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Sample records for xiphias gladius linnaeus

  1. Discrimination of prey species of juvenile swordfish Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758) using signature fatty acid analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jock W.; Guest, Michaela A.; Lansdell, Matt; Phleger, Charles F.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2010-07-01

    Signature lipid and fatty acid analysis were used to discriminate the diet of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, orbital fork length: 60-203 cm) from waters off eastern Australia. The fatty acid (FA) composition of a range of known prey (squid, myctophids, and other fishes) of swordfish, taken from stomach samples and from net tows, was compared with that of the white muscle tissue (WMT) of swordfish from the same region. Swordfish muscle was lipid rich (average 24-42% dry weight), as was the skeleton (28-41%). The robustness of the approach was also tested by comparison against a key squid prey species that was collected and stored using different protocols: (i) fresh frozen, (ii) fresh frozen, then thawed, and (iii) stomach content collection. The FA profiles were generally similar, with the ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and palmitic acid (16:0) in particular showing no significant difference. Major fatty acids in swordfish WMT were 18:1?9c, 16:0, 22:6?3, and 18:0. Multidimensional scaling showed that the swordfish WMT grouped closely with small fish prey including myctophids, and not with squid. Squid contained markedly higher 22:6?3 than swordfish. Individual prey species of the myctophidae could also be separated by the same technique. These results were supported by traditional stomach content analyses (SCA) that showed fish were the dominant prey for small swordfish sampled from southern waters whereas squid were the main prey in more northern waters, matching the FA patterns we found for the two regions. We propose that where general diet patterns are established, signature FA analysis has good potential to compliment or in some cases, replace temporal and spatial monitoring of trophic pathways for swordfish and other marine species.

  2. [Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Dias, Adriana C L; Guimares, Jean R D; Malm, Olaf; Costa, Paulo A S

    2008-09-01

    Total mercury (THg) was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itaja, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca), and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26 microgg-1 (fresh weight), and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 +/- 0.48 microgg-1 (f.w.) and X. gladius, 0.62 +/- 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). In 16 % of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), namely 1 microgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 0.5 microgg-1. The ingestion of 100 g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990) suggested limit. PMID:18813682

  3. Evidence of a high percentage of intersex in the Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).

    PubMed

    De Metrio, G; Corriero, A; Desantis, S; Zubani, D; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Bridges, C R; Eicker, J; de la Serna, J M; Megalofonou, P; Kime, D E

    2003-03-01

    The first evidence of the presence of intersexuality in a wild population of Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) is reported. Forty of 162 specimens (25%) macroscopically classified as males, showed the presence of female germ cells within the testes. In two specimens grouped previtellogenic oocytes were present; all the other specimens possessed single scattered previtellogenic oocytes. The presence of vitellogenin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the liver of both intersex and normal males. These findings could be due to the exposure to oestrogen-mimicking substances. PMID:12604071

  4. Mercury concentrations in South Atlantic swordfish, Xiphias gladius, caught off the coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marianna Vaz; Yamatogi, Ricardo Seiti; Sudano, Mateus Jos; Galvo, Jlia Arantes; de Prez, Agar Costa Alexandrino; Biondi, Germano Francisco

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the concentrations of mercury in fillets (anterior, middle, and end regions) from the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, and the relationships between mercury concentration and fish weight, as well as the region of collection. Of a total of 697 swordfish analyzed, 11 had mercury concentrations above 1 mg/kg, 421 were between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, and 265 were below 0.5 mg/kg. The anterior and posterior regions had greater concentrations of mercury than the middle region, and fish caught off the northern coast of Brazil had a higher concentration than those caught off the southern coast. PMID:23553504

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo e Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Azeredo, Antonio; Lailson-Brito, Jos; Torres, Joo Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2007-04-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT may bioaccumulate in the aquatic food web and have been of great concern due to their toxic effects on wildlife and human health. There is evidence showing that fish in the human diet contributes at a significant proportion to the total intake of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat levels. This study investigated the concentration of PCBs and DDTs in muscle tissues of samples of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from east Brazilian coast and estimate the human exposure to total DDTs through the consumption of both the species. Samples of the each species were caught between August and September 2001. The mean concentration for summation operator PCBs in P. glauca was 3.15 ng/g w.w. and the summation operator DDTs was 0.93 ng/g w.w. The mean concentration of summation operator PCBs in X. gladius was 6.50 ng/g and the mean of summation operator DDTs was 2.47 ng/g. The estimated daily intake of summation operator DDT through X. gladius or P. glauca consumption can be considered safe since it contributes to less than 0.1% of the limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) of summation operator DDT proposed by WHO. PMID:17223179

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds and chlorinated pesticides in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano

    2008-06-15

    The relative isolation of the Mediterranean population, their feeding habits, and the widespread use of their fillets for human consumption make the Mediterranean swordfish, Xiphias gladius, an interesting species from an ecotoxicological and commercial point of views. High resolution gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry detected 19 PBDE congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p' and o,p' isomers of DDT, DDE, and DDD in all samples. The presence of PBDEs was reported for the first time in Mediterranean swordfish from the South Tyrrhenian Sea; total PBDE concentrations were 2218 +/- 3291 and 612 +/- 598 pg/g wet wt in the liver and in the muscle, respectively. Significant correlations were identified between BDE47 and sigmaPBDE liver concentrations versus sex and sexual maturity of specimens. The lipid-normalized concentrations ratio BDEn(liver)/BDEn(muscle+liver) suggested that this species mostly accumulates POPs in the liver. PFOS and PFOA were below the LOD (1.5 and 3 ng/g wet wt, respectively) in all the samples. The sigmaDDTs was 155 +/- 125 and 309 +/- 273 ng/g wet wt in the muscle and the liver, respectively. The estimated daily ingestion of PBDEs and DDTs through diet was lower than the acceptable weekly intakes proposed by the World Health Organization. PMID:18605553

  7. Organochlorine compounds in tissues of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Mediterranean Sea and Azores islands.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Patrizia; Ausili, Antonella; Di Muccio, Alfonso; Fossi, Cristina; Di Muccio, Stefano; Rossi, Silvia; Colasanti, Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The Italian Ministry of Environment has undertaken a program (1999-2001) to measure levels of contaminants in top marine predators and to develop sensitive biomarkers for the evaluation of toxicological risk in these species. In 1999, 15 swordfishes (Xiphias gladius) taken from the Mediterranean Sea along the Sicilian coast (Strait of Messina, Italy) and in the Atlantic Ocean along the Azores Islands, and analysed for 34 congeners of PCBs and 27 organochlorine (OC) pesticides in gonad, muscle, liver and blubber tissues. In the tissues of Mediterranean swordfishes the sum of the determined PCBs congeners ranged from 4.61 to 4651.17 ng g(-1) on fresh tissue basis. Among organochlorine pesticides DDE, DDT and DDD (TDE) predominated with an overall range of 2.37-4734.56 ng(-1) w.w. In particular p,p'-DDE had concentrations appearing up to 3900 ng(-1), with the highest values found in fatty tissues, such as blubber. In the liver of Azores Island swordfishes lower levels of summation PCBs (8.43-294.17 ng/g w.w.) and summation DDTs (<0.01-217.44 ng/g w.w.) were determined. PMID:15556179

  8. Do endocrine disrupting chemicals threaten Mediterranean swordfish? Preliminary results of vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in Xiphias gladius.

    PubMed

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Ancora, S; Moscatelli, A; Ausili, A; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G

    2001-12-01

    Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to alter hormone pathways that regulate reproductive processes in wildlife and fishes. In this research the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish) are potentially at risk due to EDCs is investigated. These marine organisms tend to accumulate high concentrations of EDCs such as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The potential effects of EDCs on a fish species of commercial interest, the top predator Xiphias gladius (swordfish), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Dramatic induction of typically female proteins (Vtg and Zrp) was detected by ELISA and Western Blot in adult males of the species. These results are the first warning of the potential risk for reproductive function of Mediterranean top predators, and suggest the need for continuous monitoring of this fragile marine environment. PMID:11763150

  9. Histological and immunohistochemical investigation on ovarian development and plasma estradiol levels in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).

    PubMed

    Corriero, A; Acone, F; Desantis, S; Zubani, D; Deflorio, M; Ventriglia, G; Bridges, C R; Labate, M; Palmieri, G; McAllister, B G; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports a histological and immunohistochemical description of oocyte growth and ultrastructural aspects of zona radiata (ZR) formation as well as the relationship between plasma estradiol-17beta, (E2) levels and ovarian development in swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) from the Mediterranean Sea. Ovaries were inactive during March to mid April; maturation occurred during late April to June and spawning in June and July. Zona radiata formation starts, as Pas positive material, in oocytes at the lipid stage. In this stage a deposit of electrondense material between oolemma and follicular cells appears. In the cortical alveoli stage and through the early vitellogenic stage, the deposition of a moderately electrondense material occurred on the inner side of the ZR. Finally, in late vitellogenic oocytes a third layer, made of microfibrillar material, appeared. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the initial internalisation of hepatic zona radiata proteins (Zrp) in the swordfish oocyte starts before the uptake of vitellogenin (Vtg) and that it is associated with the low previtellogenic E2 plasma levels, while a significant E2 increase in plasma is associated with the beginning of Vtg uptake. This would appear to confirm the hypothesis that the differential and sequential induction of zonagenesis and vitellogenesis may reflect a general feature of teleost oogenesis. PMID:15718208

  10. Total mercury levels in muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of total mercury in the muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean Sea with the purpose of ascertaining whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision. In addition, specimens of each species were divided into different ranges of weight to investigate the influence of size on mercury accumulation in order to provide data upon which commercial fishing strategies and marketing of swordfish and bluefin tuna may be based. Higher mean levels of total mercury were found in bluefin tuna (1.02 microg g(-1) wet wt) than in swordfish (0.49 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 4.3% of swordfish and in 44.3% of bluefin tuna analyzed, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt). Besides, for bluefin tuna the total mercury level variability observed, due to size, suggests that there should be greater regulatory control by the authorities. PMID:11456192

  11. Shelf-life of chilled fresh Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) stored under various packaging conditions: microbiological, biochemical and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Pantazi, D; Papavergou, A; Pournis, N; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-02-01

    The present work evaluated the effect of air, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf-life of chilled Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Fresh swordfish slices were stored in air, under vacuum and MAP (40%/30%/30%, CO(2)/N(2)/O(2)) under refrigeration (4 degrees C) for a period of 16 days. Of the three treatments used (vacuum, MAP and air), both MAP and vacuum packaging (VP) were the most effective for inhibiting growth of aerobic microflora in swordfish samples until days 9-10 of refrigerated storage. Of the microbial species determined, both Pseudomonas spp. and H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens) were dominant in swordfish samples stored in air, whereas growth of these species was partly inhibited under VP and MAP conditions. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteriaceae were also found to be members of the final swordfish microbial flora, irrespective of packaging conditions throughout the entire storage period. Of the chemical freshness indices determined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values were variable in swordfish samples, indicative of no specific oxidative rancidity trend. Trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) values of swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 5mgN/100g fish muscle after days 7, 8-9 and 11 days of storage, respectively. In a similar trend, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) for swordfish samples stored in air, under VP and MAP exceeded the limit value of 25mgN/100g fish muscle after 7-8, 10 and 12 days of storage, respectively. Sensory analyses (odor and taste attributes) indicated a shelf-life of ca. 7 days for air, 9 days for VP and 11-12 days for the MA-packaged swordfish samples. PMID:17993387

  12. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.).

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; Garca-Corts, Blanca; Vias, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5N management boundary to 20N-25N from 45W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish. PMID:26057382

  13. Multilocus Bayesian Estimates of Intra-Oceanic Genetic Differentiation, Connectivity, and Admixture in Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brad L.; Lu, Ching-Ping; García-Cortés, Blanca; Viñas, Jordi; Yeh, Shean-Ya; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) revealed significant differentiation among Mediterranean, North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. However, limitations in geographic sampling coverage, and the use of single loci, precluded an accurate placement of boundaries and of estimates of admixture. In this study, we present multilocus analyses of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 10 nuclear genes to estimate population differentiation and admixture based on the characterization of 774 individuals representing North Atlantic, South Atlantic, and Mediterranean swordfish populations. Pairwise FST values, AMOVA, PCoA, and Bayesian individual assignments support the differentiation of swordfish inhabiting these three basins, but not the current placement of the boundaries that separate them. Specifically, the range of the South Atlantic population extends beyond 5°N management boundary to 20°N-25°N from 45°W. Likewise the Mediterranean population extends beyond the current management boundary at the Strait of Gibraltar to approximately 10°W. Further, admixture zones, characterized by asymmetric contributions of adjacent populations within samples, are confined to the Northeast Atlantic. While South Atlantic and Mediterranean migrants were identified within these Northeast Atlantic admixture zones no North Atlantic migrants were identified respectively in these two neighboring basins. Owing to both, the characterization of larger number of loci and a more ample spatial sampling coverage, it was possible to provide a finer resolution of the boundaries separating Atlantic swordfish populations than previous studies. Finally, the patterns of population structure and admixture are discussed in the light of the reproductive biology, the known patterns of dispersal, and oceanographic features that may act as barriers to gene flow to Atlantic swordfish. PMID:26057382

  14. Forecasts of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) off Chile under the A2 IPCC climate change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Claudio; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Barbieri, María Angela; Bernal, Claudio; Aranis, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effects of climate change on both oceanographic conditions and the relative abundance and distribution of fisheries resources. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki) fisheries using predictions of changes from global models (according to the NCAR model and IPCC emissions scenario A2), bioclimate envelope models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. The results show an SST trend of 0.0196 °C per year in the study area, equivalent to 0.98 °C for the simulation horizon and for a high CO2 emission scenario (A2). The bioclimate envelope models were developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly environmental and fisheries data. These data included the local relative abundance index of fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), corresponding to the total catch (kg) by 1000 hooks in a 1° latitude × 1° longitude fishing grid for swordfish and to the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (100 m3) in a 10‧ latitude × 10‧ longitude grid for common sardine. The environmental data included temporal (month), spatial (latitude) and thermal conditions (SST). In the first step of the bioclimate modelling performed in this study, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used as an exploratory tool to identify the functional relationships between the environmental variables and CPUE. These relationships were then parameterised using general linear models (GLMs) to provide a robust forecasting tool. With this modelling approach, environmental variables explained 58.7% of the variation in the CPUE of swordfish and 60.6% of the variation in the CPUE of common sardine in the final GLMs. Using IDRISI GIS, these GLMs simulated monthly changes in the relative abundance and distribution of the studied species forced by changes in the regionalised SST projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a slight decline of 6% (17 kg/1000 hooks) and 7% (3.8 ton/100 m3) for swordfish and common sardine, respectively, in the spatial mean of the potential relative abundance (CPUE) by 2065.

  15. Huffmanela paronai sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), a new parasite from the skin of swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Ligurian sea (Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Garibaldi, F

    2000-01-01

    A new species of trichosomoidid nematode, Huffmanela paronai sp. n., is established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters. The dark-shelled, embryonated eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the epidermis of the swordfish Xiphias gladius L. (Xiphiidae, Perciformes) from the Ligurian Sea in northern Italy. The eggs are concentrated in groups appearing as black spots in the skin of the fish host, being distributed mainly on the lower part of its body (lower jaw, gill covers, pectoral, anal and caudal fins, lower half of body). The parasite's eggs are characterised mainly by their shape and markedly small size (48-51 x 21-24 microm), an aspinose surface, relatively small polar plugs, and thick egg wall (3 microm). This is the first Huffmanela species reported from fish in Europe. PMID:11151956

  16. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of endocrine disrupters during a four-year survey of the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    PubMed

    Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia; Ancora, Stefania; Mori, Gabriele; Neri, Giovanni; Romeo, Teresa; Ausili, Antonella

    2004-01-01

    In this project we investigated the ecotoxicological effects of endocrine disrupters in a four-year survey of the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius). In the Mediterranean environment, top predators, such as swordfish, accumulate high concentrations of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) and toxic metals, potentially incurring high toxicological risk. The effects of organochlorines and trace elements (Hg, Cd and Pb) in 192 swordfish specimens, caught in the Strait of Messina, Sicily, Italy, were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and CYP1A (BPMO, EROD) activities. Vtg and Zrp were found to be dramatically induced in some adult male specimens, suggesting that this species is highly exposed to estrogens in the Mediterranean Sea. A role of organochlorines in this induction phenomenon is suggested by the statistically significant correlations between Zrp in plasma and PCB concentrations in muscle (p<0.032) and Vtg in plasma and PCB concentrations in liver (p<0.034) of male specimens. Levels of trace elements in liver were in the following ranges: Hg 1-22, Cd 1-28 and Pb 0-1.6 ppm d.w. These data indicate potential reproductive alterations in large pelagic fish and suggest the need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest. PMID:15178062

  17. Multi-genetic marker approach and spatio-temporal analysis suggest there is a single panmictic population of swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

  18. Temperature sensitivity of cardiac function in pelagic fishes with different vertical mobilities: yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius).

    PubMed

    Galli, Gina L J; Shiels, Holly A; Brill, Richard W

    2009-01-01

    We measured the temperature sensitivity, adrenergic sensitivity, and dependence on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) of ventricular muscle from pelagic fishes with different vertical mobility patterns: bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and mahimahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and a single specimen from swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Ventricular muscle from the bigeye tuna and mahimahi exhibited a biphasic response to an acute decrease in temperature (from 26 degrees to 7 degrees C); twitch force and kinetic parameters initially increased and then declined. The magnitude of this response was larger in the bigeye tuna than in the mahimahi. Under steady state conditions at 26 degrees C, inhibition of SR Ca(2+) release and reuptake with ryanodine and thapsigargin decreased twitch force and kinetic parameters, respectively, in the bigeye tuna only. However, the initial inotropy associated with decreasing temperature was abolished by SR inhibition in both the bigeye tuna and the mahimahi. Application of adrenaline completely reversed the effects of ryanodine and thapsigargin, but this effect was diminished at cold temperatures. In the yellowfin tuna, temperature and SR inhibition had minor effects on twitch force and kinetics, while adrenaline significantly increased these parameters. Limited data suggest that swordfish ventricular muscle responds to acute temperature reduction, SR inhibition, and adrenergic stimulation in a manner similar to that of bigeye tuna ventricular muscle. In aggregate, our results show that the temperature sensitivity, SR dependence, and adrenergic sensitivity of pelagic fish hearts are species specific and that these differences reflect species-specific vertical mobility patterns. PMID:19284308

  19. Multi-Genetic Marker Approach and Spatio-Temporal Analysis Suggest There Is a Single Panmictic Population of Swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

  20. Isolation and characterization of 18 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for the swordfish, Xiphias gladius.

    PubMed

    Kasapidis, P; Pakaki, V; Kotoulas, G; Magoulas, A

    2009-09-01

    Eighteen microsatellite loci (13 di- and 5 tri-repeats) were isolated from swordfish and characterized in two populations from the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 29 and the observed heterozygosity from 0.302 to 0.953. All but one locus conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium between loci. PMID:21564913

  1. Total mercury content, weight and length relationship in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global environmental pollutant that has been the cause of many public health concerns. It is transferred through trophic level and bio magnification in the food chain. Total Hg level was measured by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of 176 Swordfish (Xiphiasgladius) samples ranging from 11.8-112.0 kg total weight and 45-278 cm total length, collected from major fish landing sites in Sri Lanka during July 2009 to March 2010. Total Hg concentration varied between 0.18-2.58 mg/kg wet weight (ww), with a mean value standard deviation of 0.90 0.52 mg/kg ww. Of the investigated samples 32% exceeded Hg limits as set by the European Union and Sri Lankan legislation (1 mg/kg, ww). Hg concentration of swordfish showed a significant positive relationship (P value < 0.05) with the fish length and weight. Consequently, consumption of larger fish leads to an increase in the exposure level for consumers. PMID:24779931

  2. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in gliding postures at their cruise speeds.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

  3. Total and organic mercury concentrations in the white muscles of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the Indian and Atlantic oceans.

    PubMed

    Chen, M-H; Chen, C-Y; Chang, S-K; Huang, S-W

    2007-09-01

    A total of 226 swordfish samples collected from Taiwanese fishing vessels in the Indian and Atlantic oceans were examined for total mercury (THg) and organic Hg (OHg). Analysis of 56 pooled white muscle samples showed that THg and OHg concentrations ranged from 0.056 to 3.97 (1.3 +/- 0.97) and from 0.043 to 3.92 (1.01 +/- 0.82) microg g(-1) flesh mass, respectively. These values were similar to those from various previous studies during the past three decades. THg and OHg were significantly linearly correlated with fork length (FL, cm) of the fish from Indian and Atlantic oceans; however, there was no significant OHg%-FL relationship. OHg and THg also were significantly correlated. Fishes with FL < or = 140 cm met the methyl Hg (meHg) regulatory standard set by the European Commission Decision (meHg < or = 1.0); and fish with FL < or = 211 cm met the Taiwanese Food and Hygiene Standard (meHg < or = 2.0). Weekly swordfish consumption rates and amounts are recommended accordingly. PMID:17691010

  4. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2013-01-01

    The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

  5. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  6. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  7. Effect of chitosan treatments on quality parameters of fresh refrigerated swordfish (Xiphias gladius) steaks stored in air and under vacuum conditions.

    PubMed

    Tsiligianni, Maria; Papavergou, Eikaterini; Soultos, Nikolaos; Magra, Taxiarhoula; Savvaidis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of chitosan (1.0% w/v) in combination with packaging on the shelf-life of fresh swordfish steaks. Treatments included the following: A (untreated, control samples stored in air), A-CH (treated with chitosan 1.0% w/v, stored in air), VP (untreated, stored under vacuum packaging) and VP-CH (treated with chitosan, stored under vacuum packaging). VP-CH significantly affected Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Production of TMA-N and TVB-N for A-CH, VP and VP-CH swordfish samples was significantly lower than for control (A) samples at day 8 of storage. Histamine formation for all treatments was low. A-CH and VP-CH resulted in significantly lower levels of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (day 8) as compared to A and VP swordfish samples. Results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of swordfish steaks can be extended using, either aerobic or vacuum packaging and in combination with chitosan, by approximately 4 (A-CH), 8 (VP) and 12 (VP-CH) days. Swordfish steaks treated with chitosan and stored under VP were sensorially acceptable up to 17days. The presence of chitosan (A-CH and VP-CH) did not negatively influence the taste of cooked swordfish. PMID:23072694

  8. Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups:one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakissp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as "biological tags" and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

  9. Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization

    PubMed Central

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

  10. Mercury and selenium in blue shark (Prionace glauca, L. 1758) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) from two areas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Branco, Vasco; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Santos, Miguel Neves Dos

    2007-12-01

    Muscle, liver and stomach contents of 64 blue sharks and 52 swordfishes, caught between September 2004 and February 2005 near the Azores (area A) and the Equator (area E), were analysed for mercury and selenium. Levels of mercury were relatively high (blue shark: 0.032-2.5microgg(-1); swordfish: 0.031-9.8microgg(-1)) and comparable to values reported in the literature. However, mercury and organic mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of specimens from E were significantly higher than those from A. A similar trend was registered in stomach contents, suggesting higher uptake of Hg in specimens from E. This difference was also observed in the relationship between concentration in muscle and size, indicating a higher accumulation rate in specimens from E. The accumulation of Se in the liver of both species showed a positive correlation with inorganic mercury concentrations, pointing to a detoxifying mechanism of organic mercury in these species through Se-Hg liasons. PMID:17376573

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoaggregates from Gladius of Uroteuthis duvauceli

    PubMed Central

    Anusha, J. R.; Fleming, Albin T.

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of chitosan nanoaggregates from gladius of squid, Uroteuthis duvauceli. β-Chitin extracted from gladius was deacetylated to chitosan and further reduced to nanosize using ionic gelation process. The morphology and occurrence of chitosan nanoaggregates (CSNA) were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of deacetylation (DD%) calculated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed high value (~94 ± 1.25%) for chitosan. The CSNA depicts low molecular weight, stable positive zeta potential, and less ash and moisture content with high water and fat binding capacity. The antimicrobial activity was tested against pathogenic microorganisms, which depicted significant rate of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to high cellular uptake. The antioxidant analysis for CSNA demonstrated high reducing power and scavenging activity towards superoxide radicals compared with the commercially available chitosan. Furthermore, nanoaggregates exhibited low cytotoxic behavior in biological in vitro tests performed using cervical cancer cell line. These results indicate that chitosan nanoaggregates synthesized from waste gladius will be highly efficient and safe candidate for biological applications as food packing film, drug carrier, and tissue engineering. PMID:26977152

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoaggregates from Gladius of Uroteuthis duvauceli.

    PubMed

    Anusha, J R; Fleming, Albin T

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of chitosan nanoaggregates from gladius of squid, Uroteuthis duvauceli. β-Chitin extracted from gladius was deacetylated to chitosan and further reduced to nanosize using ionic gelation process. The morphology and occurrence of chitosan nanoaggregates (CSNA) were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of deacetylation (DD%) calculated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed high value (~94 ± 1.25%) for chitosan. The CSNA depicts low molecular weight, stable positive zeta potential, and less ash and moisture content with high water and fat binding capacity. The antimicrobial activity was tested against pathogenic microorganisms, which depicted significant rate of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to high cellular uptake. The antioxidant analysis for CSNA demonstrated high reducing power and scavenging activity towards superoxide radicals compared with the commercially available chitosan. Furthermore, nanoaggregates exhibited low cytotoxic behavior in biological in vitro tests performed using cervical cancer cell line. These results indicate that chitosan nanoaggregates synthesized from waste gladius will be highly efficient and safe candidate for biological applications as food packing film, drug carrier, and tissue engineering. PMID:26977152

  13. Population differentiation in the open sea: insights from the pelagic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Erica

    2011-10-01

    Although a number of recent studies of marine holoplankton have reported significant genetic structure among populations, little is currently known about the biological and oceanographic processes that influence population connectivity in oceanic plankton. In order to examine how depth preferences influence dispersal in oceanic plankton, I characterized the genetic structure of a copepod with diel vertical migration (DVM) (Pleuromamma xiphias), throughout its global distribution, and compared these results to those expected given the interaction of this species' habitat depth with ocean circulation and bathymetry. Mitochondrial COI sequences from 651 individuals from 28 sites in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans revealed highly significant genetic differentiation both within and among ocean basins. Limited dispersal among distinct pelagic provinces seems to have played a major role in population differentiation in this species, with strong genetic breaks observed across known oceanographic fronts or current systems in all three ocean basins. The Indo-West Pacific (IWP) holds a highly distinct genetic population of this species that was sampled in both the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans. This suggests that the IWP does not act as a strong barrier to gene flow between basins, as expected, despite the relatively shallow water depth (<200 m) and vertically extensive (>400 m) diel migration of this species. A pattern of isolation by distance was observed in the Indian Ocean with genetic differentiation among samples down to spatial scales of ?800 km, indicating that realized dispersal in P. xiphias occurs over much smaller spatial scales than in previously reported oceanic holoplankton. Given its highly regionalized population genetic structure, P. xiphias may have some capacity to adapt to local oceanographic conditions, and it should not be assumed that populations of this species in distinct pelagic biomes will respond in the same way to shared physical or climatic forcing. PMID:21940778

  14. Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Alessandro; Di Giosia, Matteo; Fermani, Simona; Samor, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

  15. Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)

    PubMed Central

    Lorrain, Anne; Argelles, Juan; Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Background Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ?13C and ?15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius ?13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (?89 months), during which ?15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6 ?15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21779391

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Brill, R; Griffiths, M; Lopata, A L; de la Serna, J M; Bridges, C R; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

    2005-01-18

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans. PMID:15642627

  17. Structural characterization and biomedical properties of sulfated polysaccharide from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Lesson, 1831).

    PubMed

    Seedevi, Palaniappan; Moovendhan, Meivelu; Vairamani, Shanmugam; Shanmugam, Annian

    2016-04-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide was extracted from the internal shell (gladius) of Sepioteuthis lessoniana. The sulfated polysaccharide contained 61.3% of carbohydrate, 0.8% of protein, 28.2% of ash and 1.33% of moisture respectively. The elemental composition was analyzed using CHNS/O analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide determined through PAGE was found to be as 66kDa. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that sulfated polysaccharide was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose and glucose. The structural features of sulfated polysaccharide were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Further the sulfated polysaccharide was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against selected human clinical pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Proteus mirabilis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Streptococcus pyogenes using agar well diffusion method. The polysaccharide has showed good antibacterial activity and MIC and MBC have also been evaluated. The anticancer activity was tested against HeLa cell line by MTT assay. The Cytotoxic Concentration (CC50) was observed as 700μg/ml and the maximum anticancer activity of 62.89% was recorded at 200μg/ml; whereas, the lowest of 9.87% was observed at 25μg/ml. In conclusion, the sulfated polysaccharide is an alternate, non-toxic and cheap source of substance that showed good antibacterial and anticancer acitivity. PMID:26724686

  18. In the field: exploring nature with Carolus Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hodacs, Hanna

    2010-06-01

    Teaching his students the art of observing nature outdoors was central to the Swedish naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus (1707-1778). These exercises came to influence both their progress and his work. The open-air classroom was a stage where Linnaeus could demonstrate his skills and mobilize support. It was also a testing, training and recruitment ground: the students' field observations helped Linnaeus to develop his new scientific nomenclature, and it was in the field that students could train their observational skills and progress from novices to naturalists. PMID:20061029

  19. Effective immobilization of glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles from gladius of Todarodes pacificus for glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Anusha, J R; Fleming, Albin T; Kim, Hee-Je; Kim, Byung Chul; Yu, Kook-Hyun; Raj, C Justin

    2015-08-01

    An effective enzymatic glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase on chitosan submicron particles synthesized from the gladius of Todarodes pacificus (GCSP). The chemically synthesized chitosan from gladius was pulverized to submicron particles by ball milling technique, which was further characterized and compared with the standard chitosan (SCS). The degree of deacetylation of GCSP was determined using FTIR spectroscopy which was comparable to the value of standard chitosan. The glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized over GCSP on porous zinc oxide/platinum nanoparticle (ZnO/Pt) based electrode. The morphological and structural properties of the electrodes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The glucose sensing behavior of electrode was estimated using electrochemical analysis and showed an excellent analytical performance. The electrode ZnO/Pt/GCSP conjugated with GOx displayed high sensitivity (88.76 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)) with low detection limit in short response time. In addition, the very low value of Michaelis-Menten constant for GCSP based electrode contributes a better affinity of the electrode surface towards glucose oxidase. PMID:25727854

  20. LINNAEUS: BOOSTING NEAR EARTH ASTEROID CHARACTERIZATION RATES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.

    2013-10-01

    Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types via the Minor Planet Center within 24 hours and a full archive of spectra and products will be provided.

  1. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... addition to those definitions found at 15 CFR 922.3, the following definitions apply to this subpart... (Alopias spp.), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), tunas (family Scombridae), and yellowtail (Seriola...

  2. Linnaeus' herbarium cabinet: a piece of furniture and its function.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2006-06-01

    The Swedish 18th-century naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus is habitually credited with laying the foundations of modern taxonomy through the invention of binominal nomenclature. However, another innovation of Linnaeus' has largely gone unnoticed. He seems to have been one of the first botanists to leave his herbarium unbound, keeping the sheets of dried plants separate and stacking them in a purpose built-cabinet. Understanding the significance of this seemingly mundane and simple invention opens a window onto the profound changes that natural history underwent in the 18th century. PMID:16600379

  3. Nematodes in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758) and the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758) (Anatidae) from Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Daria I; Yakovleva, Galina A; Ieshko, Evgeny P

    2015-10-01

    There are first data on nematodes of Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 (mallard) and Bucephala clangula Linnaeus, 1758 (common goldeneye) from Northern Europe (Ladoga Lake region). The ducks were found to be infected with nine nematode species. A. platyrhynchos hosted eight nematode species and B. clangula was host to four nematode species. All species except Capillaria anatis were found in the region for the first time. Nematodes Amidostomum acutum, Streptocara crassicauda, and Tetrameres fissispina parasitized on both hosts and were the most abundant. The biggest number of parasites revealed was biohelminths with a direct life cycle. PMID:26323580

  4. Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

  5. Further studies on Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) (Ascaridida: Ascarididae) from Felis lynx (Linnaeus) and Panthera leo (Linnaeus) (Carnivora: Felidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Li-Mei; Chai, Jing-Bo; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902) is a most common intestinal parasite of various animals in Felidae and Canidae. In the present paper, light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the morphological aspects of adult worms of this nematode in detail, based on the material collected from Panthera leo (Linnaeus) and Felis lynx (Linnaeus) (Carnivora: Felidae) in China. The results showed that there were some morphometric differences between the present material and the previous studies, including the body size, the width and length of cervical alae, the number of denticles on each lip and the tail length of the female. Previously unreported morphological features were also revealed. These supplementary morphological and morphometric data contributed to a more accurate identification of this worldwide distributed ascarid nematode. PMID:26204033

  6. Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

  7. Linnaeus' study of Swedish swidden cultivation: Pioneering ethnographic work on the 'economy of nature'.

    PubMed

    Dove, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    Carl Linnaeus' work on the 'economy of nature' was a major early development in what became the modern field of ecology. This analysis suggests that a key subject of this work that has been ignored or misunderstood for 250years is the rural livelihoods, especially swidden (or slash-and-burn) agriculture, which Linnaeus studied during his expeditions through rural Sweden. Rereading his reports in the light of modern work on swiddens, political ecology, and the history of science affords a new appreciation of Linnaeus' insights into traditional systems of resource exploitation. The logic of nutrient cycling in swidden agriculture and its utilization of natural dynamics to serve human ends exemplify the principles of the 'economy of nature', and gave Linnaeus a philosophical basis for understanding and defending this system of agriculture as well as other rural resource use systems in Sweden. This analysis sheds new light on Linnaeus' ethnographic work, his view of folk environmental knowledge, and his often derided identification with Sweden's ethnic peoples. PMID:25155194

  8. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-01-01

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance. PMID:26249392

  9. Cryopreservation of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Gunnvr; Johannesen, Asa; Arge, Regin

    2015-01-01

    This study has established a successful protocol to cryopreserve lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt. Three cryosolutions were tested based on Mounib's medium; the original medium including reduced l-glutathione (GSH), the basic sucrose and potassium bicarbonate medium without GSH, or with hen's egg yolk (EY). Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as the cryoprotectant along with all three diluents in a 1-2 dilution. Cryopreservation was performed with the mentioned cryosolutions at two freezing rates. Motility percentages of spermatozoa were evaluated using ImageJ with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) plug-in. Findings revealed that spermatozoa cryopreserved in Mounib's medium without GSH had a post-thaw motility score of 6.4 percentage points (pp) higher than those in the original Mounib's medium, and an addition of EY to the modified Mounib's medium lowered the post-thaw motility score by 19.3 pp. The difference in motility between both freezing rates was 13.0 pp, and samples cryopreserved on a 4.8 cm high tray resulted in a better post-thaw motility score. On average, cryopreserved milt had a 24.1 pp lower post-thaw motility score than fresh milt. There was no significant difference in fertilisation success between cryopreserved and fresh milt. Cryopreservation of lumpfish milt has, to our knowledge, never been successfully carried out before. The established protocol will be a main contributing factor in a stable production of lumpfish juveniles in future. PMID:26056612

  10. Cryopreservation of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Asa; Arge, Regin

    2015-01-01

    This study has established a successful protocol to cryopreserve lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus (Linnaeus, 1758) milt. Three cryosolutions were tested based on Mounib’s medium; the original medium including reduced l-glutathione (GSH), the basic sucrose and potassium bicarbonate medium without GSH, or with hen’s egg yolk (EY). Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) was used as the cryoprotectant along with all three diluents in a 1–2 dilution. Cryopreservation was performed with the mentioned cryosolutions at two freezing rates. Motility percentages of spermatozoa were evaluated using ImageJ with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) plug-in. Findings revealed that spermatozoa cryopreserved in Mounib’s medium without GSH had a post-thaw motility score of 6.4 percentage points (pp) higher than those in the original Mounib’s medium, and an addition of EY to the modified Mounib’s medium lowered the post-thaw motility score by 19.3 pp. The difference in motility between both freezing rates was 13.0 pp, and samples cryopreserved on a 4.8 cm high tray resulted in a better post-thaw motility score. On average, cryopreserved milt had a 24.1 pp lower post-thaw motility score than fresh milt. There was no significant difference in fertilisation success between cryopreserved and fresh milt. Cryopreservation of lumpfish milt has, to our knowledge, never been successfully carried out before. The established protocol will be a main contributing factor in a stable production of lumpfish juveniles in future. PMID:26056612

  11. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  12. Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier synonym of Cleptes semiauratus (Linnaeus)
    and description of Cleptes striatipleuris sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae, Cleptinae).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paolo; Forshage, Mattias; Paukkunen, Juho; Soon, Villu

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of Linnaeus' name Sphex semiaurata Linnaeus, 1761 has been controversial. After type examinations, we conclude that it is identical with the common Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier, 1806 and thus re-establish the old synonymy: Cleptes semiauratus (Linnaeus, 1761) (=Cleptes pallipes Lepeletier, 1806, syn. reinst.). We have been unable to find an available name for the species with which it has been confused. In order to be able to designate a suitable type specimen, we prefer to describe it as a new species rather than suggest a replacement name: Cleptes striatipleuris Rosa, Forshage, Paukkunen & Soon sp. nov. (=Cleptes semiauratus sensu Lepeletier, 1806, nec Linnaeus, 1761; =C. splendens sensu Linsenmaier 1959, nec Fabricius, 1798). PMID:26624640

  13. Eighteenth century classification of mental illness: Linnaeus, de Sauvages, Vogel, and Cullen.

    PubMed

    Munsche, Heather; Whitaker, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Classification was an important aspect of the 17th and 18th century development of Western science, epitomized by Linnaeus's 1735 Systema Naturae (Nature's System), in which he divided each kingdom of nature into classes, orders, and species. Linnaeus, a physician in addition to being a renowned taxonomist, endeavored to classify all known human diseases, largely on the basis of symptoms, in his 1759 Genera Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We focus on his classification of mental disorders, a large subset of the Genera Morborum. We compare and contrast the Linnaean system with Franois Boissier de Sauvages's 1772 Nosologie mthodique (A Systematic Nosology) and Rudolph Augustin Vogel's 1764 Generum Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We consider the impact of these nosologies on William Cullen's (1769/1800) Nosology, a popular system of disease classification that persisted through much of the 19th century. PMID:23277141

  14. Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

    2010-12-01

    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

  15. The application of the name Xylaria hypoxylon, based on Clavaria hypoxylon of Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Marc; Hawksworth, David L; Fournier, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Although Xylaria hypoxylon is one of the most familiar fungi of temperate regions, the basionym of the name, Clavaria hypoxylon of Linnaeus, has remained untypified. Here we assess the original five elements included in the 1753 protologue; no candidate specimen was located but two illustrations Linnaeus cited were considered, one a mixture of species and the other fanciful. As the name is sanctioned, following clarifications in the Melbourne Code, elements cited by Fries when the name was sanctioned in 1823 are also candidates for lectotypification. In addition to various illustrations, Fries cites two exsiccatae, and one from his own Scleromycetes Suecicae distributed in 1821 is designated as lectotype for Linnaeus' name here. In view of the complexity of the group as revealed by molecular systematic work, and the poor state of the Fries material, we also designate a sequenced epitype from Sweden. We stress the importance of examining fungi in the complex in the sexual state, as those that are asexual can be difficult to identify conclusively. Figures of the original protologues and the most pertinent illustrations and specimens are provided, along with a detailed description and illustrations based on recent collections. PMID:25083407

  16. Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmanan, P.T. ); Nambisan, P.N.K. )

    1989-07-01

    Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

  17. Compatibility of codling moths Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa with codling moths shipped from Canada.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully applied against codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus), in British Columbia since 1992. The mass-rearing facility located in Osoyoos, BC produces between 15-16M moths per week. Due to the seasonality of this pest, the facility in Cana...

  18. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  19. Regional assessment of PAHs contamination in SE Brazil using brown mussels (Perna perna Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, Renato V; Carreira, Renato S; Scofield, Arthur L; Wagener, Angela L R

    2012-11-01

    Cultured and native brown mussels (Perna perna Linnaeus 1758) were used to evaluate the contamination by PAHs in the SE Brazilian coastal zone. Mean concentrations of total PAH (38 parental and alkylated compounds) and cluster analysis revealed that: (i) mussel farms (32.7-70.1 ng g(-1)) are located in uncontaminated areas; (ii) coastal rockyshore areas (89.7 25.8 ng g(-1)) have low level of contamination; and (iii) the Guanabara Bay (760.9 456.3 ng g(-1)) is chronically contaminated by hydrocarbons, which is consistent with previous results. PAH profiles and diagnostic ratios suggested mixed petrogenic and pyrolitic sources for group (ii) and petrogenic sources for group (iii). The levels of PAH in the cultured and native mussels are below threshold values for safe food, even in Guanabara Bay, and thus in such cases other contaminants and pathogens should be considered in order to evaluate the quality of shellfish for human consumption. PMID:22850188

  20. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Luk; Rb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome. PMID:24260701

  1. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  2. A retrospective description of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72) in a free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) and its accidental transmission to yellow canaries (Serinus canaria Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F; Hnicke, A

    2005-01-01

    A haemagglutinating virus was isolated in summer 1972 from a single free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) in embryonated chicken eggs. Additional cases of morbidity or mortality were not observed in the area were the sick siskin was found. The virus was characterized as an avian influenza A virus of the subtype H7N1 and designated H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72. The virus induced following experimental inoculation of chicken embryos a high rate mortality (mean death time approximately 24 hours), formed plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures without addition of trypsin and has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.80. Therefore, this virus is considered as a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Canaries (Serinus canarius Linnaeus, 1758), that were housed in the same room with the siskin were accidentially exposed by contact to the sick siskin which resulted in virus transmission followed by conjunctivitis, apathy, anorexia and a high rate mortality. PMID:15714871

  3. Data on the biology of cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Alticinae).

    PubMed

    Vig, K

    2003-01-01

    Biology of Psylliodes chrysocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) known as pest of rape and other cruciferous crops in Europe was studied under field and laboratory conditions in Western Hungary. Oviposition usually takes place from the end of September through winter until the end of March. The number of eggs laid by a female may nearly be one thousand. The longevity and the rhythm of the oviposition depend on the climatic conditions. In most years the second (L2) and third (L3) developmental stage larvae over winter in the sterns and main ribs of the lower leaves of rape. In gentle winters first (L1) developmental stage larvae can also over winter because oviposition occurs during winter months as well. Adults also over winter, they live until the beginning of April of the next year. The larvae feed inside of the sterns and midribs of rape leaves; moulting also takes place there. At the beginning of May the fully developed larvae leave the plant and enter the soil to pupate. Adults of the new generation appear on the surface by the end of May and begin to feed on green pods of rape but, however, they also chew the leaves and sterns. After the harvest of rape adults are still active. Before going into summer diapause they visit cruciferous crops or various cruciferous weeds for feeding. Summer diapause takes places from the beginning of July until the end of August. On the basis of our investigations Psylliodes chrysocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) has one generation a year in Hungary. PMID:15149113

  4. [Natural helminth infection in Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766), by Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proena, 1945 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria L de A; Muniz-Pereira, Lus C; Pinto, Roberto M; Lins, Fernanda P; Riehl Vaz, Mnica G; de Abreu, Ana Paula M; de Souza, Paulo Csar A

    2005-01-01

    This is the first report of a natural infection in the saffron finch Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) captured in Brazil, with the establishment of a new host record for the acuarioid nematode Acuaria mayori Lent, Freitas and Proena, 1945, previously referred in Cyanocorax chrysops (Vieillot, 1818) from Paraguay and Sporophila caerulescens caerulescens (Vieillot, 1823) and C. cyanomelas (Wied, 1821) from Brazil and Myarchus nuttingi (Ridgway, 1883) from Costa Rica. PMID:16153343

  5. On a new species of the genus Cobboldina (Nematoda: Atractidae) from Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

    2012-10-01

    The specimens of the genus Cobboldina Leiper, 1911 and family Atractidae (Railliet, 1917) Travassos, 1919 recovered from the faecal matter of Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) from the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India recognized as a new species after careful observation. The collected nematode differs from the only valid species Cobboldina vivipara Leiper, 1911, in the presence of gubernaculum (13.2-29.7 μm in length) and the number of caudal papillae (10 pairs) and named as Cobboldina gubernacularia sp. n., This is the second species of the genus Cobboldina recorded from the host Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captive in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. PMID:24082537

  6. Metabolic plasticity of nitrogen assimilation by Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang K.; Kraemer, George P.; Yarish, Charles

    2012-12-01

    The physical stresses associated with emersion have long been considered major factors determining the vertical zonation of intertidal seaweeds. We examined Porphyra umbilicalis (Linnaeus) Kützing thalli from the vertical extremes in elevation of an intertidal population ( i.e. upper and lower intertidal zones) to determine whether Porphyra thalli acclimate to different vertical elevations on the shore with different patterns of nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities in response to different degrees of emersion stress. We found that the nitrate uptake and NR recovery in the emersed tissues took longer in lower intertidal sub-population than in upper intertidal sub-population; and GS activity was also significantly affected by emersion and, interestingly, such an activity was enhanced by emersion of thalli from both upper and lower intertidal zones. These results suggested that intra-population variability in post-emersion recovery of physiological functions such as nutrient uptake and NR activity enables local adaptation and contributes to the wide vertical distribution of P. umbilicalis. The high GS activity during periodic emersion stress may be a protective mechanism enabling P. umbilicalis to assimilate nitrogen quickly when it again becomes available, and may also be an evidence of photorespiration during emersion.

  7. Structural and Immunological Activity Characterization of a Polysaccharide Isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Li, Heng; Qian, Jianying; He, Yongfeng; Zheng, Jialin; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong; Shi, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from marine clams perform various biological activities, whereas information on structure is scarce. Here, a water-soluble polysaccharide MMPX-B2 was isolated from Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus. The proposed structure was deduced through characterization and its immunological activity was investigated. MMPX-B2 consisted of d-glucose and d-galctose residues at a molar ratio of 3.51:1.00. The average molecular weight of MMPX-B2 was 510 kDa. This polysaccharide possessed a main chain of (1→4)-linked-α-d-glucopyranosyl residues, partially substituted at the C-6 position by a few terminal β-d-galactose residues or branched chains consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-galactose residues. Preliminary immunological tests in vitro showed that MMPX-B2 could stimulate the murine macrophages to release various cytokines, and the structure-activity relationship was then established. The present study demonstrated the potential immunological activity of MMPX-B2, and provided references for studying the active ingredients in M. meretrix. PMID:26729136

  8. First data on trace elements in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) from southern Italy: Safety issues.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the concentrations of 10 metals in wild specimens of abalone, Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) (Linnaeus, 1758) from three sites along the southern Italian coast: Gulf of Catania (CT), the Northern Coast of Messina (ME) and the harbor of Villa San Giovanni (VSG). The species is commonly found in the area and has significant commercial value. Additionally, it is long lived, thus suitable as bioindicator of the environmental monitoring. The potential human health risks due to consumption of Ht have been assessed by estimated average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals, respectively. In particular arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) were quantified in the edible tissue of specimens by acid digestion of the samples and ICP-MS determination. The highest concentrations were found in CT sample area for most metals analyzed. Mean values for Pb, Cd and Hg were lower than the maximum levels (MLs) set for bivalve mollusks by Regulation (CE) no. 1881/2006 in all sites, and average intake values below the risk levels for human consumption. PMID:25912965

  9. Reproductive seasonality, settlement, and post-settlement mortality of Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus), at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriott, Vicki J.

    1983-12-01

    Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) has seasonal gametogenesis and planula release at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, in contrast with several previous reports on the species at other locations. The number of planulae released and gonad development varied considerably among colonies sampled at the same time, but reproductive activity occurred predominantly in winter. P. damicornis planulae settled preferentially on algal-covered substrata, rather than bare coral substrata, but showed subsequent mortality inversely related to this settlement preference. Competition with algae and biological disturbance contribute to spat mortality at different stages of settlement and growth.

  10. Lysophosphatidylcholine from white muscle of bonito Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus): involvement of phospholipase A1 activity for its production.

    PubMed

    Satouchi, K; Sakaguchi, M; Shirakawa, M; Hirano, K; Tanaka, T

    1994-10-01

    A fairly large amount of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was detected in the fresh muscle of bonito Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus). The major fatty acid esterified in LPC were highly unsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, and the form was mainly composed of 1-lyso-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1-LPC). The content of this species continued to increase during 4 months of frozen storage and then decreased. Phospholipase A1 activity detected in the bonito muscle was supposed to be responsible for the accumulation of LPC. PMID:7918613

  11. The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2010-07-01

    The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939. PMID:20532854

  12. Treatment of chronic kidney disease using a traditional Chinese medicine, Flos Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhi; Cai, Guangyan; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2016-02-01

    The flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (Linnaeus) Medicus (Malvaceae; Flos A. manihot) have been used in China for many centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. The Huangkui capsule is a single-plant drug extracted from the dry corolla of Flos A. manihot that has been approved by China's State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly some of the past experiences in rapid filtration and to present more fully a few facts brought out in recent studies. The primary chemical constituents of Flos A. manihot are flavonoids. In vivo, the flavonoids can be transformed into glucuronide-sulphate conjugates, which are the major metabolites of Flos A. manihot and could contribute to the renoprotective effects in vivo. Flos A. manihot can ameliorate proteinuria, podocyte apoptosis, glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferation. The renoprotective effects of Flos A. manihot are related to inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-8 overexpression, reduction of the infiltration of ED1(+) and ED3(+) macrophages, downregulation of oxidative stress, inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and serine/threonine kinase pathways and suppression of transforming growth factor-β1 and tumour necrosis factor-α expression. Recently, a multicentre randomized controlled trial demonstrated that Flos A. manihot was more effective than the angiotensin-receptor blocker losartan in reducing proteinuria in patients with primary glomerular disease. Because Flos A. manihot is generally preferred by Chinese patients and clinicians, high-quality trials to test the efficacy and safety of Flos A. manihot are urgently needed. PMID:26667396

  13. Structural and ultrastructural features of the agouti tongue (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766)

    PubMed Central

    Ciena, Adriano Polican; Bolina, Cristina de Sousa; de Almeida, Sonia Regina Yokomizo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; da da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Miglino, Maria Anglica; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2013-01-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta aguti Linnaeus, 1766) is a wild rodent belonging to the family Dasyproctidae that is found throughout Brazil and feeds on fruits and seeds. The aim of the present study was to describe the following features of the tongue of agouti: its morphological structures, the three-dimensional characteristics of the lingual papillae surface, the connective tissue cores (CTCs) and the epithelial cell ultrastructure. Four types of papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue with a triangular shape: filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate. Filiform papillae were distributed throughout the tongue surface, and removal of the epithelial surface revealed conical CTCs and multifilaments. Fungiform papillae were observed in the rostral and middle regions, whereas foliate papillae developed in pairs on the lateral margin of the caudal region. Removal of the epithelium in these regions revealed CTCs with parallel laminar conformation. Vallate papillae were arranged in a V-shape in the caudal region, and their CTCs ranged in shape from elongate to ovoid. The ultrastructural components of the dorsal epithelium were the basal, spinous, granular and keratinised layers. A broad area with cytoplasmic projections was identified in the interface region between the lamina propria and the basal layer. Flattened cells with intermediate filaments were observed in the transitional region between spinous and granular layers. The keratinised layer was composed of superimposed epithelial cells where desmosomes and cell-surface microridges were observed. These structural features, including the three-dimensional aspects of the lingual papillae, the CTCs and the epithelial ultrastructure, indicate that when compared with other animals, particularly other rodent species, the morphological features of the tongue of agouti are relatively well developed, especially regarding foliate and vallate papillae. PMID:23701183

  14. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mcha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  15. Properties of phospholipase A1/transacylase in the white muscle of bonito Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Hirano, K; Tanaka, A; Yoshizumi, K; Tanaka, T; Satouchi, K

    1997-12-01

    The properties of phospholipase A1 (PLA1) obtained from the white muscle of bonito, Euthynnus pelamis (Linnaeus), were examined. The PLA1 activity had a pH optimum from 6.5 to 7.0 for phosphatidylcholine (PC), and calcium ion was not required. The optimum temperature was from 20 to 30 degrees C. When a fatty alcohol was used as an acceptor, a wax ester was produced by transferring a fatty acid at the sn-1 position of the donor's PC. The maximum production of lysophosphatidylcholine was shifted by 0.5 pH units to the acidic side and the pH optimum of wax ester synthesis was from 6.0 to 6.5. The synthesis was independent of calcium ion and Coenzyme A. The transacylation was also observed when 1-lyso-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used as an acceptor. Fatty acid at the sn-1 position of the donor PC was transferred to the unoccupied hydroxy group of the acceptor at the sn-1 position. When 2,3-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine was used as the acyl donor, a similar amount of palmitic acid was transferred as in the case of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. However, 1-acyl-2-lyso-sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine, a positional isomer, was a poor acceptor. These results indicate that the transacylation by the PLA1 from bonito muscle is not stereospecific, but is position-specific both for the acyl donor and acceptor. PMID:9498560

  16. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Zhou, Ye; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Bai, Shiqi; Wang, Wei; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The BoxBehnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solidliquid ratio) on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solidliquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4%) of the RSM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of ?-chain and ?-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure. PMID:24143042

  17. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  18. Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2013-02-01

    A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:23299317

  19. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely. PMID:26751873

  20. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo Andr Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes. PMID:26739285

  1. Application of the sequential elution technique to determine Cd and Cu cellular location in Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Costas, R C; Lpez, J

    2001-11-01

    The sequential elution technique, used to determine the cellular location of metals in nonvascular plants, was adapted to the seaweed Ulva lactuca Linnaeus for the heavy metals Cu and Cd. The optimum conditions for the extraction of extracellular Cu and Cd were determined using specimens previously loaded with these metals. The best extracellular metal extraction media and the number of extracellular metal extraction steps obtained were the following: Two steps (1 h + 40 min) in a filtered sea water-20 mM Ni solution for Cd and two steps in a filtered sea water-50 mM Co solution for Cu. To find these extraction conditions the extracellular metal extraction capacity of the different media used as well as the alteration provoked in plasmalemma permeability were compared. The concentrations of the incubation solutions of Cd and Cu that allowed reliable comparisons between the different extracellular metal extraction media used were previously determined. PMID:11598779

  2. Mercury in South Carolina fishes, USA.

    PubMed

    Glover, James B; Domino, Marisa E; Altman, Kenneth C; Dillman, James W; Castleberry, William S; Eidson, Jeannie P; Mattocks, Micheal

    2010-04-01

    The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control has collected, processed, and analyzed fish tissue total mercury (Hg) since 1976. For this study, skin-on-filet data from 1993 to 2007 were examined to determine biotic, spatial and temporal trends in tissue Hg levels for SC fishes. Because of the relatively high number of tissue Hg values below the analytical detection limits interval censored regression and censored least absolute deviations were used to construct several models to characterize trends. Large pelagic, piscivorous fish species, such as bowfin (Amia calva Linnaeus 1766), had higher levels of tissue Hg than smaller omnivorous species. Estuarine species had relatively low levels of tissue Hg compared to freshwater species, while two large open ocean species, king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla Cuvier 1829) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus 1758), had higher tissue Hg readings. For a given fish species, length was an important predictor of tissue Hg with larger individuals having higher levels than smaller individuals. The USEPA Level III ecoregion and water body type from where the fishes were collected were important in predicting the levels of tissue Hg. The Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregion had fishes with the highest levels of tissue Hg, while the Piedmont and Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions had the lowest. For a given ecoregion, large reservoirs and regulated rivers had fish with lower levels of tissue Hg than unregulated rivers. For reservoirs, the size of the impoundment was a significant predictor of tissue mercury with small reservoirs having higher levels of tissue mercury than large reservoirs. Landuse and water chemistry accounted for differences seen in fish of various ecoregions and waterbody types. Sampling locations associated with a high percentage of wetland area had fish with high levels of tissue Hg. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between tissue Hg levels and water column iron, total organic carbon, ammonia, and total kjedahl nitrogen, and a negative relationship with alkalinity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Results from principle component analysis revealed patterns between waterbody type and water chemistry variables that suggests hydrologic modification can have profound effects on the levels of fish tissue Hg in riverine systems. From 1993 to 2007, fish tissue Hg levels have trended lower. A spike in tissue Hg levels was observed in 2003-2005. The drying and rewetting of the landscape after the 2002 drought is hypothesized to have caused an increase in the methylation efficiencies of the system. PMID:20058074

  3. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  4. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by females for egg laying. Trips of unexplained nature are made by both males and females. Turtles from other areas are occasional transients through the study plot. Standardized census trips provided data for estimating the size of the population. Census data were taken after females had returned from egg laying. The samples were spaced at intervals of a week or more to allow free movement of turtles over their ranges and assure more nearly equal availability of all turtles. These standard samples were compared by a collection ratio. Assumptions involved in the use of this ratio are discussed. Correction factors were applied to make allowance for turtles whose ranges.were partly inside and partly outside the study area, and for transient turtles. A second estimate, on the basis of the entire season's collecting, gave closely comparable results. The population of the study area is estimated to be between four and five turtles per acre, with juveniles constituting less than ten per cent of the total.

  5. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae): a survey across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sadlek, David; ?hlavsk, Frantiek; Vilmov, Jitka; Zima, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4) and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57). The karyotype of all the specimens of Cimex lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3%) from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments could affect population dynamics of variable populations. PMID:24455100

  6. Characterisation of Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus (Passeriformes: Turdidae) in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira; Toms, Andr; Thode, Ftima Regina P B; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2015-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a specimen of the Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus held for rehabilitation and reintroduction into the wild in a centre for research and recovery of wild animals in Quinta de Marim, Olho, Portugal. Isospora lusitanensis n. sp. has subspherical to ovoidal ocysts, measuring on average 26.4נ23.4?m, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1?m thick. Micropyle and ocyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.0נ10.9m. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and rounded. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered spherules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. The morphological and morphometric data for the new species were compared with those for species parasitising birds of the Muscicapidae, Turdidae, Timaliidae, Troglodytidae and Cinclidae, which are considered phylogenetically close. The original histograms of Isospora turdi Schwalbach, 1959 were redrawn for comparison with I. lusitanensis n. sp. and a linear regression of width against length of the ocysts is presented for characterisation. This is the first isosporoid coccidian described from T. merula in mainland Portugal. PMID:26358076

  7. [Mortality in free living siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758) due to Salmonella typhimurium, phage type DT104 and DT013].

    PubMed

    Krger, Alexandra; Redmann, Thomas; Sommer, Dagmar; Antakli, Ali; Kaleta, Erhard F

    2009-09-01

    This report deals with an enzootic due to Salmonella Typhimurium in two free living Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758). Other birds in the vicinity of the siskins were not affected. Clinical signs consisted of non-specific symptoms such as ruffled plumage, apathy and reduced food intake. During necropsy, gross lesions were enlarged livers with focal necrosis, pale spleens, enlarged kidneys, pneumonia and enteritis. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from internal organs in pure culture. Using the polymerase chain reaction, the detection of Salmonella according to EN ISO 6579:2002 was confirmed. The detailed characterisation of both isolates in the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and in the Robert Koch Institute yielded for the first siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4, 5, 12: i : 1, 2, LT DT104, BT a and for the second siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4,12 i : 1, 2, LT DT013, BT c. These phage types were identified for the first time in siskins. The detected phage types have importance as causes of disease not only for free living siskins but also as infectious and zoonotic agents for domestic poultry and poultry products. PMID:19813449

  8. Trace metals in flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), and sediments from the Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2013-10-01

    Trace metals were examined in the muscle tissue of flatfish species of flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), sediments from two southern Baltic Sea sites (Gdańsk Bay and Ustecko-Łebskie as a reference) and in two areas of the Portuguese Atlantic coast (Douro River estuary and Atlantic fishing ground as a reference) to evaluate spatial differences in trace metals. Additionally, the accumulation of trace metals in flounder of different length classes was assessed. Flounder from the Gdańsk Bay area contained twofold more cupper (Cu), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) than did flounder from the Douro River estuary, but zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were at similar concentrations. The sediments from Gdańsk Bay contained significantly more Zn and threefold more Cd, while concentrations of Cu and Pb were twofold lower. The concentrations of metals in the sediments did not correlate with those in the flounder. Spatial differences were noted in metal concentrations in flounder from the southern Baltic Sea and the Portuguese Atlantic coast as well as within these regions, with higher concentrations in the flounder from the Baltic Sea Gdańsk Bay. The flounder in length class 25-30 cm from Gdańsk Bay contained metal concentrations comparable to those of class 40-45 cm specimens from the Atlantic coast. The accumulation of metals in flounder length classes differed in the two regions. PMID:23677750

  9. Ecological status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) population at the southern edge of its distribution (River Paiva, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, ngela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amlcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7% of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density. PMID:23820847

  10. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  11. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-12-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the bivalve ligament of Meretrix linnaeus (LML) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of LML were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the LML has complex structural colors from blue to orange in the wet state from ventral to dorsal, which are derived from the aragonite fiber diameter increases continuously from ventral to dorsal of the ligament. The reflection peak wavelength of the wet LML can blue-shift from 522 nm to 480 nm with the air drying time increased from 0 to 60 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and only a weak reflection peak at last, relevant color changes from green to light blue. The structural color in the LML is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consists of aligned aragonite fibers and proteins, in which the diameters of the aragonite fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 104±11 nm and 126±16 nm, respectively. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tune the degree of order and lattice constant of the ligament in the different wet states. PMID:26470811

  12. Metabolic costs of avian flight in relation to flight velocity: a study in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Engel, Sophia; Biebach, Herbert; Visser, G Henk

    2006-06-01

    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s(-1) in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to travel distances between 200 and 300 km, respectively. This represents the widest speed range where we could obtain voluntarily sustained flights. From a subset of these flights, data on the wing beat frequency (WBF) and intermittent flight behaviour were obtained. Over the range of speeds that were tested, flight costs did not change with velocity and were on an average 8.17+/-0.64 W or 114 W kg(-1). Body mass was the only parameter with a significant (positive) effect on flight costs, which can be described as EE(f)=0.741 M(0.554). WBF changed slightly with speed, but correlated better with body mass. Birds showed both types of intermittent flight, undulating and bounding, but their frequencies did not systematically change with flight speed. PMID:16425018

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valento, Patrcia

    2014-01-01

    A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 g/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

  14. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  15. The helminth fauna study of European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) in the Volga basin.

    PubMed

    Chikhlyaev, Igor; Ruchin, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we considered information on the helminth fauna of the European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) from 10 regions of the Volga basin. This study includes consolidated data of different authors over the last 30 years, supplemented by the results of our own research. There are reliably known finds of 29 species of helminths: Monogenea - 1, Trematoda - 21, Nematoda - 7. Trematodes Gorgodera asiatica Pigulevsky, 1945, Paralepoderma cloacicola (Luhe, 1909), mtc. and nematodes Icosiella neglecta (Diesing, 1851) were observed for the first time in a given host on the territory of Russia and the Volga Basin. Six species of worms make the basis of helminth fauna: nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum and Cosmocerca ornata, trematode Haplometra cylindracea and monogenea Polystoma integerrimum. These six species are the most common and widespread parasites of the brown frog. For each species of helminths there is the following information included: taxonomic position, localization, area of detection, biology, definitive hosts, geographic distribution, the degree of host-specificity. PMID:25119361

  16. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    PubMed

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  17. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2014-11-18

    Abstract Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955?bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr). PMID:25405910

  18. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantiek; Jirk?, Miloslav

    2014-05-01

    A new nematode species, Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the cornish jack Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Osteoglossiformes; Mormyridae) in the Sangha River (Congo River basin) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species differs from the only other congeneric species parasitising fishes in Africa, D.malapteruri (Baylis, 1923), mainly in the presence of dentigerous ridges on lips, absence of lateral caudal alae in the cloacal region, in the anteriorly curved, non-bifid distal tip of the gubernaculum and larger eggs (60-90נ52-78 vs 45נ30?m); males of D.mormyropsis are characterised by the presence of a ventral precloacal cuticular ornamentation not observed in other Dujardinascaris spp. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis and D.malapteruri also differ in the order of their fish hosts (Osteoglossiformes vs Siluriformes). Specimens previously reported as Dujardinascaris graberi Troncy, 1969, a junior synonym of D.malapteruri, from Mormyrops engystoma Boulenger in Chad belong to the new species D.mormyropsis. PMID:24711112

  19. Habitat-related predation on juvenile wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Stunz, G W.; Minello, T J.

    2001-05-31

    We examined the patterns of habitat-specific mortality for newly settled red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) using an experimental mesocosm approach. Experiments were designed to analyze prey vulnerability and fish rearing-type (wild-caught or hatchery-reared) in estuarine habitats of varying structural complexity including marsh (Spartina alterniflora Loisel), oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin), seagrass (Halodule wrightii Aschers), and nonvegetated sand bottom. We used two different predators, pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides Linnaeus) and spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier). For both predators, vulnerability of wild-caught red drum was significantly lower in structurally complex habitats such as seagrass and oyster reef; the highest vulnerability was associated with the nonvegetated bottom. This habitat effect was not apparent for hatchery-reared prey. In trials using a combination of both rearing-types, there was no significant habitat effect on prey selection, but hatchery-reared red drum suffered higher overall mortality than wild-caught fish from pinfish predators. In these trials, spotted seatrout did not select for either prey type. Differences we observed in prey vulnerability were likely caused by behavioral differences between wild-caught and hatchery-reared red drum. Our results reinforce the conclusion that structural complexity in estuarine habitats increases survival of newly settled fishes. Our data also suggest that hatchery-reared red drum may be more vulnerable to predation than natural fishes, and that survival of stocked fish may be enhanced through habitat-related behavior modification. PMID:11358569

  20. Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, Arto; Tellervo Valtonen, E; Benesh, Daniel P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual fish hosts. Worms from different parts of the gut did not differ in length, so site segregation was not obviously related to worm growth or age. We found proportionally more males in the caeca when a larger fraction of the females were found there, suggesting mating opportunities influence gut distribution. However, this result relied on a single parasite infrapopulation and is thus tentative. We discuss how mating strategies and/or sexual differences in life history might explain why males and females occupy different parts of the burbot gut. PMID:26580557

  1. Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Prez-Torres, Israel; Ziga Muoz, Alejandra; Beltrn-Rodrguez, Ulises; Daz-Daz, Eulises; Martnez-Memije, Ral; Guarner Lans, Vernica

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, ?(9)-, ?(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased ?(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

  2. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 2.4% and 16.14 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 3.48% and 12.78 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. PMID:25601334

  3. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (?ST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in fact a convergent trait. Thus the polyphyletic nature of the Isididae lies in its type species I. hippuris, being unrelated to the rest of its family members. PMID:26312170

  4. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in fact a convergent trait. Thus the polyphyletic nature of the Isididae lies in its type species I. hippuris, being unrelated to the rest of its family members. PMID:26312170

  5. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  6. Biomarkers for endocrine disruptors in three species of Mediterranean large pelagic fish.

    PubMed

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Marsili, L; Neri, G; Mori, G; Ancora, S; Moscatelli, A; Ausili, A; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species, such as large pelagic fish, are potentially at risk due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is investigated. The potential estrogenic effects of PHAHs in three fish species of commercial interest, the top predators bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and mixed function oxidases (EROD, BPMO) as diagnostic tools. High induction of Vtg and Zrp was detected by western blot and ELISA techniques in adult males of X. gladius and T. thynnus thynnus, suggesting that these species are at high toxicological risk in the Mediterranean sea. Comparison of BPMO and EROD activities in the three species indicated, both in male and female, much higher MFO activity in bluefin tuna. This data suggests high exposure of this species to lipophilic xenobiotic contaminants in the Mediterranean environment. PMID:12408633

  7. Parasites as biological tags in population studies of demersal and pelagic fish species.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S

    2006-06-01

    Among the different techniques applied in a holistic approach for fish stock identification, the use of parasites as "biological tags" is becoming increasingly important. In this presentation, our recent studies on the use of some parasite species, identified by genetic markers, and the parasite/fauna composition, in stock identification of demersal (Merluccius merluccius), small pelagic (Trachurus trachurus), and large pelagic fish species (Xiphias gladius) are reviewed. Different species of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium were genetically identified by the application of genetic (allozyme) markers. Statistically significant differences in the spatial distribution of distinct species of Anisakis were found in the fish considered. As to the species of Hysterothylacium genetically detected, different relative proportions were detected in several Mediterranean and Atlantic samples of swordfish (X. gladius). This study demonstrates the potential value of these anisakid nematodes, at both larval and adult stages, as "biological tags" for these fish species in European waters. PMID:16881389

  8. First evidence of presence of plastic debris in stomach of large pelagic fish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Teresa; Pietro, Battaglia; Ped, Cristina; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2015-06-15

    This study focuses, for the first time, on the presence of plastic debris in the stomach contents of large pelagic fish (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga) caught in the Mediterranean Sea between 2012 and 2013. Results highlighted the ingestion of plastics in the 18.2% of samples. The plastics ingested were microplastics (<5mm), mesoplastics (5-25mm) and macroplastics (>25mm). These preliminary results represent an important initial phase in exploring two main ecotoxicological aspects: (a) the assessment of the presence and impact of plastic debris on these large pelagic fish, and (b) the potential effects related to the transfer of contaminants on human health. PMID:25936574

  9. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA): a highly sensitive inexpensive genotyping alternative for population studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Lu, C-P; Alvarado Bremer, J R

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a highly sensitive closed-tube genotyping method used primarily in clinical studies. As the method is rapid, inexpensive and amenable to high throughput, we decided to investigate its applicability to population studies. Small amplicons and unlabelled probes were used to genotype the nuclear genes, lactate dehydrogenase-A (ldh-A), myosin light chain-2 (mlc-2), acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP) and calmodulin (CaM) in populations of swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Results indicate that HRMA is a powerful genotyping tool to study wild populations. PMID:21565009

  10. Redescription and new host record of Capsala laevis (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae: Capsalinae) from gill of roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii (Perciformes: Istiophoridae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barse, Ann M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-08-01

    Specimens of a capsalid collected from the gill arches of 2 roundscale spearfish, Tetrapturus georgii Lowe, 1840, (Perciformes: Istiophoridae), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean were identified as Capsala laevis (Verrill, 1875) Johnston, 1929 by having the combination of papillae on the ventral surface of haptor, dorsomarginal body sclerites in a single column extending the entire body length, haptoral accessory sclerites, conical papillae distributing over the ventral body surface, and an anterior attachment organ with a fimbriated posterior margin. The new specimens plus the holotype were used to conduct a taxonomic redescription of C. laevis using light and scanning electron microscopy. We documented that the holotype (USNPC No. 7179) and the new specimens of C. laevis from roundscale spearfish each had papillae on the ventral surface of the anterior attachment organs and sensory papillae on the dorsal body surface. Although data are insufficient at this time to justify proposal of a new species, the new specimens differed from the holotype and published accounts of C. laevis by having a sinistral dorsomarginal patch comprising 27-35 sclerites whereas the holotype has a dorsomarginal patch comprising 60 sclerites. Capsala laevis morphologically most closely resembles Capsala ovalis (Goto, 1894) Price, 1938 , but can be most easily differentiated from it by having dorsomarginal body sclerites. This represents the first record of any parasite from the recently taxonomically resurrected roundscale spearfish, long considered by some as a junior subjective synonym of white marlin, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, 1860 and, concomitantly, a new host record for Capsalidae Baird, 1853. An updated list of host records for C. laevis is provided. A perusal of that literature reveals that the identity of the type host for C. laevis is indeterminate beyond Istiophoridae species and that subsequent reports of the type host as ' T. albidus ' are presumptuous (originally reported in 1875 by Verrill as "bill-fish" only). Our results indicated that 2 records of C. laevis from the swordfish, Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, (Perciformes: Xiphiidae) are dubious, i.e., study of the museum voucher USNPC No. 8154 indicates that Linton's 1940 record from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean likely represents a new species of Capsala Bosc, 1811 and that the Kayi? et al. 2010 record from the Aegean Sea likely depicts a species of Capsaloides Price, 1938. PMID:22448751

  11. Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pekarsky, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time. PMID:24294088

  12. The discovery of male Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on tub gurnard, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus) from the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, Ibrahim; Ozak, Argun Akif; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-01-01

    Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901, a common but poorly known species of parasitic copepod, is redescribed from newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the body surface of tub gurnards, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus), caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are redescribed and illustrated in detail and the male of C. brevicaudatus is described for the first time. The new material of C. brevicaudatus is compared with material collected by A. Scott and stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. In addition, a voucher specimen of Caligus uranoscopi Vaissière, 1955, stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris is re-examined. Caligus uranoscopi is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of C. brevicaudatus since it does not differ in any substantive characters. PMID:26449272

  13. New data on the morphology of Iheringascaris inquies (Linton, 1901) (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a specific parasite of the marine fish Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus), as revealed by SEM.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yost, Justin; de Buron, Isaure

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of the type species of the ascaridoid genus Iheringascaris Pereira, 1935, I. inquies (Linton, 1901) (Anisakidae), were collected from the digestive tract and mesentery of its type host Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus) (Rachycentridae, Perciformes) from off the Atlantic coast of South Carolina, USA, during May of 2011. Scanning electron microscopical examination, used for the first time for specimens originating from the West Atlantic, made it possible to study in detail some taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and distribution of male caudal papillae, cephalic and cuticular structures, deirids and cloacal (anal) lips. The allocation of other, poorly described, species from different hosts in Indian waters to this genus needs to be confirmed. PMID:23327015

  14. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35). PMID:21980777

  15. Swedenborg, Linnaeus and brain research--and the roles of Gustaf Retzius and Alfred Stroh in the rediscovery of Swedenborg's manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Gordh, Torsten E; Mair, William G P; Sourander, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) at the end of his long life became famous as a visionary mystic and founder of a new religion. However, at younger age, he was recognized as a prominent mining engineer and natural philosopher, particularly interested in geology, mineralogy, cosmology, paleontology and last but not least physiology of the brain. In his Oeconomica regni animalis (1740) and in several posthumously published extensive manuscripts, he described and analyzed e.g. the structural and functional organization of the cerebral cortex, the hierarchical construction of the nervous system, the localization of the cerebrospinal fluid and the secretory functions of the pituitary gland. In these fields, he presented remarkable insights and far reaching conclusions which in some cases have been experimentally verified in modern times. In spite of family relations Swedenborg rarely met the 19 years younger Linnaeus. Linnaeus was not only the founder of the systemic botany but as physician a keen and to some extent original observer of neurological symptoms; one of the first who adequately described motor aphasia. To regard these two men, among the few Swedish authors of the 18th century whose names are still internationally well known, as early precursors of neurological research, seems justified. The young Canadian, Alfred H. Stroh (1878-1922), had a crucial importance for the research on the works of Swedenborg, and the rediscovery of his manuscripts. His work was supported and financed to a large extent by professor Gustaf Retzius, at that time the most prominent Swedish researcher in anatomy and histology. There are many reasons to be thankful for the important contributions made by Alfred Stroh and Gustaf Retzius to stimulate the interest for Emanuel Swedenborg in Sweden and internationally. PMID:17578815

  16. Geographically Widespread Swordfish Barcode Stock Identification: A Case Study of Its Application

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Guarino, Francesca; Reina, Simona; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito

    2011-01-01

    Background The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a cosmopolitan large pelagic fish inhabiting tempered and tropical waters and it is a target species for fisheries all around the world. The present study investigated the ability of COI barcoding to reliably identify swordfish and particularly specific stocks of this commercially important species. Methodology We applied the classical DNA barcoding technology, upon a 682 bp segment of COI, and compared swordfish sequences from different geographical sources (Atlantic, Indian Oceans and Mediterranean Sea). The sequences of the 5? hyper-variable fragment of the control region (5?dloop), were also used to validate the efficacy of COI as a stock-specific marker. Case Report This information was successfully applied to the discrimination of unknown samples from the market, detecting in some cases mislabeled seafood products. Conclusions The NJ distance-based phenogram (K2P model) obtained with COI sequences allowed us to correlate the swordfish haplotypes to the different geographical stocks. Similar results were obtained with 5?dloop. Our preliminary data in swordfish Xiphias gladius confirm that Cytochrome Oxidase I can be proposed as an efficient species-specific marker that has also the potential to assign geographical provenance. This information might speed the samples analysis in commercial application of barcoding. PMID:22039414

  17. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse

    2008-08-07

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  18. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated. PMID:24621396

  19. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Mller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    PubMed

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Aik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Mller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr?>Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake. PMID:25567060

  20. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.400.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the MET diet was significantly higher than that of the fish fed the un-supplemented experimental diet and the fish in the other methionine supplementation groups ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that supplementation of crystalline Met in low-fish-meal diets promotes the growth performance of juvenile cobia.

  1. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches. PMID:22684690

  2. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (-)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (-)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (-)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H₂DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  3. Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Sanchez, Maria de Los Angeles; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Trejo-Castro, Lauro; Montenegro-Cristino, Natividad; Almanza-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; de la Rosa-Arana, Jorge Luis

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-? were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-? increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen whereas in AS, AL and AF groups recovering was of 25%, 12% and 8%, respectively. Macroscopical lesions in the liver were scarce in AL and AF groups. Our data suggest that immunisation of mice with antigens of F. hepatica enhances the immune response avoiding both liver damage and worm establishment after challenge infection. The murine model of fasciolosis has appeared to be useful to elucidate the mechanism by which the parasite modulates immune responses toward a Th2 type but also the development of Th1 type-inducing vaccines. PMID:26384366

  4. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  5. A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the intestine of the Mediterranean house gecko Hemidactylus turcicus Linnaeus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Duszynski, Donald W; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 was discovered in the Mediterranean house gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Linnaeus) in Saudi Arabia. Both exogenous (sporulated oöcysts) and endogenous developmental stages (meronts, gamonts) were studied and measured. Sporulated oöcysts are spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, 17-22 (18) µm wide, with a smooth, bi-layered oöcyst wall; micropyle, polar granule and oöcyst residuum are all absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 9-11 × 6-8 (10 × 7) µm, with both Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies, a dispersed granular sporocyst residuum, and four sporozoites. Endogenous stages develop extranuclearly in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the small intestine. Early uninucleate meronts are spheroidal, c.3-5 (4) µm wide. Multinucleated meronts are subspheroidal, 11-15 × 9-12 (13 × 10) µm, but mature meront and merozoites were not seen. Mature microgamonts, with up to 60 microgametes, are spheroidal, 11-15 (13) µm; macrogamonts are subspheroidal, with a prominent central nucleus, and measured 11-14 × 7-10 (12 × 8) µm. PMID:25693463

  6. Natural History Museum Sound Archive I: Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae Leach, 1815, including 3D scans of burrow casts of Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gryllotalpa vineae Bennet-Clark, 1970

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Yoke-Shum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) sound archive contains recordings of Gryllotalpidae, and the NHM collection holds plaster casts of the burrows of two species. These recordings and burrows have until now not been made available through the NHM's collection database, making it hard for researchers to make use of these resources. New information Eighteen recordings of mole crickets (three identified species) held by the NHM have been made available under open licenses via BioAcoustica. 3D scans of the burrows of Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Gryllotalpa vineae Bennet-Clark, 1970 have been made available via the NHM Data Portal. PMID:26752971

  7. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon. PMID:26581747

  8. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  9. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Ltken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected). PMID:24822321

  10. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, Jos Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus. PMID:24260631

  11. Effects of BmKIT 3 R gene transfer on pupal development of Bombyx mori Linnaeus using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Kun; Cao, Guang-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Xue, Ren-Yu; Gong, Cheng-Liang

    2012-03-28

    The pupal stage of the silkworm Bombyx mori Linnaeus lasts for approximately two weeks. However, prolongation of pupal duration would reduce the labor required to process and dry fresh cocoons. This study investigated the effects of BmKIT(3)(R) gene (from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch) transfer on the pupal development of B. mori using a Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Gal4 driven by a pupa-specific promoter BmWCP4 (from a B. mori wing-cuticle protein gene) or PDP (from a B. mori cocoonase gene), and BmKIT(3)(R) driven by a UAS cis-acting element were used to construct novel piggyBac-derived plasmids containing a neomycin-resistance gene (neo) controlled by the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) ie-1 (immediate-early gene) promoter and a green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) under the control of the B. mori actin 3 (A3) promoter. The vector was transferred into silkworm eggs by sperm-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic silkworms were produced after screening for neo and gfp genes, and gene transfer was verified by polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization. The larval development of the hybrid progeny of Gal4- and UAS-transgenic silkworms was similar to that of normal silkworms, but some pupae failed to metamorphose into moths, and the development of surviving pupae was arrested as a result of BmKIT(3)(R) expression. Moreover, Gal4 driven by the BmWCP4 promoter delayed pupal development more effectively than that driven by the PDP promoter in the Gal4/UAS binary transgenic system. Pupal durations of hybrid transgenic silkworm progeny with BmWCP4 and PDP promoters were approximately 5, 2, and 4 days longer, respectively, compared to corresponding normal silkworms, BmWCP4/Gal4, and UAS/BmKIT(3)(R) transgenic silkworms, respectively. These results suggest new avenues of research for prolonging the pupal duration of silkworms. PMID:22429285

  12. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  13. Seasonal Distributions and Migrations of Northwest Atlantic Swordfish: Inferences from Integration of Pop-Up Satellite Archival Tagging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, John D.; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D.; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

  14. Occurrence and accumulation of organochlorine contaminants in swordfish from Mediterranean Sea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners and DDT compounds were measured in the liver of a teleost species: namely, Xiphias gladius. PCB concentrations (median: 1121 ng/g lipid wt) were comparable with DDT levels (median: 1236 ng/g lipid wt). PCBs revealed a profile dominated by hexa-, penta- and heptachlorinated congeners. Among DDTs, the compound in the greatest concentration was p,p'-DDE, representing 70% of the total DDT burden, followed by o,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDT>p,p'-DDD=o,p'-DDD. Mean total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent of five coplanar PCBs was 8.83 pg/g lipid weight. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non-ortho congeners than mono-ortho ones. PMID:15982706

  15. Are the mediterraneantop predators exposed to toxicological risk due to endocrine disrupters?

    PubMed

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Marsili, L; Ausili, A; di Sciara, G N

    2001-12-01

    Man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans; some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. This basin has limited exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean and is surrounded by some of the most heavily populated and industrialized countries in the world. Accordingly, levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this research the unexplored hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs is investigated. Here we illustrate the development of sensitive biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins) for evaluation of toxicological risk in top marine predators (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus thynnus), and nonlethal techniques, such as nondestructive biomarkers (BPMO activities in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened species exposed to EDCs, such as marine mammals (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis, and Balaenoptera physalus). PMID:11795396

  16. [Hysterothylacium petteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridata) from the Pacific Ocean swordfish].

    PubMed

    Sheenko, P S

    1991-01-01

    Hysterothylacium petteri sp. n. was recovered from the stomach of Xiphias gladius occurring in the Kuroshio. The morphological difference of H. petteri from all other species of this genus is the extremely long ventricular caecum (two times more than pharynx). The species is very similar to H. corrugatum Deardorff et Overstreet, 1980 from swordfish off the American shores and corresponds to the description of Hysterothylacium sp. by Petter, Maillard, 1987. The third stage larvae of H. petteri sp. n. are probably those larval forms which were described as Contracaecum sp. l. Type IIA in Brunsdon in Boyle, 1966; Contracaecum sp. Otsuru et al.--type-B (Kikuchi et al.--type-A) in Kagei et al., 1970; Thynnascaris from Todarodes pacificus in Oshima, 1972; Contracaecum--type larva (B) in Shiraki, 1974; Hysterothylacium L3 in Weerasooriya et al., 1986; Porrocaecum sp. l. in Gaevskaya, Nigmatullin, Schuchhalter. New morphometric data on these larvae are given. PMID:1792100

  17. The amino-acid sequence of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from swordfish liver. Comparison of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase sequences.

    PubMed

    Rocha, H A; Bannister, W H; Bannister, J V

    1984-12-17

    The amino acid sequence of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from swordfish (Xiphias gladius) liver has been determined by alignment of the tryptic peptides according to the known sequence of bovine erythrocyte copper/zinc superoxide dismutase. This alignment has resulted in the ligands to the copper (His-47, 49, 76 and 94) and the zinc (His-76, 85, 134 and Asp-97) being conserved in all the copper/zinc superoxide dismutases sequenced so far. Also conserved in the sequences are the cysteines forming the intrachain disulphide bridge (Cys-58 and 160) and the essential arginine (Arg-157). Comparison of the amino acid sequence of swordfish liver copper/zinc superoxide dismutase with the bovine, human, horse, yeast and Photobacterium leiognathi indicates that the swordfish enzyme has a high homology with the other eukaryotic enzymes. Low homology is, however, observed with the P. leiognathi enzyme. PMID:6510412

  18. Seasonal distributions and migrations of Northwest Atlantic swordfish: inferences from integration of pop-up satellite archival tagging studies.

    PubMed

    Neilson, John D; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

  19. Pelagic cephalopods of the central Mediterranean Sea determined by the analysis of the stomach content of large fish predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Teresa; Battaglia, Pietro; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Valentina; Andaloro, Franco

    2012-09-01

    The pelagic cephalopod fauna of the central Mediterranean Sea was investigated through stomach content analyses of large fish predators. A total of 124 Xiphias gladius, 22 Thunnus thynnus, 100 Thunnus alalunga, and 25 Tetrapturus belone were analyzed. Overall, 3,096 cephalopods belonging to 23 species and 16 families were identified. The cephalopod fauna in the study area is dominated by Sepiolidae, Ommastrephidae, and Onychoteuthidae. The sepiolid Heteroteuthis dispar was the most abundant species ( n = 1,402) while the ommastrephid Todarodes sagittatus showed the highest biomass. They can be considered key-species in the pelagic food web of the study area. The neutrally buoyant Histioteuthis bonnellii, H. reversa, and Chiroteuthis veranyi seem to characterize the deeper water layers. Given the difficulty in sampling pelagic cephalopods, the presence of cephalopod beaks in the stomach of predators represents a fundamental tool to assess the biodiversity and the ecological importance of these taxa in the marine ecosystem.

  20. Anisakis infection in allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), from Western Iberian Peninsula Rivers: zoonotic and ecological implications.

    PubMed

    Bao, M; Mota, M; Nachón, D J; Antunes, C; Cobo, F; Garci, M E; Pierce, G J; Pascual, S

    2015-06-01

    Spawning individuals of allis shad, Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758), and twaite shad, Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), were sampled from three rivers on the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula (Ulla, Minho, Mondego) during 2008 to 2013 to assess the presence of the zoonotic marine parasite Anisakis spp. larvae. The results revealed that both shad species were infected by third-larval stage Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The latter is reported in mixed infections in both shad species of Western Iberian Peninsula for the first time. In A. alosa, the prevalence of Anisakis infection can reach 100%, while in A. fallax, prevalence was up to 83%. Infected individuals of the former species also often contain much higher number of parasites in theirs internal organs and flesh: from 1 to 1138 Anisakis spp. larvae as compared to 1 to 121 larvae, respectively. In general, numbers of A. pegreffii were higher than those of A. simplex s.s. Our results suggest that in the marine environment of the Western Iberian Peninsula, both anadromous shad species act as paratenic hosts for A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii, thus widening the distribution of the infective nematode larvae from the marine to the freshwater ecosystem. This finding is of great epidemiological relevance for wildlife managers and consumers, considering the zoonotic and gastroallergic threats posed of these parasites. PMID:25810220

  1. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey.

    PubMed

    Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian N; Kaneko, J John; Drazen, Jeffrey C

    2009-08-18

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  2. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey

    PubMed Central

    Choy, C. Anela; Popp, Brian N.; Kaneko, J. John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

  3. First report on the occurrence of the comb pen shell, Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus, 1767) (Bivalvia: Pinnidae) in Ulleungdo Island in the East Sea: Ecology and molecular identification of the species using COI gene sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Park, Heung-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Jeong, Eui-Young; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    Pen shell is one of the largest marine bivalves inhabiting shallow subtidal soft bottoms in the west Pacific and Indian Oceans. In Korea, the comb pen shell Atrina pectinata fisheries has been established on the south and west coasts. Recently, a pen shell population has been discovered from a subtidal sand flat (25-30 m depth) in Ulleungdo Island located in the East Sea of Korea, suggesting a potential shellfish resource in this area. In the present study, we first surveyed the population density and size of the unique pen shell using SCUBA, and identified the pen shell to species level using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) sequence. An underwater survey carried out from July to September 2013 revealed that populations of pen shell patched on subtidal sand flat at a depth of 20-25 m. Grain size analysis indicated that sand particles accounted for 99% of the 600 × 700 m sand flat. The underwater survey also indicated that density of the pen shell ranged between 6-19 ind/m2, with a mean of 11 ind/m2. Shell height (i.e. longest axis of the shell) of the pen shell on the sand flat varied between 17.2 cm to 28.8 cm, with a mean of 25.1 cm, and the age was estimated to range between 1.5-7.5 yrs, with a mean of 5 yr. COI DNA sequence obtained from the pen shell in this study showed 98.9-99.2% similarity to Atrina pectinata (Linnaeus 1767) reported from Japan. In the cluster analysis, the COI DNA sequence of the pen shells from Ulleungdo Island was grouped with A. pectinata reported from Japan and China, indicating that the pen shell discovered in this study was A. pectinata, commonly distributed on the west and south coasts of Korea.

  4. Postharvest correlation between swordfish (Xiphius gladius) size and mercury concentration in edible tissues.

    PubMed

    Cladis, Dennis P; Zhang, Rongrong; Tan, Xi; Craig, Bruce; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-02-01

    Total mercury was measured via thermal decomposition amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy in the muscle tissue of 82 swordfish originating in the Pacific Ocean and was found to range from 228 to 2,090 ppb. The relationships between total mercury concentration and the size of the fish (i.e., length and weight) were analyzed. It was found that dressed weight (DW) was a better predictor of mercury concentration than cleithrum-to-caudal keel length in a single variable model, and DW was the only significant predictor of mercury concentration in a multivariable model. Based on these relationships, swordfish with a DW greater than 96.4 kg (213 lb; 95% confidence interval, 88 to 107 kg [195 to 235 lb]) will exceed 1,000 ppb of mercury-the action level in the United States, Canada, and Europe-and should not be sold in commercial markets. Additionally, a logistic regression model was created to illustrate the probability of a swordfish at any DW being unsafe to consume (i.e., containing more than 1,000 ppb of mercury). In this model, the probability of a swordfish being unsafe exceeds the probability of being safe at 94.6 kg (209 lb). Taken together, the models presented in this report give regulators valuable postharvest tools to use for rapid determination of the safety of swordfish intended for sale in commercial markets. PMID:25710157

  5. The responses of the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a polluted site: implications for their use in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Traven, Luka; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Vuki? Lui?, Darija; Smital, Tvrtko

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigates the response of three hepatic biomarkers in adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a wastewater outlet of an oil refinery with fish caged at a pristine site used as controls. The biomarkers that were investigated were the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, we have measured the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc) in sediment samples at the polluted site. Although the polluted site had high environmental levels of PAHs and heavy metals, there was no difference in hepatic EROD activity and HSI between fish caged at the polluted site and controls. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly lower in fish caged at the polluted site compared to controls. Our results point out that the studied biomarkers have limited use in environmental risk assessment studies, at least when caged adult sea bass is used as the sentinel species and complex toxicant mixtures are involved. PMID:23644668

  6. Integrating genetic and parasitological approaches in the frame of multidisciplinary fish stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Cimmaruta, R; Mattiucci, S; Nascetti, G

    2007-09-01

    To assess fish stocks boundaries and state, the tools of population genetics have been widely used, contributing to the evaluation of relevant parameters such as the identification of stock boundaries, the assessment of gene flow and the estimation of effective population size. Also, increasing evidences show that the monitoring of the genetic diversity level is a reliable method to check the status of fish stocks. However, genetics cannot answer all the questions. For example, in high gene flow species the genetic approach could have not enough resolution to identify stock limits, while the use of parasites as biological tags could provide insights into stock structure. Even better, the so-called holistic approach, applying simultaneously a wide range of complementary techniques, is the only one considered able to provide a reliable and complete picture of fish stocks and to address a sustainable exploitation of marine resources. The work will present some examples from multidisciplinary studies concerning commercially relevant species with different biological features: the demersal European hake (Merluccius merluccius), the small pelagic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and the large pelagic swordfish (Xiphias gladius). In all these case studies merging genetic, parasitological and environmental data helped to reveal the real patterns of stocks structure. PMID:18410069

  7. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  8. Feeding in billfishes: inferring the role of the rostrum from a biomechanical standpoint.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Dean, Mason N; Dunlop, John W C; Mullins, Gray; Stokes, Michael; Huber, Daniel R; Winters, Daniel; Motta, Philip J

    2015-03-01

    Perhaps the most striking feature of billfishes is the extreme elongation of the premaxillary bones forming their rostra. Surprisingly, the exact role of this structure in feeding is still controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the use of the rostrum from a functional, biomechanical and morphological standpoint to ultimately infer its possible role during feeding. Using beam theory, experimental and theoretical loading tests were performed on the rostra from two morphologically different billfish, the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Two loading regimes were applied (dorsoventral and lateral) to simulate possible striking behaviors. Histological samples and material properties of the rostra were obtained along their lengths to further characterize structure and mechanical performance. Intraspecific results show similar stress distributions for most regions of the rostra, suggesting that this structure may be designed to withstand continuous loadings with no particular region of stress concentration. Although material stiffness increased distally, flexural stiffness increased proximally owing to higher second moment of area. The blue marlin rostrum was stiffer and resisted considerably higher loads for both loading planes compared with that of the swordfish. However, when a continuous load along the rostrum was considered, simulating the rostrum swinging through the water, swordfish exhibited lower stress and drag during lateral loading. Our combined results suggest that the swordfish rostrum is suited for lateral swiping to incapacitate their prey, whereas the blue marlin rostrum is better suited to strike prey from a wider variety of directions. PMID:25617457

  9. Distribution of Anisakis larvae, identified by genetic markers, and their use for stock characterization of demersal and pelagic fish from European waters: an update.

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, S; Abaunza, P; Damiano, S; Garcia, A; Santos, M N; Nascetti, G

    2007-06-01

    In the present paper, recent results obtained on the use of different distributions observed in larval species of Anisakis, genetically identified by means of allozyme markers, for stock characterization of demersal (Merluccius merluccius), small (Trachurus trachurus) and large pelagic (Xiphias gladius) finfish species in European waters, are reviewed and discussed. Several species of Anisakis were identified in the three fish hosts: A. simplex (s.s.), A. physeteris, A. typica, A. ziphidarum, A. pegreffii, A. brevispiculata and A. paggiae. Canonical discriminant analysis performed on all the samples of the three fish species collected in areas comprising their geographical range, according to the different species of Anisakis identified, showed distinct fish populations in European waters. In all the three fish hosts, the pattern of distribution of Anisakis larvae allowed discrimination of Mediterranean stocks from Atlantic stocks. In the case of swordfish, the possible existence of a southern Atlantic stock separated from a northern one is also suggested. Congruence and discordance with the population genetic data inferred from allozyme markers on the same samples of the three fish species are also discussed. PMID:17578592

  10. Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.

    PubMed

    Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J

    2005-01-11

    Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

  11. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: state of art, gender differences and methodological tools.

    PubMed

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Marsili, L

    2007-05-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish, (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females. PMID:16996053

  12. Comparative phylogeography of Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish: the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, introgression, and population expansion on the regional phylogenies of two highly migratory pelagic fishes.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R; Vias, Jordi; Mejuto, Jaime; Ely, Bert; Pla, Carles

    2005-07-01

    Comparative phylogeography has revealed remarkable patterns of concordance in the maternal phylogenies of many species. The phylogeography and historical demography of the mitochondrial control region I for 607 Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and 275 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) were analyzed to clarify the complex phylogenetic signals in the North Atlantic-Mediterranean region where they are sympatric. Atlantic bluefin tuna mtDNA is polyphyletic, and includes rare sequences sister to Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and introgressed albacore (Thunnus alalunga) sequences. There is no geographic partitioning between Atlantic and Mediterranean samples of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Phi(ST)=0.002). In contrast, Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish are differentiated (Phi(ST)=0.091) due to the combined effects of vicariance, secondary contact, and dissimilar regional demographic histories. Mediterranean swordfish has substantially less variation, and a more recent history (tau=2.42) than that of Atlantic swordfish (tau=7.02). In spite of the discordant phylogenetic and phylogeographic signals, the demographic history of Atlantic swordfish and Atlantic bluefin tuna (tau=7.51) suggests concordance in the timeline of population expansion. Possible scenarios of cladogenesis, expansion, and contraction, influenced by glacial cycles during the Pleistocene, are formulated. PMID:15904864

  13. Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

    2014-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n=176) contained the highest total Hg (0.900.51mg/kg) and Cd (0.090.13mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n=140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.110.16mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.160.11mg/kg), Cd (0.010.01mg/kg) and Pb (0.040.04mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n=28). Black marlin (n=24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.490.37), Cd (0.020.02) and Pb (0.050.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

  14. Ventricular myocardial architecture in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Quintana, D; Hurle, J M

    1987-03-01

    The fiber architecture of the ventricular myocardium has been studied in elasmobranch (Isurus oxyrhinchus, Galeorhinus galeus, Prionace glauca) and teleost (Xiphias gladius, Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus alalunga) fish species with hearts displaying mixed types of ventricular musculature (compact and trabecular). In all cases, the compact myocardium is organized in layers of fiber bundles with an orderly arrangement within the ventricular walls. The number of these layers appears to be dependent on the relative thickness of the compact myocardium. Differences in the pattern of myocardial fiber arrangement were observed among the different fish species. In elasmobranchs the compact myocardium at the level of the atrioventricular orifice is continuous with the trabeculated myocardium. Furthermore, in elasmobranchs the trabeculated myocardium displays a precise arrangement in arcuate trabeculae running from the auriculoventricular to the conoventricular orifices. In teleosts, the compact myocardium is independent of the trabeculated myocardium and a large number of fibers insert into the bulboventricular fibrous ring. The trabeculated myocardium in these species displays an anarchic arrangement except at the level of the bulboventricular orifice, where the fibers tend to be aligned longitudinally, also being inserted into the fibrous ring. Minor differences, consisting mainly of the presence of extra bundles of fibers, were also observed among different individuals of the same species. The possible relationship between myocardial fiber architecture and ventricular shape is discussed. PMID:3578842

  15. Contribution of fish consumption to heavy metals exposure in women of childbearing age from a Mediterranean country (Spain).

    PubMed

    Herreros, M A; Iigo-Nuez, S; Sanchez-Perez, E; Encinas, T; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2008-05-01

    The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were determined in samples from sword-fish (Xiphias gladius, n=37) and louvar (Luvarus imperialis, n=17) taken in an official surveillance programme in Madrid (Spain). The levels of heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (hydride generator for Hg and flame atomic absorption for Cd and Pb) after digestion of the samples (microwave digestion for Hg and drying chamber for Cd and Pb). Pb contamination was negligible in both species. Cd was detected in 89.19% of the samples from sword-fish and 52.94% from louver; 17.65% of louvar and none from sword-fish being higher than maximum residue limits (MRL). However, around 90% of louvar samples and around 35% of sword-fish portions exceeded MRL for Hg; around 30% of louvar samples having levels even higher than 1 microg/g. The consumption of one serving of 150 g either of louvar or sword-fish would not be relevant for Cd and Pb provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of these elements for women in childbearing age, but it would largely exceed the tolerable values for Hg. PMID:18280025

  16. Accumulation of heavy metals to assess the health status of swordfish in a comparative analysis of Mediterranean and Atlantic areas.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Simone; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    During the last few decades, the combined effects of natural and human activities acting on the Mediterranean Sea basin have caused a reduction in the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, L. 1758) population. In this project, we investigated the accumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) levels in the Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of swordfish during a five-year survey. In the marine environment, top predators such as swordfish accumulate high concentrations of toxic metals, and thus, potentially incur a high toxicological risk. Furthermore, heavy metals, such as chemical pollutants, have strong long-term effects on fish, and thus, constitute a high risk for the resource and humans that consume it. The aim of this work is to contribute to the assessment of the state of European swordfish population health. We analyzed muscle tissue from 56 specimens captured in Mediterranean and Atlantic areas for trace elements. Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb were in the following ranges: 0.66-2.41, 0.04-0.16, and 0.97-1.36 mg/kg ww, respectively. These data suggest a need for continuous monitoring to avoid reductions in the population of this fish species of high commercial and ecological interest. PMID:21719037

  17. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  18. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  19. Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Luis; lvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpci; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

  20. Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

  1. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, M.C. . E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-05-15

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

  2. Insecticide resistance status and mechanisms in Malaysian Blattella germanica (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Lee, H L; Tien, W D; Omar, B

    1997-03-01

    The insecticide resistance status of 4 strains of adult male Blattella germanica, viz M (Malacca), E (England), F (restaurant) and K (cafeteria) against malathion and bendiocarb compared with a reference susceptible strain (S) was determined by using a modified WHO bioassay method. The results indicated that all the 4 strains were resistant to the insecticides albeit in different degrees. Resistance ratios for malathion ranged from 1.85-41.07-fold, whereas that of bendiocarb ranged from 1.68-4.83-fold. The biochemical microplate enzyme assays technique employed indicated that the resistance in M and E strains were attributed to acetylcholinesterase insensitivity. Multiple resistance was not detected in any of the 4 strains. Parameters of the identified resistance mechanism correlated well with the observed level of resistance. Agar gel electrophoresis showed that variations in esterase isoenzymes did not confer organophosphate and carbamate resistance to the 4 strains. PMID:9322308

  3. The existence of Dracunculus medinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Turkana, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, C N

    1981-01-01

    Dracontiasis has been previously reported in southern Sudan, northern Uganda and north-west Eritrea but this is the first report of autochthonous cases in Turkana, Kenya. Five Turkana tribesmen, three females from the same family, one young boy and an adult male were being treated for guinea-worm at the dispensary in Lokichogio, northern Turkana District. The three women had recently returned from southern Sudan, where the disease is endemic, but the two male tribesmen had only lived in and around the Lokichogio region. The methods used in obtaining water from water-holes dug in dry river beds provide an ideal situation for Dracunculus transmission amongst the tribesmen; this parasite may therefore become a problem in this remote impoverished area. PMID:6460352

  4. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P<0.05) was achieved by combining extender with pH 8.2 with 10% concentration of dimethylsulfoxide and cooling rate 60C -min, 1 minute of equilibration time and 1:3 (v/v) dilution ratio. The use of cryopreserved sperm presented fertilization rates >60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability. PMID:26465727

  5. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingwang; Mai, Kangsen; Liufu, Zhiguo; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-04-01

    The dietary protein requirement of juvenile turbot (initial average weight, 38.2 g 0.1 g) reared indoor in aerated aquaria was determined in this study. Five energy equal experimental diets were formulated with fish meal as protein source, which contained different concentrations of protein (47.2%, 51.0%, 54.6%, 59.3% and 63.6% of dry diet). Three groups of fish with 18 individuals in each, were cultured in 300-L tanks and fed twice a day for 8 weeks. During culture, temperature was controlled between 15.0 and 18.0C, salinity was controlled between 28.5 and 32.0, acidity was controlled between pH7.8 and pH8.5, and ammonia nitrogen was maintained below 0.03 mg L-1 and dissolved oxygen was maintained about 7 mg L-1. Results showed that the growth of fish was significantly affected by dietary protein content ( P < 0.05). Specific growth rate ( SGR) of turbot increased when dietary protein content varied between 47.2% and 51.0% ( P < 0.05), and then kept stable when dietary protein content was higher than 51.0%. Fish which were fed the diet containing 63.6% protein showed the highest SGR while those fed the diet containing 59.3% protein showed the highest feed efficiency rate. No significant difference of feed intake and protein efficiency ratio was found among experimental diets ( P > 0.05). Broken-line regression analysis of SGR showed that the optimal dietary protein requirement of turbot was about 57.0%.

  6. Molecular studies on larvae of Pseudoterranova parasite of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) off Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Borges, Juliana N; Cunha, Luiz F G; Miranda, Daniele F; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Santos, Cláudia P

    2015-12-01

    Pseudoterranova larvae parasitizing cutlassfish Trichiurus lepturus and bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix from Southwest Atlantic coast of Brazil were studied in this work by morphological, ultrastructural and molecular approaches. The genetic analysis were performed for the ITS2 intergenic region specific for Pseudoterranova decipiens, the partial 28S (LSU) of ribosomal DNA and the mtDNA cox-1 region. We obtained results for the 28S region and mtDNA cox-1 that was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships between sequences of this study and sequences from the GenBank. The morphological profile indicated that all the nine specimens collected from both fish were L3 larvae of Pseudoterranova sp. The genetic profile confirmed the generic level but due to the absence of similar sequences for adult parasites on GenBank for the regions amplifyied, it was not possible to identify them to the species level. The sequences obtained presented 89% of similarity with Pseudoterranova decipiens (28S sequences) and Contracaecum osculatum B (mtDNA cox-1). The low similarity allied to the fact that the amplification with the specific primer for P. decipiens didn't occur, lead us to conclude that our sequences don't belong to P. decipiens complex. PMID:26408586

  7. Trinoton querquedulae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Menoponidae) - a rare parasite of the Eider duck Somateria mollissima (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Fryderyk, Sławomira

    2013-01-01

    In October 2006 an individual of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) was examined and one female of Trinoton querquedulae was found on one of the remiges. This species of lice was recorded for the first time in Poland on the studied host. Up till now, T querquedulae has been noted only on this duck species in Belgium. Considering the extremely scarce information available, this species of lice is most probably rare in the Common Eider. PMID:23829054

  8. Distribution and habitat associations of billfish and swordfish larvae across mesoscale features in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rooker, Jay R; Simms, Jeff R; Wells, R J David; Holt, Scott A; Holt, G Joan; Graves, John E; Furey, Nathan B

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006-2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m(-2)) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m(-2)), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m(-2)), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m(-2)). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

  9. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species spatially and temporally partition spawning within a region that is characterized by dynamic oceanography and strong habitat gradients.

  10. Methodological streamlining of SNP discovery and genotyping via high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) in non-model species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brad L; Lu, Ching-Ping; Alvarado Bremer, Jaime R

    2013-03-01

    The exponential growth of genetic resources is fueled by continued advances in genomic technologies and the adoption of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for population studies. Concomitant to these developments, there is growing need for rapid screening and subsequent genotyping of SNPs in non-model organisms. Here we provide a rapid and low-cost workflow utilizing high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for nuclear marker development and genotyping of 774 Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish (Xiphias gladius) that is amendable to other species. Preliminary HRMA screening of amplicons (>290bp) for 10 nuclear loci revealed the presence of nucleotide polymorphisms, however, length and variability precluded diagnostic genotyping. Two variants of HRMA were therefore utilized to provide diagnostic genotyping assays. Short-amplicon HRMA (SA-HRMA), in which primers flank closely a SNP of interest, was identified as a low cost, rapid, closed-tube diagnostic genotyping assay that could distinguish between homozygous genotypes by ?Tm, and heterozygous genotypes by heteroduplex melting curve profiles. When the patterns of sequence variation were not suitable for SA-HRMA, unlabeled probe (UP)-HRMA was utilized. UP-HRMA has the advantage of being capable of genotyping multiple linked SNPs in a single closed-tube assay without Bayesian haplotype reconstruction, and can identify new SNPs while genotyping populations. Almost 37% of the SNPs genotyped via UP-HRMA were discovered while genotyping populations and not from preliminary screening. Analysis of swordfish in the North Atlantic (NA, n=419), South Atlantic (SA, n=296), and Mediterranean (MED, n=59) found no significant linkage disequilibrium. To assess whether deviations in HWE could be the result of genotyping error rather than population admixture only swordfish from reported spawning areas in the NA (n=49), MED (n=59), and SA (n=42) were analyzed and all loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant genetic differentiation (P<0.001) was identified among populations. PMID:23123289

  11. Mercury and methylmercury bioaccessibility in swordfish.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escribano, S; Vlez, D; Montoro, R

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) present a food safety problem for many countries. This study analyses total Hg (t-Hg) concentrations in 27 samples of swordfish marketed in Spain in 2005 and in their bioaccessible fractions (soluble concentration in gastrointestinal medium), obtained after applying an in vitro digestion method. Methylmercury (MeHg) was also determined in the bioaccessible fractions. t-Hg concentrations in the samples were 0.41-2.11 mg kg(-1) wet weight, with a mean of 0.96 +/- 0.47 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A total of 37% of the samples exceeded the Hg limit set by Spanish legislation (1.0 mg kg(-1) wet weight). Bioaccessible t-Hg concentrations were 0.17-1.72 mg kg(-1) wet weight (0.63 +/- 0.4 mg kg(-1) wet weight), corresponding to 38-83% (64% +/- 14%) of t-Hg. Bioaccessible MeHg concentrations, representing 94% of the bioaccessible t-Hg concentrations, were 0.16-1.53 mg kg(-1) wet weight, with a mean of 0.49 +/- 0.32 mg kg(-1) wet weight. Children and adults who regularly consume this product in Spain have Hg and MeHg intakes that exceed the tolerable daily intake limits recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). These results show the need for recommendations about swordfish consumption by population groups at risk in Spain. PMID:20155538

  12. The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

    2011-03-01

    The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological oceanography may persist over longer time periods, particularly during the Austral spring.

  13. Defining dynamic pelagic habitats in oceanic waters off eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobday, A. J.; Young, J. W.; Moeseneder, C.; Dambacher, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Although many species in the pelagic ocean are widespread, they are not randomly distributed. These species may have associations with particular water masses or habitats, but to best understand patterns in the ocean, these habitats must be identified. Previous efforts have produced static or seasonal climatologies, which still represent smearing over habitats. The Eastern Tuna and Billfish Longline Fishery (ETBF) targets a range of high trophic level species in oceanic waters off eastern Australia. In this study, dynamic ocean habitats in the region were identified for each month based on cluster analysis of five oceanographic variables averaged at a monthly time scale and a spatial scale of 0.5 for the period 1995-2006. A total of seven persistent habitats were identified off eastern Australia with intra and interannual variation in size and location, indicating the importance of spatial and temporal variation in the dynamics of the region. The degree to which these dynamic habitats were distinguished was tested using (i) stable isotope analysis of top fish predators caught in the region and (ii) estimates of variation in estimated abundance generated from catch data from the fishery. More precise estimates (measured as lower total CV) of isotopic values from swordfish ( Xiphias gladius), yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) and albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) were obtained for 4 of 6 isotope comparisons using the dynamic habitat groupings, which indicate that stratifying by pelagic habitat improved precision. Dynamic habitats produced more precise abundance estimates for 7 of 8 large pelagic species examined, with an average reduction in total CV of 19% compared to when abundance was estimated based on static habitat stratification. These findings could be used to guide development of effective monitoring strategies that can distinguish patterns due to environmental variation, and in the longer term, climate change.

  14. Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.

    PubMed

    Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage for fisheries and bycatch species that are heavily influenced by dynamic oceanographic conditions. PMID:24640535

  15. Mercury content in commercial pelagic fish and its risk assessment in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Potier, Michel; Le Corre, Matthieu; Cosson, Richard P; Bustamante, Paco

    2006-08-01

    As top predators of pelagic food webs, large fish naturally bioaccumulate mercury (Hg). Determining Hg burdens in commercialized fish is essential considering the concern about effects of contaminants on human health and the legal thresholds that are therefore set for local consumption and/or exportation. Total Hg levels were measured in the muscular tissue of 183 fish of five commercially important species from the tropical zone of the Western Indian Ocean. All individuals were measured and sexed in order to study the impregnation of Hg with size and sex within each species. Values of Hg found in this part of the Indian Ocean were comparable to Hg in muscular tissue of the same species studied in other areas. The highest Hg levels were noted in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught in waters surrounding Reunion Island (3.97+/-2.67 microg g(-1) dry weight). Following the Swordfish, in decreasing order of Hg content, were the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), then the Common Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and the Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri). In the North of the Mozambique Channel, Swordfish had higher Hg levels than Yellowfin Tunas, and Dolphinfish exhibited intermediate Hg levels. The size of a fish was a determining factor of its Hg burden, as was the species. Differences in size-normalized Hg levels were observed between the two study zones for Swordfish and Common Dolphinfish. Sex, in contrast, did not influence Hg levels suggesting that females and males have similar feeding habits. The muscular Hg levels presented here suggest that consumers of fish originating from the Western Indian Ocean should limit themselves to one Swordfish based meal per week, or one fish meal a day if they choose to eat tuna or Common Dolphinfish. PMID:16580709

  16. Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

    2013-10-01

    Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are discussed with regard to biogeographic province, marine predator, fishing gear to catch the large pelagic fishes, and size of the beaks recovered in the stomachs.

  17. Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some evidence that mesoscale features in the Mozambique Channel do not strongly affect the distribution of the mid-trophic level organisms such as micronekton and most of the large predatory fishes, and hypotheses are proposed to support this result.

  18. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values. PMID:20738644

  19. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m−2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m−2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m−2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m−2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

  20. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Falandysz, Jerzy; Oehme, Gnter; Focardi, Silvano; Giesy, John P

    2002-08-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA; C8F17SO2NH2), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS; C6F13SO3-), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; C7F15CO2-) were detected in 175 samples of liver and blood of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in livers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida), gray seals (Halichoerus grypus), white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PFOS was detected in all of the wildlife species analyzed. Concentrations of PFOS in blood decreased in order of bottlenose dolphins > bluefin tuna > swordfish. Mean PFOS concentrations (61 ng/ g, wet wt) in cormorant livers collected from Sardinia Island in the Mediterranean Sea were less than the concentrations of PFOA (95 ng/g, wetwt). PFOS concentrations in cormorant livers were significantly correlated with those of PFOA. FOSA was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea. The highest concentration of 878 ng FOSA/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin. Livers of ringed and gray seals from the Bothnian Bay in the Baltic Sea contained PFOS concentrations ranging from 130 to 1,100 ng/g, wet wt. No relationships between PFOS concentrations and ages of ringed or gray seals were observed. Concentrations of PFOS in livers of seals were 5.5-fold greater than those in corresponding blood. A significant positive correlation existed between the PFOS concentrations in liver and blood, which indicates that blood can be used for nonlethal monitoring of PFOS. Trend analysis of PFOS concentrations in livers of white-tailed sea eagles collected from eastern Germany and Poland since 1979 indicated an increase in concentrations during the 1990s. Livers of Atlantic salmons did not contain quantifiable concentrations of any of the fluorochemicals monitored. PFOS is a widespread contaminant in wildlife from the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas, while FOSA and PFOA were detected only in certain locations indicating their sporadic spatial distribution. PMID:12188342

  1. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed. PMID:25900723

  2. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested. PMID:16493400

  3. Angiogenic activity of latex from Euphorbia tirucalliLinnaeus 1753 (Plantae, Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bessa, G; Melo-Reis, P R; Arajo, L A; Mru, F; Freitas, G B; Brando, M L; Silva Jnior, N J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic activity of Euphorbia tirucalli, commonly known as "avels" plant, we performed a series of tests by applying an aqueous E. tirucalli latex solution (10 mg/mL) to the chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) of 80 fertilized chicken eggs incubated in a temperature- and humidity-controlled automatic incubator. The results indicated that the aqueous latex solution increased vascular network formation compared to that with the negative control (p < 0.05) and the inhibitor control (p < 0.05). This suggests that under the experimental conditions tested, the aqueous latex solution induced an inflammatory response leading to neoangiogenesis. PMID:26465734

  4. Determination of some blood and seminal plasma ions in the beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Aramli, M S; Habibi, E; Aramli, S; Nouri, H A

    2015-02-01

    Blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters are essential for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses, fish stock conservation and development of artificial propagation methods via extender improvement. In this study, comparison of blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters in beluga, Huso huso (30-45 kg, 1-2 m, n = 10), was made. The results obtained show that Na(+) (82.54 5.46), Cl(-) (15.95 0.72) and K(+) (3.57 0.15) were predominant ions in the seminal plasma (as mM). Blood ionic values (as mM) were determined for Na(+) (110.2 1.26), K(+) (3.77 0.081), Cl(-) (60.12 1.5), Ca(2+) (2.05 0.35) and Mg(2+) (1.9 0.16). Results of the comparison between ionic parameters of seminal and blood plasma indicated that the concentrations of all parameters of blood plasma with the exception of K(+) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of seminal plasma. PMID:25041321

  5. Effect of lower pH on settlement and development of coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viyakarn, Voranop; Lalitpattarakit, Wipada; Chinfak, Narainrit; Jandang, Suppakarn; Kuanui, Pataporn; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Chavanich, Suchana

    2015-06-01

    The effects of pH reduction on the settlement and development of the coral Pocillopora damicornis were investigated. Three different pH treatments (pH = 7.6, 7.9, and 8.1) were used. In addition, water quality (temperature, salinity, total alkalinity) around the study site was monitored. The results showed significant differences in the settlement rates of Pocillopora damicornis larvae between pH treatments (p ? 0.05). A decrease in pH levels caused a strong decline in larval settlement rate. In addition, at pH 7.6 and 7.9, all larvae were unable to complete metamorphosis, and metamorphosis delay was observed. Field monitoring showed low fluctuation of all seawater parameters within 24 hours, and there was no difference between seasons. From this study, a strong negative effect of pH reduction on P. damicornis larvae was observed. Although the function of physiology is still not clearly understood, correlations are likely to exist.

  6. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  7. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  8. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J; Love, Adrian C; Waring, Colin P

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

  9. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João C. P.; Fujihara, Caroline J.; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C.; Teixeira, Carlos R.; Pantoja, José C. F.; Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots’ physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3–9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  10. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  11. Protein profile of the seminal plasma of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Santos, E A A; Sousa, P C; Martins, J A M; Moreira, R A; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreno, F B M B; Oliveira, M F; Moura, A A; Silva, A R

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the major proteins of the peccary seminal plasma, based on the semen samples collected from nine adult and reproductively sound animals. Our approach included the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by Coomassie blue staining and analysis of polypeptide maps with PDQuest Software (Bio-Rad). Proteins were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We detected 179 protein spots per gel and 98 spots were identified by mass spectrometry, corresponding to 23 different proteins. The combined intensity of those spots accounted for 56.26% of the intensities of all spots and 60.9% of the intensities of spots presented in every protein map. Protein spots identified as clusterin represented 19.78.3% of the integrated optical densities of all spots detected in the seminal plasma maps. There was a negative association (r=-0.87; P<0.05) between the intensity of a clusterin spot and the percentage of sperm with functional membrane. Spermadhesin porcine seminal plasma protein 1 and bodhesin 2 comprised 5.41.9 and 8.83.9% of the total intensity of all spots respectively. Many proteins appeared in a polymorphic pattern, such as clusterin (27 spots), epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase (ten spots), inter-?-trypsin inhibitor (12 spots), and IgG-binding protein (ten spots), among others. In conclusion, we presently describe the major seminal plasma proteome of the peccary, which exhibits a distinct high expression of clusterin isoforms. Knowledge of wild species reproductive biology is crucial for an understanding of their survival strategies and adaptation in a changing environment. PMID:24516176

  12. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth ( Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Kühn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation.

  13. Effects of the European hornet (Vespa crabro Linnaeus 1761) crude venom on its own species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lethal dose 50% is a classical index of toxicity that usually employs small rodents as experimental animals. Therefore, scarce data are available on the effects of venom on invertebrates, particularly the impact of wasp venom on its own species. Findings In the present study, the lethality of Vespa crabro venom on its own species was studied. Lethal dose 50% values of crude venom on workers of hornet Vespa crabro were estimated to be 4.0 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusions Wasps can use their venom apparatus effectively when attacking foreign workers that appear in the immediate vicinity of their nest. The toxins released during stinging are potent enough to kill. The result of this study eliminates the popular myth that venomous animals can be resistant to their own venom. PMID:24499044

  14. Haemocyte persistence after grafting for pearl production in Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    The grafting process used for pearl production in pearl oysters triggers a significant haemocyte response which has an influence on the quality of pearls formed. One hundred and ten selected healthy adult Pinctada margaritifera were grafted for pearl production. Beginning two days after grafting, oysters were sacrificed regularly until the 48th day and the pearl-sacs of sampled oysters were sectioned for histological analysis. The level of haemocytes present in the pearl-sacs decreased overtime with the samples from day 2 showing the highest levels. Haemocyte levels also varied between samples from a particular day. The exact cause(s) of varying levels of haemocyte accumulation during pearl-sac development in P.margaritifera is not known. However, it is reasonable to assume that haemocyte production is positively related to the degree of damage caused to host oyster tissues during the grafting procedure. While haemocytes have an important wound healing role in pearl oysters, excessive haemocyte presence may be detrimental to maximizing pearl quality. PMID:25482059

  15. Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.450.60) and (9.530.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations. PMID:23620837

  16. Field optimisation of MosquiTRAP sampling for monitoring Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de; Azara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira de; Costa, Ione Oliveira; Heringer, Laila Costa; Andrade, Mateus Ramos de; Acebal, Jos Luiz; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    A sticky trap designed to capture gravid Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquitoes, MosquiTRAP, has been evaluated for monitoring this species in Brazil. However, the effects of trap densities on the capture rate of Ae. aegypti females and the sensitivity of vector detection are still unknown. After a preliminary study has identified areas of high and low female mosquito abundance, a set of experiments was conducted in four neighbourhoods of Belo Horizonte (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil) using densities of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 traps per block. Trap sensitivity (positive MosquiTRAP index) increased significantly when 1-8 MosquiTRAPs were installed per block in both high and low abundance areas. A strong fit was obtained for the total number of mosquitoes captured with increasing trap densities through a non-linear function (Box-Lucas) (r = 0,994), which likely exhibits saturation towards an equilibrium level. The capacity of the Mean Female Aedes Index to distinguish between areas of high and low Ae. aegypti abundance was also investigated; the achieved differentiation was shown to be dependent on the MosquiTRAP density. PMID:22510823

  17. The unique sound production of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Acherontia atropos (Linnaeus, 1758)) revisited.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Gunnar; Fischer, Martin; Gorb, Stanislav; Kleinteich, Thomas; Khn, Bernhard; Neubert, David; Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Wurdinger, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    When disturbed, adults of the Death's-head hawkmoth (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae: Acherontia atropos) produce short squeaks by drawing in and deflating air into and out of the pharynx as a defence mechanism. We took a new look at Prell's hypothesis of a two-phase mechanism by providing new insights into the functional morphology behind the pharyngeal sound production of this species. First, we compared the head anatomy of A. atropos with another sphingid species, Manduca sexta, by using micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D reconstruction methods. Despite differences in feeding behaviour and capability of sound production in the two species, the musculature in the head is surprisingly similar. However, A. atropos has a much shorter proboscis and a modified epipharynx with a distinct sclerotised lobe projecting into the opening of the pharynx. Second, we observed the sound production in vivo with X-ray videography, mammography CT and high-speed videography. Third, we analysed acoustic pressure over time and spectral frequency composition of six A. atropos specimens, both intact and with a removed proboscis. Single squeaks of A. atropos last for ca. 200 ms and consist of an inflation phase, a short pause and a deflation phase. The inflation phase is characterised by a burst of ca. 50 pulses with decreasing pulse frequency and a major frequency peak at ca. 8 kHz, followed by harmonics ranging up to more than 60 kHz. The deflation phase is characterised by a less clear acoustic pattern, a lower amplitude and more pronounced peaks in the same frequency range. The removal of the proboscis resulted in a significantly shortened squeak, a lower acoustic pressure level and a slightly more limited frequency spectrum. We hypothesise that the uptake of viscous honey facilitated the evolution of an efficient valve at the opening of the pharynx (i.e. a modified epipharynx), and that sound production could relatively easily have evolved based on this morphological pre-adaptation. PMID:26185112

  18. On secondary hyperparathyroidism in orang-utans, Pongo satyrus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Rhrer-Ertl, O; Frey, K W

    1987-01-01

    Orang-utan crania with alterations in bone structure which could be determined morphologically were studied and evaluated. The alterations in bone structure were referred to in the literature up to about 1939 as "rickets"; when vitamin D was given to the animals, the alterations diminished, until they were almost unnoticeable. From about 1941/52, the alterations were diagnosed as "Morbus Paget". Research on orang-utan crania has become possible through comparison of a larger number of single symptoms, occurring in a number of individuals. Out of a larger sample, the study was carried out on 5 individuals, showing these alterations in varying degrees. The individuals also covered various age groups, both sexes and both subspecies of orang-utans. The findings permit a diagnosis of secondary (or tertiary) hyperparathyroidism (= Morbus Engel-von Recklinghausen = fibrous cystic osteitis). The study also showed that orang-utans fall prey to Morbus Engel-von Recklinghausen in a shorter period and suffer more severely than humans. The frequency of orang-utans suffering from this disease, which are kept captive in zoos, is statistically far higher than the occurrence in humans. Orang-utans living under natural conditions do not suffer from the disease at all; according to the study of 500 animals. The authors also believe that there is a psychogenic basis for the occurrence of Morbus Engel-von Recklinghausen in zoo animals; psychological conditions such as apathy, disinterest, etc. are part of the illness, and these symptoms are also shown by animals having no outward signs of fibrous cystic osteitis. The authors believe that improved prophylaxis of orang-utans in zoos would lead to discovery of Morbus Engel-von Recklinghausen in early stages, and allow early therapy to arrest the disease. This is necessary for preservation of the species. PMID:3623037

  19. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic. PMID:4024148

  20. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobiairritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Forneris, Natalia S; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A; Basso, Alicia L

    2015-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobiairritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobiairritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobiairritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobiairritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published "standard" karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  1. Removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter R(L) is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < R(L) < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C-H stretching vibrations of -CH3 and -CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

  2. Ingestion of domoic acid and its impact on king scallop ( Pecten maximus, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Kelly, Maeve S.; Campbell, Dirk A.; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhu, Jianxin; Wang, Sufeng

    2007-04-01

    A simple method for spiking formulated feed with domoic acid (DA) was developed in this study. DA feed was prepared by mixing 0.15 mL 100 ?g mL-1 DA with 0.1 g formulated feed, and drying the mixture at room temperature for 2h. The prepared DA feed contained 0.19 pg DA per particle. Of the added DA, 46.72% was retained in the feed. Relatively high DA retention (about 50%) was recorded after DA feed was soaked in water for 2h. Exposure to DA feed for 7 d did not cause the increase of tissue DA level of adult king scallop ( Pecten maximus) significantly in 60 d. The increase of their gonad index after DA exposure was not significantly different from the control. No significant change in DA level was found in spermary, ovary or fertilized eggs after DA exposure. These results indicated that DA excretion may be more efficient than DA accumulation under the current experimental conditions, and the mechanism of domoic acid incorporation in P. maximus may involve intracellular biotransformation.

  3. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of

  4. Hydroyeast Aquaculture as a reproductive enhancer agent for the adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Mehrim, Ahmed I; Khalil, Fathy F; Hassan, Montaha E

    2015-04-01

    Tilapias are becoming increasingly popular culture fish because of their superior culture adaptability. In recent years, there has been a great interest in the use of probiotics in fish aquaculture. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of dietary graded levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 g/kg commercial diet, referred to treatments numbers T1, T2, T3, and T4, for males and T5, T6, T7, and T8 treatments for females) of a new probiotic Hydroyeast Aquaculture() on hematological and biochemical parameters, serum sex hormones, and the reproductive efficiency parameters of the adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus for 8 weeks. Results revealed that high levels of probiotics diet, 15 g (T4, ?) and 10 g (T7, ?) probiotic/kg diet, significantly (P ? 0.05) enhanced the physiological responses (hematological as well as serum biochemical parameters) together with, reproductive performances (sex hormones, testes and sperm quality parameters, absolute and relative fecundity, and ovarian measurements). Therefore, it could be conclude that Hydroyeast Aquaculture() is useful at levels of 15 g (T4) and 10 g (T7)/kg diet in improving the reproductive efficiency of adult O. niloticus males and females, respectively. Thus, the use of Hydroyeast Aquaculture() may be economically important for fish hatcheries. PMID:25240678

  5. Morphological characterization of the ovarian preantral follicle population of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Lima, G L; Santos, E A A; Luz, V B; Rodrigues, A P R; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this research was to characterize the preantral ovarian follicular population in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) using light and electron microscopy. Ovaries from six mature females were collected and further fixed for histological and ultrastructural analysis. A total of 33273.45 ± 5789.99 preantral follicles (PFs) were estimated for the population in each ovary. Most preantral follicles were primordial (91.56%), followed by primary (6.29%) and secondary (2.15%) ones. Most PFs were morphologically normal (94.4%), and only a few were atretic (5.6%). At histology assessment, amounts of lipid droplets were observed into the oocyte cytoplasm, which was confirmed through ultrastructural analysis. This work characterizes for the first time the ovarian population of preantral follicles, total and per category, in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). The general follicles featured at primordial, primary and secondary categories are very similar to those described for other species. PMID:23278244

  6. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758) roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation.

    PubMed

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Mendes, S L; Chiarello, A G

    2015-08-01

    We report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101), in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates. PMID:26421765

  7. Morphometric pattern in Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758)(Cheloniidae) hatchlings from nests with different embryo development rates.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Jnior, P D; Treichel, R L; Scaramussa, T L; Scalfoni, J T

    2011-02-01

    The geometric morphometric analysis of the shell of Caretta caretta hatchlings revealed that morphological variations may be related to incubation duration. Based on the overlapping of anatomical landmarks of the carapace and the plastron, it was possible to discriminate hatchlings from slow and fast developing clutches. Carapace and plastron of hatchlings from nests where incubation lasted less than 55 days are rounder as compared to the hatchlings from nests where incubation took 67 days. The differences observed in shell shape in terms of incubation duration were statistically significant, though carapace and plastron shape overlapping was observed in several individuals. Our results indicate that the incubation duration explains only a small part of the total variation in the shell shape as a whole. Yet, in spite of the low discriminant function coefficient, cross-validation tests indicated that 84.7% and 77.8% of the hatchlings were correctly categorised concerning the carapace and plastron, when the descriptive variable is incubation duration. PMID:21437412

  8. NOTES ON THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD OF THE PINFISH LAGODON RHOMBOIDES (LINNAEUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were collected during September and October, 1974 and 1975. Following a minimum of one week holding period, females were initially injected with 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and injected with 400 IU every second day thereafter until matur...

  9. Nanomechanical properties of wing membrane layers in the house cricket (Acheta domesticus Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Sample, Caitlin S; Xu, Alan K; Swartz, Sharon M; Gibson, Lorna J

    2015-03-01

    Many insect wings change shape dynamically during the wingbeat cycle, and these deformations have the potential to confer energetic and aerodynamic benefits during flight. Due to the lack of musculature within the wing itself, the changing form of the wing is determined primarily by its passive response to inertial and aerodynamic forces. This response is in part controlled by the wing's mechanical properties, which vary across the membrane to produce regions of differing stiffness. Previous studies of wing mechanical properties have largely focused on surface or bulk measurements, but this ignores the layered nature of the wing. In our work, we investigated the mechanical properties of the wings of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) with the aim of determining differences between layers within the wing. Nanoindentation was performed on both the surface and the interior layers of cross-sectioned samples of the wing to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of the outer- and innermost layers. The results demonstrate that the interior of the wing is stiffer than the surface, and both properties vary across the wing. PMID:25660065

  10. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus (Hemiptera, Aphididae) living onTeucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barjadze, Shalva; Blackman, Roger L; ?zdemir, I?il

    2015-01-01

    Aphis polii sp. n. living on Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae) is described, based on apterous and alate viviparous females and oviparous females. It has been collected from seventeen localities in mainland France, Corsica, Italy, Ukraine, Lebanon and Iran. The new species is similar to two other Aphis species that feed specifically on plants of the genus Teucrium, but has a relatively longer ultimate rostral segment. Characters are provided to discriminate between the three Teucrium-feeding species, and to distinguish the new species from other morphologically similar Aphis species that feed on Lamiaceae. Type specimens are deposited in the Musum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), the UMR Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montpellier, France and the Natural History Museum, London, UK (BMNH). PMID:26701477

  11. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  13. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the females pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

  14. Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).

    PubMed Central

    Vukusic, P.; Wootton, R. J.; Sambles, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

  15. Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).

    PubMed

    Vukusic, P; Wootton, R J; Sambles, J R

    2004-03-22

    The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

  16. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joo C P; Fujihara, Caroline J; Fruhvald, Erika; Trevisol, Eduardo; Destro, Flavia C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Pantoja, Jos C F; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva), two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1) and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2): Control (undisturbed), Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM), Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM) and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM). Treatments (always one week apart) were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment). Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations). Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median) at the peak (after 3-9 h), and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural disorders and stress in this bird species, and could also help in their captive management. PMID:26717147

  17. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de Las; Prado, Gema Del; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-08-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthium Spanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence of trans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  18. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  19. Trypanocidal, trichomonacidal and cytotoxic components of cultivated Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Díaz, Rafael Alberto; Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Burillo, Jesús; Heras, Lorena de las; del Prado, Gema; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa; Julio, Luis F; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia absinthium is an aromatic and medicinal plant of ethnopharmacological interest and it has been widely studied. The use ofA. absinthium based on the collection of wild populations can result in variable compositions of the extracts and essential oils (EOs). The aim of this paper is the identification of the active components of the vapour pressure (VP) EO from a selected and cultivated A. absinthiumSpanish population (T2-11) against two parasitic protozoa with different metabolic pathways: Trypanosoma cruzi andTrichomonas vaginalis. VP showed activity on both parasites at the highest concentrations. The chromatographic fractionation of the VP T2-11 resulted in nine fractions (VLC1-9). The chemical composition of the fractions and the antiparasitic effects of fractions and their main compounds suggest that the activity of the VP is related with the presence oftrans-caryophyllene and dihydrochamazulene (main components of fractions VLC1 and VLC2 respectively). Additionally, the cytotoxicity of VP and fractions has been tested on several tumour and no tumour human cell lines. Fractions VLC1 and VLC2 were not cytotoxic against the nontumoural cell line HS5, suggesting selective antiparasitic activity for these two fractions. The VP and fractions inhibited the growth of human tumour cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26107187

  20. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  1. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2010-01-01

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

  2. Two new species of the genus Cobitis linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  3. Immunoexpression of aromatase in immature and adult males of the European bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Kopera, I; Szczepanowicz, M; Gizejewski, Z; Sadowska, J; Bili?ska, B

    2010-04-01

    Based on recent literature dealing with the role of oestrogens in the male gonad, attempts were undertaken to reveal the site of aromatization within the testis of the European bison (Bison bonasus). Testes were collected from culled animals living in free-ranging populations in Bialowieza Forest, Poland (nine males aged 8 months to 10 years). Moreover, to check for any alterations in the expression of testicular aromatase between American bison (Bison bison) and European bison, testes from one adult 10-year-old individual were also chosen for this study. For immunohistochemistry, 4% formaldehyde fixative was used. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of immunohistochemical staining were performed. Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells exhibited a positive immunoreaction for aromatase in testes of immature and sexually mature bison. A marked increase in aromatase expression was observed in three adult European individuals with impaired spermatogenesis. Consistent with recent data and those of our own, it might be suggested that the strong expression of aromatase negatively affects spermatogenic function in bison testes and may serve as a possible explanation of specific sperm defects observed in European bison bulls. On the contrary, one cannot exclude that differences in the aromatase immunoexpression levels are attributed to the homozygosity, the cause of frequent disease in European bison. PMID:19032431

  4. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a draft genome sequence of SunUp papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

  5. Hepatic profile of Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 experimentally infected by Plasmodium juxtanucleare Versiani & Gomes, 1941.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Usha; Falqueto, Aline Duarte; Lustrino, Danilo; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vincius Menezes; dos Santos, Marcos Antnio Jos; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2011-02-10

    One of the species that causes avian malaria is Plasmodium juxtanucleare. It is commonly found in poultry, especially when the birds receive food free of coccidiostats. Since industrial and organic poultry breeding is increasing in the world and few studies have been conducted examining the clinical parameters of both healthy and infected birds, this work evaluated whether the infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus provokes alterations in the birds' hepatic profile. We analyzed the activity of ALT and AST and carried out histological analyses of liver sections of infected fowls by intracelomic inoculation with infected blood from a donor fowl with a parasite load of around 7%. The infected birds' parasite load was evaluated during 45 days by means of blood smears. There was a positive correlation between the increase in parasite load and higher ALT activity in the infected fowls, but there was no significant variation of the AST activity between the control and infected groups, possibly because of the non-specificity of this enzyme as an indicator of hepatic lesion. The results show that infection caused by P. juxtanucleare in G. gallus provokes hepatic alterations, indicated by the increase in the ALT enzyme activity and by the inflammatory infiltrates found in the liver sections of the infected fowls. PMID:21074323

  6. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-03-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species. PMID:25187501

  7. Control of breathing in in vitro brain stem preparation from goldfish (Carassius auratus; Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ct, ric; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Stphanie; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In vitro brain stem preparations from goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to first determine whether this species possesses central chemoreceptors able to modulate respiratory activity. Preparations were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF); fictive breathing was recorded extracellularly by placing a suction electrode on cranial nerve VII. Reducing the level of O2 in the gas mixture used to bubble the aCSF from a hyperoxic level (80% or 98.7% O2) to a relative hypoxic level (20% or 40% O2) increased the frequency of the fictive respiratory burst (P = 0.0002). Reducing the pH of the aCSF from 7.9 to 7.4 by increasing CO2 in the superfusate did not affect fictive breathing. Chloride-mediated neurotransmission (GABA/glycine) is a major modulator of respiratory activity; however, its effect on the neural circuits that regulate breathing in teleosts remains unknown. Bath application of GABA (0.5, 5.0 mM) decreased burst frequency but not amplitude; this effect was dose dependent (drug concentration: P = 0.01). Superfusion of the preparations with aCSF containing 1.25 ?M of bicuculline methochloride and 1.50 ?M of strychnine hydrochloride (GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists, respectively) increased burst frequency (P = 0.002) and amplitude (P < 0.001). We conclude that respiratory activity produced by the goldfish brain stem is not responsive to the moderate CO2 levels used in this study; it may contain O2 chemoreceptors, but the relatively small response could also reflect nonspecific effects of hypoxia on the central nervous system. Cl(-)-mediated neurotransmission inhibits fictive breathing; this aspect of respiratory regulation is similar to other groups of vertebrates. PMID:24769710

  8. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF TWO PARASITES INFECTING DOMESTICATED TURKEY MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO LINNAEUS, 1758 (GALLIFORMES: MELEAGRIDINAE) QENA, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abdel-Wahed

    2015-08-01

    The work gave a detailed systematic morphology by optic and scan electron microscopy of two parasites; Raillietina echinobothriida Megnin, 1880 and Spirora meleagaris n. sp. infecting domesticated turkey, with some important description characters. SEM revealed that tegument of R. echinobothriida exhibits, filamentous, microtriches and sensory papillae densely covered the tegument of entire body, rostellum armed with two rows of hummer-shaped hooks and provide by 16-20 rows of small, rose thorn-shaped accessory spines. In addition, a number of taxonomic features in S. meleagaris n. sp. that differ from other species of the genus, mouth circular, bounded by a cuticular three circles plates, five pairs of cephalic papillae, an inner circle of two pairs situated on the wall of the buccal cavity, one pairs of larges sub-median amphids, and an outer circle of two pairs papillae. Buccal cavity supported by four chitinious cusped molar teeth anteriorly directed .Vulva near the end of the first third of the body, vulvular lips prominent. The male has unique rose like shaped pedunculated and unarranged numerous distributed sessile cervical papillae at the second third of the body that are distinguishable from other spirorid. PMID:26485852

  9. Oral Susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) to Zika Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee Ching; Tan, Cheong Huat

    2012-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29°C and 70–75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe). The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%); and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective. Conclusions/Significance This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV. PMID:22953014

  10. [Periodicity of oviposition of females of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) in laboratory and field].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriana Dos Santos; de S Sciavico, Clia J; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The object of this work was to determine of gonotrophic diel pattern of female Aedes aegypti in laboratory and field conditions. Three day-old female mosquitoes were the fed on chicken blood and transferred to bioassay cages. Four oviposition substrates were offered: paper sulfite, filter, butter and towel. The results showed that filter paper received a significantly higher (40.4%) percentage of deposited eggs than the other oviposition substrates. After their first blood meal, females started to oviposit on the 3rd model day; 35.7% of the total number of eggs deposited. The oviposition diel patterns of females were observed every two hours during the photoperiod in the laboratory and in the field. In the laboratory, the periodicity of oviposition showed that the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th- 12th h of photophase and 1st - 2nd h of scotophase. In the field, the highest egg deposition occurred during the 9th - 12th h of photophase and 1st - 4th h of scotophase. These results point out that Aedes aegypti showed an oviposition periodicity pattern that can subsidize monitoring and or control of vector insect. itis suggested that ovitraps should be placed in the field during the morning hours since the captures occur during afternoon. PMID:17119745

  11. Sex ratios and sexual dimorphism among recently transformed sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Thomas, M.L.H.

    1965-01-01

    The sex, length, and weight were determined of nearly all recently transformed sea lampreys migrating downstream in the Carp Lake River, Michigan, in the fall, winter, and spring of 1960-61. Similar data were collected from samples of an earlier run in the Carp Lake River and of runs in three other tributaries of Lakes Huron and Michigan. The sex ratio of the 1960-61 migrants in the Carp Lake River was 324 males:100 females. Sex ratios of migrants in the other runs varied from 77 to 86 males:100 females. The high proportion of males in the 1960-61 run in the Carp Lake River is attributed to the effective prevention of recruitment of sea lampreys in the river and transformation of the females at an earlier age than is characteristic of the males. A near equal sex ratio among recently transformed migrants is considered normal for the species. The sex composition of a run changed during the period of migration. The proportion of males among the migrants was greatest at the beginning of the run and declined steadily thereafter. The average size was smaller for males than for females. Differences in the mean lengths and weights of the sexes were statistically significant. The length-weight relation differed for the sexes and showed a slower rate of increase of weight with increase in length than is characteristic of other stages of the animals' life cycle. Seasonal changes in the length-weight relation had a trend toward lower weights among the migrants coming downstream in the later months of the run.

  12. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  13. Morphometry, Morphology and Ultrastructure of Ring-tailed Coati Sperm (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Hvr; Magalhes, F F; Ribeiro, L R; Souza, Alp; Freitas, Cia; de Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R; Silva, Ldm

    2015-12-01

    The ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua) is a procyonid whose population is in sharp decline. Therefore, studies are needed to better understand the reproduction of this animal. For this reason, this study aimed to evaluate the morphology, morphometry and sperm ultrastructure of ring-tailed coati sperm. Four captive adult males were used for this study. Slides stained with Bengal Rose were used for the morphometric and morphologic analyses. The length and width of the head were measured, as well as the length of the midpiece and tail and the total length of the sperm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for the ultrastructural analyses. The most obvious morphological abnormalities observed were coiled tails (6.18.7%) and the lack of acrosomes (5.44.4%). Regarding the morphometry, themeasurements of the head (lengthנwidth), midpiece (length) and tail (length) were (meanSD) 6.2 0.4 8.10.6?m, 14.10.5 and 63.94.1?m, respectively, and the total length of the sperm was 86.14.3?m. Through electron microscopy, the presence of electron-lucent points in the nucleus and the presence of approximately 55 mitochondrial spirals in the midpiece were identified. The data obtained in this study provide detailed information on the sperm characteristics of coatis and may inform future research on germplasm conservation, both for this species and other threatened procyonids. PMID:26446691

  14. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F; Glud, Ronnie N

    2007-03-01

    The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport through the permeable interstice and formed an inverted cone of porewater with 93% air saturation in front of the mouth. From dye experiments the mean ventilatory flow rate was estimated at 0.26+/-0.02 ml min(-1) (86.9+/-7.3 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) (N=3). Expelled water from the gills induced a 1 cm circular plume with <15% air saturation around the gills. During this quasi-steady ventilation mode, fish extracted 86.2+/-4.8% (N=7) of the oxygen from the inspired water. However, 13% of the investigated fish (2 of 15) occasionally wriggled their bodies and thereby transported almost fully air-saturated water down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached the sediment surface, but remained in the sediment until the inspired water reached 5-10% air saturation. PMID:17337713

  15. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

  16. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Bortoluci, C H F; Simionato, L H; Rosa Junior, G M; Oliveira, J A; Lauris, J R P; Moraes, L H R; Rodrigues, A C; Andreo, J C

    2014-08-01

    A general analysis of the behaviour of "Cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG), Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG) and Slow Twitc (SO). In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities. PMID:25627383

  17. [New record of a bat species from China, Megaderma spasma (Linnaeus, 1758)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Biao; Gong, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hong, Ti-Yu; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Mao, Xiu-Guang

    2010-06-01

    One male bat was collected in a cave in Cuibi Hill (N: 21 degree 53', E: 101 degree 18', H: 683 m a.s.l.), Menglun Town, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, on November 26, 2006. This bat is of medium body size, with 60.7 mm forearm and 21.4 g body mass. Its ears are large ovals and joined medially to the forehead at about 15% of the height of inner margin. The tragus of each ear is slender and distinctly bifid. The noseleaf is simple, and the posterior noseleaf is oval with obtuse tip and convex sides, a significant longitudinal ridge laying middle, which connects to intermediate noseleaf at the base. Intermediate noseleaf presents triangle with a W-shaped tip. Frontal noseleaf is horseshoe shape and attached directly to the muzzle. The tail is absent, and the second finger of each wing has only one phalanx. There are no upper incisors, Pm3 and Pm3. The upper canine has an anterior and a large posterior basal cusps. This bat is identified as lesser false vampire, Megaderma spasma, which is a new record of China. Its external and craniodental measurements were presented and compared with those of M. lyra. The specimen is preserved in Guangdong Entomological Institute. PMID:20672423

  18. Gill monogeneans of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Oreochromis leucostictus (Trewavas, 1933) in Lake Naivasha, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rindoria, Nehemiah Mogoi; Mungai, Lewis Kamau; Yasindi, Andrew Wamalwa; Otachi, Elick Onyango

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of gill monogeneans from the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the blue spotted tilapia Oreochromis leucostictus (50 individuals per species) was done between the months of November 2014 to February 2015 in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Standard parasitological procedures were used to examine fish gills for the presence of monogeneans. The observed monogeneans were collected, preliminarily identified using identification keys, quantified and fixed in 4 % formalin for morphological studies and absolute ethanol for molecular studies. Four parasite species comprising of three species of the genus Cichlidogyrus and one species of the genus Scutogyrus were recovered. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae infested both fish species but the C. sclerosus was most prevalent in O. leucostictus (Prevalence (P) = 100 %, Mean intensity (MI) = 3.4) and C. tilapiae in O. niloticus (P = 8 %, MI = 4). Cichlidogyrus tilapiae had a P = 12 % and MI = 5.0 and a P = 6 % and MI = 3.0 in O. niloticus and O. leucostictus, respectively. Cichlidogyrus halli (P = 4 %, MI = 15.5) and Scutogyrus gravivaginus (P = 2 %, MI = 1.0) were only found in O. leucostictus. This is the first time that these monogeneans have been identified from Lake Naivasha, Kenya, presenting new geographical records. It was concluded that Ancyrocephalids (Cichilidogyrus spp.) dominated the two cichlid fish species in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. PMID:26691859

  19. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoppe, Sabine

    1991-09-01

    The association between Acyrtus rubiginosus (Gobiesocidae), Clastotoechus vanderhorsti (Porcellanidae), Ophiothrix sp. (Ophiotrichidae) and their rock-boring host Echinometra lucunter (Echinometridae) has been studied on the rocky shores of Santa Marta, Colombia. The three inhabitants of the sea urchin dwellings benefit from their cohabitation by receiving effective shelter from intertidal effects and from predators. The sea urchin, by contrast, seems neither to be benefitted nor harmed by the association.

  20. Ectoparasite load in the crested porcupine Hystrix cristata Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emiliano; Sforzi, Andrea; Menchetti, Mattia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Lovari, Sandro; Pisanu, Benot

    2015-06-01

    The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata is a large body-sized rodent, occurring in Europe only in the Italian Peninsula, where it may have been introduced in early Medieval times. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. We have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy). Both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. Abundance of ectoparasites was higher in areas with higher habitat richness, with respect to densely wooded areas. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25%), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5%, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. The second most prevalent species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus (21%). An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. The low richness in dominant ectoparasite species, built up by locally acquired generalist taxa, provides support to the allochthonous origin of this rodent in Italy. PMID:25773184

  1. The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

  2. GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

  3. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 M. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

  4. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    PubMed

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. PMID:25370292

  5. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: are there regional differences.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-08-31

    Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 microg/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): "gourmet tuna" had the least amount of mercury, and white tuna had the most. The mean concentrations reported in this study were generally similar to those reported by the FDA, but there were important differences: 1) although the mean mercury concentrations for orange roughy for the Chicago data was similar to the FDA data, the maximum concentration was higher; 2) the mean for the Chicago swordfish was higher than the FDA data (1.26 vs 0.97 ppm, methylmercury); 3) the maximum for tuna steaks was higher in the FDA data set; and, 4) mean values for grouper (Epinephelus spp.) were higher in the FDA data set than the Chicago data. Further, the FDA has virtually no data on walleye and none on "gourmet tuna". These conclusions suggest that there are enough variations between the local data (Chicago) and the FDA data to warrant periodic local monitoring of commercial fish to provide up-to-date information to consumers about mercury in the fish they eat. PMID:16815532

  6. A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.

    PubMed

    El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

    2007-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies. PMID:19070049

  7. The Feeding Ecology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758), at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-01-01

    The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs. PMID:25210585

  8. Development of the follicle complex and oocyte staging in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus Linnaeus, 1776 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, Harry J

    2012-08-01

    Pelagic egg development in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, is described using tiered staging. Based on mitosis and meiosis, there are five periods: Mitosis of Oogonia, Active Meiosis I, Arrested Meiosis I, Active Meiosis II, and Arrested Meiosis II. The Periods are divided into six stages: Mitotic Division of Oogonia, Chromatin Nucleolus, Primary Growth, Secondary Growth, Oocyte Maturation and Ovulation. The Chromatin Nucleolus Stage is divided into four steps: Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, and Early Diplotene. Oocytes in the last step possess one nucleolus, dispersed chromatin with forming lampbrush chromosomes and lack basophilic ooplasm. The Primary Growth Stage, characterized by basophilic ooplasm and absence of yolk in oocytes, is divided into five steps: One-Nucleolus, Multiple Nucleoli, Perinucleolar, Oil Droplets, and Cortical Alveolar. During primary growth, the Balbiani body develops from nuage, enlarges and disperses throughout the ooplasm as both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi develop within it. Secondary growth or vitellogenesis has three steps: Early Secondary Growth, Late Secondary Growth and Full-Grown. The Oocyte Maturation Stage, including ooplasmic and germinal vesicle maturation, has four steps: Eccentric Germinal Vesicle, Germinal Vesicle Migration, Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and Resumption of Meiosis when complete yolk hydration occurs. The period is Arrested Meiosis II. When folliculogenesis is completed, the ovarian follicle, an oocyte and encompassing follicle cells, is surrounded by a basement membrane and developing theca, all forming a follicle complex. After ovulation, a newly defined postovulatory follicle complex remains attached to the germinal epithelium. It is composed of a basement membrane that separates the postovulatory follicle from the postovulatory theca. Arrested Meiosis I encompasses primary and secondary growth (vitellogenesis) and includes most of oocyte maturation until the resumption of meiosis (Active Meiosis II). The last stage, Ovulation, is the emergence of the oocyte from the follicle when it becomes an egg or ovum. PMID:22707292

  9. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Mezo, Mercedes; Gonzlez-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, Jos Antonio; Manga-Gonzlez, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-01

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in Galicia has a normal development in wild boars, presenting its own characteristics in shape and size in comparison with other host species. The high prevalence of infection detected in the wild boar, the normal fluke development in the liver, and the possibility of shedding F. hepatica eggs capable of embryonating and giving rise to viable miracidia with the potential to infect intermediate hosts suggest a possible role of this species as a secondary reservoir in this Spanish region. PMID:24103736

  10. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5'-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  11. Coordination of deiodinase and thyroid hormone receptor expression during the larval to juvenile transition in sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Campinho, Marco Antnio; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Sweeney, Glen E; Power, Deborah Mary

    2010-01-15

    To test the hypothesis that THs play an important role in the larval to juvenile transition in the marine teleost model, sea bream (Sparus auratus), key elements of the thyroid axis were analysed during development. Specific RT-PCR and Taqman quantitative RT-PCR were established and used to measure sea bream iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) genes, respectively. Expression of deiodinases genes (D1 and D2) which encode enzymes producing T3, TRs and T4 levels start to increase at 20-30 days post-hatch (dph; beginning of metamorphosis), peak at about 45 dph (climax) and decline to early larval levels after 90-100 dph (end of metamorphosis) when fish are fully formed juveniles. The profile of these different TH elements during sea bream development is strikingly similar to that observed during the TH driven metamorphosis of flatfish and suggests that THs play an analogous role in the larval to juvenile transition in this species and probably also in other pelagic teleosts. However, the effect of T3 treatment on deiodinases and TR transcript abundance in sea bream is not as clear cut as in larval flatfish and tadpoles indicating divergence in the responsiveness of TH axis elements and highlighting the need for further studies of this axis during development of fish. PMID:19549532

  12. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Snchez, O; Galvn-Magaa, F; Rosles-Martnez, R

    2010-04-01

    We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

  13. Senilia senilis (Linnaeus, 1758), a biogenic archive of environmental conditions on the Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavaud, Romain; Thbault, Julien; Lorrain, Anne; van der Geest, Matthijs; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Environmental archives are useful tools for describing past and current climate variations and they provide an opportunity to assess the anthropogenic contribution in coastal ecological changes. Along the West African coast, few studies have focused on such archives in coastal ecosystems. The bloody cockle Senilia senilis, an intertidal bivalve mollusk species, is widely distributed from Western Sahara to Angola, and has been harvested by humans over thousands of years. Therefore, this species appears to be a good candidate for assessing past variations of key environmental parameters such as temperature, primary production, and Saharan dust advection within West African coastal ecosystems. In the present paper, we focused (i) on the identification of growth rhythms of S. senilis shells in Mauritania (Banc d'Arguin), and (ii) on the potential of these shells as (paleo-)environmental archives. The method we used combined environmental survey, sclerochronology, and geochemical analyses of aragonite samples. We showed that microgrowth line formation was controlled by a tidal forcing, leading to the formation of two lines per lunar day. Brightness and thickness of these microgrowth lines progressively decreased from spring to neap tides (fortnightly cycle). Lunar daily growth rates displayed strong seasonal variations, with highest values (> 300 ?m per lunar day) recorded in summer. The oxygen isotope composition of S. senilis shells (?18Oaragonite) accurately tracked seawater temperature seasonal variations, with a precision of 0.8 C. Finally, we discussed the opportunity to use Ba:Ca ratio in shells as a proxy for primary production or for Saharan dust transport. We also hypothesized that either Canary Currentvariations or, more probably, massive aerosol transfers from Sahara to the Atlantic Ocean could control uranium availability in coastal waters and explain the occurrence of U:Ca peaks within S. senilis shells.

  14. The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskl), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

    1992-03-01

    The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

  15. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V.; Vučković, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ilić, Bojan S.; Antić, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorović, Nina M.; Mrkić, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lučić, Luka R.; Ćurčić, Božidar P. M.; Mitić, Bojan M.

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

  16. Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae).

    PubMed

    Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Vučković, Ivan M; Makarov, Slobodan E; Ilić, Bojan S; Antić, Dragan Z; Jadranin, Milka B; Todorović, Nina M; Mrkić, Ivan V; Vajs, Vlatka E; Lučić, Luka R; Curčić, Božidar P M; Mitić, Bojan M

    2013-09-01

    The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises. PMID:23907296

  17. Study of Toxoplasma infection in Brazilian wild mammals: serological evidence in Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and Euphractus sexcinctus Wagler, 1830.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; de Moraes Gimenes Bosco, Sandra; Langoni, Helio; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2006-01-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that affects man and most warm-blooded animals, with a great economic impact in animal and public health. Serum samples from nine 9-banded armadillos, three 6-banded armadillos, three coatimundis, two opossums and one nutria were submitted for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody detection by means of a modified direct agglutination method. Encephalic tissue of three 6-banded armadillos, one 9-banded armadillo, one coatimundi and one nutria were digested in acid pepsin solution and inoculated into Swiss mice for parasite isolation. Only one serum sample from a nine-banded armadillo and two from six-banded armadillos reacted producing titers equal to 256, 512 and 512, respectively. T. gondii was isolated in two 6-banded armadillos, one of which was not positive in the serological test. PMID:16188389

  18. Genomic and expression analysis of a solute carrier protein (CcSLC25a5) gene from Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Cheng, Anda; Wang, Yangyang; Zhang, Baoyong

    2013-01-01

    Using the Genefishing method, we identified seven potential regulatory genes involved in the process of scale morphogenesis in fishes. We further characterized a novel solute carrier protein gene (CcSLC), from the common carp which is differentially expressed in mirror carp and Jianli. The ORF encodes a peptide of 298 amino acids with a molecular mass of 31.5 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.49. ScanProsite analysis indicated that it is a putative solute carrier protein that contains a substrate binding site. CcSLC was detected in carp embryos by in situ hybridization in the 70%-epiboly, 6-somite, and 14-somite embryonic stages. Gene expression stopped at the long pec stage. However, CcSLC25a5 was re-expressed during the initiation of scale formation in the regions that were scale covered. These findings provide novel insights into the features of early carp embryo and scale development. PMID:24133640

  19. Ultrastructure of sperm of the Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus, Linnaeus, 1766) observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Madhavi, M; Kailasam, M; Mohanlal, D L

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was conducted to understand the sperm cell morphology and ultrastructure of Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The present study reveals that the sperm of S. argus can be differentiated into three major parts - an acrosome-less spherical head, a short mid-piece, and a cylindrical flagellum. The scat sperm cell had a mean total length of 21.32 1.80 ?m with the presence of ovoid electron-dense nucleus. The mean length and width of ovoid nucleus measured 1.44 0.34 and 1.54 0.33 ?m, respectively. The structural characteristics of the nucleus were found to be a shallow axial nuclear fossa and centriolar complex. The two centrioles were positioned nearly perpendicular to each other with a conventional "9 + 0" pattern in the proximal centriole. The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and contains 5 or 6 spherical and unequal-sized mitochondria. The mitochondria were separated from the axoneme by a cytoplasmic canal. The flagellum was inserted at the base of the nucleus with the presence of an axoneme structure of 9 + 2 paired micro tubules. The sperm flagellum had short irregular lateral fins. The present study reveals that Spotted scat sperm can be categorized as being of a "primitive or ect-aquasperm type" and belongs to the teleostean "type I" sperm. This is the first report on the morphology and ultrastructure of sperm in Scatophagidae family. PMID:25577714

  20. Structure, attachment, replacement and growth of teeth in bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1776), a teleost with deeply socketed teeth.

    PubMed

    Bemis, William E; Giuliano, Anne; McGuire, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Tooth replacement poses many questions about development, pattern formation, tooth attachment mechanisms, functional morphology and the evolution of vertebrate dentitions. Although most vertebrate species have polyphyodont dentitions, detailed knowledge of tooth structure and replacement is poor for most groups, particularly actinopterygians. We examined the oral dentition of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a pelagic and coastal marine predator, using a sample of 50 individuals. The oral teeth are located on the dentary and premaxillary bones, and we scored each tooth locus in the dentary and premaxillary bones using a four-part functional classification: absent (A), incoming (I), functional (F=fully ankylosed) or eroding (E). The homodont oral teeth of Pomatomus are sharp, deeply socketed and firmly ankylosed to the bone of attachment. Replacement is intraosseus and occurs in alternate tooth loci with long waves of replacement passing from rear to front. The much higher percentage of functional as opposed to eroding teeth suggests that replacement rates are low but that individual teeth are quickly lost once erosion begins. Tooth number increases ontogenetically, ranging from 15-31 dentary teeth and 15-39 premaxillary teeth in the sample studied. Teeth increase in size with every replacement cycle. Remodeling of the attachment bone occurs continuously to accommodate growth. New tooth germs originate from a discontinuous dental lamina and migrate from the lingual (dentary) or labial (premaxillary) epithelium through pores in the bone of attachment into the resorption spaces beneath the existing teeth. Pomatomus shares unique aspects of tooth replacement with barracudas and other scombroids and this supports the interpretation that Pomatomus is more closely related to scombroids than to carangoids. PMID:16351980

  1. Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Crdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarap Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

  2. Diverse Microbiota Identified in Whole Intact Nest Chambers of the Red Mason Bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

  3. Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Ldl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

    2012-10-30

    Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

  4. Effect of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of pome fruit in South Africa, and control of codling moth in apple and pear orchards relies on the application of insecticides and in some cases pheromone mediated mating disruption. Development of resistance to insecticides and placement of restr...

  5. Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist Garca, P.

    2012-01-01

    The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

  6. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  7. EVALUATION OF THE MOLLUSCICIDAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 ON Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  8. Reproductive cycle and embryonic development of the gastropod Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Ellobiidae) in the Brazilian Northeast.

    PubMed

    Maia, R C; Rocha-Barreira, C A; Coutinho, R

    2012-11-01

    Melampus coffeus belongs to a primitive group of pulmonate mollusks found mainly in the upper levels of the marine intertidal zone. They are common in the neotropical mangroves. Little is known about the biology of this species, particularly about its reproduction. The aim of this study was to 1) characterize the morphology and histology of M. coffeus' gonad; 2) describe the main gametogenesis events and link them to a range of maturity stages; 3) chronologically evaluate the frequency of the different maturity stages and their relation to environmental factors such as water, air and sediment temperatures, relative humidity, salinity and rainfall; and 4) characterize M. coffeus' spawning, eggs and newly hatched veliger larvae. Samples were collected monthly between February, 2007 and January, 2009 from the mangroves of Praia de Arpoeiras, Acara County, State of Cear, northeastern Brazil. The characterization of the gonad development stages was carried out using routine histological techniques. The results of this study show that Melampus coffeus is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. The follicles have masculine and feminine elements, interleaved within the gonad. M. coffeus presents a well-defined synchronous reproductive cycle, showing successive maturation, release and resting periods. The average diameter of the oocytes was negatively correlated with salinity and positively correlated with rainfall. The results show that no reproductive activity occurs during periods of drought. After the dry season, the increasing rainfall levels and reduced salinity lead to the appearance of very dense populations, predominantly composed of small individuals. PMID:23295525

  9. Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

  10. Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia

    PubMed Central

    Drotz, Marcus K.; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes. PMID:22348080

  11. Oogenesis and plasma levels of sex steroids in cultured females of brown trout (Salmo trutta linnaeus, 1758) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Estay, Francisco; Daz, Andrs; Pedrazza, Rodrigo; Colihueque, Nelson

    2003-07-01

    Naturalized brown trout populations in Chile are a valuable genetic resource with aquaculture potential. The oogenesis of a three-year-old brown trout cultured population was studied in southern Chile. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), oocyte growth, gonadal microscopic characteristics, and plasma levels of estradiol-17beta (E2), testosterone (T), and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-HP) were measured bimonthly for a nine-month period before spawning. The maximum GSI level (22%) was similar to that described for other salmonids, although it was reached in May, more than one month before the population started spawning. Oocyte growth increases strongly from January when diameter reaches more than 1 mm. The vitellogenic period (six-seven months) is consistent with the long vitellogenesis, described for salmonid females maturing at three years old. E2 shows a slow increase from November, reaching its peak value in March (65.2+/-0.7 ng/ml), during maximal vitellogenic activity. T increases as oogenesis progresses, reaching a maximum of 90+/-20 ng/ml during May, and falling considerably during ovulation. Following a typical pattern of progestogens in salmonid oogenesis, 17alpha-HP stays at basal levels during most of oogenesis, but experiences a strong surge (2.0+/-0.4 ng/ml) just before ovulation. PMID:12840840

  12. Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lödl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano–LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

  13. Exuberant granulation tissue response associated with Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae) infestation in two cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Hurley-Sanders, J; Harms, C; Christiansen, E; Clarke, E; Law, J

    2016-03-01

    Monogenean parasite infestations are common in captive marine teleosts, and are generally found on the skin and gills. This report describes an unusual pathological presentation of exuberant granulation tissue of the gills, suspected to be related to Neobenedenia infestation in two cobia housed together at a North Carolina aquarium. PMID:25864868

  14. Ecotype differentiation in the face of gene flow within the diving beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in northern Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Drotz, Marcus K; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E

    2012-01-01

    The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes. PMID:22348080

  15. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  16. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

  17. The Feeding Ecology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758), at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-08-01

    The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs. PMID:25210585

  18. Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).

    PubMed

    Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartrio, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5 ?g and 3.0 ?g-TiO2-NP g(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72 h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72 h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

  19. Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758) in south regions of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Forejtek, P; Hutarova, Z; Vodnansky, M

    2013-10-18

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 221 wild boar carcasses obtained from regular hunts in the Czech Republic were tested for Alaria alata mesocercariae using the Alaria-migration-technique. Most samples originated from South Moravia (173), and all 15 positive samples were found in this region, in particular in Tvrdonice (3/10) and Lanžhot (12/28), close to the site of the first description of this parasitic stage in wild boars in the territory of former ČSSR. These hunting grounds are located between the rivers March and Thaya, and rich in floodplains. Among the 38 carcasses tested in this area, higher carcass weights were associated with higher frequency of positive carcasses (P<0.05). Overall frequency of positive carcasses was 15/221 (6.8%). In positive samples (adipose and glandular tissue and muscle), the median number of mesocercariae was 14.3 per 100 g (range 3-69). PMID:23806746

  20. Differential responses of juvenile and adult South African abalone (Haliotis midae Linnaeus) to low and high oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, Andre; Laas, Anél; Vosloo, Dalene

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates have evolved multiple responses to naturally variable environmental oxygen, all aimed at either maintaining cellular oxygen homeostasis or limiting cellular damage during or after hypoxic or hyperoxic events. We assessed organismal (rates of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) and cellular (heat shock protein expression, anti-oxidant enzymes) responses of juvenile and adult abalone exposed to low (~83% of saturation), intermediate (~95% of saturation) and high (~115% of saturation) oxygen levels for one month. Using the Comet assay, we measured DNA damage to determine whether the observed trends in the protective responses were sufficient to prevent oxidative damage to cells. Juveniles were unaffected by moderately hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Elevated basal rates of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were sufficient to prevent DNA fragmentation and protein damage. Adults, with their lower basal rate of anti-oxidant enzymes, had increased DNA damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions, indicating that the antioxidant enzymes were unable to prevent oxidative damage under hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. The apparent insensitivity of juvenile abalone to decreased and increased oxygen might be related to their life history and development in algal and diatom biofilms where they are exposed to extreme diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels. PMID:22975222

  1. M aritrema corai n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Orts, Jess S; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Garca-Varela, Martn; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    M aritrema corai n. sp. is described based on material from the intestine of the white ibis Eudocimus albus (L.) (Threskiornithidae) in Mexico. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from all congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: a very long cirrus sac attenuated distally [cirrus sac to body length ratio 1:0.90-1.29 (mean 1:1.07)]; a large, elongate-oval seminal receptacle, located dorsally between the cirrus sac and ovary; and long, filiform, unarmed, evaginable cirrus. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for the new species and for Maritrema spp. and Microphallus spp. depicted strong support for the two genera (excluding Microphallus fusiformis) and revealed close relationships between Ma. corai n. sp. and the clade formed by Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) and Maritrema cf. eroliae. PMID:26453094

  2. An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

  3. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions. PMID:26394864

  4. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23569831

  5. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats. PMID:26340942

  6. Diverse microbiota identified in whole intact nest chambers of the red mason bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

  7. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Carla Renata Serantoni; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Xavier, José Guilherme; Antonucci, Antonio Mataresio; Lallo, Maria Anete

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration). Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean). The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management. PMID:26444060

  8. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  9. The real identity of Leptodira nycthemera Werner, 1901 from Ecuador: a junior synonym of Oxyrhopus petolarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Kucharzewski, Christoph; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leptodira nycthemera Werner, 1901, was described from a specimen collected in Ecuador. No information on the holotype was published after its description. In the most recent review of Leptodeira, Leptodira nycthemera was considered to be a synonym of Leptodeira annulata annulata, although the author emphasized that the holotype was lost and did not include the pholidotic data from the original description in his account of Leptodeira annulata annulata. Since this review, a number of authors have accepted this synonymy. Recently, analyzing specimens of Leptodeira in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, we discovered the holotype of Leptodira nycthemera. This holotype is re-described here, and its correct identity is determined. Based on the analysis of meristic characters and the color of the holotype, we recognize Leptodira nycthemera as a junior synonym of Oxyrhopus petolarius. PMID:26085798

  10. Sexual Shape Dimorphism of the Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Decapoda, Ucididae) Accessed through Geometric Morphometric

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, C. E. R. D.; Lima-Filho, P. A.; Molina, W. F.; Freire, F. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is often observed in Crustaceans. Considering the great diversity of this subphylum, only few reports are found in the literature and most are mainly based on traditional morphometry. The present study uses geometric morphometrics analysis to identify sexual dimorphism by shape variation in the overexploited semiterrestrial crab Ucides cordatus, species with great social and economic importance in South America. Comparative morphology analyses were performed by using the outer face of the propodus of major cheliped, dorsal and anterior region of carapace shape. Significant differences in shape between sexes were detected in these body areas. The causes of dimorphism presented in this species are not clear but, analogous to other possibly associated species, it may be inferred that the causes are with adaptations to body ability of reproductive potential (females), and of reproductive behaviour and agonistics encounters (males). Additional analyses on courtship displays and other reproductive aspects should provide better comprehension of functionality of this morphological differentiation. PMID:25383362

  11. The essential oil of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi in larval control of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use. Results The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: ?-3-carene (55.43%), ?-pinene (16.25%), sylvestrene (10.67%), germacrene D (2.17), ?-myrcene (1.99%), and isoterpinolene (1.4%). The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 ?g mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 ?g mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil. Conclusions The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti. PMID:20799936

  12. Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

  13. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  14. The relationship between acoustic habitat, hearing and tonal vocalizations in the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Chavarría, Mario; Castro, Jorge; Camacho, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is an endangered marine mammal that inhabits the Caribbean Sea and riverine systems in Central America. Their acoustic behavior is relevant for individual identification, mating and parental care. Manatees produce tonal sounds with highest energy in the second harmonic (usually 5 kHz), and their audiogram indicates sensitivity from 0.3 kHz to 90 kHz with lowest thresholds in the 16 to 18 kHz range. We recorded manatees in the San San River, a highly polluted riverine system in Panama, using a stereo array. Frequency transmission experiments were conducted in four subhabitats, categorized using riverine vegetation. Incidental interactions of manatees and small motorboats were examined. Acoustic transmission was linearly related to tonal vocalization characters: correlations were stronger in freshwater than in transition and marine environments. Two bands, 0.6 to 2 kHz and 3 to 8 kHz, attenuate similarly in all subhabitats, and these bands encompass F0 (tone) and peak frequency respectively of manatee tonal calls. Based on our data we conclude that frequency transmission depends mainly on river depth and bottom characteristics, also motorboat sounds mask signals from 3.5 kHz to 8 kHz, which overlaps the peak frequency of tonal calls. In spite of differences between acoustic transmission in subhabitats of the San San River, manatees utilize bands that transmit efficiently in all subhabitats. PMID:26340942

  15. Antimalarial activity of the novel quinoline/6-thiopurine conjugate in Gallus gallus Linnaeus, infected experimentally by Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Usha; Carvalhaes, Rafael; D'agosto, Marta; da Silva, Adilson David

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 4-(6'-thiopurine)-7-chloroquinoline, a novel quinoline/6-thiopurine conjugate, for the treatment of Gallus gallus experimentally infected with Plasmodium juxtanucleare, an avian malaria agent. The avian group treated with 4-(6'-thiopurine)-7-chloroquinoline showed a significative parasite clearance and maintained a low level of parasitaemia, when compared with the untreated control group and to the chloroquine treated avian group. PMID:19691466

  16. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Lima, G L; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Ricarte, A R F; Silva, A R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two methods used to estimate testicular volume in the collared peccary. Calliper and ultrasonographic measurements of testicular dimensions (length, width and height) of both testes were taken on five adult collared peccaries. The testicular volume was calculated by Lambert's empiric formula: length (L)נwidth (W)נheight (H)נ0.71, the formula of an ellipsoid LנWנHנ0.52, and Hansen's formula: LנW(2) נ0.52. The calculated volumes were then compared with the actual ones, which were estimated by water displacement. The mean of true testicular volume was 22.651.52ml. Lambert's formula estimated testicular volume more accurately when ultrasound measurements were taken. However, when the calliper was the methodology used, the results were closest to the true volume, especially when Ellipsoid formula and Hansen's formula were applied, and underestimated the true volumes by 1.531.75ml and 1.531.65ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes. PMID:25627325

  17. Molecular phylogeography of the asp viper Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Italy: evidence for introgressive hybridization and mitochondrial DNA capture.

    PubMed

    Barbanera, F; Zuffi, M A L; Guerrini, M; Gentilli, A; Tofanelli, S; Fasola, M; Dini, F

    2009-07-01

    Owing to its temperature dependence and low vagility, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) is an interesting model species to study the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on vertebrate genomes. We genotyped 102 specimens from the whole Italian distribution range at three mitochondrial DNA regions (2278 characters, total) and six microsatellite DNA loci (Short Tandem Repeats, STR). The molecular phylogeny was constructed according to Bayesian, Neighbour Joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood procedures. All methods grouped individuals of the three morphological subspecies (V. a. aspis, V. a. francisciredi, V. a. hugyi) into five different haploclades. Specimens assigned to hugyi clustered in two highly differentiated clades, one being sister group to the complex comprising the second clade of hugyi (i.e., a paraphyletic status), plus two clades of francisciredi. The Bayesian clustering of the STR variability disclosed only two groups, the first including aspis and francisciredi, the second all hugyi. Introgressive hybridization and capture of francisciredi-like lineages in the hugyi mitochondrial genome were suggested to explain the discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data. The phylogeographic pattern was compatible with population contractions in three glacial refuges. Plausibility of derived hypothesis was checked using coalescence simulations as post hoc tests. Long-term drift and serial founder effects, rather than selection, appeared the main factors affecting the genetic make-up of the Italian asp viper. PMID:19236928

  18. Age, Growth and Feeding Habits of the Brown Comber Serranus hepatus(Linnaeus, 1758) on the Cretan Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labropoulou, M.; Tserpes, G.; Tsimenides, N.

    1998-05-01

    Forty-five samples of the brown comber Serranus hepatuswere collected during experimental surveys carried out on a monthly basis (August 1990 to August 1992) along the Cretan continental shelf. A total of 1268 specimens 31-140 mm in total length were analysed. Growth was well described by both standard and seasonalized forms of the von Bertalanffy growth model and the computed parameters were L?;=152 mm, k=036, t0=-057. Feeding intensity was high throughout the study period and varied significantly among the age classes of fish examined. Stomach content analysis revealed that S. hepatusis carnivorous, feeding mainly on decapods. Diets did not vary seasonally; decapods were the most important prey throughout the year. However, the composition of the prey consumed varied considerably with predator age coupled with differences in mean prey sizes utilized by each age class. The mean weight of stomach contents increased significantly for older specimens, while the mean number of prey items decreased. Age-specific dietary selection was primarily a function of body size of the predator and appears to reduce intra-specific competition among the members of the different age classes. The results suggest that S. hepatusplays an important trophic role as a macrophagic carnivorous species on the Cretan continental shelf.

  19. Age, Growth, Reproduction and Feeding of the Spurdog ( Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758) in the South-eastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsar, D.

    2001-02-01

    Life-history parameters and diet of spurdog ( Squalus acanthias) sampled from the SE Black Sea were studied. Spurdog from age classes I to XIV were identified, with a dominance of age class VIII for both sexes. The length-weight relationship was W=00040*L 295and the mean annual growth rates in length and weight were 72 cm and 5401 g, respectively. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: W ?=12021 (g), L ?=157 (cm), K=012 (year -1) and t 0=-130 (year). The size at first maturity was 82 cm for males and 88 cm for females. Mean biennial fecundity was also found to be 8 pups/female. The relationships between fecundity-length, fecundity-weight and fecundity-age were found to be: F=-170842+02369*L (R=093), F=03780+00018*W (R=089) and F =-07859+11609*A (R=094) respectively. The spurdog can be considered an opportunistic feeder. Their natural diet was composed mainly of teleost fishes, followed by Crustaceans, Nematodes and Actinarians (=sea anemones). Whiting ( Merlangius merlangus euxinus) was the predominant prey item among their fish prey. Demersal teleosts formed the majority of the diet, and there was no difference ( P>005) among the food items of immature, maturing and mature individuals of both sexes.

  20. [Phylogeography and phenotypic diversity of the pumpkinseed Sunfish Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Northern Black Sea Coast].

    PubMed

    Slynko, E E; Novitsky, R A; Bangs, M R; Douglas, M R; Douglas, M E; Khrystenko, D S; Kasyanov, A N; Slynko, Yu V

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the origin and the genetic and morphological diversity of the pumpkinseed sunfish, a North American invader that is actively expanding its range in the Northern Black Sea Coast. Based on an analysis of variability of the nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA cyt b locus, it was found that all populations of the Northern Black Sea Coast (basins of Dnieper, Dniester, and Danube rivers) are represented by one haplotype. Intraspecific variability is absent. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that the most related haplotype is in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish from New Germany Lake in the Potomac Riverbasin (Maryland, United States), which makes it possible to consider it a parent of the investigated populations. Morphological variation oin countable traits was highly homogeneous. Significant differentiation of a sample from the population of the Dnieper Reservoir from the populations of the Danube and Dniester was found for plastic traits of both the body and cranium. Analysis of the trajectories of development showed that the Dnieper is inhabited by a "pelagic" morpho-ecological form of pumpkinseed sunfish, while the Dniester and Danube is inhabited by a "littoral" form. It is suggested that the success of the settlement of this North American species in the Northern Black Sea Coast does not depend on the origin or the level of its genetic diversity but is instead likely to be ensured by the realization of its available discrete morpho-ecological variability. PMID:25966587

  1. Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

    2014-09-01

    Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

  2. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

  3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

  4. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). PMID:23733631

  5. Supplementation with imuno-2865 in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758): Effects on hematological and antioxidant parameters.

    PubMed

    upan, Ivan; Tkal?i?, Suzana; ari?, Tomislav; ?o-Rakovac, Rozalindra; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Topi?-Popovi?, Natalija; Kardum, Matko; Kanski, Danijel; Ljubi?, Blanka Beer; Matijatko, Vesna; Polji?ak-Milas, Nina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of IMUNO-2865() on hematological and antioxidative parameters in sea bream. Total of 640 sea bream were fed with diets containing 0 (Group 1), 1 (Group 2), 10 (Group 3) and 25 (Group 4) g of IMUNO-2865() kg(-1) feed during 90 days. Samples were taken each month and three months after the supplementation. A significant heterophils increase was observed in group 4 compared to group 1 after two months, and an increase in monocytes number was observed in group 4 compared to the other groups after one month. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) were significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group three months into the experiment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased in group 4 compared to the control group from day 60 until the end of the experiment, and in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control after three months. Based on the differences in the cellular immunity and oxidative stress parameters, with an overall absence of mortality, the results of this study suggest that the use of IMUNO-2865() in aquaculture is safe and possess a cumulative immunostimulatory effect on sea bream. PMID:26455665

  6. An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

  7. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frre, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200?m up to 1000?m size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.680.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.230.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20?m are not able to translocate into the tissues. PMID:26456303

  8. Millipedes faced with drought: the life cycle of a Mediterranean population of Ommatoiulus sabulosus (Linnaeus) (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae)

    PubMed Central

    David, Jean-François; Coulis, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Growth, development and life-cycle duration of the millipede Ommatoiulus sabulosus (f. aimatopodus) were studied in a Mediterranean shrubland of southern France and compared with previous data from northwest Europe. Changes in the proportions of stadia during the course of the year were analysed in several generations. The results show that stadia VII and VIII are consistently reached after the first year of growth, and stadia IX and X after the second year. First reproduction may occur at the age of two years in males reaching maturity at stadium X, but not until the age of three in those reaching maturity at stadia XI and XII. Reproduction cannot occur until at least the age of three in females, which carry mature eggs from stadium XI onwards. In comparison with more northern populations, life-cycle duration is not shorter in the Mediterranean population but there are marked differences in its phenology: the breeding period is in autumn, so that juveniles of stadia II to VI are never faced with the summer drought, and larger individuals are mostly inactive in summer; moreover, all individuals moult once every winter. The results illustrate how julid millipedes of humid temperate regions could respond to higher temperatures and drier summer conditions in the context of climate change. PMID:26257538

  9. Late Miocene diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the huge toads in the Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) species group (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of the Rhinella marina group, using molecular, morphological, and skin-secretion data, contributing to an understanding of Neotropical faunal diversification. The maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyzes of the combined data recovered a monophyletic R. marina group. Molecular dating based on Bayesian inferences and fossil calibration placed the earliest phylogenetic split within the R. marina group at ? 10.47 MYA, in the late Miocene. Two rapid major diversifications occurred from Central Brazil, first northward (? 8.08 MYA) in late Miocene and later southward (? 5.17 MYA) in early Pliocene. These results suggest that barriers and dispersal routes created by the uplift of Brazilian Central Shield and climatic changes explain the diversification and current species distributions of the R. marina group. Dispersal-vicariance analyzes (DIVA) indicated that the two major diversifications of the R. marina group were due to vicariance, although eleven dispersals subsequently occurred. PMID:20813190

  10. Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

    2014-12-01

    A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ∞ = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

  11. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  12. Characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) population of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Crissiuma, Ana Lucia; Gershony, Liza Crissiuma; Willi, Liliane Maria Valentin; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Guerrero, Jorge; Labarthe, Norma

    2011-06-01

    Ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. Cats submitted to a spay/neuter program in the city of Rio de Janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from a city with a tropical climate. Independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination. Ectoparasites were collected, and blood samples were taken to determine packed cell volume. The majority of the 292 cats were female (71%), and most of them were categorized as domestic short hair cats (92%). Different species of ectoparasites that produced both single agent and multi-agent infestations were detected in these cats. Most cats were infested by Ctenocephalides felis (60%); however, other ectoparasites were found to a lesser degree in the sampled population (Felicola subrostratus (5.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.4%), Lynxacarus radovskyi (1%), and Otodectes cynotis (6.2%)). Within the infested cats, 16.3% were also anemic, and there was a significant association between the occurrence of anemia and flea infestation. Of all sampled cats, 65% were infested by at least one species of ectoparasites, which suggests both a heavy infestation of the environment and owner negligence. Ectoparasites are not only nuisances to both cats and owners, but they are also significant carriers of disease. Therefore, the implementation of rigorous, safe preventive measures is of great importance. PMID:21181196

  13. Double valvular insufficiency in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus, Linnaeus, 1758) suffering from concomitant bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Trhiou-Sechi, Emilie; Petit, Amandine M P; Misbach, Charlotte; Chetboul, Valrie

    2010-12-01

    Ultrasonography, and, to a lesser extent, echocardiography are now well-established, noninvasive, and painless diagnostic tools in herpetologic medicine. Various cardiac lesions have been previously described in reptiles, but valvulopathy is rarely documented in these animals and, consequently, is poorly understood. In this report, sinoatrial and atrioventricular insufficiencies were diagnosed in a 5-yr-old captive dyspneic Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) on the basis of echocardiographic and Doppler examination. This case report is the first to document Doppler assessment of valvular regurgitations in a reptile. PMID:21370663

  14. Observations on possible competitive displacement between populations of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Calcutta*

    PubMed Central

    Gilotra, Sushil K.; Rozeboom, Lloyd E.; Bhattacharya, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    The possibility of competitive displacement in Calcutta between Aedes aegypti, a known vector of arboviruses, and A. albopictus, a suspected vector, was explored by general collections of immature stages from all types of breeding-places and by exposing oviposition traps in tenement houses, and gardens in urban, suburban, and rural environments. A. aegypti was predominant in houses and tenements in urban areas, but A. albopictus was not excluded. Both species occurred in about equal densities in small urban gardens. In suburban and rural areas, A. albopictus was predominant, or the only one of the two species present. It readily entered houses for the purpose of oviposition, especially in the absence of A. aegypti. It is suggested that the two species are exhibiting the effect of competitive displacement, with A. aegypti being favoured in urban premises and A. albopictus in the outdoor environment of suburban and rural areas, while in small urban gardens there is a state of equilibrium in which the densities of the two populations are about equal. The possibility cannot be excluded that eradication of A. aegypti in the city might lead to an increase in the A. albopictus population in houses and tenement dwellings. PMID:5301385

  15. Evaluation of the molluscicidal potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    PubMed

    Pereira Filho, Adalberto Alves; Frana, Clcia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Arago; Gonalves, Jos de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

    2014-01-01

    The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

  16. 77 FR 53236 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... 137-Northwest White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay to conduct a review of... White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay. Dates August 15, 2012 to August...

  17. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids. PMID:26785574

  18. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  19. A Stock Assessment of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Sustainable Management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-01-01

    A stock assessment of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus was conducted with crab gill nets and collapsible crab traps at Kung Krabaen Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, from 2008 to 2009. Several key indicators show that P. pelagicus population is in crisis. Fishing mortality shows an increase to 4.14. The exploitation rate is 0.71, higher than the optimal value of 0.38. The size of the mature females has also decreased from 8.100.39 cm to 7.521.14 cm. The average fecundity is 0.5721060.261106 eggs per batch, and the sex ratio (male:female) is 1:0.92. Based on these results, a sustainable management program for P. pelagicus was proposed as follows: (i) closing the bay during the spawning season, (ii) restoration of the Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds, (iii) restocking crab larvae in the bay and (iv) educating and networking all stakeholders to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the crab to support sustainable fishery management in Kung Krabaen Bay. PMID:25210587

  20. Biochemical compounds' dynamics during larval development of the carpet-shell clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758): effects of mono-specific diets and starvation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matias, Domitlia; Joaquim, Sandra; Ramos, Margarete; Sobral, Paula; Leito, Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Successful larval growth and development of bivalves depend on energy derived from internal (endotrophic phase) and external (exotrophic phase) sources. The present paper studies survival, growth and biochemical changes in the early developmental stages (from egg to pediveliger) of the clam Ruditapes decussatus in order to characterize the nutritional requirements and the transition from the endotrophic to the exotrophic phase. Three different feeding regimes were applied: starvation and two mono-specific microalgal diets ( Isochrysis aff galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans). A comparison between fed and unfed larvae highlighted the importance of egg lipid reserves, especially neutral lipids, during a brief endotrophic phase of embryonic development (first 2 days after fertilization). Egg reserves, however, may energetically contribute to the maintenance of larvae beyond the embryonic development. In fed larvae, the endotrophic phase is followed by a mixotrophic phase extending to days 5-8 after fertilization and a subsequent exotrophic phase. Metamorphosis starts around day 20. The intense embryonic activities are supported by energy derived from lipids, mainly from neutral lipids, and the metamorphic activities are supported by energy derived essentially from proteins accumulated during the planktonic phase and depend on the nutritional value of diets. The diet of I. aff galbana proves to be more adequate to R. decussatus larval rearing. The results provide useful information for the successful production of R. decussatus aquaculture.

  1. Reproductive biology of female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) reared in monoculture and polyculture with African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    PubMed

    Shoko, A P; Limbu, S M; Mrosso, H D J; Mgaya, Y D

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproductive biology and early breeding behaviour of female Oreochromis niloticus reared in monoculture and polyculture with Clarias gariepinus in earthen ponds for 8months. Results revealed no significant difference in length at first maturity (L50) between females reared in monoculture and polyculture systems. Similarly, no significant differences were detected in absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, gonado-somatic index and condition factor between the two culture systems. The absolute fecundity was more strongly correlated with total length and body weight than with ovary weight. The study concluded that early breeding of O. niloticus in captivity is not affected by the culture systems used. Therefore, O. niloticus production in either system can be improved only through proper pond management techniques. PMID:26090322

  2. Seasonal changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels in relation to parathyroid structure of the grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Dhande, R R; Suryawanshi, S A; Pandey, A K

    2006-01-01

    Plasma Ca concentration (annual mean) in males Coturnix cotumix coturnix was 10.27 +/- 0.14 mg/100 ml while it was slightly higher (11.85 +/- 0.15 mg/100 ml) among females. Plasma Pi levels (annual mean) in males and females were 5.62 +/- 0.12 mg/100 ml and 6.52 +/- 0.20 mg/100 ml, respectively. While the males did not exhibit marked fluctuation in plasma Ca and Pi levels either in winter or summer, the females did record significant elevation in the levels of both these electrolytes during breeding season. The peak values of plasma Ca (17.66 +/- 0.38 mg/100 ml) and Pi (8.64 +/- 0.22 mg/100 ml) in females were observed during June. Parathyroid gland of the grey quail exhibited hyperactivity (hypertrophy and hyperplasia) during breeding season, however, the activity was more conspicuous among females than in males. The maximum increase in cell and nuclear diameters were observed in females during May-July. The follicles were also filled with AF- and PAS-positive materials during these months. The glands depicted signs of hypoactivity and degeneration during peak winter season (November-December) as evident by decrease in cell and nuclear diameters as well as vacuolation in the chief cells. PMID:16850889

  3. A second generation genetic map of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) reveals slow genome and chromosome evolution in the Apidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The bumblebee Bombus terrestris is an ecologically and economically important pollinator and has become an important biological model system. To study fundamental evolutionary questions at the genomic level, a high resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for analyses ranging from quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to genome assembly and comparative genomics. We here present a saturated linkage map and match it with the Apis mellifera genome using homologous markers. This genome-wide comparison allows insights into structural conservations and rearrangements and thus the evolution on a chromosomal level. Results The high density linkage map covers ~ 93% of the B. terrestris genome on 18 linkage groups (LGs) and has a length of 2'047 cM with an average marker distance of 4.02 cM. Based on a genome size of ~ 430 Mb, the recombination rate estimate is 4.76 cM/Mb. Sequence homologies of 242 homologous markers allowed to match 15 B. terrestris with A. mellifera LGs, five of them as composites. Comparing marker orders between both genomes we detect over 14% of the genome to be organized in synteny and 21% in rearranged blocks on the same homologous LG. Conclusions This study demonstrates that, despite the very high recombination rates of both A. mellifera and B. terrestris and a long divergence time of about 100 million years, the genomes' genetic architecture is highly conserved. This reflects a slow genome evolution in these bees. We show that data on genome organization and conserved molecular markers can be used as a powerful tool for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, opening up new avenues of research in the Apidae. PMID:21247459

  4. Pterygodermatites ( Multipectines) pluripectinata n. sp. (Spirurida: Rictulariidae), a nematode parasite of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) from Caatinga shrubland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lux Hoppe, E G; Arajo de Lima, R C; Tebaldi, J H; Nascimento, A A

    2010-09-01

    In a parasitological survey of free-ranging Cerdocyon thous (Carnivora: Canidae) from Brazilian Caatinga shrubland, a new species of Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) was recovered from the small intestine of this host. Morphological analysis showed that P. (Multipectines) pluripectinata n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeneric species mainly by the numerous plate-like projections and male caudal morphology and spicular length. There are few records on the occurrence of this genus in Neotropical regions. PMID:20056009

  5. The morphology of the pineal gland of the yellow-toothed cavy (Galea Spixii Wagler, 1831) and red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Câmara, Felipe Venceslau; Lopes, Igor Renno Guimarães; de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Bezerra, Ferdinando Vinicius Fernandes; de Oliveira, Radan Elvis Matias; Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Magno; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco

    2015-08-01

    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in all mammals. This article describes the morphology of this important gland in two species of Caviideae, namely the yellow-toothed cavy and the red-rumped agouti. Ten adult animals of the two species used in current analysis were retrieved from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA) and euthanized. The glands were removed and photographed in situ and ex situ. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% or glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and submitted to routine histological techniques respectively for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the pineal gland with its elongated structure may be found between the cerebral hemispheres facing the rostral colliculi. Microscopically, pinealocytes and some glia cells were predominant. Contrastingly, to the cavy's pineal gland, a capsule covered the organ in the agouti, with the emission of incomplete septa to the interior, which divided it into two lobules. Light and scanning electron microscopes failed to show calcareous concretions in the pineal gland. Based on the topography of the cavy's and agouti's pineal gland, it may be classified as supra-callosum and ABC type. PMID:26096491

  6. Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Raza; Gharaei, Ahmad; Mansour, Majid Razeghi; Galeshi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary onion powder on growth, innate immune response and hemato-biochemical parameters of beluga juvenile (Huso huso). Basal diets containing onion powder 0 (control), 0.5 and 1% of feed were fed to beluga juvenile. At the end of the experiment, the highest weight gain (WG%) and specific growth rate (SGR) was observed in group fed with 1% onion (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference (P > 0.05) about feed conversion ratio (FCR) in treatment groups that fed diets containing various levels of onion powder. After 8 weeks, serum lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), respiratory burst activity and serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) showed a significant increase in treatment group with 1% onion powder compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The group fed 1% onion showed a significantly increases in the number of erythrocytes (RBC), leucocyte (WBC), haematocrit (Hct) levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Haemoglobin, monocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil had no significant change (P > 0.05) in treatment groups and control. The analysis of AST and LDH levels showed a significant decrease in 1% onion compared to the control and 0.5% onion diet (P < 0.05), while ALT and ALP levels were not influenced (P > 0.05). The blood glucose, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, albumin and globulin levels were lower in treated groups compared with the control (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrated that dietary onion powder could be an improvement in growth, hematological parameters and immune function of beluga juvenile. PMID:26067169

  7. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, survival, body composition, and some hematological parameters in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    PubMed

    Razeghi Mansour, M; Akrami, R; Ghobadi, S H; Amani Denji, K; Ezatrahimi, N; Gharaei, A

    2012-06-01

    The effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; activeMOS) on growth, survival, and body composition in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso) with initially average weight 46.89 2.57 was investigated for a period of 46 days. Basal diet were supplemented with 0 (control), 2, and 4 g kg(-1) MOS in a totally randomized design trial in triplicate groups. The results showed no significant differences in growth and feeding parameters between control and treatment groups (MOS supplementation diets) (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in feed per fish level in only group treated with 4 g kg(-1) MOS. The highest and the lowest growth performances were observed in 2 and 4 g kg(-1) MOS, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival rate among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). In group treated with 2 g kg(-1) MOS was a significant difference in lipid carcass (P < 0.05), whereas protein, ash, and moisture remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in intestinal lactic acid bacteria between all treatment groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between control and MOS treatment groups (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide did not influence the growth performance in giant sturgeon juvenile, and it is not appropriate for supplementation in the diet of cultured juvenile giant sturgeon. PMID:22068455

  8. Mercury and selenium in a top-predator fish, Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758), from the tropical Brazilian Coast, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Trcia G; Moreira, Isabel; Malm, Olaf; Kehrig, Helena A

    2012-08-01

    Muscular mercury and selenium were assessed in a voracious fish from three Brazilian coastal areas with different environmental conditions. Mercury was higher in specimens from Ilha Grande Bay (0.35 0.17 ?g g(-1)) than in cutlassfish from Guanabara Bay (0.30 0.15 ?g g(-1)) and Buzios coast (0.13 0.08 ?g g(-1)), respectively. No difference was found regarding selenium among these areas. Mercury was positively correlated with fish length and size intervals (sub-adult, small and large adult), suggesting that larger and older fish bioaccumulated more mercury. A large excess of molar selenium in relation to mercury was observed. PMID:22617947

  9. The structural organization and immunohistochemistry of G-protein alpha subunits in the olfactory system of the air-breathing mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Gobiidae, Oxudercinae).

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Michał; Rita Lauriano, Eugenia; Silvestri, Giuseppa; Zuwała, Krystyna; Pergolizzi, Simona; Zaccone, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The study provides the first comprehensive information on the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus. The olfactory sensory epithelium is in the form of islets which cover part of the olfactory canal running from the upper lip toward the eye, where large single accessory nasal sacs occur. Within the islets, microvillous, ciliated and crypt ORNs were observed as well as giant cells and sparse non-sensory ciliated cells. Around the islets and in the walls of accessory nasal sacs, there are epidermal cells with microridges typical of fish epidermis. Close to the entrance to the accessory nasal sac, in the non-sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity and the skin epithelium covering the olfactory organ, areas of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are reported for the first time. The distribution of the various ORN cell types is assessed through the immunohistochemistry against olfactory receptor coupled G-proteins. The ciliated ORNs were labeled by G alpha olf/s antibody. The ORNs with microvilli and crypt cells were G alpha i-3 immunoreactive. PMID:23769676

  10. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeo, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejo, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period. PMID:26628236

  11. Risk assessment, cross-resistance potential, and biochemical mechanism of resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field strain of house fly (Musca domestica Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Tiyyabah; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Iqbal, Naeem; Zubair, Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the environment. PMID:26933904

  12. Development and function of pearl-sacs grown from regenerated mantle graft tissue in the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

    2015-08-01

    Current pearl grafting techniques were developed in the early 1900s and have changed little since. They involve the sacrifice of donor pearl oysters to provide graft tissue (saibo) that is implanted into host oysters. This study assessed the feasibility of using regenerated graft tissue for pearl production in the 'black-lip' pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera. Twelve days after grafting with regenerated graft tissue, there was complete encapsulation of the nucleus by the fully developed pearl-sac and the first layer of organic matrix had been secreted. Sixteen days after grafting, the pearl-sac was completely integrated with host tissue. The epithelial cells in the pearl-sac continued to secrete the organic matrix layer but there were no signs of nacre deposition at this stage. However, after three months of culture, nuclei in oysters grafted with regenerated mantle tissue were completely covered with nacre. The average nacre thickness on pearls produced from regenerated (0.547 0.01 mm, n = 8) and normal (0.532 0.01 mm, n = 8) mantle tissue did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Nacre secretion rates, over the 80 day period subsequent to pearl-sac formation were 6.84 0.1 ?m day(-1) and 6.66 0.1 ?m day(-1) for oysters grafted with regenerated and normal mantle tissue, respectively. These means were not significantly different (p = 0.258). Our results clearly show that regenerated mantle tissue can function successfully as saibo for pearl production in P. margaritifera. This finding could provide significant benefits to pearl farmers and a basis for further development of current pearl grafting practices. PMID:25982400

  13. The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel(r) traps in Manaus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de zara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Degener, Carolin Marlen; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Ohly, Jrg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, lvaro Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel(r) trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79%) were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (?2 = 11.0271, p ? 0.001). Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001). Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added. PMID:23579804

  14. The impact of CO2 on collection of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say by BG-Sentinel traps in Manaus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de zara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Degener, Carolin Marlen; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Ohly, Jrg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, lvaro Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important component for activating and attracting host-seeking mosquitoes. The BG-Sentinel trap is a well-established monitoring tool for capturing Culicidae, but CO2 role for the trap effectiveness has not been evaluated in highly urbanised areas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of BG-Sentinel traps baited with and without CO2 for capturing urban mosquitoes. Fifteen areas were selected within the city of Manaus, Brazil, where four BG-Sentinels were operated for 24 h, two of them with CO2 and two without CO2. Captured Aedes aegypti females were dissected for the determination of their parity status. A significantly higher proportion of traps (from 32-79%) were positive for female Ae. aegypti when using the BG-Sentinel with CO2 (?2 = 11.0271, p ? 0.001). Catches of female Culex spp were six times higher in CO2 traps (Mann-Whitney U test = 190.5; p = 0.001). Parity rates were similar for both traps. This study showed that CO2 has primarily an enhancing effect on the efficacy of BG-Sentinel for capturing Culex spp in Manaus. For Ae. aegypti, the positivity rate of the trap was increased, when CO2 was added. PMID:23579804

  15. The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

    2014-09-01

    During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

  16. Evolution of arthropod visual systems: development of the eyes and central visual pathways in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; Vilpoux, Kathia; Blackburn, David C; Platchetzki, David; Brown, Nadean L; Melzer, Roland; Kempler, Karen E; Battelle, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite ongoing interest into the architecture, biochemistry, and physiology of the visual systems of the xiphosuran Limulus polyphemus, their ontogenetic aspects have received little attention. Thus, we explored the development of the lateral eyes and associated neuropils in late embryos and larvae of these animals. The first external evidence of the lateral eyes was the appearance of white pigment spots-guanophores associated with the rudimentary photoreceptors-on the dorsolateral side of the late embryos, suggesting that these embryos can perceive light. The first brown pigment emerges in the eyes during the last (third) embryonic molt to the trilobite stage. However, ommatidia develop from this field of pigment toward the end of the larval trilobite stage so that the young larvae at hatching do not have object recognition. Double staining with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and an antibody against L. polyphemus myosin III, which is concentrated in photoreceptors of this species, confirmed previous reports that, in the trilobite larvae, new cellular material is added to the eye field from an anteriorly located proliferation zone. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that these new cells differentiate into new ommatidia. Examining larval eyes labeled for opsin showed that the new ommatidia become organized into irregular rows that give the eye field a triangular appearance. Within the eye field, the ommatidia are arranged in an imperfect hexagonal array. Myosin III immunoreactivity in trilobite larvae also revealed the architecture of the central visual pathways associated with the median eye complex and the lateral eyes. Double labeling with myosin III and BrdU showed that neurogenesis persists in the larval brain and suggested that new neurons of both the lamina and the medulla originate from a single common proliferation zone. These data are compared with eye development in Drosophila melanogaster and are discussed with regard to new ideas on eye evolution in the Euarthropoda. PMID:16788994

  17. Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A

    2013-10-01

    Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355 mg/kg), copper (107 ?g/kg), iron (0.81 mg/kg), potassium (3481 mg/kg), magnesium (322 mg/kg), manganese (0.04 mg/kg), selenium (0.47 mg/kg), sodium (700 mg/kg) and zinc (4.46 mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70 kg male and a 65 kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

  18. Distribution and genetic diversity of the terrestrial slugs Arion lusitanicus Mabille, 1868 and Arion rufus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland based on mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Marianna; Koz?owski, Jan; Wiktor, Andrzej; Ka?uski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The slugs Arion lusitanicus and Arion rufus inhabit ecologically degraded areas and are serious vegetation pests. In recent years, new localities of these species have been found in various parts of Poland. Here we study the morphology of 90 specimens from 9 populations of slugs. The morphology of the genital system allowed for the identification of 60 A. lusitanicus specimens from 6 populations and 30 A. rufus individuals from another 3 localities. In order to describe their genetic diversity at the level of the individual, population, and species, we compared sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene. The morphological analysis revealed that each of the studied populations comprised a single species, which was also confirmed by the molecular assay. We obtained 674-bp sequences of the cox1 gene for each species that showed a total of eight haplotypes. The genetic diversity of A. lusitanicus individuals ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%, whereas that of A. rufus was twice as low: 0.4-1.0%. The difference between the two species within the cox1 gene was at the level of 12%. Three A. lusitanicus and two A. rufus populations were found to be monomorphic. Large inter-population variability was found within each of the studied species, which suggests that the Polish populations of A. lusitanicus may have originated from repeated, separate introductions arriving from various parts of Europe. PMID:19459464

  19. The strength of biogenic sand reefs: Visco-elastic behaviour of cement secreted by the tube building polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, Linnaeus, 1767

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cam, Jean-Benot; Fournier, Jrme; Etienne, Samuel; Couden, Jrme

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the biomineralised cement from tube-building marine worms are poorly known. Secreted from an organ connected to the polychaetes specialised glands, the cement glues sand grains and calcareous shell fragments of a given size and, on a larger scale, ensures the resistance of the reef to waves. In this study, three kinds of mechanical tests were performed with worm tubes to establish the nature of the cement behaviour. Results obtained show that cement behaves like a visco-elastic material. This property allows the tubes to dissipate the mechanical energy from the waves to which they are subject and to reduce the mechanical stress transmitted inside the tubes to the polychaetes. Comparison of "fresh" and "dry" cements highlights that the visco-elastic behaviour of the cement is maintained after five years. The viscosity of the cement is therefore not related to moisture but to its chemical composition. More generally, these results offer a better understanding of the role of cement on worm reefs strength and their persistence in the geological record.

  20. Distribution and density of the mollusk Donax striatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in a tropical estuarine region in the brazilian semi-arid.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, E L; Fernandes, G V; Henry-Silva, G G

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution and density of the bivalve Donax striatus, at beaches close to the Apodi/Mossoró River estuary, through, six semiannual sampling campaigns were performed between April/2009 and October/2011. The sampled area was delimited by 20 transects that were laid perpendicular to the beach line and extended over 300 m in the intertidal zone. Seven sampling points were established in each transect, organisms and sediment were collected, and water temperature and salinity were recorded. The highest D. striatus average density (103 individuals.m-2) was observed in April/2009 and the lowest (18 individuals.m-2) in October/2010. The highest D. striatus densities occurred in beaches further from the estuarine region as demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.67 and p = 0.0007). The D. striatus densities presented significant negative correlations with the percentages of organic matter in the water. This species demonstrated an aggregated distribution in the studied area. PMID:26675907

  1. [A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].

    PubMed

    Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

    2005-01-01

    The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

  2. [The study of Balantidium Helenae Bezzenberger, 1904 (Litostomatea, Trichostomatia) inhabiting the intestines of the frog Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, in optical and electron microscopes].

    PubMed

    Kornilova, O A; Chistyakova, L V

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the ciliate Balantidium helenae Bezzenberger, 1904 was investigated with the use of optical and electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that, together with the basic dimensional characteristics, main distinguishing features of the studied species include the following characters: the presence of a pointed prominence on the posterior margin of the cell; the presence of elongated cilia on the left margin of the vestibulum; and different shape and size of cortical ridges. Two morphologically different types of electron-dense bodies (supposedly hydrogenosoms) and also endobiotic bacteria were also found in the cytoplasm of B. helenae. PMID:25929106

  3. Social rank and darwinian fitness in a multimale group of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvana Linnaeus, 1758). Dominance reversals and male reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Witt, R; Schmidt, C; Schmitt, J

    1981-01-01

    In a 5-year study data were compared on rank and reproductive success of 3 mature males in a group of barbary macaques who had sired 32 infants on 14 females. The results indicate that the absolute number of offspring as well as the proportion of offspring from higher-ranking females is a function of the male's rank. Asymmetrical access to receptive females was produced by either a high basic rank or by the formation of a coalition, or both of these, which resulted in at least partial exclusion of competitors from reproduction. Rank reversals in basic rank was preceded by severe fights between the opponents involving deep wounds or loss of canine teeth. When such fights occurred they reaped benefits in each case for the challenger, which were measurable in terms of reproductive success. PMID:7319423

  4. A Stock Assessment of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Sustainable Management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

    2014-08-01

    A stock assessment of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus was conducted with crab gill nets and collapsible crab traps at Kung Krabaen Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, from 2008 to 2009. Several key indicators show that P. pelagicus population is in crisis. Fishing mortality shows an increase to 4.14. The exploitation rate is 0.71, higher than the optimal value of 0.38. The size of the mature females has also decreased from 8.10±0.39 cm to 7.52±1.14 cm. The average fecundity is 0.572×10(6)±0.261×10(6) eggs per batch, and the sex ratio (male:female) is 1:0.92. Based on these results, a sustainable management program for P. pelagicus was proposed as follows: (i) closing the bay during the spawning season, (ii) restoration of the Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds, (iii) restocking crab larvae in the bay and (iv) educating and networking all stakeholders to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the crab to support sustainable fishery management in Kung Krabaen Bay. PMID:25210587

  5. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus,1771 (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  6. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S RNA gene families in polyploid series of Cenchrus ciliaris Linnaeus,1771 (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Kharrat-Souissi, Amina; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Pustahija, Fatima; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., Poaceae) is one of the most important pasturage grasses due to its high productivity and good forage qualities. This species possess a high adaptability to bioclimatic constraints of arid zones and may be used for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Tunisian populations present three ploidy levels (4x, 5x and 6x) with a basic chromosome number x=9. This study reported for the first time the distribution of the ribosomal genes (rRNA) for pentaploid and hexaploid cytotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris. Molecular cytogenetic study using double fluorescence in situ hybridization has shown that the two rDNA families, 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S (18S), displayed intraspecific variation in number of loci among different ploidy levels. Each ploidy level was characterized by specific number of both 5S and 18S rDNA loci (two loci in tetraploid, five in pentaploid and six in hexaploid level). For three studied cytotypes (4x, 5x and 6x) all 5S rDNA loci were localized on the subcentromeric region of chromosomes, while 18S loci were situated on the telomeric region of short chromosome arms. Data of the FISH experiments show proportional increase of ribosomal loci number during polyploidization processes. PMID:24260668

  7. Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

    2014-09-15

    In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

  8. Characterization of 13 microsatellite loci for the deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758), from the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, C.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Johnson, R.L.; King, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of 13 polymorphic tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from the ahermatypic deep-sea coral, Lophelia pertusa. Among 51 individuals collected from three disjunct oceanic regions, allelic diversity ranged from six to 38 alleles and averaged 9.1 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 9.1 to 96.8% and averaged 62.3% in the Gulf of Mexico population. For some loci, amplification success varied among collections, suggesting regional variation in priming site sequences. Four loci showed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in certain collections which may reflect nonrandom mating. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Tapajs River basin, Southern Amazon: occurrence of sex chromosomes (ZZ/ZW) and their evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L C; Ribeiro, M O; Dutra, E S; Zawadzki, C H; Portela-Castro, A L B; Martins-Santos, I C

    2015-01-01

    Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and struc-tural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecos-tomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Flo-resta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were identified in two pairs of chromosomes at different positions: short arm of the pair 21and long arm of the pair 27, matching the signals displayed by 18S FISH and indicating multiple NORs. Analysis of band C detected few blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions of most chromosomes and the telomeric regions of some pairs, includ-ing the nucleolar pair 21. However, large blocks on the long arm of the nucleolar pair 27 still stood out. GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA3) was visualized only coincidently with nucleolar sites. Mapping of 5S rDNA sites with FISH revealed markings in eight chromosomes, demonstrat-ing synteny between the 18S and 5S sites. The data obtained for H. cf. plecostomus are important for taxonomic studies of this Amazon com-plex "H. plecostomus group". The occurrence of sex chromosomes in Amazon species of Hypostomus suggests an evolutionary event that is independent of other species in the group. PMID:26125870

  10. Hypoxia induced altered expression of heat shock protein genes (Hsc71, Hsp90? and Hsp10) in Indian Catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Yadav, Prabhaker; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K

    2015-07-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are typically associated with stress response and tolerance. The Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus, is a freshwater air-breathing hypoxia tolerant teleost and is potentially important catfish species for aquaculture and for its economic value as food. The present study aimed at determining the transcriptional response of three Hsps, CbHsc71, CbHsp90? and CbHsp10 in hypoxia tolerant Indian catfish, C. batrachus, under experimental and natural hypoxia. The expression profile of above three genes were studied under different periods of hypoxia, through qRT-PCR. Primers were designed from ESTs obtained through SSH libraries constructed from hypoxia treated fishes. The Hsp10 ESTs and deduced protein was in silico characterized for its ORF and for its physical and chemical properties, respectively, using GeneScan, blastp, scanprosite, superfamily and other softwares. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on deduced amino acid sequences of Hsc71, Hsp90?, Hsp90? of Homo sapiens and other fishes along with CbHsp10 protein in MEGA4. The deduced protein sequences of CbHsp10 was found to have characteristic Hsp10 family signatures, and it is proposed for inclusion of methionine in the consensus sequences of Hsp10 family signature, after the "proline" residue. At transcription level, these genes were found to be differentially regulated under hypoxia stress, in different tissues of C. batrachus. The CbHsc71 and CbHsp90? were up-regulated after short and long-term hypoxia, whereas CbHsp10 was significantly down-regulated after short-term hypoxia. The differential expression of these Hsps may play a role in protection and survival under hypoxia induced oxidative stress in C. batrachus. PMID:25663092

  11. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  12. The key breeding sites by pupal survey for dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in Guba, Cebu City, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D

    2012-11-01

    We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs. PMID:23413699

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) and Chinese catfish (S. asotus Linnaeus): Structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q R; Xu, C; Xu, C R; Wang, R J

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) and the Chinese catfish (S. asotus), was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) method. The mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences of S. meridionalis and S. asotus were compared with those of 47 other catfish species in the same order. The total length of mitochondrial DNA for S. meridionalis and S. asotus was 16,526 and 16,525 bp, respectively, and included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. This mitochondrial gene arrangement is identical to that observed in other Siluriformes. To determine the relative phylogenetic positions of S. meridionalis and S. asotus, and to discover phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes, analyses were conducted, based on mitochondrial DNA, 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of the Southern catfish (family Siluridae) and the Chinese catfish (family Siluridae) to Pimelodidae than to Bagridae. We concluded that these two species are part of a molecular clade that is different from that proposed in recent studies, in which Amblycipitidae appears as a sister group. Our results showed Amblycipitidae appearing as the most basal extant, and Bagridae appearing as a sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The Siluriformes showed close phylogenetic relationship to the Characiformes. PMID:26782467

  14. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AND SHELL MORPHOLOGY OF TROCHULUS OREINOS (WAGNER, 1915) AND T. HISPIDUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) (PULMONATA: HYGROMIIDAE) IN THE NORTHEASTERN ALPS

    PubMed Central

    DUDA, MICHAEL; SATTMANN, HELMUT; HARING, ELISABETH; BARTEL, DANIELA; WINKLER, HANS; HARL, JOSEF; KRUCKENHAUSER, LUISE

    2014-01-01

    Trochulus oreinos oreinos and T. oreinos scheerpeltzi are two land snail taxa endemic to the Northeastern Austrian Alps, which have been regarded as subspecies of the highly variable, widespread land snail T. hispidus. We analysed these three taxa morphologically and genetically to evaluate whether a delimitation between them is possible and, if so, to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Shell morphological results revealed high similarity between the two T. oreinos taxa, and that they are clearly separated from T. hispidus. Additionally, the T. oreinos subspecies concur with respect to their habitat preferences, as they are both restricted to rocky high alpine areas, whereas the local form of T. hispidus is distributed over a wider altitudinal range in moist areas and scrubby perennial herb vegetation near water bodies. While the morphological and ecological results allow clear differentiation between T. hispidus and T. oreinos only, analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA genes revealed high sequence divergences between all three taxa, which indicates that they represent old lineages. The two T. oreinos taxa appear as distantly related sister groups, well separated from T. hispidus. Whether T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi should be considered as species cannot be decided at the current state of knowledge. PMID:25197157

  15. [Monitoring of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) by means of ovitraps at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso Campus, Cuiab, State of Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Rosina Djunko; Ribeiro, Ana Lcia Maria; Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Campelo, Jos Holanda; Pignati, Marina

    2009-01-01

    TDengue is one of the most important arboviruses affecting man and is a serious health problem in tropical areas where climatic conditions are favorable for occurrences of foci of Aedes aegypti. Oviposition traps with added hay infusion were installed at 19 points on the campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso with the objective of investigating the monthly levels of infestation with the dengue vector and the influence of abiotic factors. The results obtained were compared with the following monthly abiotic data: temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation; and with the number of days for which the traps remained in the field. Rain was the only abiotic factor that influenced the level of infestation of the dengue vector at this location. There were significant differences between the quantities of Aedes aegypti eggs found at different sites within the same study area. The numbers of eggs found at each site over the year did not follow a single distribution pattern. PMID:19802474

  16. [Larvae of Anisakidae nematodes and Trypanorhyncha cestodes of public health importance in Aluterus monoceros (Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Fátima de Jesus Esteves; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Knoff, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    One hundred specimens of unicorn leatherjacket, Aluterus monoceros purchased from markets of municipalities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro from May to August 2006. The fishes were measured, necropsied, fileted and analysed their organs. Sixteen fishes were parasitized by nematode Anisakidae: Anisakis spp. and Contracaecum sp. with respectively, 1 and 16% of prevalence, 2 and 3.31 of mean intensity, and 0.02 and 0.53 of mean abundance. Two larvae of Anisakis sp. were found in mesentery of one fish and Contracaecum sp. was found in liver and mesentery with 1 to 9 specimens of range of infection. Fifty-one fishes were parasitized on the liver and mesentery by metacestodes of Trypanorhyncha. The collected species were Floriceps saccatus and Callitetrarhynchus speciosus with respectively, 45 and 6% of prevalence, 3.17 and 2.83 of mean intensity, and 1.43 and 0.06 of mean abundance, the range of infection by F. saccatus was 1 to 20 and by C. speciosus was 1 to 5. Anisakis sp. and these two species of Trypanothyncha were reported in A. monoceros for the first time. PMID:20624345

  17. Production of polysaccharidases in different carbon sources by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Mller (Singer), the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Aline; Bacci, Maurcio; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Bueno, Odair C; Hebling, Maria J A

    2006-07-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultured by the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens, produces polysaccharidases that degrade leaf components by generating nutrients believed to be essential for ant nutrition. We evaluated pectinase, amylase, xylanase, and cellulase production by L. gongylophorus in laboratory cultures and found that polysaccharidases are produced during fungal growth on pectin, starch, cellulose, xylan, or glucose but not cellulase, whose production is inhibited during fungal growth on xylan. Pectin was the carbon source that best stimulated the production of enzymes, which showed that pectinase had the highest production activity of all of the carbon sources tested, indicating that the presence of pectin and the production of pectinase are key features for symbiotic nutrition on plant material. During growth on starch and cellulose, polysaccharidase production level was intermediate, although during growth on xylan and glucose, enzyme production was very low. We propose a possible profile of polysaccharide degradation inside the nest, where the fungus is cultured on the foliar substrate. PMID:16775790

  18. SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Bethnia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cssia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

    2014-01-01

    Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

  19. Effects of a prebiotic, Immunogen®, on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Gh; Ouraji, H; Khalesi, M K; Sudagar, M; Barari, A; Zarei Dangesaraki, M; Jani Khalili, K H

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a commercial prebiotic, Immunogen, on feed utilization, growth rate, immunity promotion and carcass composition of the common carp Cyprinus carpio fingerlings. The fingerlings were adopted for 2 weeks and then reared in triplicate groups in 250-l tanks (n = 15 per tank with average initial weights of 11.12 ± 0.55 g). The fish fed on five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing different levels of Immunogen (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5 g prebiotic/kg diet) to apparent satiation thrice a day for 8 weeks. Weight gain showed no differences among the groups fed different Immunogen levels. Both feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increasing Immunogen levels from 0.5 to 1.5 g/kg diet. The highest protein content (p < 0.05) was found in the fish fed a diet containing 2.5 g/kg prebiotic. Haematological parameters and plasma total protein concentration were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the fingerlings fed diets containing 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg prebiotic in relation to the control. The control fish contained the highest mean of total bacterial counts. The lowest mean (p < 0.05) of total bacterial counts was observed in the fish fed the diet containing 2.5 g/kg Immunogen. The present study reveals that a dietary Immunogen supplementation from 1 to 1.5 g/kg is capable to improve the feed efficiency and growth performance of C. carpio fingerlings as well as their resistance to A. hydrophila infection. PMID:21707781

  20. Reconciling Deep Calibration and Demographic History: Bayesian Inference of Post Glacial Colonization Patterns in Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847) and C. maenas (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Zane, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    A precise inference of past demographic histories including dating of demographic events using Bayesian methods can only be achieved with the use of appropriate molecular rates and evolutionary models. Using a set of 596 mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of two sister species of European green crabs of the genus Carcinus (C. maenas and C. aestuarii), our study shows how chronologies of past evolutionary events change significantly with the application of revised molecular rates that incorporate biogeographic events for calibration and appropriate demographic priors. A clear signal of demographic expansion was found for both species, dated between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, which places the expansions events in a time frame following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the case of C. aestuarii, a population expansion was only inferred for the Adriatic-Ionian, suggestive of a colonization event following the flooding of the Adriatic Sea (18,000 years ago). For C. maenas, the demographic expansion inferred for the continental populations of West and North Europe might result from a northward recolonization from a southern refugium when the ice sheet retreated after the LGM. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of using adequate calibrations and demographic priors in order to avoid considerable overestimates of evolutionary time scales. PMID:22164307

  1. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles.

    PubMed

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kuhn, Jesper A; Kania, Per W; Munk, Peter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found at a relatively high prevalence of infection (4.6% and 5.2%, respectively). The infection by both parasites showed annual and spatial variability. C. elongatus showed a higher prevalence in 1992 compared to the following years, whereas the prevalence of H. aduncum increased from 1992 to 2001.We observed a relation between parasite distribution and parameters such as latitude and water depth. Adult digeneans (Lecithaster gibbosus and Derogenes varicus) and larval cestodes were also found with lower infection rates. Since changes of infection levels coincided with increasing North Sea water temperature in the studied period, it is hypothesized that temperature may affect parasite population levels. However, it is likely that other environmental factors may contribute to the observed variations. Absence of infection intensities higher than one nematode per fish in small larvae and post-larvae suggests that host survival may be affected by a high infection pressure. The relatively high levels of infection in the younger stages of cod, and the annual/spatial variability of these infections should be considered in the understanding of the early life dynamics of the species. PMID:24827100

  2. Macroscopic lesions of the ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) naturally infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).

    PubMed

    Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds. PMID:25001213

  3. Refugia within refugia as a key to disentangle the genetic pattern of a highly variable species: the case of Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Stefani, Fabrizio; Gentilli, Augusto; Sacchi, Roberto; Razzetti, Edoardo; Pellitteri-Rosa, Daniele; Pupin, Fabio; Galli, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Two distinct lineages of Rana temporaria are known in the Palaearctic region, but it is uncertain whether this species persisted in one or more Pleistocene refugia. We resolved the phylogeographic history and genetic variability of R. temporaria in the Italian peninsula, a 'traditional' Pleistocene refugium, and related our findings to patterns described for other European populations. We sequenced the mitochondrial markers Cox I and cytochrome b. Phylogenetic reconstruction only indicated the presence of haplotypes belonging to the Western lineage in the Italian peninsula. Overall, the genetic variability of Italian populations was higher than other European populations, which shared haplotypes with the Alpine populations. We demonstrated subdivision into five main Italian sublineages, which was associated with a geographical structure of populations in two divergent groups. In particular, one Apennine group might have resulted from bottlenecks during the last interglacials ages. In contrast, Alpine populations were recently diverged and showed incomplete lineage sorting. Our data indicate that the Italian peninsula served as refugium for the Western lineage of R. temporaria. Dispersion towards Central Europe probably started only from the western slope of the Alps via a rapid leading edge expansion. The identified structure is partially congruent with traditional peripheral refugia identified for plants. This evolutionary scenario does not support any taxonomic distinction at the subspecific level for R. temporaria. PMID:22874474

  4. Molecular Characterisation and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Isoform of Hepatic Antimicrobial Peptide, Hepcidin (Zc-hepc1), from the Coral Fish Moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Chaithanya, E R; Philip, Rosamma; Sathyan, Naveen; Anil Kumar, P R; Cubelio, Sherine Sonia; Bright Singh, I S

    2013-09-01

    Hepcidin is a family of short cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) participating in various physiological functions with inevitable role in host immune responses. Present study deals with identification and characterisation of a novel hepcidin isoform from coral fish Zanclus cornutus. The 81 amino acid (aa) preprohepcidin obtained from Z. cornutus consists of a hydrophobic aa rich 22 mer signal peptide, a highly variable proregion of 35 aa and a bioactive mature peptide with 8 conserved cysteine residues which contribute to the disulphide back bone. The mature hepcidin, Zc-hepc1 has a theoretical isoelectric point of 7.46, a predicted molecular weight of 2.43 kDa and a net positive charge of +1. Phylogenetic analysis grouped Z. cornutus hepcidin with HAMP2 group hepcidins confirming the divergent evolution of hepcidin-like peptide in fishes. Zc-hepc1 can attain a β-hairpin-like structure with two antiparallel β-sheets. This is the first report of an AMP from the coral fish Z. cornutus. PMID:26782987

  5. The metabolic responses and acid-base status after feeding, exhaustive exercise, and both feeding and exhaustive exercise in Chinese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Li, Ke-Gui; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-06-01

    Feeding and exhaustive exercise are known to elevate metabolism. However, acid-base status may be oppositely affected by the two processes. In this study, we first investigated the acid-base response of Chinese catfish to feeding (the meal size was about 8% of body mass) to test whether an alkaline tide (a metabolic alkalosis created by gastric HCl secretion after feeding) would occur. We then determined the combined effects of feeding and exhaustive exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and acid-base status to determine whether the alkaline tide induced by feeding protects against acid-base disturbance during exhaustive exercise and affects subsequent recovery. Arterial blood pH increased from 7.74 +/- 0.02 before feeding to 7.88 +/- 0.02 and plasma [HCO(3)(-)](pl) increased from 5.42 +/- 0.29 to 7.83 +/- 0.37 mmol L(-1) 6 h after feeding, while feeding had no significant effect on PCO2. Exhaustive exercise led to a significant reduction in pH by 0.46 units and a reduction of [HCO(3)(-)](pl) by approximately 3 mmol L(-1). Lactate concentrations in white muscle and plasma increased by 2.4 mmol L(-1) and 13.4 micromol g(-1), respectively. Fed fish had a higher pH and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) than fasting fish at rest, and the reductions in pH (0.36 units) and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) (approximately 2 mmol L(-1)) were thus lower after exhaustive exercise. However, the recovery of acid-base status and metabolites were similar in digesting and fasting fish. Overall, a significant alkaline tide was found in Chinese catfish after feeding. The alkaline tide elicited by feeding significantly prevented the decreases in pH and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) immediately after exhaustive exercise, but recovery from exhaustive exercise was not affected by digestion. PMID:20127095

  6. Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2012-07-01

    The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

  7. Total and methyl-mercury content in bivalves, Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck and Ostrea edulis Linnaeus: relationship of biochemical composition and body size

    SciTech Connect

    Najdek, M.; Sapunar, J.

    1987-07-01

    Mussels and oysters are of interest to pollution ecologists because they are widely distributed, suspension feeding invertebrates and are likely to accumulate pollutants from their environment (Goldberg 1975). Many authors have estimated the relation between the concentration of metals in the flesh and various biotic and abiotic parameters. Body mass (estimated in dry weight) is evidently an important factor governing the uptake of metals by these organisms. The highest concentrations of certain metals were often found in the smallest individuals. The relation between metal content and body size can best be described using Boyden's model which is useful for quantifying any physiological activities in relation to the dry weight of the specimens. In the present paper the authors describe the investigation into the relationship between total and methyl-mercury content and body mass in mussels and oysters.

  8. Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

    2010-11-01

    We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

  9. Follow-up of the health conditions of an urban colony of free-roaming cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Labarthe, Norma; Guerrero, Jorge; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Pereira, Cssia Dias; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

    2007-06-20

    Similar to other urban areas where food and shelter are abundant, the zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro has dealt for years with a colony of feral or semi-feral domestic cats. A survey was conducted during 2002-2004 as a follow-up to a previous study in 2001 of the cat colony to identify pathogens circulating among the population and to annually follow the status of the cats to analyze morbidity coefficients and associations among infections and infestations identified in the colony. During the 3 years of the present study, 75 cats were sampled at least once, including 44 that were caught and examined only once, 14 that were examined twice, and 17 that were examined three times. For each cat that was caught, records were kept regarding sex, age, general health, and the presence of ectoparasites. Each year, a blood sample was taken for hematologic testing, platelet count, hemoparasite detection, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, and retrovirus detection. Blood counts were within normal range for the majority of cats tested. Feline immunodeficiency virus, fleas, and lice were detected in all years; however, incidence rates for each of these varied significantly throughout the years. Prevalence of Cytauxzoon spp., Mycoplasma spp., T. gondii infections were variable among the 3 years, although differences were not significant. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus increased significantly over the 3 years. Mycoplasma spp. and flea infestations were significantly associated, but no other associations among the pathogens were detected. Over the 3 years, the rate of new cat introductions decreased, and the pathogens showed a tendency to disseminate throughout the colony; however, there was virtually no evidence of clinically detectable disease. Therefore, it seems that stabilizing the population by a judicious control program facilitated the distribution of the pathogens throughout the colony, while the general well-being of the cats was not seriously affected. PMID:17481822

  10. [Post-embrionic development of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus,1758) (Diptera: Muscidae)feed in feces of treated bovines with different avermectins].

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Douglas M; Chaaban, Amanda; Moya Borja, Gonzalo E

    2005-01-01

    Stomoxys calcitrans is one of the most important ectoparasites of the livestock in Brazil. This dipteran transmits many pathogenic agents to domestic animals, and in Latin America the stable fly is a common vector of Dermatobia hominis eggs. The insecticidal effect of feces from treated bovines with different avermectins was tested against larvae and pupae of S. calcitrans and was studied at the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Groups of bovines were, treated with eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin, and one group was left untreated. Approximatly 100 g of feces was colleted frorn the recturri of each animal at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. The animal feces were mixtured with basic diet 1:1 and inoculated with first instar larvae of S. calcitrans. The results of this trial showed that percentage of viability of S calcitrans, from larvae to adult, was reduced by 85,00; 84,00; 91,00 and 92,00 per cent for eprinornectin, abamectin, ivermectin, and doramectin, respectively after 14 days post-treatment. PMID:16153344

  11. A Linnaeus NG TM interactive key to the Lithocolletinae of North-West Europe aimed at accelerating the accumulation of reliable biodiversity data (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Haren, Merel M.; Schermer, Maarten; Pieterse, Sander; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We present an interactive key that is available online through any web browser without the need to install any additional software, making it an easily accessible tool for the larger public. The key can be found at http://identify.naturalis.nl/lithocolletinae. The key includes all 86 North-West European Lithocolletinae, a subfamily of smaller moths (“micro-moths”) that is commonly not treated in field guides. The user can input data on several external morphological character systems in addition to distribution, host plant and even characteristics of the larval feeding traces to reach an identification. We expect that this will enable more people to contribute with reliable observation data on this group of moths and alleviate the workload of taxonomic specialists, allowing them to focus on other new keys or taxonomic work. PMID:25061390

  12. Lernanthropus kroyeri (Van Beneden and Hesse 1851) parasitic Copepoda (Siphonostomatoidae, Lernanthropidae) of European cultured sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) from Corsica: ecological and morphological study.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2012-05-01

    Lernanthropus kroyeri (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida: Lernanthropidae) is a gill parasite found on the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. During a survey of sea bass of Corsican fish farms, we studied the biology of this parasite under culture conditions. We first chose to conduct a scanning electron microscopic study to give additional information about the lifestyle of the parasite. Our examinations made it possible to reveal some unreported superficial structures including details not described previously. Specializations associated with the tegument, in particular, sensory structures and anchoring systems were studied to understand the mechanisms of survival and dispersal of the species. Patterns variation of parasites communities was examined by taking into account environmental factors, such as temperature or salinity, and physiological parameters related to host. The relation between parasites and location of fish was also studied to quantify the importance of site influence on parasite communities. Prevalence and abundances of the infections in different culture systems, fish stocks, and sampling seasons are given. L. kroyeri was significantly present during spring and summer, coinciding with a period of increasing temperature. Significant differences were found grouping data by host size, with higher infection levels in the larger-sized fish. PMID:22179262

  13. Dorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Goldfish, or Swordfishsometimes shown as Xiphias; abbrev. Dor, gen. Doradus; area 179 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Pictor and Reticulum, and culminates at midnight in early December. It was first shown on Petrus Plancius' celestial globe of c. 1598, though it is usually attributed to the Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser (also known as Petrus Theodorus) and F...

  14. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    PubMed

    Mlkovsk, Ji?

    2015-01-01

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Dumril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Dumril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed. PMID:25781112

  15. 7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cuscuta attenuata Waterfall Cuscuta boldinghii Urban Cuscuta brachycalyx (Yuncker) Yuncker Cuscuta... nilotica (Linnaeus) Wildenow ex Delile (gum arabic tree, thorny acacia Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel)...

  16. Collection and collation: theory and practice of Linnaean botany.

    PubMed

    Mller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-09-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) as an 'essentialist', 'Aristotelian', or even 'scholastic' one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that: (1) Linnaeus's species concept took account of reproductive relations among organisms and was therefore not metaphysical, but biological; (2) Linnaeus did not favour classification by logical division, but criticized it for necessarily failing to represent what he called 'natural' genera; (3) Linnaeus's definitions of 'natural' genera and species were not essentialist, but descriptive and polytypic; (4) Linnaeus's method in establishing 'natural' definitions was not deductive, but consisted in an inductive, bottom-up procedure of comparing concrete specimens. The conclusion will discuss the fragmentary and provisional nature of Linnaeus's 'natural method'. I will argue in particular that Linnaeus opted for inductive strategies not on abstract epistemological grounds, but in order to confer stability and continuity to the explorative practices of contemporary natural history. PMID:17893064

  17. In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Osman, Alaa G M; Abuel-Fadl, Khaled Y; Kloas, Werner

    2012-08-30

    This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile. PMID:22525358

  18. [Helminths of Pampas fox, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814) and of Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766) in the South of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ruas, Jernimo L; Muller, Gertrud; Farias, Nara Amlia R; Gallina, Tiago; Lucas, Andreia S; Pappen, Felipe G; Sinkoc, Afonso L; Brum, Joo Guilherme W

    2008-01-01

    Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55%) were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55%) Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous), Molineus felineus (9.9 in P. gymnocercus and 5.6% in C. thous), Strongyloides sp. (22.7 in P. gymnocercus and 16.7% in C. thous), Trichuris sp. (13.6 in P. gymnocercus and 11.1% in C. thous), and Capillaria hepatica (13.6 in P. gymnocercus and 5.5% in C. thous). The trematodes observed were: Alaria alata (36.4 in P. gymnocercus and 50.0% in C. thous), and Asthemia heterolecithodes in 5.6% C. thous. Cestodes were identified as Spirometra sp. (61.1% in C. thous and 54.5 in P. gymnocercus), Diphyllobothriidae, (81.8 in P. gymnocercus and 77.8% in C. thous) and an Acantocephala of the genus Centrorhynchus was also observed in 5.6% of C. thous only. These results indicated the helminths fauna in wild canids from the studied area. PMID:18823576

  19. [Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].

    PubMed

    Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation. PMID:19239118

  20. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ≤ 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  1. Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaa, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Lilia; Harry, Myriam

    2010-12-01

    A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of So Tom located along the Tapajs river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Par, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajs region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region. PMID:20619359

  2. Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, Janelle

    Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization rate, larval establishment and survival of juvenile tunicates. All these elements can potentially be key factors on limiting the establishment of a population of C. intestinalis in the Orwell Bay aquatic system. Keywords: Invasive species, watershed, biogeography, tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, universal soil loss equation, hydrodynamic modeling, correspondence analysis, turbidity, environmental tolerance.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  4. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L; Coates, Craig J; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ? 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes "eavesdrop" on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  5. Attracting predators without falling prey: chemical camouflage protects honeydew-producing treehoppers from ant predation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Henrique C P; Oliveira, Paulo S; Trigo, Jos R

    2010-02-01

    Predaceous ants are dominant organisms on foliage and represent a constant threat to herbivorous insects. The honeydew of sap-feeding hemipterans has been suggested to appease aggressive ants, which then begin tending activities. Here, we manipulated the cuticular chemical profiles of freeze-dried insect prey to show that chemical background matching with the host plant protects Guayaquila xiphias treehoppers against predaceous Camponotus crassus ants, regardless of honeydew supply. Ant predation is increased when treehoppers are transferred to a nonhost plant with which they have low chemical similarity. Palatable moth larvae manipulated to match the chemical background of Guayaquila's host plant attracted lower numbers of predatory ants than unchanged controls. Although aggressive tending ants can protect honeydew-producing hemipterans from natural enemies, they may prey on the trophobionts under shortage of alternative food resources. Thus chemical camouflage in G. xiphias allows the trophobiont to attract predaceous bodyguards at reduced risk of falling prey itself. PMID:20001602

  6. Changes in the nesting populations of colonial waterbirds in Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, 1974-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, K.M.; Tims, J.L.; Erwin, R.M.; Richmond, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (JBWR) represents the largest protected area for over 300 species of migratory and resident birds on Long Island (LI), New York, and occupies a key position along the Atlantic flyway. We identified changes in nesting populations for 18 species of colonial waterbirds in JBWR and on LI, during 1974 - 1998, to provide a basis for future wildlife management decisions in JBWR and also at nearby John F. Kennedy International Airport. None of the populations was stable over the past 25 years in JBWR or on LI. Some populations in JBWR increased (Laughing Gull L. atricilla Linnaeus, Great Black-backed Gull L. marinus Linnaeus, Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri Nuttall) while others decreased (Herring Gull Larus argentatus Coues, Snowy Egret Egretta thula Molina), but only Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus) have disappeared from the refuge. Common Tern (S. hitundo Linnaeus), Least Tern (S. antillarum Lesson), Roseate Tern (S. dougallii Montagu), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger Linnaeus), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax Linnaeus) and Great Egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus) populations all increased on LI over the sampling period although the Common Tern colonies in JBWR have been declining since 1986. The continued protection of the colony sites, particularly saltmarsh islands, in JBWR will be important to the conservation efforts of many colonial waterbird populations on Long Island. The JBWR colonies may serve as a source of emigrants to other Long Island colonies, and in some cases, act as a 'sink' for birds immigrating from New Jersey and elsewhere.

  7. Morphology of spermathecae of some pentatomids (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Candan, Selami; Yilmaz, Fatma Sümeyye; Suludere, Zekiye; Erbey, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    The spermathecal morphology of nine species belonging to the Pentatomidae (Insecta: Heteroptera) were compared by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among the examined species [Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda 1761), Palomena prasina (Linnaeus 1761), Piezodorus lituratus (Fabricius 1794), Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus 1758), Graphosoma semipunctatum (Fabricius 1775), Aelia albovittata (Fieber 1868), Codophila varia (Fabricius 1787), Ancyrosoma leucogrammes (Gmelin 1790), Nezara viridula (Linnaeus 1758)], all spermathecae contained a spermathecal bulb (reservoir), a pumping region, distal and proximal flanges, proximal and distal spermathecal ducts, dilation of spermathecal duct and a genital chamber containing two ring sclerites, but each species had a different spermathecal morphology. PMID:25947482

  8. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valria R F; Dutra, Valria; Turbino, Nvea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

  9. Discovery of microRNAs of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) by high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus), is a serious ectoparasite affecting animal production and health of both animals and humans. Stable fly control relies largely on chemical insecticides; however, the development of insecticide resistance, as well as environmental considerations, requir...

  10. The decapod fauna (Axiidea, Anomura, Brachyura) from the Late Pleistocene of Trumbacà, Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Garassino, Alessandro; Pasini, Giovanni; De Angeli, Antonio; Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    We report a rich faunal assemblage from the Tyrrhenian (Late Pleistocene) of Trumbacà, located in the southern area of Reggio Calabria (Calabria, southern Italy). The only brachyuran reported to date from this locality is Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880) by Vazzana (2008). The studied specimens have been assigned, as follows: ?Corallianassa sp., Dardanus arrosor (Herbst, 1796), Dardanus substriatus (A. Milne Edwards, 1861), Paguristes cf. P. syrtensis de Saint Laurent 1970, Anapagurus sp., Ranilia constricta (A. Milne Edwards, 1880), Ranina propinqua Ristori, 1891, Ebalia cf. E. deshayesi Lucas, 1846, Ilia nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758), Medorippe lanata (Linnaeus, 1767), Calappa granulata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pisa armata (Latreille, 1803), Derilambrus cf. D. angulifrons (Latreille, 1825), Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783), Carcinus sp., Pilumnus hirtellus (Linnaeus, 1761), and Xantho cf. X. incisus (Leach, 1814). The studied assemblage enlarges our knowledge on the evolution of the Mediterranean decapod faunas. PMID:26689358

  11. MATING BEHAVIOR OF CEPHALONOMIA TARSALIS (ASHMEAD)(HYMENOPTERA: BETHYLIDAE) AND THE EFFECT OF FEMALE MATING FREQUENCE ON OFFSPRING PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The courtship behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead), a solitary semi-ectoparasitoid of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), was investigated in the laboratory. Courtship behavior includes a series of stereotypic movements. Males play the most active role, executing th...

  12. First isolation and characterization of Lactococcus garvieae from Brazilian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (L.), and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactococcus garvieae infection in cultured Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (Linnaeus) and pintado, Pseudoplathystoma corruscans, (Spix and Agassiz) from Brazil is reported. The commercial bacterial identification system, Biolog Microlog®, confirmed the identity of L. garvieae. Infectivity tri...

  13. 11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. CLOSE VIEW OF LINNAEUS BUST - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  14. 10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. BUST OF LINNAEUS OVER SOUTH ENTRANCE - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  20. 78 FR 60321 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Glacier; ASPA 138 Linnaeus Terrace ASPA 139 Biscoe Point; ASPA 155 Cape Evans; ASPA 157 Backdoor Bay; ASPA 158 Hut Point; ASPA 172 Lower Taylor Glacier and Blood Falls; ASMA 2 McMurdo Dry Valleys; ASMA...

  1. Two new species of the syringophilid quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing apodiform birds (Aves: Apodiformes).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Kaszewska, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Two new syringophilid species (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) are described, Apodisyringiana hirundapi sp. nov. from Hirundapus caudacutus (Latham) from Japan and Syringophiloidus apus sp. nov. from Apus melba (Linnaeus) from Chile. PMID:26701456

  2. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mrio Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cndido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastio Venncio; Barreto, Francisco Cndido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mrio Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  3. The need for speed. I. Fast reactions and myelinated axons in copepods.

    PubMed

    Lenz, P H; Hartline, D K; Davis, A D

    2000-04-01

    A rapid and powerful escape response decreases predation risk in planktonic copepods. Calanoid copepods are sensitive to small and brief hydrodynamic disturbances: they respond with multiple nerve impulses to a vibrating sphere. Some species, such as Pleuromamma xiphias and Labidocera madurae, respond with very large spikes (1-4 mV), whereas maximum spike heights are an order of magnitude smaller in others, such as Undinula vulgaris and Neocalanus gracilis. A comparative study of the escape responses showed that all species reacted within 10 ms of the initiation of a hydrodynamic stimulus. However, U. vulgaris and N. gracilis had significantly shorter reaction times (minimum reaction times: 1.5 ms and 1.6 ms) than the other two, P. xiphias (6.6 ms) and L. madurae (3.1 ms). Examination of the first antenna and the central nervous system using transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive myelination of sensory and motor axons in the two species with the shorter reaction times. Axons of the other two species resembled typical crustacean unmyelinated fibers. A survey of 20 calanoids revealed that none of the species in two of the more ancient superfamilies possessed myelin, but myelination was present in the species from three more recently-evolved superfamilies. PMID:10798722

  4. [Systematics on the threshold of the XXI century. Traditional principles and fundamentals from today's point of view].

    PubMed

    Skvortsov, A K

    2002-01-01

    Systematics as regarded is a purely theoretical domain of biology, and its product, system, as a specific biological theory, or a topologo-genetic model of the biota. Linnaeus was the first to introduce the idea of system and the systematic approach into the natural history. The advent of evolutionism brought new meaning to the old term "affinity", so Linnaeus' slogan of natural system got new life, and Linnaeus taxonomy assimilated the evolutionary ideology quite naturally and much easier than many other departments of biology. The difference between natural and artificial systems is remaining, and it is in their goals, as formulated by Linnaeus: heuristic of the former and cataloguing of the latter. Linnaeus' clairvoyance discovered the existence of an infrageneric level of genetic integration provable by naturalists' experience. He chose for it the designation of "species" and laid it down as primary, basic unit of his system. This is plainly evident from his own writings; the story about Linnaean species being products of a logical division of genera is a pure fiction. Modern populational model of species, by 3 important criteria, appears to be more akin to the Linneaean one than to the ideas of Lamarckism and early Darwinism. Systematic approach focuses rather on the interrelations among elements and their relative position, then on the properties and qualities of separately treated individual elements. In the development of systematics the aspect of "nexification" (study of connections) has been continuously gaining attention especially regarding the nomenclature where connotation has been totally forced out by denotation. PMID:11881218

  5. High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Losev, Alexander; Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Luke, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-12-01

    One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100% in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species of Trypanoplasma Laveran et Mesnil, 1901 were documented for five out of eight examined host species. Molecular analysis of the 18S rDNA sequences revealed that four hosts, namely northern pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus, freshwater bream, spined loach and European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were simultaneously infected with two different trypanosome species. Our findings advocate the view that to avoid the risk posed by mixed infections, subsequent molecular taxonomic studies should be performed on clonal lines derived from laboratory cultures of fish trypanosomes. PMID:25651690

  6. Efficiency of box-traps and leg-hold traps with several bait types for capturing small carnivores (mammalia) in a disturbed area of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Fernanda; Crawshaw, Peter G; Oliveira, Tadeu G de; Fabin, Marta E

    2007-03-01

    Capturing small carnivores is often necessary for obtaining key ecological data. We compared the efficiency of box and leg-hold traps, using live and dead bait, to capture six carnivore species (Herpailurus yagouaroundi (E. Geoffroyi, 1803), Leopardus tigrinus (Schreber, 1775), Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758), and Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782)). The use of leg-hold traps significantly increased the capture rate of carnivores (5.77%) and non-target species (non-carnivores, 11.54%). Dead bait significantly attracted more non-carnivores than carnivores and live bait was more efficient for capturing carnivores (2.56%) than non-carnivores (0.77%). Both box and leg-hold traps caused some minor injuries (swelling and claw loss). We provide recommendations for the ethical use of these trap and bait types. PMID:18457140

  7. Cytogenetic studies in four cultivated Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) species

    PubMed Central

    Bonasora, Marisa Graciela; Poggio, Lidia; Greizerstein, Eduardo Jos

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linnaeus, 1753, Amaranthus mantegazzianus Passer, 1864, and Amaranthus caudatus Linnaeus, 1753. The distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using DAPI-CMA3 banding technique. The position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) was observed using Ag-NOR banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (rDNA-FISH) in the four Amaranthus species. Variations in the amount of constitutive heterochromatin were detected both within the species and between them, with DAPI-CMA3 stain. One chromosome pair having a NOR was found in each studied accession, with exception of Amaranthus caudatus cv. EEA INTA Anguil. This accession presented four rDNA loci (FISH), being active two of them (Ag- banding). PMID:24260690

  8. Quill mites of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from North American birds.

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S

    2008-12-01

    Seven mite species belonging to the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) are recorded from 10 passeriform host species from the USA. Three new species are described and illustrated: Syringophilopsis polioptilus sp. n. from Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus) (Polioptilidae); S. empidonax sp. n. from Empidonax hamrnmondii (Vesey) and Empidonax wrightii Baird (Tyrannidae); and S. sialiae sp. n. from Sialia mexicana Swainson (Turdidae). In addition, records of new hosts are given: Turdus migratorius Linnaeus (Turdidae) for Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958); three tyrannid species (Tyrannidae), Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), M. cinerascens (Lawrence) and Tyrannus verticalis Say for S. tyranni Bochkov et Galloway, 2004; Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) (Icteridae) for S. elongatus (Ewing, 1911); and two parulid species (Parulidae), Dendroica graciae Baird and Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) for S. dendroicae Bochkov et Galloway, 2001. All known species of the genus Syringophilopsis from the Nearctic Region are summarized in tabular form. Syringophilopsis porzanae Bochkov et Galloway, 2004 is reassigned to the genus Ascetonmylla Kethley, 1970. PMID:19175207

  9. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  10. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  11. [About infection agents, zoophytes, animalcules and infusories].

    PubMed

    Osorio A, Carlos G

    2007-04-01

    By definition, zoophytes are organisms with characteristics which are intermediate between plants and animals. The concept is already outlined by Aristotle in his Historia Animalium. In the XVIII century, the great Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus, in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, included the order Zoophyta within the class of Vermes. In this classification, for the first time the curious animalcules (infusories), discovered by van Leeuwenhoek in the late XVII century, were formally classified as zoophytes and were incorporated specifically into the genus Chaos. Audaciously, Linnaeus also conjectured that the infectious agents could be related to the animalcules-infusories, though he left the corresponding demonstration to posterity. PMID:17453079

  12. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae), all gill parasites from African mouthbreeder tilapias of the genera Sarotherodon and Oreochromis (Pisces, Cichlidae), with a redescription of C. thurstonae Ergens, 1981.

    PubMed

    Pariselle, Antoine; Bilong Bilong, Charles F; Euzet, Louis

    2003-11-01

    A study of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus), O. aureus (Steindachner), Sarotherodon caudomarginatus (Boulenger), S. galilaeus (Linnaeus) and S. galilaeus sanagaensis (Thys van den Audenaerde) (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from different locations in Africa (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Niger and Senegal) revealed the presence of 11 species of monogenean gill parasites. Four, belonging to Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 and considered as new species, are described: C. rognoni n. sp., C. douellouae n. sp., C. giostrai n. sp. and C. njinei n. sp. They are distinguished by the shape and/or size of the sclerotised parts of the haptoral and copulatory complexes. C. thurstonae Ergens, 1981 from O. niloticus is redescribed. PMID:14707506

  13. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stl, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time. PMID:25610332

  14. No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

  15. New record of Lipoptena cervi and updated checklist of the louse flies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) of the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Chae, Joon-Seok; Lee, Hang; Klein, Terry A; Suh, Sang Jae; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT This is the first confirmed record of the genus Lipoptena Nitzsch and its species, Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus), from the Republic of Korea. A total of five females and 10 males was collected from eight of 29 Korean water deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus Swinhoe, from Gangwon and Gyeongsangbuk Provinces and Ulsan Metropolitan Area from May through October 2008. An updated checklist of Korean hippoboscids contains nine species in six genera (Hippobosca Linnaeus, Icosta Speiser, Lipoptena, Ornithoctona Speiser, Ornithomya Lattreille, and Ornithophila Rondani). Hosts, collection records, and repositories are also noted. PMID:21175076

  16. A method of marking larval lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wigley, Roland L.

    1952-01-01

    Biological investigations of lamprey populations in central New York have indicated a need for developing a method of marking larvae of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur) Since lamprey larvae live in burrows in the soft sediments of the stream bottom, the use of an external tag is impractical.

  17. Redescription of Sphaerirostris picae (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from magpie, Pica pica, in northern Iran, with special reference to unusual receptacle structures and notes on histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; Eslami, Ali

    2010-06-01

    Adults of Sphaerirostris picae (Rudolphi, 1819) Golvan, 1956 are described from European magpie, Pica pica Linnaeus (Corvidae), collected in 2008 from wooded areas near the northern Iranian town of Tonekabon by the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Other specimens also were collected from Corvus cornix Linnaeus, Corvus corone Linnaeus, and Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus (Corvidae) in the same location, as well as from some of these hosts in other locations. Our specimens had 31-38 proboscis hook rows on the ovoid anterior proboscis and 27-36 spine rows on the cylindrical- to cone-shaped posterior proboscis, each with 8-10 hooks and 2-5 spines per row, respectively. They are distinguished from those of all other species of the genus by having a unique prominent expansion of the dorsal inner receptacle wall, called the receptacle process (RP), anteriorly into the anterior proboscis and by the presence of longitudinal alveolar lobes throughout the receptacle and proboscis. The RP is described using histological sections. Sphaerirostris picae is further distinguished from 2 closely related species, namely, Sphaerirostris lancea (Westrumb, 1821) Golvan, 1956 and Sphaerirostris pinguis (Van Cleave, 1918) Golvan, 1956, by characteristics of proboscis armature, position of female gonopore, and other reproductive system and receptacle features. Histological sections revealed damage to host intestinal tissue. PMID:20557203

  18. American vascular plants published in Loeflings Iter Hispanicum (1758) and its German translation(1766)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loeflings Iter Hispanicum (1758) and its subsequent translations, editions, issues, and facsimiles are analyzed for their impact on the nomenclature of American vascular plants. The book, edited by Linnaeus and posthumously published, contains descriptions of plants found in Venezuela (as well as i...

  19. Life Table and Laboratory Rearing of Nezara viridula (L.) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) on two Artificial Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus), is a rather destructive pest and has been reported responsible for an estimated $ 6.5 millions dollars in costs associated with crop loss and insecticide costs across the US. A great deal of interest exists in the potential for using artifici...

  20. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  1. A new species of Urophora Robineau-Desvoidiy, 1830 (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Nozari, Jamasb

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Urophora merzi sp. n. reared from flower heads of Centaurea behen Linnaeus is described from Iran. It is similar to Urophora campestris, Urophora sachalinensis, Urophora stylata, Urophora tsoii and Urophora vera in wing pattern with 3 well developed crossbands and indistinct subbasal crossband, differing in aculeus tip with two pairs of diminished preapical steps and different host plants. PMID:22287906

  2. Taxonomies of Educational Objectives and Theories of Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Robert M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Classification is the taxonomic science in which a system of categories is established and in which the categories have some logical structure. Scientific classifications have included those by Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Lavoisier. Educational taxonomies include those developed by Bloom, Herbart, Dewey, and Piaget. The problems of taxonomy

  3. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerini?-Prodanovi?, Duanka; Proti?, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horvth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dr, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dr, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dr, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  4. Applying the Scientific Method & Phylogenetics to Understand the Transition from Kingdoms to Domains: Does One Plus One Equal Five, Six, or Three?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    The progression of the taxonomic organization of life from Linnaeus's original two kingdoms to the traditional five-kingdom system to today's widely accepted three-domain system is explored in a group-learning activity. Working with a set of organisms, students organize them into each system. Discussion after each step focuses on viewing

  5. "Scientific" Racism: What Price Objectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Throughout history, attempts have been made to use "science" to justify white European and American domination of other racial/ethnic groups and inequities of gender and class. Points out the lack of science and objectivity in the research of Linnaeus, Agassiz, Morton, Broca, Jensen, and Lynn. Suggests implications for antiracist education in the

  6. Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...

  7. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  8. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  9. Warble? Whats a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

  10. Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

  11. Pollen contamination of boll weevil traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the Twentieth Century, the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, was the most devastating insect pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus, in the southern United States of America (U.S.A.). Although thought to feed only on cotton, the list of non-cotton alternative food sources incr...

  12. Simultaneous detection of Pyrethroid, Organophosphate and Cyclodiene target site resistance in Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) by multiplex Polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex...

  13. Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus was described by Carl Linnaeus as Curculio abbreviatus in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 from specimens collected in the West Indies. D. abbreviatus is found on Puerto Rico and Hispaniola and in the Lesser Antilles from Grenada and Bar...

  14. Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptidase sequences were analyzed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1,528 sequences, 92 sequences encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences w...

  15. Outlook Tower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosgrave, Mary Silva

    1980-01-01

    Reviews eight new adult books of interest to high school readers. The books reviewed include a historical novel, three personal memoirs, a book of fables, a literary fantasy, and excerpts from the works of naturalists Jean Henri Fabre and Carl Linnaeus. (GT)

  16. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  17. Almond, pigweed, and melon pollen retention in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) remains a devastating insect pest on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum C. Linnaeus) particularly where it has not been eradicated. Identifying and understanding the survival of boll weevils during overwintering periods when cotton is not available is important ...

  18. (1947-1958) Proposals to reject twelve names emanating from Loefling's Iter Hispanicum (1758), Ayenia sidiformis (Malvaceae), Cofer (Symplocaceae), Cruzeta and C. hispanica (Amaranthaceae), Edechia inermis and E. spinosa...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pehr Loeflings Iter Hispanicum, published posthumously in 1758 by Linnaeus, is one of the earliest sources of American plant names. However, all of these names lack original material for typification, as there were no published figures for them and Loeflings American specimens were all apparently ...

  19. Computational analysis and functional expression of ancestral copepod luciferase.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Noda-Ogura, Akiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Gojobori, Takashi; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2013-10-10

    We recently reported the cDNA sequences of 11 copepod luciferases from the superfamily Augaptiloidea in the order Calanoida. They were classified into two groups, Metridinidae and Heterorhabdidae/Lucicutiidae families, by phylogenetic analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary processes, we have now further isolated 12 copepod luciferases from Augaptiloidea species (Metridia asymmetrica, Metridia curticauda, Pleuromamma scutullata, Pleuromamma xiphias, Lucicutia ovaliformis and Heterorhabdus tanneri). Codon-based synonymous/nonsynonymous tests of positive selection for 25 identified copepod luciferases suggested that positive Darwinian selection operated in the evolution of Heterorhabdidae luciferases, whereas two types of Metridinidae luciferases had diversified via neutral mechanism. By in silico analysis of the decoded amino acid sequences of 25 copepod luciferases, we inferred two protein sequences as ancestral copepod luciferases. They were expressed in HEK293 cells where they exhibited notable luciferase activity both in intracellular lysates and cultured media, indicating that the luciferase activity was established before evolutionary diversification of these copepod species. PMID:23886588

  20. Microsatellites for next-generation ecologists: a post-sequencing bioinformatics pipeline.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

  1. Microsatellites for Next-Generation Ecologists: A Post-Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

  2. The complete validated mitochondrial genome of the black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier, 1832).

    PubMed

    Williams, Samuel M; Morgan, Jess A T; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Two complete mitochondrial genomes of the black marlin Istiompax indica were assembled from approximately 3.5 and 2.5 million reads produced by Ion Torrent next generation sequencing. The complete genomes were 16,531 bp and 16,532 bp in length consisting of 2 rRNA, 13 protein-coding genes, 22tRNA and 2 coding regions. They demonstrated a similar A + T base (52.6%) to other teleosts. Intraspecific sequence variation was 99.5% for three I. indica mitogenomes and 99.7% for X. gladius. A lower value (85%) was found for the I. platypterus mitogenomes from genbank and accredited to inadvertent inclusion of gene regions from a con-familial species in one record, highlighting the need for cautious downstream use of genbank data. PMID:24660926

  3. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae)from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750

  4. A novel myxozoan parasite of terrestrial mammals: description of Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. (Myxosporea) in pygmy shrew Sorex minutus from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Cech, Gabor; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras

    2015-01-01

    As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the liver. Spores from both species of shrewswere morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable, but differed in their SSU rRNA gene sequences by 3.3%. We identified spores and developmental stages from the common shrew as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007, based on morphometric data and DNA sequence similarity. Spores from the pygmy shrew were only 96.7% similar to S. fegati, hence we identified them as a novel myxosporean Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. This is only the second myxosporean parasite species described from mammals. PMID:26370293

  5. Gardens of paradise.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, S

    2001-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology. PMID:11468795

  6. Lists as research technologies.

    PubMed

    Mller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is famous for having turned botany into a systematic discipline, through his classification systems--most notably the sexual system--and his nomenclature. Throughout his life, Linnaeus experimented with various paper technologies designed to display information synoptically. The list took pride of place among these and is also the common element of more complex representations he produced, such as genera descriptions and his "natural system." Taking clues from the anthropology of writing, this essay seeks to demonstrate that lists can be considered as genuine research technologies. They possess a potential to generate research problems of their own but also pose limitations to inquiries that can be overcome only by the use of new media. PMID:23488242

  7. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. PMID:26220559

  8. Demodex lutrae n. sp. (Acari) in European otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora: Mustelidae) with data from other demodecid mites in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

    2014-12-01

    This article describes morphological characteristics and occurrence of Demodex lutrae n. sp., which was found on European otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland. The new species was found in hairy regions of otter skin, mainly in the head area. With respect to morphological features, D. lutrae is most similar to D. canis (Leydig, 1859) from the domestic dog Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages average 200 ?m in length); characteristic features of these mites are hammer-shaped supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) on dorsal side of gnathosoma and palps with 3 conical spines. Demodex lutrae is the first representative of the family Demodecidae described in a host from the subfamily Lutrinae. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecid mites known from carnivores. PMID:24945076

  9. Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, C. G.; Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.

  10. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one. PMID:660569

  11. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given. PMID:25661959

  12. Bute's "Botanical tables": dictated by nature.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Maureen H; Pardoe, Heather S

    2009-10-01

    In the final years of his life, after a long and turbulent political career, John Stuart, third Earl of Bute, was at last free to indulge in one of his passions: botany. The publication of Linnaeus's "Systema naturae" in 1735 threw the botanical world into disarray and academic argument raged throughout Europe. The production of the "Botanical tables" (1785) was an ambitious project to explain Bute's individual view of Linnaeus's system of taxonomy and was particularly composed for the "Fair Sex". Twelve volumes were published privately and presented to family, royalty and botanical colleagues across Europe. The "Botanical tables" were illustrated by the renowned botanical artist, John Miller. The illustrations are both aesthetically pleasing and scientifically correct. In this paper we consider the circumstances of the production of the "Botanical tables" and explore how the original sets of this publication and original material have been dispersed. PMID:20014509

  13. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simes, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Jnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution. PMID:26444063

  14. Acute myocardial infarction after a European hornet sting--a case report.

    PubMed

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Kountouris, Evaggelos; Voukelatou, Maria; Charaktsis, Ioannis; Dimitroula, Vasiliki; Siogas, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    The authors briefly describe an 87-year-old man who experienced an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the context of an anaphylactic reaction caused by a European hornet (Vespa cabro linnaeus) envenomation. This unusual case highlights the potential cardiovascular complications associated with common insect stings such as those caused by hymenoptera. Thus, a thorough cardiovascular evaluation is essential in such cases since the vasoactive, inflammatory, and thrombogenic mediators of anaphylactic reactions may provoke myocardial ischemia. PMID:16703201

  15. To systematics of the mite genus Hoplocheylus (Acariformes: Tarsocheylidae).

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Hoplocheylus Atyeo and Baker, 1964 (Acariformes: Heterostigmatina: Tarsocheylidae), H. magnificus sp. nov. is described from the nest of the ant Formica rufa Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Kurgan Province, Western Siberia, Russia. A poorly-known species Hoplocheylus sogdianicus Barilo and Sharipov, 1987 is redescribed from the holotype. A key to species of the genus Hoplocheylus is provided. PMID:26249076

  16. Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.

    PubMed

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stl spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arriblzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

  17. Mites of the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) from the North American beavers (Castor canadensis) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Saveljev, A P

    2014-01-01

    Four native species of parasitic mites belonging to the genus Schizocarpus Trouessart, 1896 (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) are recorded on the North American beaver Castor canadensis Kuhl, 1820 (Rodentia: Castoridae) from Russia. Totally ten beavers from all three main geographically isolated populations of in Russia (Leningrad Province, Voronezh Biosphere Reserve (beaver farm) and Khabarovsk Territory) were examined. Additionally, in captivity (Voronezh beaver farm) eight species were recorded switched from the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 on C. canadensis. PMID:25936168

  18. Exoskeleton Morphology of Three Species of Preponini, with Discussion of Morphological Similarities among Neotropical Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)-II. Thorax and Thoracic Appendages.

    PubMed

    Bonfantti, Dayana; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    The present report, the second part of a study of the external morphology of Preponini, compares the thorax and thoracic appendages of Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777) and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions and illustrations. The results are compared with three other species, Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hbner, [1819] and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850), revealing previously unrecognized similarities among species of Charaxinae. PMID:26003985

  19. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Toure, T.; Savage, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

  20. Diatoms as food of larval sea lampreys in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The food and food preferences of sea lamprey ammocoetes have not been investigated. The food of the larval American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei, in the Great Lakes region consisted mainly of diatoms and desmids according to Creaser and Hann. Schroll discussed the biology of feeding of ammocoetes of Lampetra planeri and Eudontomyzon danfordi in Europe. This report presents data on the availability and use of diatoms by sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, ammocoetes in a small tributary of northern Lake Michigan.

  1. Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lennon, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

  2. Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel

    2013-08-15

    An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (<3.5 kDa) and of high molecular weight (HMW) (3.5-100 kDa and >100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

  3. New and already known acanthocephalans mostly from mammals in Vietnam, with descriptions of two new genera and species in Archiacanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species and 2 new genera of acanthocephalans in class Archiacanthocephala, collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam from the intestines of mammals, are described, i.e., Cucullanorhynchus constrictruncatus n. gen., n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from a leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and Paraprosthenorchis ornatus n. gen. n. sp. (Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the Chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Manidae). Adult Sphaerechinorhynchus macropisthospinus Amin, Wongsawad, Marayong, Saehoong, Suwattanacoupt, and Sey, 1998 (Plagiorhynchidae) are described for the first time from 2 females collected from a tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus) (Mammalia: Felidae) and from 1 male from a water monitor Varanus salvator Laurenti (Reptilia: Varanidae). Characteristic features distinguishing the new species or genera from related taxa are as follows. The trunk of C. constrictruncatus has an anterior hood in both sexes and a posterior constriction in females. The anterior trunk of P. ornatus has many small festoons and proboscis hooks are inserted in elevated papillae separated by beady, near hexagonal, ornate grids. PMID:18372641

  4. Linnaean sources and concepts of orchids

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charlie; Cribb, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Linnaeus developed a robust system for naming plants and a useful, if mechanical, system for classifying them. His binomial nomenclature proved the catalyst for the rapid development of our knowledge of orchids, with his work on the family dating back to 1737 in the first edition of his Genera Plantarum. His first work devoted to orchids, indeed the first monograph of the family, was published in 1740 and formed the basis for his account in Species Plantarum, published in 1753, in which he gave a binomial name to each species. Given the overwhelming number of orchids, he included surprisingly few – only 62 mostly European species – in Species Plantarum, his seminal work on the plants of the world. This reflects the European origin of modern botany and the concentration of extra-European exploration on other matters, such as conquest, gold and useful plants. Nevertheless, the scope of Linnaeus' work is broad, including plants from as far afield as India, Japan, China and the Philippines to the east, and eastern Canada, the West Indies and northern South America to the west. In his later publications he described and named a further 45 orchids, mostly from Europe, South Africa and the tropical Americas. Scope The philosophical basis of Linnaeus' work on orchids is discussed and his contribution to our knowledge of the family assessed. His generic and species concepts are considered in the light of current systematic ideas, but his adoption of binomial nomenclature for all plants is his lasting legacy. PMID:19182221

  5. Cattle breed-variation in infestation by the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Curto, E; Anziani, O S; Mangold, A J

    2000-09-01

    A study was carried out to assess the resistance of pure and cross-bred groups of cattle to the horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in northern Argentina. Pure-bred cattle were Criolla, Iberian Bos taurus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Nellore, Bos indicus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cross-bred cattle were Hereford, British B. taurus (34%) X Nellore (66%) and Hereford (66%) X Nellore (34%). All were heifers and animals were maintained in two groups, each containing a mixture of pure and cross-breeds. The lowest fly numbers were found on Criolla heifers and the highest on Hereford X Nellore cross-breeds. However, it could not be determined from this study whether this was a consequence of breed and/or size, as Criolla heifers were lighter than the corresponding Hereford X Nellore heifers. Fly numbers on the heifers followed an approximately negative binomial distribution. However, the ranking of individual animals in their level of infestation within subgroups was not consistent. Hence, culling the most infested heifers on any given date would at best give only a small improvement in H. irritans control. PMID:11016434

  6. Seeking ethical approval for an international study in primary care patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Dovey, Susan; Hall, Katherine; Makeham, Meredith; Rosser, Walter; Kuzel, Anton; Van Weel, Chris; Esmail, Aneez; Phillips, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Seeking ethics committee approval for research can be challenging even for relatively simple studies occurring in single settings. Complicating factors such as multicentre studies and/or contentious research issues can challenge review processes, and conducting such studies internationally adds a further layer of complexity. This paper draws on the experiences of the LINNAEUS Collaboration, an international group of primary care researchers, in obtaining ethics approval to conduct an international study investigating medical error in general practice in six countries. It describes the ethics review processes applied to exactly the same research protocol for a study run in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the US. Wide variation in ethics review responses to the research proposal occurred, from no approval being deemed necessary to the study plan narrowly avoiding rejection. The authors' experiences demonstrated that ethics committees operate in their own historical and cultural context, which can lead to radically different subjective interpretations of commonly-held ethical principles, and raised further issues such as what is research?. This first LINNAEUS study started when patient safety was a particularly sensitive subject. Although it is now a respectable area of inquiry, patient safety is still a topic that can excite emotions and prejudices. The LINNAEUS Collaboration now extends to more countries and continues to pursue an international research agenda, so reflection on the influences of history, social context, and structure of each country's ethical review processes is timely. PMID:21439178

  7. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma(Diptera, Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. PMID:24870629

  8. Mechanoreceptors in calanoid copepods: designed for high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weatherby, T M; Lenz, P H

    2000-01-01

    The mechanoreceptors of the first antennae of Pleuromamma xiphias, a mesopelagic calanoid copepod, are critical for the detection of potential threats. These receptors exceed the physiological performance of other crustacean mechanoreceptors in sensitivity to water velocities as well as in frequency response. A study of these receptors was initiated to elucidate structure-function relationships. Morphologically, the receptors resemble the arthropod scolopidial organs by the presence of a scolopale tube. However, the rigidity of the copepod receptors greatly exceeds those described for crustaceans and other arthropods. The scolopale tube completely encloses the distal dendrites and it is firmly anchored to the cuticle. Microtubules are organized in register and arise from microtubule subfibers associated with crescent-shaped rods which extend from the basal body region to the setal socket. The distal dendrites are filled with a large number of cross-linked microtubules. Termination of the distal dendrites inside the lumen of the setae is gradual with a firm anchoring to the cuticle. A likely mechanism for mechanotransduction would involve a linkage between individual microtubules and mechano-gated channels in the dendritic membrane. The rigidity probably contributes to the high frequency sensitivity, and termination of the dendrite inside the seta increases the overall sensitivity of these receptors. PMID:18088933

  9. Interaction between Mutualisms: Ant-tended butterflies exploit enemy-free space provided by ant-treehopper associations.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Lucas A; Freitas, Andr V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2010-09-01

    Although mutualisms have been intensively investigated, demonstration of indirect effects between co-occurring mutualistic systems is rare. For instance, the ecological consequences of co-occurrence of ant-tended insects on a plant have never been examined for survival effects on either trophobiont species. Here, we assess the selective pressures mediating co-occurrence of a facultative ant-tended butterfly (Parrhasius polibetes) with ant-tended treehoppers (Guayaquila xiphias) on Schefflera vinosa shrubs. We evaluated host plant selection and caterpillar survival in P. polibetes in the presence and absence of ant-treehopper associations. Paired trials revealed that butterflies preferably oviposit on branches hosting ant-tended treehoppers when they had a choice between those and branches without this interaction. Presence of ant-tended treehoppers on a branch reduced the abundance of P. polibetes' natural enemies and improved caterpillar survival in both premyrmecophylic and ant-tended phases. Thus ant-tended treehoppers create an enemy-free space on foliage that butterflies exploit to protect larval offspring. These findings connect two widely documented ant-trophobiont mutualisms and highlight the importance of considering multiple interactions for a proper understanding of ant-plant-herbivore systems. Detection of other ant-based mutualisms on oviposition to improve offspring survival may have represented an important evolutionary step in the process of host plant selection in facultative myrmecophilous butterflies. PMID:20645858

  10. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mo'awia M; Osman, Omran F; El-Raba'a, Fathi MA; Schallig, Henk DFH; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A

    2009-01-01

    Background The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani. In this study, 87 dogs were screened for infection by Leishmania donovani. Blood and lymph node samples were taken from 87 and 33 dogs respectively and subsequently screened by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) test. Additional lymph node smears were processed for microscopy and parasite culture. Host preference of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) vector in the area, Phlebotomus orientalis, and other sandflies for the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus, . Geoffrey, 1803), the genet (Genetta genetta, Linnaeus, 1758), the mongoose (Herpeistes ichneumon, Linnaeus, 1758), and the domestic dog were determined by counting numbers of sand flies attracted to CDC traps that were baited by these animals. Results DAT on blood samples detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in 6 samples (6.9%). Two out of 87 (2.3%) blood samples tested were PCR positive, giving an amplification product of 560 bp. The two positive samples by PCR were also positive by DAT. However, none of the 33 lymph nodes aspirates were Leishmania positive when screened by microscopy, culture and genus-specific PCR. The dog-baited trap significantly attracted the highest number of P. orientalis and sand fly species (P < 0.001). This was followed by the Egyptian mongoose baited trap and less frequently by the genet baited trap. Conclusion It is concluded that the results obtained from host attraction studies indicate that dog is more attractive for P. orientalis than Egyptian mongoose, common genet and Nile rat. PMID:19534802

  11. Ordination of breeding birds in relation to environmental gradients in three southeastern United States floodplain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wakeley, J.S.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Antrobus, T.J.; Fischer, R.A.; Barrow, W.C., Jr.; Hamel, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    We used an ordination approach to identify factors important to the organization of breeding bird communities in three floodplains: Cache River, Arkansas (AR), Iatt Creek, Louisiana (LA), and the Coosawhatchie River, South Carolina (SC), USA. We used 5-min point counts to sample birds in each study area each spring from 1995 to 1998, and measured ground-surface elevations and a suite of other habitat variables to investigate bird distributions and community characteristics in relation to important environmental gradients. In both AR and SC, the average number of Neotropical migrant species detected was lowest in semipermanently flooded Nyssa aquatica Linnaeus habitats and greatest in the highest elevation floodplain zone. Melanerpes carolinus Linnaeus, Protonotaria citrea Boddaert, Quiscalus quiscula Linnaeus, and other species were more abundant in N. aquatica habitats, whereas Wilsonia citrina Boddaert, Oporornis formosus Wilson, Vireo griseus Boddaert, and others were more abundant in drier floodplain zones. In LA, there were no significant differences in community metrics or bird species abundances among forest types. Canonical correspondence analyses revealed that structural development of understory vegetation was the most important factor affecting bird distributions in all three study areas; however, potential causes of these structural gradients differed. In AR and SC, differences in habitat structure were related to the hydrologic gradient, as indexed by ground-surface elevation. In LA, structural variations were related mainly to the frequency of canopy gaps. Thus, bird communities in all three areas appeared to be organized primarily in response to repeated localized disturbance. Our results suggest that regular disturbance due to flooding plays an important role in structuring breeding bird communities in floodplains subject to prolonged inundation, whereas other agents of disturbance (e.g., canopy gaps) may be more important in headwater systems subject to only short-duration flooding. Management for avian community integrity in these systems should strive to maintain forest zonation and natural disturbance regimes. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Angus, Robert B; Clery, Molly J; Carter, Jodie C; Wenczek, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(?) or XX (?). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Hkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aub, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aub, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aub, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aub, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aub, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?), XX (?). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected. PMID:24260699

  13. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae) (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Clery, Molly J.; Carter, Jodie C.; Wenczek, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera). Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(?) or XX (?). These species are Agabus serricornis (Paykull, 1799), Agabus labiatus (Brahm, 1791), Agabus congener (Thunberg, 1794), Agabus lapponicus (Thomson, 1867), Agabus thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871), Agabus confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767), Agabus nevadensis Hkan Lindberg, 1939, Agabus wollastoni Sharp, 1882, Agabus melanarius Aub, 1837, Agabus biguttatus (Olivier, 1795), Agabus binotatus Aub, 1837, Agabus affinis (Paykull, 1798), Agabus unguicularis (Thomson, 1867), Agabus ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, Agabus conspersus (Marsham, 1802) and Agabus nebulosus (Forster, 1771). However two species, Agabus infuscatus Aub, 1838 and Agabus adpressus Aub, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (?). No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical Agabus bipustulatus and Agabus bipustulatus var. solieri Aub, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the Agabus bipustulatus complex (Agabus bipustulatus, Agabus nevadensis and Agabus wollastoni). The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, Colymbetes fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758), Colymbetes paykulli Erichson, 1837, Colymbetes piceus Klug, 1834 and Colymbetes striatus (Linnaeus, 1758) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (?), XX (?). Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, Rhantus exsoletus (Forster, 1771) and Rhantus suturellus (Harris, 1828) have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, Rhantus grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808), Rhantus frontalis (Marsham, 1802) and Rhantus suturalis (Macleay, 1825) have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but for seven of these the data are wrong and are here corrected. PMID:24260699

  14. Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

  15. An embryonic transcriptome of the pulmonate snail Radix balthica.

    PubMed

    Tills, Oliver; Truebano, Manuela; Rundle, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The pond snail, Radix balthica (Linnaeus 1758), is an emerging model species within ecological developmental biology. While its development has been characterised in detail, genomic resources for embryonic stages are lacking. We applied Illumina MiSeq RNA-seq to RNA isolated from pools of embryos at two points during development. Embryos were cultured in either the presence or absence of predator kariomones to increase the diversity of the transcripts assembled. Sequencing produced 47.2M paired-end reads, assembled into 54,360 contigs of which 73% were successfully annotated. This transcriptome provides an invaluable resource to build a mechanistic understanding of developmental plasticity. PMID:26297600

  16. Anatomical and surface morphology of Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. (Nematoda: Hedruridae) from the common marinewater fish Lutjanus synagris in Damietta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, M M; Awad, E R; Taha, R G

    2014-08-01

    The description and tegumental ultrastructure of nematode Hedruris lutjanenses sp. n. collected from marine Lane Snapper fish Lutjanus synagris Linnaeus, 1758 collected at Manzala Lake, Damietta, Egypt was studied by light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The new species is mainly characterized by that the buccal capsule is surrounded by four pseudolapia; one small and three larger pseudolapia, each one bears a number of papillae arranged irregularly on its surface and the presence of one pair of precloacal papillae and nine pairs of postcloacal ones in males. PMID:25597145

  17. A description of the new Egira species from the Russian Far East (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae: Orthosiini).

    PubMed

    Benedek, Balzs; Babics, Jnos; Kononenko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Holarctic Noctudae genus Egira Duponchel, 1845 (type-species Phalaena conspicillaris Linnaeus, 1758) enumerates 32 species in the Old and New World. According to the modern classification it belongs to the tribe Orthosiini of the subfamily Noctuinae. The genus is represented in the Old World by fifteen species, distributed from the West Palaearctic to Sino-Himalayan region, where some species have recently been described from Nepal and Thailand (Hreblay 1994; Hreblay & Ronkay 1999). One species, E. saxea (Leech, 1889) is known from Japan. PMID:25661949

  18. The inventory of botanical curiosities in Pierre-Franois-Xavier de Charlevoix's Nouvelle France (1744).

    PubMed

    Kobelinski, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The article explores the botanical contributions of Pierre-Franois-Xavier de Charlevoix's book Histoire et description gnrale de la Nouvelle France vis--vis the contributions of previous researchers, his use of iconographic and discursive representations and its relevance to the project of French colonization. It investigates why he refused Linnaeus' taxonomic model and what he intended with his catalogue of botanical curiosities. The unfolding of his philosophical and religious trajectory allows to understand his stance regarding the classification of nature, the meanings of ethnological information, his forms of intellectual appropriation, and his use of discourse and botanical iconography as political and emotional propaganda to encourage colonial settlement. PMID:23559045

  19. Palearctic species of the genus Tephritis (Diptera, Tephritidae) associated with plants of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Korneyev, Severyn V; Khaghaninia, Samad; Namin, Saeed Mohamadzade; Zarghani, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tephritis arnicae (Linnaeus, 1758) from Europe was the hitherto only Palearctic species of the genus Tephritis known to infest flowerheads of asteraceous plants of the tribe Senecioneae. An additional species with similar biology, Tephritis arsenii, new species, recently discovered in Iran and Armenia is described. It is very similar to T. arnicae in the shape of the aculeus and spermathecae, as well as the wing with darkened anal lobe and abdominal tergites with black setulae, but differs from it by the white posterior orbital and notopleural setae, and also by details of the wing pattern. Larvae of T. arsenii feed in flowerheads of Doronicum dolichotrichum Cavill of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae). PMID:26623802

  20. [Nucleotide sequence variation of the mitochondrial COI gene in several eelpout species of the genus Zoarces (Zoarcidae, Pisces)].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O A; Chereshnev, I A; Petrovskaia, A V; Nazarkina, M V; Chegodaeva, E A

    2008-07-01

    The mitochondrial COI gene was for the first time sequenced in eelpout species of the genus Zoarces from the Taui Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk: notched-fin Z. elongatus Kner, 1868 and the new sympatric form Zoarces sp., differing in a large set of morphological traits. The two species were compared with European eelpout Z. viviparus Linnaeus, 1758 from the Finnish Bay of the Baltic Sea. Divergence and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a greater genetic similarity between Zoarces sp. and Z. viviparus than between sympatric Zoarces sp. and Z. elongatus. PMID:18767540

  1. A new genus and species of the Didymozoidae (Digenea) from the skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (L.) (Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Justo, Mrcia Cristina Nascimento; Kohn, Anna

    2012-03-01

    A new genus and species of didymozoid digenean is described from the skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean off Brazil. Pozdnyakovia gibsoni n. g., n. sp. is placed in the Gonapodasmiinae Ishii, 1935. The new genus differs from other genera in the morphology of the posterior regions of the fused pair; this consists of an unlobed, rounded mass fused only dorsally and with a large, elliptical ventral aperture opening into a longitudinal deep cavity from which emerge the two elongate anterior regions. It also differs in the form of the testes, which form two sets of three to four branches in each partner. PMID:22311269

  2. A Rapid Genetic Assay for the Identification of the Most Common Pocillopora damicornis Genetic Lineages on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Torda, Gergely; Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Peplow, Lesa M.; Lundgren, Petra; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758; Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae) has recently been found to comprise at least five distinct genetic lineages in Eastern Australia, some of which likely represent cryptic species. Due to similar and plastic gross morphology of these lineages, field identification is often difficult. Here we present a quick, cost effective genetic assay as well as three novel microsatellite markers that distinguish the two most common lineages found on the Great Barrier Reef. The assay is based on PCR amplification of two regions within the mitochondrial putative control region, which show consistent and easily identifiable fragment size differences for the two genetic lineages after Alu1 restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons. PMID:23505507

  3. A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.

    PubMed

    Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region. PMID:24872050

  4. A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.

    PubMed

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form.  PMID:25283123

  5. New feather mites of the genera Aniacarus and Aniibius (Acariformes: Pterolichidae) from two cuckoo species (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Hernandes, Fabio A; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of the family Pterolichidae are described from two common non-parasitic cuckoo species of the subfamily Crotophaginae (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: Aniacarus ani sp. n. from the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani Linnaeus, A. simplex sp. n., A. robustus sp. n., A. coronatus sp. n. and Aniibius guirae sp. n. from the Guira Cuckoo, Guira guira (Gmelin). A key to all known species of Aniacarus is provided. All four pterolichid species associated with the G. guira can occur simultaneously on one host individual. A brief review of studies of feather mites associated with Cuculidae is given. PMID:25947463

  6. The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, R.M.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, the gray wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecies lupus or italicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dog Canis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies, Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

  7. Two new species of Phlogophora Treitschke (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)from China and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Peter; Ronkay, Lszl; Ronkay, Gbor; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2015-01-01

    The genus Phlogophora Treitschke (type species Phlogophora meticulosa (Linnaeus)) comprises some 60 known species. Phlogophora is a widely distributed genus, mostly with Trans-Palaearctic and Oriental distribution, however species of the genus are known from the Ethiopian Region, and some from the Nearctic, as well. Phlogophora displays the highest diversity from the monsoon influenced regions of the Central and Southern Himalaya (Nepal, India, Myanmar and Vietnam) to the Indonesian islands in the South. A number of the species are endemic in islands from the Azores throughout Madagascar, Taiwan and, particularly, in the Sundaland (The Philippines and the Sunda Islands, towards to the east to New Guinea). PMID:25947828

  8. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies. PMID:26249987

  9. Exoskeleton Morphology of Three Species of Preponini, with Discussion of Morphological Similarities among Neotropical Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)-I. Head, Cephalic Appendages, and Cervix.

    PubMed

    Bonfantti, Dayana; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the head, appendages, and cervical region of three species of the butterflies Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777), and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions, illustrations, and scanning electron micrographs. The results are compared with Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hbner, [1819], and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850), showing unique characteristics for each species and/or genus, or characteristics shared among the species analyzed. The detailed morphology of these three species was previouslyunknown. PMID:26003984

  10. Exoskeleton Morphology of Three Species of Preponini, with Discussion of Morphological Similarities among Neotropical Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)-III. Abdomen and Genitalia.

    PubMed

    Bonfantti, Dayana; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    The present paper is the final part of a study of the external morphology of Preponini, which compares the abdomen and genitalia of Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777) and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions and illustrations. The results are compared with three other species, Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hbner, [1819] and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850). The abdomen is commonly the most informative tagma for butterflies. In Charaxinae, this tagma supports diagnoses of both genera and species, besides providing a solid morphological base for recent molecular findings for Preponini. PMID:26003986

  11. Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

  12. Isolation, characterization and PCR multiplexing of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the edible dormouse, Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Hrner, H; Martin, J F; Ribas, A; Arrizabalaga, A; Michaux, J R

    2009-05-01

    We isolated and characterized 10 dinucleotide microsatellite loci in the edible dormouse, Glis glis (Linnaeus). Four multiplex panels were developed. Loci were amplified in samples from two geographically distant populations (Torgny in Belgium and Montseny in Spain). All loci were polymorphic in Spain but four were monomorphic in Belgium. Individuals from Belgium and Spain exhibited an average allelic diversity of 1.9 and 3.3 and an observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.47 and from 0.04 to 0.72, respectively. PMID:21564778

  13. New taxonomic data on the genus Ypsolopha Latreille (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) with descriptions of two new species from the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Margarita G.; Zinchenko, Yuliya N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Ypsolopha Latreille, 1796 are described from Far East of Russia: Ypsolopha melanofuscella sp. n. and Ypsolopha straminella sp. n. Two new synomymies are proposed: Ypsolopha ulingensis Yang, 1977, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha costibasella (Caradja, 1939); and Cerostoma falculella Erschoff, 1877, a new junior synonym of Ypsolopha asperella Linnaeus, 1761. The species Ypsolopha costibasella Caradja, 1939, Ypsolopha nigrofasciata Yang, 1977 and Ypsolopha nigrimaculata Byun et Park, 2001 are recorded from Far East of Russia for the first time. The male genitalia of Ypsolopha nigrofasciata are described and illustrated for the first time, diagnostic genital characters are given. PMID:23794851

  14. Investigation of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium accumulation in the tissues of Sander lucioperca (L., 1758) living in Hirfanl? Dam Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gl, Ali; Y?lmaz, Mehmet; Benzer, Semra; Ta?demir, Ltfiye

    2011-09-01

    This study, some metals (zinc, copper, lead and cadmium) were analyzed in liver, muscle and gills of Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Hirfanl? Dam Lake in December 2007. The highest concentrations were found in liver (zinc:32.5 ?g/g, lead:10.73 ?g/g, copper:5.85 ?g/g, cadmium:0.76 ?g/g) of Sander lucioperca. It was seen that the accumulation of zinc, lead and cadmium primarily took place in liver followed by muscles and gills. It was observed that copper is mainly accumulated in liver followed by gill and mucsles. PMID:21706264

  15. On newly and recently recorded species of the genus Lema Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Criocerinae) from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Feng; Matsumura, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New records of four species (Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845, Lema diversipes Pic, 1921, Lema cyanella (Linnaeus, 1758), Lema trivittata trivittata Say, 1824 and additional information on one recently recorded species (Lema solani Fabricius, 1798) are reported for Taiwan. Lema diversipes Pic, 1921 is removed from synonymy with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845; both species are redescribed. A lectotype is designated for Lema phungi Pic, 1924. The synonymies of Lema phungi Pic, 1924 and Lema jeanvoinei Pic, 1932 with Lema lacertosa Lacordaire, 1845 are supported. A revised key to the known species in Taiwan is provided. PMID:23653513

  16. Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region

    PubMed Central

    Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; EdmundoSousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

  17. Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Maser, C

    1977-10-01

    Monoecocestus thomasi sp. n. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), from the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw), in Oregon, is described and distinguished from its congeners. Monoecocestus thomasi is the sixth species of Monoecocestus to be described from nearctic rodents, and the first from a member of the family Sciuridae. Our comparisons of taxonomic characters of the nominal species of Monoecocestus in North American rodents have shown that M. giganticus Buhler 1970 is a synonym of M. americanus (Stiles 1895), both from the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum (Linnaeus). Insemination in Monoecocestus ssp. is discussed, with the conclusion that it takes place only by way of the vagina in early immature segments. PMID:915607

  18. Rash caused by Oryctes nasicornis.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Fanoni, Daniele; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \\o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:26858273

  19. Accessibility of blood affects the attractiveness of cattle to horn flies.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A

    2014-03-01

    The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies. PMID:23530916

  20. A rapid genetic assay for the identification of the most common Pocillopora damicornis genetic lineages on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Torda, Gergely; Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Peplow, Lesa M; Lundgren, Petra; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2013-01-01

    Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758; Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae) has recently been found to comprise at least five distinct genetic lineages in Eastern Australia, some of which likely represent cryptic species. Due to similar and plastic gross morphology of these lineages, field identification is often difficult. Here we present a quick, cost effective genetic assay as well as three novel microsatellite markers that distinguish the two most common lineages found on the Great Barrier Reef. The assay is based on PCR amplification of two regions within the mitochondrial putative control region, which show consistent and easily identifiable fragment size differences for the two genetic lineages after Alu1 restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons. PMID:23505507