published in Without Nature: A New Condition for Theology (David Albertson and Cabell King, Eds.), Fordham Univ. Press, 2009

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    -Enlightenment founders of modern biology: Carl Linnaeus, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Gregor Mendel, Matthias introduced Mendel's ideas to the English-speaking world and coined the term "genetics," were published under

  18. An introduc+on to effec+ve science communica+on

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    of Coral Reefs Charles Darwin, 1874 2nd Edition, revised 1842 1st Edition Charles Darwin: 119 published 1950-20001900-1950 Biology KeplerCopernicus Galileo Newton Linnaeus Lavoisier Lyell Darwin Einstein

  19. Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis

    E-print Network

    PB Wageningen, The Netherlands, Department of Animal Behaviour, University of Bielefeld, Morgenbreede History Museum, Clamecystraße 12, 63571 Gelnhausen, Germany, §Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology Academy, Linnaeus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden, **Dutch Centre for Avian Migration and Demography

  20. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ?Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas. PMID:26689358

  1. Amorpha fruticosa (Native) 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    Three low-relief banks (Heald Bank, Sabine Bank, Freeport Rocks) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were evaluated as lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758) nursery habitat. Trawl surveys were conducted in three habitat types (inshore mud...

  2. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  5. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  7. Habitat use, growth, and mortality of post-settlement lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris) on natural banks in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Mikulas, Joseph John

    2009-05-15

    Three low-relief banks (Heald Bank, Sabine Bank, Freeport Rocks) in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were evaluated as lane snapper (Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758) nursery habitat. Trawl surveys were conducted in three habitat types (inshore mud...

  8. Age determination of larval strombid gastropods by means of growth

    E-print Network

    Juan, Puerto Rico 00906 The queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, and the milk conch, S. costatus metamorphosis, we obtained preserved (5% buffered formalin, pH 8.0) S. gigas veligers and juveniles of known age

  9. Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea

    E-print Network

    Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea R macroalgae, Fucus radi- cans (L. Bergstrom & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We

  10. First isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Brazilian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus) and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans, (Spix and Agassiz) from Brazil is reported. The commercial bacterial identification system, Biolog Microlog®, confirmed the identity of L. garvieae. Infectivity tri...

  11. MATING BEHAVIOR OF CEPHALONOMIA TARSALIS (ASHMEAD)(HYMENOPTERA: BETHYLIDAE) AND THE EFFECT OF FEMALE MATING FREQUENCE ON OFFSPRING PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The courtship behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead), a solitary semi-ectoparasitoid of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), was investigated in the laboratory. Courtship behavior includes a series of stereotypic movements. Males play the most active role, executing th...

  12. A Genetic Study of the Development of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Ecological, Evolutionary, and Forensic Importance of the Secondary Screwworm 

    E-print Network

    Ramos III, Ernesto

    2015-07-24

    melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Sphingidae), these studies suggest that blow fly studies of the same nature could greatly improve our application of knowledge centered on blow fly biology. This thesis..., individuals of different populations are raised together in the same natural environment to test for genetic differentiation of a phenotypic trait or traits. In one common garden experiment, Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus...

  13. A checklist of Linneana, 1735-1835, in the University of Kansas Libraries

    E-print Network

    Williams, Terrence

    1964-01-01

    opera omnia de piscibus scilicet: biblio- theca ichthyologica, philosophia ichthyologica, genera piscium, synonymia specierum. Omnia in hoc genere perfectiora, quam antea ulla. Posthuma vindicavit, recognovit, coaptavit & edidit Carolus Linnaeus...'s holdings include about 1500 volumes of works by Linnaeus and items of Linnaeana. The volumes listed here are for the most part drawn from two important collections in the Library: the Ralph N. Ellis Collection of some 25,000 books in the fields...

  14. The paracladistic approach to phylogenetic taxonomy

    E-print Network

    Carter, Joseph G.; Altaba, Cristian R.; Anderson, Laurie; Campbell, David; Fang, Zongjie; Harries, Peter; Skelton, Peter W.

    2015-04-30

    –4. Lamy, É. 1911. Mission dans l’Antarctique dirigée par le Dr. Charcot (1908–1910), collections recueilles par M. le Dr. Jacques Liouville. Pélécy- podes. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Bulletin 16(7):388–394. Linnaeus, Carolus A. 1767. Caroli a..., in all three molecular phylogenetic analyses. However, all three molecular analyses place Nuculana pella (Linnaeus, 1767) in the smaller subclade, apart from other members of its genus, and two of the molecular analyses (not Fig. 1) resolve...

  15. ¿Vecinos o Enemigos?: Latino National Identity and the Debate over English as the National Language 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Donathan Lawrence

    2012-07-16

    and least: God, angelic beings, humanity, animals, plants and minerals. However, in relation to linking the Great Chain of Being with a racial order, one must visit the work of Charles Linnaeus, known also as the father of taxonomy.44 To defend... this racial articulation of societal positioning, linking those of non-European background with lower forms of life, Linnaeus? 1735 book, In General System of Nature, provides the outline. Perhaps most frequently used by eighteenth and nineteenth century...

  16. Fitness Effects of Colonization Time of Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria, and their Response to Intra- and Inter-specific Eggs and Egg Associated Microbes 

    E-print Network

    Brundage, Adrienne

    2012-07-16

    also served as a source of nutrition for insects. House fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae reared on media containing bacteria have greater survival and longevity than those on sterile resources (Schmidtmann and Martin 1992... to be essential for the growth of Musca autumnalis (De Geer) (Diptera: Muscidae) and Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) (Schmidtmann and Martin 1992) which are also colonizers of decomposing material. Bacteria are considered a major catalyst...

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae 

    E-print Network

    Summarell, Carly C. Ginter; Ingole, Sudeep; Fish, Frank E.; Marshall, Christopher D.

    2015-07-01

    . Vibrissal Profile Family Species Number of Individuals Beaded Phocidae Gray seal (Halichoerus grypus Fabricius, 1791) 5 Phocidae Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758) 5 Phocidae Harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben, 1777) 5 Phocidae Ringed seal... californianus Lesson, 1828) 5 Otariidae Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi Merriam, 1897) 1 Otariidae Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) 2 Otariidae South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis Zimmermann, 1783) 2 The number...

  18. INDEX TO VOLUME 61 ABUNDANCE AND AGE O~' KVICHAK RIVER RED

    E-print Network

    , and comparison of rudder fishes, Kyphosu8 secta.trix (Linnaeus) and K. i'l£i80l' (Cuvier) in 451-480 western at 53-60 CALANOID COPEPODS FROM EQUATORI....L W.~TERS OF THE P ....CIFIC OCE....N, by George D. Grice, DISTRIBUTION, AND COMPARISON OF RUDD);R b'ISHES, Kyphof1lts sectatrix (Linnaeus) AND K. incisor (Cuvier

  19. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  20. [Systematics on the threshold of the XXI century. Traditional principles and fundamentals from today's point of view].

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, A K

    2002-01-01

    Systematics as regarded is a purely theoretical domain of biology, and its product, system, as a specific biological theory, or a topologo-genetic model of the biota. Linnaeus was the first to introduce the idea of system and the systematic approach into the natural history. The advent of evolutionism brought new meaning to the old term "affinity", so Linnaeus' slogan of natural system got new life, and Linnaeus taxonomy assimilated the evolutionary ideology quite naturally and much easier than many other departments of biology. The difference between natural and artificial systems is remaining, and it is in their goals, as formulated by Linnaeus: heuristic of the former and cataloguing of the latter. Linnaeus' clairvoyance discovered the existence of an infrageneric level of genetic integration provable by naturalists' experience. He chose for it the designation of "species" and laid it down as primary, basic unit of his system. This is plainly evident from his own writings; the story about Linnaean species being products of a logical division of genera is a pure fiction. Modern populational model of species, by 3 important criteria, appears to be more akin to the Linneaean one than to the ideas of Lamarckism and early Darwinism. Systematic approach focuses rather on the interrelations among elements and their relative position, then on the properties and qualities of separately treated individual elements. In the development of systematics the aspect of "nexification" (study of connections) has been continuously gaining attention especially regarding the nomenclature where connotation has been totally forced out by denotation. PMID:11881218

  1. Cytogenetic studies in four cultivated Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Bonasora, Marisa Graciela; Poggio, Lidia; Greizerstein, Eduardo José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linnaeus, 1753, Amaranthus mantegazzianus Passer, 1864, and Amaranthus caudatus Linnaeus, 1753. The distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using DAPI-CMA3 banding technique. The position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) was observed using Ag-NOR banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (rDNA-FISH) in the four Amaranthus species. Variations in the amount of constitutive heterochromatin were detected both within the species and between them, with DAPI-CMA3 stain. One chromosome pair having a NOR was found in each studied accession, with exception of Amaranthus caudatus cv. EEA INTA Anguil. This accession presented four rDNA loci (FISH), being active two of them (Ag- banding). PMID:24260690

  2. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B?naru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  3. DE/STRUCTURING THE STRUCTURALIST ACTIVITY A CRITIQUE OF SELECTED FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURALIST PROBLEMATIC

    E-print Network

    Crane, Jeffrey L.; Dasilva, Fabio

    1982-01-01

    ­ terests to the virtual exclusion of any motives of passion, morality, religiosity, etc.: as the first species in' the animal kingdom as illustrated in Carolus Linnaeus'" classification system and as a player of games. These notions share the peculiar attri..., in particular p. 105, further develops this notion of man the maker. For example, he states, HoWe believe that it is the essence of man to be a rna terial and moral maker to make things and to make himself. ' 4. See C. Linnaeus, A General System ofNature, 1802...

  4. Observations on Paper as Evidence

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Allan

    1961-01-01

    is the first edition of Carolus Linnaeus' Systema naturae (Leyden, 1735).9 The two standard bibliographies of Lin naeus' works, by Johan Marcus Hulth (Uppsala, 1907) and Basil H. Soulsby (London, 1933), call this rare item a great folio. It is a giant... for the broadsheet format for so thin a volume is the large spread needed for Linnaeus' immense tables, each occupying one opening of two broad pages, showing his 8 systems for minerals, plants, and animals. This splendid copy of an historic rarity among science...

  5. [About infection agents, zoophytes, animalcules and infusories].

    PubMed

    Osorio A, Carlos G

    2007-04-01

    By definition, zoophytes are organisms with characteristics which are intermediate between plants and animals. The concept is already outlined by Aristotle in his Historia Animalium. In the XVIII century, the great Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus, in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, included the order Zoophyta within the class of Vermes. In this classification, for the first time the curious animalcules (infusories), discovered by van Leeuwenhoek in the late XVII century, were formally classified as zoophytes and were incorporated specifically into the genus Chaos. Audaciously, Linnaeus also conjectured that the infectious agents could be related to the animalcules-infusories, though he left the corresponding demonstration to posterity. PMID:17453079

  6. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  7. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

  8. No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

  9. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerini?-Prodanovi?, Dušanka; Proti?, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  10. Acta Herpetologica 4(1): 113-115, 2009 Releasecallsof femaleBombina bombina

    E-print Network

    Hödl, Walter

    -mail: guenter.gollmann@univie.ac.at Abstract. Release calls of a female fire-hellied toad, Bombina bombina, were recorded in the field while handling the toad. Duration and structure of these calls are similar to release of the fire-bellied toad, Bornbina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) was described by Lörcher (1969) and Schneider

  11. ZooNotes 4: 1-4 (2009) ...4... www.zoonotes.bio.uni-plovdiv.bg

    E-print Network

    Mollov, Ivelin Aldinov

    2009-01-01

    to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758) (Amphibia: Anura) from Bulgaria toad (Bufo bufo Linnaeus, 1758) is the largest anuran species occurring in Bulgaria and its trophic). Currently there is only one specialized study on the diet of the Common toad, conducted in Bulgaria (Angelov

  12. years old. Hatched from eggs of wild fish, at St. John-sbury, Vt."

    E-print Network

    ] long. Length as illustrated, 9.5 inches [241 mm]. Media: watercolor, gouache, ink, some lead pencil., transferred to Nashua, N.H., where painting was done. Length of specimen used for outline: 14.5 inches [368 mm: watercolor, gouache, ink, some lead pencil. Remarks: DFSA. P04072­Plate 17 D Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus

  13. Induced defenses of Veronica spicata: Variability in herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds

    E-print Network

    van Nouhuys, Saskya

    communication with conspecifics (plant­plant interactions) (Kost and Heil, 2006). In addition to being emitted., 2007) and egg deposition (Fatouros et al., 2012). Herbivore-induced VOCs attract natural enemies e of the two hosts of the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera

  14. The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus

    E-print Network

    The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales metric tons (t) (Mackintosh, 1942). Blue whales are entirely bluish-gray in color, except for the white

  15. ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG OpEN mINdS,

    E-print Network

    . From the University of Gothenburg's steering document Vision 2020. Production: Communication Unit 2015 for the Linnaeus Centre for Research on Learn- ing, Interaction and Mediated Communication in Contem- porary is to achieve a more resource-efficient healthcare system in which indi- viduals take greater responsibility

  16. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  17. Flax in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1980-01-01

    Dweller people of the St one Age (Dillman, 1 8). The common blue-flowered fiber flax grown in Europe was named by Linnaeus in 1753 (35). Tammes (47) re- viewed several theories on the origin of flax and concluded -that the common flax originated from...

  18. Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito.) Royle (hydrilla) Hygrophila polysperma T. Anderson (Miramar weed) Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal (water Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) King & Robinson (crofton weed) Alternanthera sessilis (Linnaeus) R. Brown ex

  19. Wireless Control: Opportunities and Challengespp g

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Wireless Control: Opportunities and Challengespp g Karl Henrik Johansson ACCESS Linnaeus Centre Araujo, Piergiuseppe Di Marco, Erik Henriksson Magnus Lindhé, Pan Gun Park, Chithrupa Ramesh, Per, communication and control · Strong industrial collaborations through an i d i l hiindustrial partnership program

  20. (1947-1958) Proposals to reject twelve names emanating from Loefling's Iter Hispanicum (1758), Ayenia sidiformis (Malvaceae), Cofer (Symplocaceae), Cruzeta and C. hispanica (Amaranthaceae), Edechia inermis and E. spinosa...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pehr Loefling’s Iter Hispanicum, published posthumously in 1758 by Linnaeus, is one of the earliest sources of American plant names. However, all of these names lack original material for typification, as there were no published figures for them and Loefling’s American specimens were all apparently ...

  1. Expression, production and excretion of Bla g 1, a major human allergen, in relation to food intake in the German

    E-print Network

    in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica J. CHAD GORE and C. SCHAL Department of Entomology and W. M. Keck cockroach, Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), produces several potent human is related to food intake in adult males and females of the German cockroach. Bla g 1 mRNA expression

  2. /. mar. bwl. Ass. U.K. (1990), 70, 829-840 829 Printed in Great Britain

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Graham

    1990-01-01

    ofNorthSea fish species and protein residuesin in vitro digestates, seal digestive tracts and seal., 1990b). Antisera raised to muscle protein extracts from salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) reacted), and in faeces from seals fed on salmon (Pierce et al., 1990b). However, the serological approach has

  3. Distributed Algebraic Connectivity Estimation for Adaptive Event-triggered Consensus

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    on the distributed computation of the powers of matrices. We provide proofs of convergence, convergence rate for all the previous systems to reach convergence and it characterizes the convergence rate. We propose. Johansson are with Ac- cess Linnaeus Centre, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. guodongs

  4. Strategies for the capture and transport of bonefish, Albula vulpes, from tidal creeks to a marine research

    E-print Network

    Suski, Cory David

    Strategies for the capture and transport of bonefish, Albula vulpes, from tidal creeks to a marine¢sh Albula vulpes (Linnaeus,1758) were captured as they entered or left tidal creeks on Eleuthera their circumtropical distribution, bone- ¢sh (Albula spp.) play a vital role in local economies as a highly prized

  5. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBUST AND NONLINEAR CONTROL Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 2010; 20:209225

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Motor Company, 2101 Village Road MD 2036, Dearborn, MI 48124, U.S.A. 3ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, School by two on/off switches, and of a transport belt, where moving parts equipped with wireless sensors as a piecewise affine function of the position along the belt, the resulting plant model is a hybrid dynamical

  6. 44 Marine Fisheries Review The Fin Whale

    E-print Network

    pigmentation which is particularly recognizable on the head region. The whale's underside, right lip, and right44 Marine Fisheries Review The Fin Whale Introduction The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus Linnaeus1758,isthesecondlargestmem- ber of the family Balaenopteridae (after the blue whale, B. musculus

  7. Vulpes corsac (Carnivora: Canidae) HOWARD O. CLARK, JR., JAMES D. MURDOCH, DARREN P. NEWMAN, AND CLAUDIO SILLERO-ZUBIRI

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    (Linnaeus, 1768) is a canid commonly called the corsac fox or steppe fox. It is distributed throughout on snow. It typically inhabits grassland steppes, semideserts, and deserts and will frequent agricultural, carnivore, corsac fox, foxes, fur bearer, sand fox, steppe fox, steppes Published 27 May 2009

  8. Chasing Tyrannosaurus and Deinonychus

    E-print Network

    Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

    : carnivorous Megalosaurus, herbivorous Iguan- odon, and armored Hylaeosaurus.1 In so doing, Owen began individuals in each culture organized animals, plants, fungi, and other organisms into particular schemes. Linnaeus' sys- tem was universal. It could be applied to all or- ganisms--plants, animals, fungi, and even

  9. Prsentation et photos Gilles Ayotte Lundi 25 novembre 2013

    E-print Network

    blue lettuce, wild blue lettuce... #12;laitue bisannuelle #12;6. Lactuca muralis (Moench) Fernald (nom accepté => Mycelis muralis (Linnaeus) Dumortier laitue des murailles anglais: wall lettuce VASCAN #12 des murailles anglais: wall lettuce #12;7. Lactuca scariola L. (nom accepté => Lactuca serriola

  10. Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

  11. 78 FR 60321 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...Station and Palmer Station for the purpose of collecting soil and marine sediment samples. The samples would be taken as part of the...Cape Crozier; ASPA 131 Canada Glacier; ASPA 138 Linnaeus Terrace ASPA 139 Biscoe Point; ASPA 155 Cape Evans; ASPA 157...

  12. ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, MOVEMENTS, AND LENGTHS OF LARVAL HERRING ALONG THE WESTERN COAST OF THE GULF OF MAINE

    E-print Network

    OF THE GULF OF MAINE JOSEPH J. GRAHAM, STANLEY B. CHENOWETH, AND CLARENCE W. DAVIS' ABSTRACT This paper of the Gulf of Maine. Larvae were most numerous in the catches throughout the coast in the autumn, reached harengus Linnaeus, fluctuates annually along the western coast of the Gulf of Maine. The Maine sardine

  13. The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus

    E-print Network

    The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), is the sec- ond largest of the whales in the family Balaenopteridae, second only to the blue whale, B. musculus. Fin whales range in length up to 27 m

  14. Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

  15. integration application network Horn Point LaboratoryHorn Point Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    and Distribution of Coral Reefs Charles Darwin, 1874 2nd Edition,Charles Darwin, 1874 2nd Edition, revised 1842 1st Editionrevised 1842 1st Edition Charles Darwin:Charles Darwin: 119 published books & papers119 published booksLinnaeus CookCook LyellLyell DarwinDarwin EinsteinEinstein Watson & CrickWatson & Crick ""The fartherThe farther

  16. A new species of Urophora Robineau-Desvoidiy, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Nozari, Jamasb

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Urophora merzi sp. n. reared from flower heads of Centaurea behen Linnaeus is described from Iran. It is similar to Urophora campestris, Urophora sachalinensis, Urophora stylata, Urophora tsoii and Urophora vera in wing pattern with 3 well developed crossbands and indistinct subbasal crossband, differing in aculeus tip with two pairs of diminished preapical steps and different host plants. PMID:22287906

  17. LABORATORY OBSERVATIONS ON THE EARLY GROWTH OF THE ABALONE, HALIOTIS SORENSENI, AND THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE

    E-print Network

    was observed at lOoC. Juveniles maintained at 15-19°C and provided mixed diatoms as food showed marked- berculata Linnaeus were given by Crofts (1929, 1937). Japanese workers have reported obser- vations on early more critical studies of growth and nutrition of abalones. Advances by Japanese workers in the fie

  18. S M I T H S O N I A N C O N T R I B U T I O N S T O Z O O L O G Y N U M B E R 333 The Leafmining Moths

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    's annual report, Smithsonian Year. SERIES COVER DESIGN: The coral Montastrea cavemosa (Linnaeus). Library ; no. 333) Bibliography: p. 1. Cameraria--Classification. 2. Cameraria--Host plants. 3. Fagaceae--Diseases and pests. 4. Insects--Classification. 5. Insects--California--Classification. I. Davis, Donald Ray, joint

  19. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea).

    PubMed

    Jerini?-Prodanovi?, Dušanka; Proti?, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  20. 147George, R.Y. and S. D. Cairns, eds. 2007. Conservation and adaptive management of seamount and deep-sea coral ecosystems. Rosenstiel

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    . The Darwin Mounds: from undiscovered coral to the development of an offshore marine protected area regime) in the United Kingdom (UK) is the Darwin Mounds, an area of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) discovered only the Mounds, which became permanent in 2004. This move was made possible by the revised Common Fisheries

  1. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptidase sequences were analyzed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1,528 sequences, 92 sequences encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences w...

  2. Pollen contamination of boll weevil traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the Twentieth Century, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, was the most devastating insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus, in the southern United States of America (U.S.A.). Although thought to feed only on cotton, the list of non-cotton alternative food sources incr...

  3. Applying the Scientific Method & Phylogenetics to Understand the Transition from Kingdoms to Domains: Does One Plus One Equal Five, Six, or Three?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The progression of the taxonomic organization of life from Linnaeus's original two kingdoms to the traditional five-kingdom system to today's widely accepted three-domain system is explored in a group-learning activity. Working with a set of organisms, students organize them into each system. Discussion after each step focuses on viewing…

  4. Genomic Approaches Reveal Unexpected Genetic Divergence Within Ciona intestinalis

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    organism in biological research. Individuals from waters ranging from arctic to temperate- brates. The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a marine organism whose tadpole-like larval stage gives way resident in European coastal waters as Ascidia intestinalis. Subsequently, C. intestinalis (Linnaeus 1767

  5. Investigating the Interaction Between Traffic Flow and Vehicle Platooning Using

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Farhad Farokhi Karl H. Johansson ACCESS Linnaeus Center, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH Royal in each day. The first type of agents (cars) maximize a utility which is determined by a sum of a penalty to be a considerable source of air pollution (Mitra and Mazumdar, 2007; Fuglestvedt et al., 2008). For instance

  6. Disturbance rejection in autotuners: an assessment method and a rule proposal

    E-print Network

    Como, Giacomo

    , Alessandro Vittorio Papadopoulos Abstract-- Disturbance rejection is a primary objective in many industrial Council (VR) for the projects "Cloud Control", and through the LCCC Linnaeus Excellence Center. some. BRIEF LITERATURE REVIEW The variety of (auto)tuning rules for industrial controllers, especially

  7. A method of marking larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, Roland L.

    1952-01-01

    Biological investigations of lamprey populations in central New York have indicated a need for developing a method of marking larvae of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur) Since lamprey larvae live in burrows in the soft sediments of the stream bottom, the use of an external tag is impractical.

  8. A review of quantitative genetic components of fitness in salmonids: implications for adaptation to future change

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Stephanie

    for Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus) and brown trout anadromous (Groot and Margolis 1991; Quinn 2005). Atlantic salmon are similar to Pacific salmon in many, and anadromy. For example, the Pacific salmon are almost invariably semelparous and anadromous and spawn

  9. Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Ecology

    E-print Network

    Fussman, Gregor

    stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the Misty system (Vancouver Island, Canada), which show strong (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus) are a useful system for investigating ecological speciation because they show of Missing Reproductive Isolation in Misty Lake and Stream Stickleback Katja R¨as¨anen,1, 2 Matthieu Delcourt

  10. SYSTEMATICS AND BIOLOGY OF THE BONEFISH, ALBULA NEMOPTERA (FOWLER) 1

    E-print Network

    the family Albulidae waf! known from several fossil forms and one living species, Albula vulpes (Linnaeus of Mexico identified as "Albula vulpes," was published by Kumada and Hiyama (1937). According to Walford with those of 1l ulpes. The ecology and distribution of nemoptera and vulpes is discussed. During its cruise

  11. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 713, pp. 110, 3 figs. Alopex lagopus. By Alexandra M. Audet, C. Brian Robbins, and Serge Larivie`re

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    :40. Type species Canis lagopus. Alopex Kaup, 1829:85. Type species C. lagopus Linnaeus. Vulpes Oken, 1816 been considered a subgenus of Vulpes (Bobrinskii 1965) and a subgenus of Canis (Van Gelder 1978 locality ``Gron- land'' ( Greenland). Vulpes arctica Oken, 1816:1033. Unavailable name (Hemmings 1956

  12. Crustaceana 85 (7) 779-787 LATITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SIZE

    E-print Network

    Aiken, Ron

    Crustaceana 85 (7) 779-787 LATITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SIZE OF THE NORTHERN ROCK BARNACLE SEMIBALANUS BALANOIDES (L.) (CIRRIPEDIA, ARCHAEOBALANIDAE) IN THE BAY OF FUNDY, 2000). The acorn (or northern rock) barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767), is a common

  13. Automatica 49 (2013) 15381552 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for Systems Theory and Automatic Control, University of Stuttgart, Germany b Innovation Center, School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Serbia c ACCESS Linnaeus Center, School of Electrical seeking system. Furthermore, we establish a theoretical foundation and prove that uniform asymptotic

  14. J . exp. Biol. 110, 183-201 (1984) Printed in Great Britain 0The Company of Biologists Ltmited 1984

    E-print Network

    Fish, Frank

    1984-01-01

    183 MECHANICS, POWER OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY OF THE SWIMMING MUSKRAT (ONDATRAZIBETHICUS) BY F. E. FISH M M A R Y The surface swimming of muskrats (Ondatrazibethicus Linnaeus) was studied by forcing-', in a recirculating water channel. Lateral and ventral views of the swimming muskrats were filmed simultaneously

  15. 77 FR 2243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat and Taxonomic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...Act). We are also recognizing the recent change to the taxonomy of the currently threatened taxon in which the species was...Charadrius alexandrinus (Linnaeus 1758)). We accepted this taxonomy and have used this name in all Service documents up to...

  16. "Scientific" Racism: What Price Objectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Throughout history, attempts have been made to use "science" to justify white European and American domination of other racial/ethnic groups and inequities of gender and class. Points out the lack of science and objectivity in the research of Linnaeus, Agassiz, Morton, Broca, Jensen, and Lynn. Suggests implications for antiracist education in the…

  17. Industrial Applications of Networked Control Karl H. Johansson

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    8/14/2008 1 Industrial Applications of Networked Control Karl H. Johansson ACCESS Linnaeus Center · Wireless mining ventilation control Wi l t l f fl t ti· Wireless control of flotation process · Vehicle · Surveillance with networked vehicles RUNES #12;8/14/2008 2 Mining ventilation Control room Automatic control

  18. 61(1), 1999 59 The Sperm Whale

    E-print Network

    61(1), 1999 59 The Sperm Whale Introduction The sperm whale, Physeter macro- cephalus Linnaeus at birth have an average length of 4 m. The most distinctive physical feature of the sperm whale as ambergris, is produced in the sperm whale's intestines. Near the an- terior of the head and to the left

  19. MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 638, pp. 18, 3 figs. Philander opossum. By Ivan Castro-Arellano, Heliot Zarza, and Rodrigo A. Medellin

    E-print Network

    Hayssen, Virginia

    MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 638, pp. 1­8, 3 figs. Philander opossum. By Iva´n Castro-Arellano, Heliot. Philander opossum from Chajul, Chiapas, Mexico. Photograph by R. A. Medelli´n. Philander Brisson, 1762 opossum Linnaeus, 1758). Sarigua Muirhead, 1819:429 (part). Philander Gray, 1843:101 (part, based

  20. Volume 209 Number 1August 2005 Published by the Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Kajiura, Stephen

    - morphism in a well-studied shark species, Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758), the bonnethead shark. Bonnethead expansion of all sphyrnid species (7). The bonnethead sharks used in this study were all incidental Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts #12;The Sexually Dimorphic Cephalofoil of Bonnethead Sharks, Sphyrna

  1. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  2. Insect Science (2011) 00, 17, DOI 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01420.x ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    temperature of soybean grown under elevated CO2 increases Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) population for insects. To determine the effects of living on soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under elevated CO2, population growth of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) was determined at the SoyFACE research site

  3. American vascular plants published in Loefling’s Iter Hispanicum (1758) and its German translation(1766)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loefling’s Iter Hispanicum (1758) and its subsequent translations, editions, issues, and facsimiles are analyzed for their impact on the nomenclature of American vascular plants. The book, edited by Linnaeus and posthumously published, contains descriptions of plants found in Venezuela (as well as i...

  4. Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...

  5. Genetic Identity of YOY Bluefin Tuna from the Eastern and Western Atlantic

    E-print Network

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    Genetic Identity of YOY Bluefin Tuna from the Eastern and Western Atlantic Spawning Areas JENS tuna, Thunnus thynnus, Linnaeus 1758, to evaluate the hypothesis that Atlantic bluefin tuna comprises 2 region (UST 5 0.0129, P 5 0.0139) was detected among YOY Atlantic bluefin tuna captured on spawning

  6. BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE. 87(3):687694. 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.5343/bms.2010.1101

    E-print Network

    COLLECTION OF LARVAL BLUEFIN TUNA (THUNNUS THYNNUS) OUTSIDE DOCUMENTED WESTERN ATLANTIC SPAWNING GROUNDS, and Karina Ramírez ABSTRACT Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758), are highly migratory, low numbers of very small larval bluefin tuna were collected within and south of the Yucatán Channel

  7. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. Fred A. Seaton, Secretary FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE. Arnie J. Suomela, Commissioner

    E-print Network

    OF BLUEFIN TUNA OF THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC BY FRANK J. MATHER III AND HOWARD A. SCHUCK FISHERY BULLETIN_ _________________________________________________________ 44 Growth of young bluefin t,unR_ 47 J!;,;timated annual growth of bluefin tuna through 10 years______ _ ___ __ ___ __ __ __ 51 III #12;IV ABSTRACT Growth of bluefin tuna Thunnu8 thymw8 (Linnaeus) based 011 sper.imens r

  8. RESEARCH ARTICLE S. G. Wilson M. E. Lutcavage R. W. Brill

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    . Everly Movements of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean recorded by pop bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus), ranging in size from 91 to 295 kg, in the southern Gulf of Maine. Introduction Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are widely dis- tributed throughout the northern Atlantic

  9. Taxonomies of Educational Objectives and Theories of Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Robert M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Classification is the taxonomic science in which a system of categories is established and in which the categories have some logical structure. Scientific classifications have included those by Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Lavoisier. Educational taxonomies include those developed by Bloom, Herbart, Dewey, and Piaget. The problems of taxonomy…

  10. Microsatellites for next-generation ecologists: a post-sequencing bioinformatics pipeline.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

  11. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832).

    PubMed

    Williams, Samuel M; Morgan, Jess A T; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Two complete mitochondrial genomes of the black marlin Istiompax indica were assembled from approximately 3.5 and 2.5 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genomes were 16,531 bp and 16,532 bp in length consisting of 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22tRNA and 2 coding regions. They demonstrated a similar A + T base (52.6%) to other teleosts. Intraspecific sequence variation was 99.5% for three I. indica mitogenomes and 99.7% for X. gladius. A lower value (85%) was found for the I. platypterus mitogenomes from genbank and accredited to inadvertent inclusion of gene regions from a con-familial species in one record, highlighting the need for cautious downstream use of genbank data. PMID:24660926

  12. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750

  13. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. PMID:26220559

  14. A new Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Austin, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Young, Ker Shun

    2011-08-04

    of fish centrum (b7s215). Scale bar equals 1mm. CT-cotyle. Class REPTILIA Laurenti, 1768 Order SQUAMATA Oppel, 1811 Suborder SERPENTES Linnaeus, 1758 Family cf. COLUBRIDAE Oppel, 1811 Figure 4.A ? D Dorsal Ventral 11 Material ? b1s1... Oppel, 1811 Genus COLUBER Linnaeus, 1758 or MASTICOPHIS Baird & Girard, 1853 15 Figure 5.A ? D Material ? b1s44, b1s46, b1s52, b1s53, b1s54, b1s55, b1s56, b1s57, b1s58, b1s59, b1s61, b1s62, b1s63, b1s66, b1s67, b1s68, b1s70, b1s71, b1s72, b1...

  15. Gardens of paradise.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, S

    2001-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology. PMID:11468795

  16. A novel myxozoan parasite of terrestrial mammals: description of Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. (Myxosporea) in pygmy shrew Sorex minutus from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Cech, Gabor; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras

    2015-01-01

    As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the liver. Spores from both species of shrewswere morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable, but differed in their SSU rRNA gene sequences by 3.3%. We identified spores and developmental stages from the common shrew as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007, based on morphometric data and DNA sequence similarity. Spores from the pygmy shrew were only 96.7% similar to S. fegati, hence we identified them as a novel myxosporean Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. This is only the second myxosporean parasite species described from mammals. PMID:26370293

  17. Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, C. G.; Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.

  18. Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?

    PubMed

    Johnston, C G; Vestal, J R

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community. PMID:11538332

  19. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes.

  20. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one. PMID:660569

  1. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan .

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given.  PMID:25661959

  2. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana. PMID:22543619

  3. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa. PMID:23595493

  4. Mammals collected by the Menage Scientific Expedition to the Philippine Islands and Borneo, 1890–1893.

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.; Birney, Elmer C.

    1980-08-01

    hypomelanus Temminck.-Romblon: MMNH (1), complete skeleton. Pteropus vampyrus (Linnaeus).-Romblon: MMNH (1), complete skeleton. Acerodon lucifer (Elliot).-Locality unknown: MMNH (2), skulls only. Scotophilus temminckii (Horsfield).-Leyte; Panay: FMNH (5..., 1894). We follow Medway (1969, 1977) in the use of this name combination. Alcasid (196-) referred to this species as Paramanis culionensis, apparently following Lawrence (1939). Ratufa affinis (Raffles).-Sebangan, Malaysia: MMNH (1), skull only...

  5. To systematics of the mite genus Hoplocheylus (Acariformes: Tarsocheylidae).

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hoplocheylus Atyeo and Baker, 1964 (Acariformes: Heterostigmatina: Tarsocheylidae), H. magnificus sp. nov. is described from the nest of the ant Formica rufa Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Kurgan Province, Western Siberia, Russia. A poorly-known species Hoplocheylus sogdianicus Barilo and Sharipov, 1987 is redescribed from the holotype. A key to species of the genus Hoplocheylus is provided. PMID:26249076

  6. Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

  7. Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

  8. The Effect of Mycobacterium ulcerans Exotoxin on Host-Seeking and Oviposition Behavior of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) 

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Michael Lee

    2015-08-03

    , with Staphylococcus epidermidis being the primary bacteria, were determined to be significant attractants for host-seeking behavior (15). Gravid female Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) females were allowed a choice test between water sources containing... to be influenced by chemical cues, with CO2 being the most important; however more recent studies have shown that volatiles released by bacteria can cause a change in the behavior of the mosquito (35). Volatiles released by Staphylococcus epidermidis, which...

  9. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond

    2013-03-07

    Schreber Otariidae), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus Otariidae), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus Lesson Otariidae), and Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi Merriam Otariidae). The book’s authors discuss two phocid... and larval graduate student I participated in studies involving all of these species but the Guadalupe fur seal and the Pacific walrus, working on Southeast Farallon, Año Nuevo, and Santa Barbara Islands, and the Monterey Bay area in general. Handling...

  10. The morphology of juvenile stages of Bubophilus aluconis Nattress and Skoracki, 2009 (Acari: Syringophilidae) with a description of a male.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna; O?mi?ski, Micha?; Sikora, Bozena

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of juvenile and adult stages of the quill mite Bubophilus aluconis Nattress and Skoracki, 2009 parasitizing the Long-eared Owl Asio otus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Strigiformes) in Poland is described and illustrated. Poland is a new location and A. otus is a new host species for B. aluconis. A description of the male is presented for the first time for this quill mite species. PMID:23094335

  11. Mites of the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) from the North American beavers (Castor canadensis) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Saveljev, A P

    2014-01-01

    Four native species of parasitic mites belonging to the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) are recorded on the North American beaver Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 (Rodentia: Castoridae) from Russia. Totally ten beavers from all three main geographically isolated populations of in Russia (Leningrad Province, Voronezh Biosphere Reserve (beaver farm) and Khabarovsk Territory) were examined. Additionally, in captivity (Voronezh beaver farm) eight species were recorded switched from the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 on C. canadensis. PMID:25936168

  12. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution. PMID:26444063

  13. Plumed wonders and ornithological passions

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Natalie

    2014-05-20

    astronomer Petrus Planchius (1552-1622) even enshrined the bird of paradise in a new Southern constellation, Paradysvogel Apis Indica in his 1598 celestial globe (Ridpath, 2006, p. 225). Even in the more 'objective' account by Carolus Clusius in his... . Sloan, P.R. (1976). The Buffon-Linnaeus controversy. Isis, 67. Swan, C. (2002). From blowfish to flower still life paintings. In P. H. Smith & P. Findlen (Eds.), Merchants and marvels: Commerce, science and art in early modern Europe (pp. 109...

  14. Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel

    2013-08-15

    An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (<3.5 kDa) and of high molecular weight (HMW) (3.5-100 kDa and >100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

  15. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few – only 62 mostly European species – in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. Scope The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy. PMID:19182221

  16. New and already known acanthocephalans mostly from mammals in Vietnam, with descriptions of two new genera and species in Archiacanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species and 2 new genera of acanthocephalans in class Archiacanthocephala, collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam from the intestines of mammals, are described, i.e., Cucullanorhynchus constrictruncatus n. gen., n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from a leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and Paraprosthenorchis ornatus n. gen. n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the Chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Manidae). Adult Sphaerechinorhynchus macropisthospinus Amin, Wongsawad, Marayong, Saehoong, Suwattanacoupt, and Sey, 1998 (Plagiorhynchidae) are described for the first time from 2 females collected from a tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and from 1 male from a water monitor Varanus salvator Laurenti (Reptilia: Varanidae). Characteristic features distinguishing the new species or genera from related taxa are as follows. The trunk of C. constrictruncatus has an anterior hood in both sexes and a posterior constriction in females. The anterior trunk of P. ornatus has many small festoons and proboscis hooks are inserted in elevated papillae separated by beady, near hexagonal, ornate grids. PMID:18372641

  17. Species identification and chromosome variation of captive two-toed sloths.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A

    2011-01-01

    Two-toed sloth species, Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's, are frequent residents of zoo collections in North America. However, species identification has always been problematic because of their large overlap in external morphology, which represents an obstacle to the captive breeding program. We describe here a PCR-based technique that allows species identification of two-toed sloths without requiring sequencing, by using a mitochondrial marker (COI gene) and restriction enzyme assay. We also report intra- and inter-specific patterns of chromosome variation in captive two-toed sloths. Molecularly, we identified 22 samples of Linnaeus's and Hoffmman's two-toed sloths corresponding to 14 and 8 individuals, respectively. One animal was identified as a hybrid using the nuclear gene Enam having alleles derived from both species. The chromosome number in Hoffman's two-toed sloths showed low variation ranging only between 50 and 51. In contrast, Linnaeus's two-toed sloths appeared to vary widely, with diploid numbers ranging from 53 to 67, suggesting distinct geographic groups. The species identification method presented here represents a low-cost easy-to-use tool that will help to improve management of the captive population of two-toed sloths. PMID:22147591

  18. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters.  PMID:24870629

  19. Identification of the intermediate hosts of Habronema microstoma and Habronema muscae under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Iorio, R; Carluccio, A; Contri, A; Paoletti, B; Bartolini, R; Giangaspero, A

    2008-09-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for the specific detection of Habronema microstoma and Habronema muscae (Nematoda, Spirurida) in order to identify the intermediate hosts of both nematode species under field conditions. A total of 1087 netted and 165 laboratory-bred flies were tested. Flies were identified as Musca domestica Linnaeus 1758, Musca autumnalis De Geer 1776, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758), Haematobia titillans (De Geer 1907) and Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758) (Muscidae). Genomic DNA was extracted from pools of fly heads, thoraces and abdomens, and 703 samples were subjected to a duplex two-step semi-nested PCR assay to specifically detect diagnostic regions within the ribosomal ITS2 sequence of both H. microstoma and H. muscae. Stomoxys calcitrans specimens were positive for H. microstoma DNA and M. domestica specimens were positive for H. muscae DNA. In particular, PCR-positive samples derived from both farm-netted and laboratory-bred flies. The present study represents the first evidence of the vectorial competence of different fly species as intermediate hosts of Habronema stomachworms under field conditions. We discuss the roles of S. calcitrans and M. domestica in transmitting H. microstoma and H. muscae. PMID:18816277

  20. Multielemental analysis of purpleback flying squad using high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, H; Kohno, H; Kannan, K; Tsumura, A; Yamasaki, S I

    2001-08-01

    Forty-four elements were analyzed in 21 tissues of purpleback flying squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, by high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Greater concentrations of V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Bi were found in liver, pancreas, and ink sac than in other tissues. Ink sac concentrated remarkable levels of Ca and Sr in addition to the above-mentioned elements. Several alkalis, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements preferentially accumulated in muscle. Among the hard tissues, accumulation of V and U in beak, Ni, Zn, and Cd in gladius and Cr in skin was prominent. K, Rb, Cs, Pb, Bi and some transition elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the livers of adult than in juvenile squids. Sodium, alkaline earth, and rare earth elements were higher in the livers of juveniles than in adult squids. PMID:11505984

  1. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(?) or XX (?). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?), XX (?). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected. PMID:24260699

  2. Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

  3. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(?) or XX (?). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aubé, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aubé, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?), XX (?). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected. PMID:24260699

  4. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  5. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given. PMID:25947463

  6. A Catalog of an Exhibition of Landmarks in the Development of Ornithology

    E-print Network

    Mengel, Robert M.

    1957-01-01

    units, genus and species. For this gift, in 1758, biology is indebted •Tit les dis t inguished by an asterisk a r e a c t u a l l y o n display . 10 to Carolus Linnaeus. It was not to be equalled in importance until the contribution of Charles Darwin... exactly a century later. CAROLUS L I N N A E U S ( K A R L VON L I N N E , 1707-1778) For many years this gifted Swedish naturalist labored at Uppsala over his celebrated Systema Naturae,* intended to list and order all of the known kinds of plants...

  7. The History of Science

    E-print Network

    Forth, Stuart; Greene, John C.

    1964-01-01

    been added to the collection from the Class of 1964 gift. LINNAEUS , Carolus. Tal . . . pa stora Carolinska Larosalen, den 25 Septemb. 1759. Upsala, 1759. . Tal om Jordenes Tillvaxt, Stockholm, 1776. Othe r areas in the history of science... t ion of species from one place to ano the r by man . T h e great Swedish botanist and taxonomist Carolus L innaeus (Carl von L inne) is the subject of an en t i re collection in the Depa r tmen t . T w o addi t ional L innaean dissertations have...

  8. First description of the male of Philometra filiformis (Nematoda: Philometridae), a gonad-infecting parasite of the marine fish Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae) in Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Gaglio, Gabriella; Giannetto, Salvatore; Panebianco, Antonio; Moravec, Frantisek

    2009-12-01

    The male of the gonad-infecting nematode Philometra filiformis (Stossich, 1896) (Philometridae) is for the first time described, based on specimens from the ovary of the marine fish Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus) from the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sicily, Italy. It is mainly characterized by the testis extending anteriorly nearly to the anterior end of body, the oesophagus without a usual anterior inflation, the absence of a dorsal barb or distinct transverse lamellae on the tip of the gubernaculum, the measurements of the spicules and the gubernaculum, and a fairly long body. PMID:20128245

  9. Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region

    PubMed Central

    Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij,  Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

  10. Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

  11. An embryonic transcriptome of the pulmonate snail Radix balthica.

    PubMed

    Tills, Oliver; Truebano, Manuela; Rundle, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The pond snail, Radix balthica (Linnaeus 1758), is an emerging model species within ecological developmental biology. While its development has been characterised in detail, genomic resources for embryonic stages are lacking. We applied Illumina MiSeq RNA-seq to RNA isolated from pools of embryos at two points during development. Embryos were cultured in either the presence or absence of predator kariomones to increase the diversity of the transcripts assembled. Sequencing produced 47.2M paired-end reads, assembled into 54,360 contigs of which 73% were successfully annotated. This transcriptome provides an invaluable resource to build a mechanistic understanding of developmental plasticity. PMID:26297600

  12. A new species of Eufriesea from Jalisco, Mexico, with a key to Mexican species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    E-print Network

    Ayala, Ricardo; Engel, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    . [Jalisco], Mex. [Mexico], 5400 ft., 22 July 1964, W.L. Nutting & sons, Scrub forest" (in KSEM). 1 d, labeled, "Mexico: km 12, Autopista Mexico-Cuautla,Tepoztlan, Morelos, 30/06/1996 [30 June 1996], I. Hinojosa (HD-755), l4:20h, 1650 m, 18°58'24"N, 99... darker than remainder of wing [Mexico to Brazil] E. surinamensis (LINNAEUS) 4(2) F3 black, purple, blue, or dark greenish, half with black setae and half with white setae 3 F3 brassy, coppery, yellowish green, or scarlet 7 5(4) Head and mesosoma...

  13. A description of the new Egira species from the Russian Far East (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Orthosiini).

    PubMed

    Benedek, Balázs; Babics, János; Kononenko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Holarctic Noctudae genus Egira Duponchel, 1845 (type-species Phalaena conspicillaris Linnaeus, 1758) enumerates 32 species in the Old and New World. According to the modern classification it belongs to the tribe Orthosiini of the subfamily Noctuinae. The genus is represented in the Old World by fifteen species, distributed from the West Palaearctic to Sino-Himalayan region, where some species have recently been described from Nepal and Thailand (Hreblay 1994; Hreblay & Ronkay 1999). One species, E. saxea (Leech, 1889) is known from Japan.  PMID:25661949

  14. Contribution to the genus Chrysidea Bischoff, 1913 from China, with description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The genus Chrysidea Bischoff, 1913 belongs to the tribe Chrysidini (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae). Bohart (1988) revalidated the genus after it was considered as subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus, 1761 (Linsenmaier 1959) or Trichrysis Lichtenstein, 1876 (Kimsey & Bohart 1981) and synonymised it with Chrysis (Trichrysis) (Linsenmaier 1984). Kimsey & Bohart (1991) gave a checklist of 19 known species of Chrysidea, of which three are known from the Oriental Region, C. bidenticulata (Mocsáry, 1913), C. furiosa (Cameron, 1897) and C. monticellii (du Buysson, 1906). Only one species, C. pumila (Klug, 1845), has been recorded for the Palaearctic part of China (Hammer 1936; Rosa et al. 2014). PMID:26624680

  15. New taxonomic data on the genus Ypsolopha Latreille (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) with descriptions of two new species from the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Margarita G.; Zinchenko, Yuliya N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Ypsolopha Latreille, 1796 are described from Far East of Russia: Ypsolopha melanofuscella sp. n. and Ypsolopha straminella sp. n. Two new synomymies are proposed: Ypsolopha ulingensis Yang, 1977, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha costibasella (Caradja, 1939); and Cerostoma falculella Erschoff, 1877, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha asperella Linnaeus, 1761. The species Ypsolopha costibasella Caradja, 1939, Ypsolopha nigrofasciata Yang, 1977 and Ypsolopha nigrimaculata Byun et Park, 2001 are recorded from Far East of Russia for the first time. The male genitalia of Ypsolopha nigrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time, diagnostic genital characters are given. PMID:23794851

  16. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies. PMID:26249987

  17. Palearctic species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) associated with plants of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Korneyev, Severyn V; Khaghaninia, Samad; Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Zarghani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tephritis arnicae (Linnaeus, 1758) from Europe was the hitherto only Palearctic species of the genus Tephritis known to infest flowerheads of asteraceous plants of the tribe Senecioneae. An additional species with similar biology, Tephritis arsenii, new species, recently discovered in Iran and Armenia is described. It is very similar to T. arnicae in the shape of the aculeus and spermathecae, as well as the wing with darkened anal lobe and abdominal tergites with black setulae, but differs from it by the white posterior orbital and notopleural setae, and also by details of the wing pattern. Larvae of T. arsenii feed in flowerheads of Doronicum dolichotrichum Cavill of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae). PMID:26623802

  18. Two new species of Phlogophora Treitschke (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Ronkay, László; Ronkay, Gábor; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phlogophora Treitschke (type species Phlogophora meticulosa (Linnaeus)) comprises some 60 known species. Phlogophora is a widely distributed genus, mostly with Trans-Palaearctic and Oriental distribution, however species of the genus are known from the Ethiopian Region, and some from the Nearctic, as well. Phlogophora displays the highest diversity from the monsoon influenced regions of the Central and Southern Himalaya (Nepal, India, Myanmar and Vietnam) to the Indonesian islands in the South. A number of the species are endemic in islands from the Azores throughout Madagascar, Taiwan and, particularly, in the Sundaland (The Philippines and the Sunda Islands, towards to the east to New Guinea). PMID:25947828

  19. Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Maser, C

    1977-10-01

    Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon, is described and distinguished from its congeners. Monoecocestus thomasi is the sixth species of Monoecocestus to be described from nearctic rodents, and the first from a member of the family Sciuridae. Our comparisons of taxonomic characters of the nominal species of Monoecocestus in North American rodents have shown that M. giganticus Buhler 1970 is a synonym of M. americanus (Stiles 1895), both from the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum (Linnaeus). Insemination in Monoecocestus ssp. is discussed, with the conclusion that it takes place only by way of the vagina in early immature segments. PMID:915607

  20. On newly and recently recorded species of the genus Lema Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Criocerinae) from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Feng; Matsumura, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New records of four species (Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845, Lema diversipes Pic, 1921, Lema cyanella (Linnaeus, 1758), Lema trivittata trivittata Say, 1824 and additional information on one recently recorded species (Lema solani Fabricius, 1798) are reported for Taiwan. Lema diversipes Pic, 1921 is removed from synonymy with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845; both species are redescribed. A lectotype is designated for Lema phungi Pic, 1924. The synonymies of Lema phungi Pic, 1924 and Lema jeanvoinei Pic, 1932 with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845 are supported. A revised key to the known species in Taiwan is provided. PMID:23653513

  1. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. (Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Dray, Liran; Neuhof, Moran; Diamant, Arik; Huchon, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758, one of the world's most important mariculture species, was sequenced using next generation sequencing technology. The genome sequence is comprised of 16,652?bp exhibiting the canonical vertebrate mitochondria gene order. Regions of gene overlap, tRNA length, as well as start and stop codon were similar to those observed in other Sparidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial protein coding genes corroborate the view that Sparidae is paraphyletic and includes Centracanthidae. PMID:24963773

  3. Brazilian Histerini (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Histerinae): a new species, key to the genera, and checklist of species.

    PubMed

    Leivas, Fernando W T; Moura, Daniel P; Caterino, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Hister coenosus group from southern Brazil is described. Hister lucia sp. nov. is the largest Hister sp. in the New World, and is also distinguished by its dorsally and laterally concave mandibles. The three genera of Histerini recorded from Brazil are keyed, and a checklist of species of the tribe recorded from Brazil is presented. In total, seventeen described species of Histerini are recorded from Brazil, including fifteen of Hister Linnaeus, one of Atholus C. Thomson, and one of Margarinotus Marseul. PMID:25947523

  4. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  5. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta marginalis (Herrich-Schäffer), Serdia concolor Ruckes, Sibaria armata (Dallas) and Taurocerus achilles (Stål). These new records for Colombia are importanst for the understanding of the distributional range of the genera and species involved. PMID:26249877

  6. A comparative study of the mechanical properties of Mytilid byssal threads.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Trevor; Labarbera, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Mytilid bivalves employ a set of threads (the byssus) to attach themselves to both hard and soft substrates. In this study, we measured the mechanical properties of byssal threads from two semi-infaunal mytilids (Geukensia demissa Dillwyn and Modiolus modiolus Linnaeus) and two epifaunal mytilids (Mytilus californianus Conrad and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus). We compared material properties with and without the assumption that changes of length and area during tensile testing are insignificant, demonstrating that previous researchers have overestimated extensibility values by 30% and may also have underestimated strength values. We detected significant differences in thread properties among tested mytilid species, contrary to previous findings. Threads from semi-infaunal species were significantly thinner than those from epifaunal species, perhaps to allow the production of a greater number of threads, which form a dense network within the substrate. Geukensia demissa threads were weaker than those of the other species, and had a significantly lower stiffness at failure. Modiolus modiolus threads were significantly stiffer than M. edulis threads but also significantly less extensible, suggesting a trade-off between stiffness and extensibility. The only thread property that did not show significant differences across species was toughness - even when byssal threads differ in strength or stiffness, they seem to absorb similar amounts of energy per unit volume prior to failure. This study reveals notable differences between the byssal thread properties of different mytilid bivalves and provides a reliable and thorough methodology for future comparative studies. PMID:19411537

  7. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Flavonoid Contents of some Edible Green Seaweeds from Northern Coasts of the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Farasat, Massoumeh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan-Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were quantified in the methanolic extracts of four Ulva species (Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh, Ulva linza Linnaeus, Ulva flexuosa Wulfen and Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus) grown at different parts of northern coasts of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran. The seaweeds were collected from Dayyer, Taheri and Northern Ouli coasts in April 2011. Methanolic extracts of the seaweeds were assessed for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay and was performed in a microplate reader. All species exhibited a DPPH radical scavenging activity, and among the species, Ulva clathrata demonstrated greater antioxidant potential with a low IC50 (0.881 mg mL-1) in comparison with those of the other species. Also the highest phenolic content (5.080 mg GAE g-1) and flavonoid content (33.094 mg RE g-1) were observed in U.clathrata. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed positive correlations with the DPPH radical scavenging activity (p < 0.01) and negative correlations with IC50 (p < 0.01).The results suggest that these edible green seaweeds possess antioxidant potential which could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements ,cosmetics or food industries. PMID:24734068

  8. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck

    PubMed Central

    Shiraiwa, Kojiro; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heraclides rumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County). It is closely allied to Heraclides cresphontes (Cramer, 1777) and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from Heraclides cresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. “Western Giant Swallowtail” is proposed as the English name for Heraclides rumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclides oviedo (Gundlach, 1866), reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus, 1771); and Heraclides pallas (G. Gray, [1853]), reinstated status, with its subspecies Heraclides Papilio bajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992), comb. n., and Heraclides anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with Heraclides astyalus (Godart, 1819). PMID:25610342

  9. Phlorotannin Extracts from Fucales Characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: Approaches to Hyaluronidase Inhibitory Capacity and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC50 = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC50 = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC50 = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  10. Phlorotannin extracts from fucales characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: approaches to hyaluronidase inhibitory capacity and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Lopes, Graciliana; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Andrade, Paula B; Sousa, Carla; Mouga, Teresa; Valentão, Patrícia

    2012-12-01

    Purified phlorotannin extracts from four brown seaweeds (Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts, Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss, Cystoseira usneoides (Linnaeus) M. Roberts and Fucus spiralis Linnaeus), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Fucophloroethol, fucodiphloroethol, fucotriphloroethol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol and bieckol/dieckol were identified. The antioxidant activity and the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibitory capacity exhibited by the extracts were also assessed. A correlation between the extracts activity and their chemical composition was established. F. spiralis, the species presenting higher molecular weight phlorotannins, generally displayed the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC?? = 2.32 mg/mL dry weight) and the strongest HAase inhibitory capacity (IC?? = 0.73 mg/mL dry weight). As for superoxide radical scavenging, C. nodicaulis was the most efficient species (IC?? = 0.93 mg/mL dry weight), followed by F. spiralis (IC?? = 1.30 mg/mL dry weight). These results show that purified phlorotannin extracts have potent capabilities for preventing and slowing down the skin aging process, which is mainly associated with free radical damage and with the reduction of hyaluronic acid concentration, characteristic of the process. PMID:23222802

  11. Molecular identification of Anisakis spp. from fishes collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Ligas, A; Bruschi, F; D'Amelio, S

    2012-07-01

    The accurate identification of anisakid nematodes at any life cycle stage is important both to deepen the knowledge on their taxonomy, ecology, epidemiology and for diagnosis and control, as larval stages cause a clinical disease in humans known as anisakidosis. With the aim to investigate the presence of anisakid larvae, specimens of horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758), silver scabbardfish, Lepidopus caudatus (Euphrasen, 1788), European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) and opah fish, Lampris guttatus (Brunnich, 1788), were collected by trawling at depths ranging from 50 to 400 m. A molecular approach based on restriction profiles obtained after digestion of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region was used to identify Anisakis spp. larvae recovered in fish samples. Restriction profiles showed three banding patterns, corresponding to Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis physeteris and to heterozygote pattern between A. pegreffii and Anisakis simplex s.s. Specimens showing the heterozygote restriction pattern were also analyzed by sequencing of the entire ITS region, to confirm the heterozygote status. PMID:22360842

  12. Two species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from sparid fishes (porgies) off Sicily, Italy, including Philometra obladae sp. n. from the body cavity of Oblada melanura (Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Gaglio, G; Panebianco, A; Giannetto, S

    2008-12-01

    Two species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae), were, for the first time, recorded from fishes of the family Sparidae (porgies) from the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sicily, Italy: Philometra obladae sp. n. from the body cavity of the saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus) and Philometra filiformis (Stossich, Boll Soc Adriat Sci Nat 17:121-136, 1896) from the gonads of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus). The new species (a single gravid female available) is characterised mainly by a large body (335 mm long, 3.4 mm wide), minute cephalic papillae (14 in number) arranged in two circles, a relatively short (1.29 mm) oesophagus with a distinct anterior inflation, a rounded caudal end without any projections and the length of larvae (549-600 mum) from the uterus. A key to species of Philometra with females located in the body cavity of marine and brackish-water fishes is given. Some new data on the female morphology of a little-known gonad-infecting species P. filiformis are provided; new observations revealed, for the first time in this species, the presence of lateral cephalic papillae and the absence of previously reported black intestinal corpuscles in the larvae. PMID:18762982

  13. Trypanosomatids in ornithophilic bloodsucking Diptera.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, M; Volf, P; Votýpka, J

    2015-12-01

    Trypanosomes are known as widespread blood parasites of birds; however, knowledge of their prevalences in vectors and their overall biodiversity is rather limited. To assess the prevalences in potential vectors, we have microscopically examined ornithophilic bloodsucking Diptera (Culicidae, Simuliidae and Hippoboscidae) for the presence of trypanosomatids in their guts. In total, 3270 specimens were dissected, namely Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 898), C. modestus Ficalbi, 1890 (136), Simulium vernum (Macquart, 1838) (1455), S. angustipes Edwards, 1915 (221) and Ornithomyia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1758) (560). All insect species were found to be infected with trypanosomatids, and the prevalence ranged from 4 to 8% but reached 60% in S. vernum. Blackflies and hippoboscids exclusively harboured trypanosomes (both T. cf. avium s.s. Danilewsky, 1885; T. corvi/culicavium group in hippoboscids). Mosquitoes were infected with T. culicavium Votypka, 2012 and T. avium s. l. but also with monoxenous parasites, namely Crithidia brevicula Frolov and Malysheva, 1989, and Paratrypanosoma confusum Votypka and Lukes, 2013. Only 4% of the isolated parasite strains were monoxenous whereas the majority were avian trypanosomes, confirming the vectorial status of the studied insects. PMID:26211924

  14. Ultrastructural investigation of antennae in three cutaneous myiasis flies: Melophagus ovinus, Hippobosca equina, and Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Cao, J; Chu, H J; Li, K

    2015-05-01

    Melophagus ovinus (Linnaeus 1758), Hippobosca equina Linnaeus, 1758, and Hippobosca longipennis Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are economically and medically important ectoparasites that can act as mechanic vectors of pathogens and cause myiasis in both human and domestic animals. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of these adult hippoboscids were examined using stereoscopic and scanning electron microscopes. General morphology of the antenna is provided in detail, combined with distribution, types, size, and ultrastructures of antennal sensilla. On the antennal funiculus, two types of sensilla are observed, including basiconic sensilla and coeloconic sensilla. Four common characters are shared among the three species: (1) the scape is either obsolete or fused with the fronto-clypeus; (2) branched antennal structures (branched pedicellar microtrichiae and branched arista with only one segment) are detected; (3) the enlarged antennal pedicel completely envelops the antennal funiculus; and (4) less types of sensilla on funiculus. Disparity and diversity of the antennal and sensory structures are analyzed from the phylogenetic and functional perspective. We suggest that hippoboscids are potential model for the study of the function of coeloconic sensilla in Calyptratae. PMID:25707367

  15. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with ?-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of ?-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ? 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  16. Escape and aggregation responses of three echinoderms to conspecific stimuli.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A C; Coppard, S; D'Abreo, C; Tudor-Thomas, R

    2001-10-01

    In marine invertebrates, waterborne chemical stimuli mediate responses including prey detection and predator avoidance. Alarm and flight, in response to damaged conspecifics, have been reported in echinoderms, but the nature of the stimuli involved is not known. The responses of Asterias rubens Linnaeus, Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin), and Echinus esculentus Linnaeus to conspecifics were tested in a choice chamber against a control of clean seawater (no stimulus). All three species showed statistically significant movement toward water conditioned by whole animals or homogenate of test epithelium. P. miliaris and E. esculentus displayed a statistically significant avoidance reaction, moving away from conspecific coelomic fluid, gut homogenate, and gonad homogenate. A. rubens was indifferent to conspecific coelomic fluid, pyloric cecum homogenate, and gonad homogenate but moved away from cardiac gut homogenate. P. miliaris was indifferent to gametes, but the other two species were significantly attracted to them. No species showed preference for one particular side of the chamber during trials to balance water flow. These echinoderms can distinguish between homogenates of conspecific tissues that might be exposed when a predator damages the test, and those that may emanate from the exterior surface during normal activities. PMID:11687389

  17. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  18. Discriminatory profile of rDNA sites and trend for acrocentric chromosome formation in the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Perciformes, Carangidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobina, Uedson Pereira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chromosomal traits have provided valuable information for phylogeny and taxonomy of several fish groups. Three Atlantic Carangidae species of the genus Trachinotus Lacépède, 1801 (Trachinotus goodei Jordan et Evermann, 1896, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766)and Trachinotus falcatus (Linnaeus, 1758)) were investigated, having 2n=48 chromosomes but different chromosomal arms (FN number), i.e., 52, 56 and 58, respectively, in view of the different number of two-armed chromosomes found in their karyotypes. Thus, Trachinotus goodei, Trachinotus carolinus and Trachinotus falcatus present a progressive distancefrom the probable basal karyotype proposed for Perciformes (2n=48 acrocentrics, FN=48). At first sight, these findings do not agree with the phylogenetic hypothesis based on mitochondrial sequences, where Trachinotus goodei appear as the most derived species, followed by Trachinotus falcatus and Trachinotus carolinus, respectively. However, the chromosomal mapping of ribosomal DNAs was informative for clarifying this apparent conflict. Indeed, the multiple 5S and 18S rDNA sites found in Trachinotus goodei corroborate the most derived condition for this species. In this sense, the occurrence of the unexpected number of two-armed chromosomes and FN value for this species, as well as for Trachinotus carolinus, must be due to additional rounds of acrocentric formation in these species, modifying the macrostructure of their karyotypes. PMID:24260676

  19. A cascade of warming impacts brings bluefin tuna to Greenland waters.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Brian R; Payne, Mark R; Boje, Jesper; Høyer, Jacob L; Siegstad, Helle

    2014-08-01

    Rising ocean temperatures are causing marine fish species to shift spatial distributions and ranges, and are altering predator-prey dynamics in food webs. Most documented cases of species shifts so far involve relatively small species at lower trophic levels, and consider individual species in ecological isolation from others. Here, we show that a large highly migratory top predator fish species has entered a high latitude subpolar area beyond its usual range. Bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus 1758, were captured in waters east of Greenland (65°N) in August 2012 during exploratory fishing for Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus Linnaeus 1758. The bluefin tuna were captured in a single net-haul in 9-11 °C water together with 6 tonnes of mackerel, which is a preferred prey species and itself a new immigrant to the area. Regional temperatures in August 2012 were historically high and contributed to a warming trend since 1985, when temperatures began to rise. The presence of bluefin tuna in this region is likely due to a combination of warm temperatures that are physiologically more tolerable and immigration of an important prey species to the region. We conclude that a cascade of climate change impacts is restructuring the food web in east Greenland waters. PMID:24824677

  20. The natural history of Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 (Acanthocephala) in a high Arctic lake.

    PubMed

    Aura, Raija-Liisa; Benesh, Daniel P; Palomaki, Risto; Tellervo Valtonen, E

    2015-01-01

    The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 differs from most other species in the genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 by infecting mysids (order Mysida) instead of amphipods (order Amphipoda) as intermediate hosts. Here we report on the occurrence of E. bothniensis in mysids (Mysis segerstralei Audzijonyt? et Väinölä) and in its fish definitive hosts in a high Arctic lake. Out of 15 907 sampled mysids, 4.8% were infected with a mean intensity of 1.05 worms (range 1-5), although there was notable variation between samples taken in different years and sites. Larger mysids appear more likely to be infected. Of five fish species sampled, charr,Salvelinus alpinus (Linnaeus), and a benthic-feeding whitefish morph, Coregonus lavaretus (Linnaeus), were the most heavily infected (mean abundances of 80 and 15, respectively). The adult parasite population in fish exhibited a female-biased sex ratio (1.78 : 1). Although E. bothniensis is rather unique in infecting mysids, many aspects of its natural history mirror that of other acanthocephalan species. PMID:26373432

  1. Environmental changes of the Mazovian (Holsteinian /~MIS 11) palaeolake near Szymanowo (eastern Poland) in the light of malacological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2014-06-01

    The malacofauna of the palaeolake deposits at Szymanowo (eastern Poland) was investigated. It represents the younger part of the climatic optimum of the Mazovian (Holsteinian) Interglacial (~MIS 11) and possibly the postoptimal period. The mollusc assemblage is composed of both standing and running water species, mostly connected with temperate climate. The presence of biostratigraphical indicators of the Mazovian, Viviparus diluvianus (Kunth, 1865), Lithoglyphus jahni Urba?ski, 1975 and Pisidium clessini Neumayr, 1875, is noteworthy. Variability in the structure and composition of the assemblage enables palaeoecological reconstruction. Changes in the water-level, vegetation and energy conditions are inferred from the malacological succession. Three stages of the lake development were distinguished. The first one is connected with deeper conditions and predominance of V. diluvianus and L. jahni. The second one, dominated by Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), records a fall of the water-level and the growth of aquatic plants, evidenced by high frequencies of Valvata cristata Muller, 1774 and Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758). The third stage corresponds to another rise of the water-level and an increase in V. diluvianus, L. jahni, Valvata piscinalis Muller, 1774 and Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1823), which evidence some higher energy conditions.

  2. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?, ?) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (?) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (?, ?) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (?, ?) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (?) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (?, ?) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (?) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (?) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  3. Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) as a potential Brassica napus pollinator (cv. Hyola 432) (Brassicaceae), in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Blochtein, B; Ferreira, N R; Witter, S

    2010-11-01

    Brassica napus Linnaeus is considered a self-compatible crop; however, studies show that bee foraging elevates their seed production. Considering bee food shortages during the winter season and that the canola is a winter crop, this study aimed to evaluate the foraging behaviour of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 regarding those flowers, and to verify if it presents adequate behaviour for successfully pollinating this crop in Rio Grande do Sul State. The study was carried out in a canola field, in Southern Brazil. The anthesis stages were morphologically characterised and then related to stigma receptivity and pollen grain viability. Similarly, the behaviour of A. mellifera individuals on flowers was followed, considering the number of flowers visited per plant, the amount of time spent on the flowers, touched structures, and collected resources. Floral fidelity was inferred by analysing the pollen load of bees collected on flowers. The bees visited from 1-7 flowers/plant (x = 2.02; sd = 1.16), the time spent on the flowers varied between 1-43 seconds (x = 3.29; sd = 2.36) and, when seeking nectar and pollen, they invariably touched anthers and stigmas. The pollen load presented 100% of B. napus pollen. The bees' attendance to a small number of flowers/plants, their short permanence on flowers, their contact with anthers and stigma and the integral floral constancy allows their consideration as potential B. napus pollinators. PMID:21180917

  4. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Obiakor, M O; Okonkwo, J C; Ezeonyejiaku, C D

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with their interactions were also determined. Two major seasons (rainy and dry) and preponderant fish species in the river (Synodontis clarias, Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1757) were studied at five distinct locations that displayed differential environmental stresses. The study showed that the micronucleus index of fish is an excellent biomarker for measuring pollution level and genotoxicity of freshwater habitat. Season, species of fish and location affect micronuclei profile of the fish species sampled in the river. Disease outbreak among rural dwellers depending on the river for domestic and other uses is imminent and they lack knowledge on its health implication. Moreover, the study maintained that the micronuclei in fish could be measured from either the gill or kidney; however, gill is more efficient as it enables collection of several samples from the same individuals without sacrificing it, and Synodontis clarias fish species appeared to be more vulnerable to the genotoxic damage than Tilapia nilotica. Consequently, the study recommended regular monitoring (micronucleus tests) of edible aquatic life such as Synodontis clarias in order to eliminate the danger of people feeding on toxic metals, some of which are carcinogenic. PMID:25435352

  5. Space-use behaviour of woodland caribou based on a cognitive movement model.

    PubMed

    Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon S; Kittle, Andrew M; Mallon, Erin E; McGreer, Madeleine T; Mosser, Anna; Newmaster, Steven G; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Art R; Shuter, Jennifer; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian; Turetsky, Merritt J; Wiebe, Philip A; Fryxell, John M

    2015-07-01

    Movement patterns offer a rich source of information on animal behaviour and the ecological significance of landscape attributes. This is especially useful for species occupying remote landscapes where direct behavioural observations are limited. In this study, we fit a mechanistic model of animal cognition and movement to GPS positional data of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou; Gmelin 1788) collected over a wide range of ecological conditions. The model explicitly tracks individual animal informational state over space and time, with resulting parameter estimates that have direct cognitive and ecological meaning. Three biotic landscape attributes were hypothesized to motivate caribou movement: forage abundance (dietary digestible biomass), wolf (Canis lupus; Linnaeus, 1758) density and moose (Alces alces; Linnaeus, 1758) habitat. Wolves are the main predator of caribou in this system and moose are their primary prey. Resulting parameter estimates clearly indicated that forage abundance is an important driver of caribou movement patterns, with predator and moose avoidance often having a strong effect, but not for all individuals. From the cognitive perspective, our results support the notion that caribou rely on limited sensory inputs from their surroundings, as well as on long-term spatial memory, to make informed movement decisions. Our study demonstrates how sensory, memory and motion capacities may interact with ecological fitness covariates to influence movement decisions by free-ranging animals. PMID:25714592

  6. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  7. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  8. Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Samuel T; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Lei, Zhang; Xinqiao, Zhang; Xianyan, Wang; Yadong, Huang; Kaiya, Zhou; Hart, Tom; Ding, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to be encountered on a fairly regular basis, they are rapidly forgotten by local communities. PMID:20067488

  9. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  10. Review of Gasteruption Latreille (Hymenoptera, Gasteruptiidae) from Iran and Turkey, with the description of 15 new species

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Talebi, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Gasteruption Latreille, 1796 (Hymenoptera: Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruptiinae) from North Iran and Turkey is revised, keyed and fully illustrated for the first time. In total 36 species are treated of which 33 are recorded from Turkey and 23 from Iran. Fifteen species are new for science: Gasteruption aciculatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption agrenum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption brevibasale van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption coriacoxale van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption flavimarginatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption heminitidum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption henseni van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption ischnolaimum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption nigrapiculatum van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption paglianoi van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption pseudolaticeps van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption punctifrons van Achterberg, sp. n., Gasteruption schmideggeri van Achterberg & Saure, sp. n., Gasteruption scorteum van Achterberg, sp. n. and Gasteruption smitorum van Achterberg, sp. n. Twenty-one species are reported new for Turkey and 16 species new for Iran. Fifteen new synonyms are proposed: Foenus terrestris Tournier, 1877, Gasteruption trifossulatum Kieffer, 1904, and Gasteruption ignoratum Kieffer, 1912, of Gasteruption caucasicum (Guérin-Méneville, 1844); Gasteruption daisyi Alekseev, 1993, of Gasteruption dolichoderum Schletterer, 1889; Gasteruption assectator var. nitidulum Schletterer, 1885, of Gasteruption freyi (Tournier, 1877); Gasteruption schossmannae Madl, 1987, of Gasteruption hastator (Fabricius, 1804); Gasteryption fallaciosum Semenov, 1892, Gasteruption dubiosum Semenov, 1892 and Gasteruption obsoletum Semenov, 1892, of Gasteruption insidiosum Semenov, 1892; Gasteryption schewyrewi Semenov, 1892, of Gasteruption jaculator (Linnaeus, 1758); Gasteruption floreum Szépligeti, 1903, of Gasteruption lugubre Schletterer, 1889; Gasteruption trichotomma Kieffer, 1904, and Gasteruption palaestinum Pic, 1916, of Gasteruption merceti Kieffer, 1904; Gasteryption foveiceps Semenov, 1892, of Gasteruption nigrescens Schletterer, 1885, and Gasteruption libanense Pic, 1916, of Gasteruption syriacum Szépligeti, 1903. Gasteruption lugubre Schletterer, 1889, is recognised as a valid species. Lectotypes are designated for Ichneumon assectator Linnaeus, 1758; Ichneumon jaculator Linnaeus, 1758; Foenus terrestris Tournier, 1877; Foenus freyi Tournier, 1877; Foenus nigripes Tournier, 1877; Foenus goberti Tournier, 1877; Foenus granulithorax Tournier, 1877; Foenus minutus Tournier, 1877; Foenus borealis Thomson, 1883; Faenus diversipes Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Foenus rugulosus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus obliteratus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus undulatum Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Faenus variolosus Abeille de Perrin, 1879; Gasteruption distinguendum Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption laeviceps Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption thomsonii Schletterer, 1885; Gasteruption foveolatum Schletterer, 1889; Gasteruption sowae Schletterer, 1901; Gasteruption foveolum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption floreum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption caudatum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption syriacum Szépligeti, 1903; Gasteruption merceti Kieffer, 1904 and Gasteruption ignoratum Kieffer, 1912. A neotype is designated for Gasteruption tournieri Schletterer, 1885. PMID:25561849

  11. Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kunca, Tomas; Smejkalova, Pavla; Cepicka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (?(2) = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings dropped in the urban area (5.4%) and remained similar in the rural area (16.6%) in 2013. Sequences of ITS region and SSU rDNA confirmed that the isolates from infected sparrowhawk nestlings belonged to Trichomonas gallinae. PMID:26198549

  12. Bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of Siberia, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of the bee genus Sphecodes Latreille are recorded from Siberia. Sphecodes schwarzi Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Tyva Republic and Mongolia (Dornod Aimag). Five species: Sphecodes alternatus Smith, 1853, S. reticulatus Thomson, 1870, S. rufiventris (Panzer, 1798), S. pinguiculus Pérez, 1903, and S. spinulosus Hagens, 1875 are newly recorded from the Asian part of Russia and seven species: S. ferruginatus Hagens, 1882, S. hyalinatus Hagens,1882, S. longulus Hagens, 1882, S. miniatus Hagens, 1882, S. nippon Meyer, 1922, S. puncticeps Thomson, 1870, and S. scabricollis Wesmael, 1835 are recorded for the first time from Siberia. Sphecodes angarensis Cockerell, 1937 is newly synonymized under S. gibbus (Linnaeus, 1758). Illustrated keys for males and females of all species from Siberia and neighbouring Mongolia are provided. PMID:26624777

  13. Parasitic fauna of the lake brown trout, Salmo trutta lacustris (Salmonidae), a little known endemic fish from Polish waters.

    PubMed

    Rolbiecki, Leszek; Sciazko, Mariusz; Schütz, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    The lake brown trout is a salmonids fish regarded as a stationary form of the migratory trout. Within 2003-2004, 31 lake brown trout (Salmo trutta lacustris L.) from Lake Wdzydze (Poland), were examined for the presence of parasites following commonly used procedures. The parasites found represented Digenea: Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Sphaerostomum globiporum (Rudolphi, 1802); Cestoda: Eubothrium crassum (Bloch, 1779), Triaenophorus nodulosus (Pallas, 1781); Acanthocephala: Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776); Copepoda: Ergasilus sieboldi Nordmann, 1832, and Hirudinea: Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1761). The overall infection level amounted to 96.7%, 249.4, and 1-440. The copepod E. sieboldi was the most frequent parasite (93.5%, 257.4, 64-438). Lake brown trout from the Lake Wdzydze are very heavily infected by parasites dominated by the copepod E. sieboldi. PMID:20209824

  14. Linnaeans outdoors: the transformative role of studying nature 'on the move' and outside.

    PubMed

    Hodacs, Hanna

    2011-06-01

    Travelling is an activity closely associated with Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) and his circle of students. This article discusses the transformative role of studying nature outdoors (turning novices into naturalists) in eighteenth-century Sweden, using the little-known journeys of Carl Bäck (1760-1776), Sven Anders Hedin (1750-1821) and Johan Lindwall (1743-1796) as examples. On these journeys, through different parts of Sweden in the 1770s, the outdoors was used, simultaneously, as both a classroom and a space for exploration. The article argues that this multifunctional use of the landscape (common within the Linnaean tradition) encouraged a democratization of the consumption of scientific knowledge and also, to some degree, of its production. More generally, the study also addresses issues of how and why science and scientists travel by discussing how botanical knowledge was reproduced and extended 'on the move', and what got senior and junior students moving. PMID:21879605

  15. Advantages and limitations of genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Sentausa, E; Fournier, P-E

    2013-09-01

    Taxonomic classification is an important field of microbiology, as it enables scientists to identify prokaryotes worldwide. Although the current classification system is still based on the one designed by Carolus Linnaeus, the currently available genomic content of several thousands of sequenced prokaryotic genomes represents a unique source of taxonomic information that should not be ignored. In addition, the development of faster, cheaper and improved sequencing methods has made genomics a tool that has a place in the workflow of a routine microbiology laboratory. Thus, genomics has reached a stage where it may be used in prokaryotic taxonomic classification, with criteria such as the genome index of average nucleotide identity being an alternative to DNA-DNA hybridization. However, several hurdles remain, including the lack of genomic sequences of many prokaryotic taxonomic representatives, and consensus procedures to describe new prokaryotic taxa that do not, as yet, accommodate genomic data. We herein review the advantages and disadvantages of using genomics in prokaryotic taxonomy. PMID:23490121

  16. Types of species of Apionidae (Coleoptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828) with description of a new genus

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The type specimens of species of Apionidae described by Carl Peter Thunberg are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813, Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813, Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815 and Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815. A new genus Thunbergapion (type species Apion limbatum Thunberg, 1813) is described, figured and placed in the tribe Aplemonini Kissinger, 1968. The new combination Thunbergapion limbatum (Thunberg, 1813) is proposed. A key to the known South African genera of the tribe is given. The following new synonymies are established: Oxystoma craccae (Linnaeus, 1767) = Apion craccae Thunberg, 1813 syn. n., Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808) = Apion punctigerum Thunberg, 1815, syn. n., and Pseudoprotapion astragali (Paykull, 1800) = Apion astragali Thunberg, 1815, syn. n. PMID:23950673

  17. High-resolution habitat mapping on mud fields: new approach to quantitative mapping of Ocean quahog.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Artem; Gubanova, Yana; Tzetlin, Alexander; Mokievsky, Vadim

    2014-12-01

    During 2009-2012 stocks of the bivalve Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Ocean quahog) in Kandalaksha Bay (the White Sea) has been assessed using a side-scan sonar, grab sampling and underwater photo imaging. Structurally uniform localities were highlighted on the basis of side-scan signal. Each type of a signal reflects combination of sediment type, microtopography and structural characteristics of benthic community. The distribution of A. islandica was the predominant factor in determining community structure. Seabed attributes considered most significant were defined for each type of substrate type. Relations of sonar signal and sediment type were used for landscape mapping based on sonar data. Community characteristics at known localities were reliably interpolated to the area of survey using statistical processing of geophysical data. A method of integrated sonar and sampling data interpretation for high-resolution mapping of A. islandica by biomass groups, benthic faunal groups and associated habitats was developed. PMID:24954748

  18. The Common Swift Louse Fly, Crataerina pallida: An Ideal Species for Studying Host-Parasite Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark D.; Rotherham, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the life-history of many parasitic species. This hinders a full understanding of host-parasitic interactions. The common swift louse fly, Crataerina pallida Latreille (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), an obligate haematophagous parasite of the Common Swift, Apus apus Linnaeus 1758, is one such species. No detrimental effect of its parasitism upon the host has been found. This may be because too little is known about C. pallida ecology, and therefore detrimental effects are also unknown. This is a review of what is known about the life-history of this parasite, with the aim of promoting understanding of its ecology. New, previously unreported observations about C. pallida made from personal observations at a nesting swift colony are described. Unanswered questions are highlighted, which may aid understanding of this host-parasite system. C. pallida may prove a suitable model species for the study of other host-parasite relationships. PMID:21268705

  19. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic. PMID:26249902

  20. Features of in vitro ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging and colonoscopy for detection of colon tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Z; Borges, Helena L; Soletti, Rossana C; Viana, Anália L P; Petrella, Lorena I; Soldan, Mônica; Chagas, Vera L; Schanaider, Alberto; Machado, João C

    2011-12-01

    The present work tested the capability of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), at 45 MHz, to provide cross-sectional images with appropriate resolution and contrast to detect tumors and determine their penetration depths on the colon of mice, Mus musculus (Linnaeus 1758), treated with carcinogen for colon tumor induction. B-mode images were obtained, in vitro, from each animal (13 treated and 4 untreated) colon opened longitudinally and immersed in saline solution at room temperature. Prior to UBM inspection, all animals were also examined by colonoscopy. The layers of normal colon identified by UBM are: mucosa (hyperechoic), muscularis mucosae (hypoechoic), submucosa (hyperechoic) and muscularis externa (hypoechoic). UBM images of colon lesions presented structures corresponding to tumors (hyperechoic), lymphoid hyperplasia (hypoechoic) and polypoid tumors (hyperechoic). Additionally, tumoral lesion invasion through the colon was also identified. When compared with histopathologic analysis, all colon lesions detected by UBM were confirmed, while colonoscopic findings had two false negatives. PMID:22033129

  1. Race and History: Comments from an Epistemological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The historiography of race is usually framed by two discontinuities: The invention of race by European naturalists and anthropologists, marked by Carl Linnaeus’s Systema naturae (1735); and the demise of racial typologies after WWII in favor of population-based studies of human diversity. This framing serves a similar function as the quotation marks that almost invariably surround the term. “Race” is placed outside of rational discourse as a residue of outdated essentialist and hierarchical thinking. I will throw doubt on this underlying assumption, not in order to re-legitimate race, but in order to understand better why race has been, and continues to be, such a politically powerful and explosive concept. PMID:25684833

  2. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; ?lipi?ski, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom.

  3. Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

  4. Attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects.

    PubMed

    Chihota, C M; Rennie, L F; Kitching, R P; Mellor, P S

    2003-09-01

    The mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) and the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were allowed to feed on either lumpy skin disease (LSD) infected animals or through a membrane on a bloodmeal containing lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). These arthropods were then allowed to refeed on susceptible cattle at various intervals after the infective feed. Virus was detected in the insects by polymerase chain reaction immediately after feeding and at sufficiently high titre to enable transmission to occur. However, no transmission of virus from infected to susceptible animals by An. stephensi, S. calcitrans, C. nubeculosus and Cx. quinquefasciatus was observed. PMID:12941014

  5. Relative abundance of American badger (Taxidea taxus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in landscapes with high and low rodenticide poisoning levels.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Gilbert; MacKenzie, Neil

    2012-03-01

    Over the past decade, extensive poisoning campaigns have been conducted in southern Saskatchewan to control Richardson's ground squirrel Spermophilus richardsonii (Sabine, 1822) populations. Such campaigns might impact on predator abundance by decreasing prey levels, and also through secondary poisoning. Using spotlighting, we investigated the relative abundance of American badgers Taxidea taxus (Schreber, 1777) and red fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758) in 2 study areas with road access and crops, but with different levels of poisoning. In the study area with relatively low poisoning (19.6% of the area traversed by roads), there were 2.2 times more American badgers per km of road and 6.4 times more red foxes per km than in the study area with high poisoning (89.7% of the area). It is recommended that an Integrated Pest Management program be developed to conserve natural predators across landscapes. PMID:22405447

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Vector Competence of Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans Mosquitoes for West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Fonseca, Dina M.; Ebel, Gregory D.; Reddy, Michael R.; Kramer, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Vector competence, the probability that a vector will transmit a pathogen after feeding on an infected host, is known to vary among vector species, populations, days since feeding, and temperature during the extrinsic incubation period. However, the extent of spatio-temporal variability and consistency in vector competence of populations is not known. We examined vector competence of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Cx. restuans Theobald mosquitoes for West Nile virus collected over 3 years from 17 sites to measure spatial and temporal scales of variation in vector competence. We found extreme variation with 0–52% of mosquitoes transmitting West Nile virus at a single site between different sampling periods, and similar variation across populations. However, we also found that within a smaller geographic range, vector competence varied somewhat synchronously, suggesting that environmental and population genetic factors might influence vector competence. These results highlight the spatio-temporal variability in vector competence and the role of local processes. PMID:20810828

  7. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas.

    PubMed

    Lordan, Jaume; Alegre, Simó; Gatius, Ferran; Sarasúa, M José; Alins, Georgina

    2015-02-01

    A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed. PMID:25335497

  8. The F type mitochondrial genome of the scorched mussel: Brachidontes exustus, (Mytiloida, Mytilidae).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kyle F; Bailey, Anders W; Brambert, David J; Ferhati, Elizabeth W; Karson, Chelsea A; Nafasat, Uroosa; Wadleigh, Jessica K; Wright, Amanda H

    2016-03-01

    The nominal species Brachidontes exustus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a cryptic complex. Long polymerase chain reactions and direct sequencing by primer walking was used to determine the complete F type mitochondrial genome of the Gulf of Mexico clade. The genome is 16,600?bp long and contains a single large unassigned presumptive control region, 13 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes, all coded for on the heavy chain. As in many other bivalves, there is the addition of tRNA-Met(AUA). The gene order is different from all other mitogenomes known for the family. The B. exustus mitogenome will contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of the Mytilidae. PMID:25186275

  9. Sin and Pleasure: The History of Chocolate in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods. PMID:25989318

  10. Taxonomy, bionomics and faunistics of the nominate subgenus of Mylabris Fabricius, 1775, with the description of five new species (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Mylabrini).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao; Bologna, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    The nominate subgenus of the mylabrine genus Mylabris is revised: five new species, M. (M.) alpicola sp.n., M. (M.) cernyi sp.n., M. (M.) mediorientalis sp.n., and M. (M.) pseudoemiliae sp.n., are described and figured; M. (M.) apiceguttata sp.n., is provisionally refered to the nominate subgenus. M. (M.) rishwani Makhan, 2012 is synonymized with M. (M.) quadripunctata (Linnaeus, 1767). The other 20 species are characterized by short descriptions and figures, and a key to the species is provided. Tentatively, M. barezensis  and M. batnensis are placed in the nominate subgenus. The bionomics of the species is summarized in tables including information on phenology, elevation, habitat preference, host plants, larval biology, and host insects. Zoogeographic analysis of the subgenus was carried out on the basis of all available faunistic records from literature and collections which are summarized in Appendix. PMID:24871153

  11. Occurrence of Thelazia callipaeda and Toxocara cati in an imported European lynx (Lynx lynx) in Japan.

    PubMed

    El-Dakhly, Khaled; Abo El-Hadid, Shawky; Shimizu, Hirofumi; El-Nahass, Shaymaa; Murai, Atsuko; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    A necropsy was performed on an adult European lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), held in captivity until its death, to determine level of parasitism. Examination of the eyes revealed the oriental eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda, in the conjunctival sac and the third eyelid of both eyes. The species was confirmed by location and morphology. Intact worms were fixed, mounted, and identified. Examination of the alimentary tract revealed the common ascaroid nematode, Toxocara cati. Species was confirmed by the arrow-like anterior end. One hundred and forty-one adult worms were collected. The presence of these nematodes indicated the importance of eliminating the contact of zoo animals with Amiota spp. vectors and to prevent contamination with the infective T. cati eggs. PMID:23082531

  12. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period. PMID:22398833

  13. Sir James Edward Smith (1759-1828) MD FRS, botanist, co-founder of the Linnean Society of London.

    PubMed

    Hawgood, Barbara J

    2009-05-01

    James Edward Smith's interest in botany led him to enter medicine at Edinburgh in 1781. Smith was continuing his medical studies in London when Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820) suggested to him that he should purchase the collection of the famous Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus that had just been offered to Banks. Smith bought the Linnean Collection and Library in 1784. In 1786 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Medicine from Leiden. In 1788 Smith, with two associates, founded the Linnean Society of London and became President for life. Smith turned from medicine to natural history as a lecturer and writer. During his lifetime he produced numerous botanical works of high value, including The English Flora (1824-28), and he did much to popularize botany. PMID:19401517

  14. Oxidative status assessment of the endemic bivalve Pinna nobilis affected by the oil spill from the sinking of the Don Pedro.

    PubMed

    Capó, Xavier; Tejada, Silvia; Box, Antonio; Deudero, Salud; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Several biomarkers were determined to evaluate the effects of the Don Pedro spillage on the digestive gland of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis (Linnaeus, 1758). Two areas in the southeast of Ibiza Island (Western Mediterranean) were selected; one affected by the oil spill (Talamanca) and one did not affected (Espardell). Mussels were sampled one, six and twelve months after the accident. PAH levels were elevated in P. nobilis from the affected area one month after the accident and, although they were decreasing gradually, they were always higher than in the control area. An increase in enzyme activities, reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation were evidenced one month after the spillage, with no changes in acetylcholinesterase. All biomarkers progressively returned to basal levels one year after the oil spill. In conclusion, the Don Pedro oil spill induced an acute situation of oxidative stress on P. nobilis that were recovered twelve months later. PMID:26254583

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sp. larvae, parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina from eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Jefferson P; Melo, Francisco T V; Silva, Luciana C N; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-02-01

    This study presents a new record for the occurrence of larval Ortleppascaris sp.(Sprent, 1978). The nematodes were collected from inside fibrous cysts found in the livers of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758), captured in eastern Brazilian Amazonia. This is the first record of Ortleppascaris sp. larvae in both Brazil and this amphibian host, increasing its distribution in South America as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this toad. The detailed description of Ortleppascaris sp. provides new taxonomic data for these larvae, as well as sequences of the internal transcribed spacers and small subunit DNA segments, and the cytochrome oxidase I gene, which will, in time, contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny of this group of parasites. PMID:22924910

  16. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda) are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876), Epinannolene cf. trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulus gridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulus sorornus (Butler, 1876), Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), Cryptops doriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctes coeculus (Brölemann, 1889) and Tygarrup javanicus (Attems, 1907). The millipedes Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847) and Amphitomeus attemsi (Schubart, 1934) and the centipedes Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810) are the species most frequently found in greenhouses. PMID:24891823

  17. Stability or stasis in the names of organisms: the evolving codes of nomenclature.

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Lamas, Gerardo; Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Novarino, Gianfranco

    2004-01-01

    Nomenclature, far from being a dry dusty subject, is today more relevant than ever before. Researchers into genomics are discovering again the need for systems of nomenclature-names are what we use to communicate about organisms, and by extension the rest of their biology. Here, we briefly outline the history of the published international codes of nomenclature, tracing them from the time of Linnaeus in the eighteenth century to the present day. We then outline some of what we feel are the major challenges that face the codes in the twenty-first century; focusing primarily on publication, priority, typification and the role of science in the naming of organisms. We conclude that the codes are essential for taxonomists in the pursuance of their science, and that the democratic nature of decision-making in the regulation of the rules of nomenclature, though sometimes perceived as a potential weakness, is in fact one of its great strengths. PMID:15253348

  18. Some species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the collection of the Natural History Museum, London.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Gibson, David I

    2005-10-01

    Seven species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are present in the Parasitic Worms Collection of The Natural History Museum, London: C. aluconis (Müller, 1780) Lühe, 1911 from Strix aluco Linnaeus in Great Britain; C. buteonis (Schrank, 1788) Kostylev, 1914 from Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) (new host record) in Sri Lanka (new geographical record); C. clitorideus (Meyer, 1931) Golvan, 1956 from Athene brama (Temminck) (new host record) in India; C. crotophagicola Schmidt and Neiland, 1966 (encysted juveniles in the stomach wall) from Anolis lineatopus Grey (new host record) and A. sagrei Duméril and Bibron (new host record) from Jamaica (new geographical record); C. falconis (Johnston and Best, 1943) Golvan, 1956 from Spilornis cheela (Latham) in Sri Lanka (new geographical record); C. globocaudatus (Zeder, 1800) Lühe, 1911 from Falco ardosiaceus Vieillot (new host record) in West Africa; and C. milvus Ward, 1956 from Milvus migrans (Boddaert) in India. The species are described and figured on the basis of this material. PMID:16167121

  19. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, U.

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" ( Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic.

  20. The Hirudo medicinalis species complex.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, U

    2012-05-01

    Recently, Hildebrandt and Lemke (Naturwissenschaften 98:995-1008, 2011) argued that the taxonomic status of the three European medicinal leeches, Hirudo medicinalis Linnaeus 1758, Hirudo verbana Carena 1820, and Hirudo orientalis Utevsky and Trontelj (Parasitol Res 98:61-66, 2005) is "questionable" since "all three species interbreed in the laboratory". This statement is in conflict with data published by Elliott and Kutschera (Freshwater Reviews 4:21-41, 2011), indicating that these leeches, which are reciprocally copulating hermaphrodites, represent reproductively isolated biospecies. Here, I summarize evidence indicating that these three European taxa, plus the North African "dragon leech" (Hirudo troctina Johnson 1816), must be interpreted as a complex of closely related species, and that the economically most important taxon H. verbana is polymorphic. PMID:22532303