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1

Age and growth of juvenile swordfish, Xiphias gladius linnaeus, from the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age estimates were made on otoliths of 21 juvenile swordfish, Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, captured in the Mediterranean Sea. Increments were observed in swordfish sagittae sectioned in a transverse plane and viewed with light and scanning electron microscopy. Increment counts, presumed to be daily, were made for age estimation. Estimated ages ranged from 87 to 147 days of fish ranging in

P. Megalofonou; J. M. Dean; G. De Metrio; C. Wilson; S. Berkeley

1995-01-01

2

Dieta del pez espada Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en distintas zonas de pesca frente a Chile central durante el otoño de 2004 Diet of swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 from different fishing zones off central-Chile during autumn 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat of the predator and sample size (stomach number) are some of the most important factors to consider in the study of its diet. To investigate these variations we studied the diet of 51 swordfish Xiphias gladius (range: 173-301 cm) in four fishing areas off central Chile (30ºS - 40ºS) during autumn-winter of 2004. Frequency of occurrence, numeric and

Katherine Castillo; Christian M. Ibáñez; Carlos González; Javier Chong

3

Global population structure of the swordfish ( Xiphias gladius L.) as revealed by analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global population structure of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) was examined by analyzing the DNA sequence variation contained within the hypervariable left domain of the mitochondrial control region of 247 individuals. A total of 330 base pairs (bp) of sequence from 112 individuals collected in the Pacific (n = 26), the Atlantic (n = 47) and the Mediterranean (n

Jaime R. Alvarado Bremer; Jaime Mejuto; Thomas W. Greig; Bert Ely

1996-01-01

4

Multi-Genetic Marker Approach and Spatio-Temporal Analysis Suggest There Is a Single Panmictic Population of Swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

2013-01-01

5

Bayesian Analyses of Genetic Variation and Population Differentiation in Pacific Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) and the Development of High Resolution Melting Assays for Species Identification and Potential Sex-Linked Marker Survey in Istiophorid Billfish  

E-print Network

) anti-Müllerian (AMH) gene; B) Acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP); C) Zinc finger (Znf); D) DM related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1); E) DMRT1 gene Exon3; F) OtY1 gene (Golgi pH regulator: GpHR ), for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Gender...-Müllerian (AMH) gene; B) Acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (ARP); C) Zinc finger (Znf) for blue marlin (Makaira nigricans). Gender for males (M) and females (F) is included at the end of each specimen’s acronym. Sequence nucleotides are symbolized by IUPAC...

Lu, Ching-Ping

2014-08-06

6

Effect of light-sticks and electralume attractors on surface-longline catches of swordfish ( Xiphias gladius, Linnaeus, 1959) in the southwest equatorial Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experimental fishing trials were carried out off the coast of Pernambuco, Brazil, in 1999 and 2001, using a small artisanal longliner. In experiment 1, six-hook baskets with three chemical light-sticks on alternating hooks had significantly higher catch rates than those with zero or with a light-stick on every hook, with most swordfish accounted for by hooks with light-sticks. Analysis

H. G. Hazin; F. H. V. Hazin; P. Travassos; K. Erzini

2005-01-01

7

Abstract--Lengths and ages of sword-fish (Xiphias gladius) estimated from  

E-print Network

on otoliths of larvae col lected in the Caribbean Sea, Florida Straits, and off the southeastern United States, indicated two growth phases. Larvae complete yolk and oil globule absorption 5 to 6 days after hatching (DAH). Larvae larvae from 13 to 115 mm PSL grow

8

Linnaeus turns 300... Carl Linnaeus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article highlights the celebration of the 300th birthday of Carl Linnaeus, or Carl von Linne (as he is known in Scandinavi). Three centuries after his birth Linnaeus remains among the most famous and influential Swedes of all time, indeed his fame as a naturalist is eclipsed only by the great Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

Hans Wohlmuth

2007-01-01

9

Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in Gliding Postures at Their Cruise Speeds  

PubMed Central

The sailfish and swordfish are known as the fastest sea animals, reaching their maximum speeds of around 100 km/h. In the present study, we investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of these fishes in their cruise speeds of about 1 body length per second. We install a taxidermy specimen of each fish in a wind tunnel, and measure the drag on its body and boundary-layer velocity above its body surface at the Reynolds number corresponding to its cruising condition. The drag coefficients of the sailfish and swordfish based on the free-stream velocity and their wetted areas are measured to be 0.0075 and 0.0091, respectively, at their cruising conditions. These drag coefficients are very low and comparable to those of tuna and pike and smaller than those of dogfish and small-size trout. On the other hand, the long bill is one of the most distinguished features of these fishes from other fishes, and we study its role on the ability of drag modification. The drag on the fish without the bill or with an artificially-made shorter one is slightly smaller than that with the original bill, indicating that the bill itself does not contribute to any drag reduction at its cruise speed. From the velocity measurement near the body surface, we find that at the cruise speed flow separation does not occur over the whole body even without the bill, and the boundary layer flow is affected only at the anterior part of the body by the bill. PMID:24312547

Sagong, Woong; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

2013-01-01

10

Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization  

PubMed Central

Thirteen parasite taxa were identified in the Mediterranean swordfish by morphological and genetic/molecular methods. The comparison of the identified parasite taxa and parasitic infection values observed in the Mediterranean swordfish showed statistically significant differences with respect to those reported for its Atlantic populations. A stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis of the individual fish examined showed a separation among three groups: one including fish from the Mediterranean Sea (CTS, STS, and IOS); one consisting of fish from the Central South (CS), Eastern Tropical (ET), and Equatorial (TEQ) Atlantic; and a third comprising the fish sampled from the North-West Atlantic (NW); the CN Atlantic sample was more similar to the first group rather than to the other Atlantic ones. The nematodes Hysterothylacium petteri and Anisakis pegreffii were the species that contributed most to the characterization of the Mediterranean swordfish samples with respect to these Atlantic ones. Anisakis brevispiculata, A. physeteris, A. paggiae, Anisakis sp. 2, Hysterothylacium incurvum, Hepatoxylon trichiuri, Sphyriocephalus viridis, and their high infection levels were associated with the swordfish from the Central and the Southern Atlantic areas. Finally, H. corrugatum, A. simplex (s.s.), Rhadinorhynchus pristis, and Bolbosoma vasculosum were related to the fish from the North-West (NW) Atlantic area. These results indicate that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as “biological tags” and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock. PMID:25057787

Mattiucci, Simonetta; Garcia, Alexandra; Cipriani, Paolo; Santos, Miguel Neves; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Cimmaruta, Roberta

2014-01-01

11

Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

2012-03-01

12

Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

1997-01-01

13

Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments.  

PubMed

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Giosia, Matteo Di; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

14

Customizing Properties of ?-Chitin in Squid Pen (Gladius) by Chemical Treatments  

PubMed Central

The squid pen (gladius) from the Loligo vulgaris was used for preparation of ?-chitin materials characterized by different chemical, micro- and nano-structural properties that preserved, almost completely the macrostructural and the mechanical ones. The ?-chitin materials obtained by alkaline treatment showed porosity, wettability and swelling that are a function of the duration of the treatment. Microscopic, spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques showed that the chemical environment of the N-acetyl groups of the ?-chitin chains changes after the thermal alkaline treatment. As a consequence, the crystalline packing of the ?-chitin is modified, due to the intercalation of water molecules between ?-chitin sheets. Potential applications of these ?-chitin materials range from the nanotechnology to the regenerative medicine. The use of gladii, which are waste products of the fishing industry, has also important environmental implications. PMID:25517216

Ianiro, Alessandro; Di Giosia, Matteo; Fermani, Simona; Samorì, Chiara; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Valle, Francesco; Pellegrini, Graziella; Biscarini, Fabio; Zerbetto, Francesco; Calvaresi, Matteo; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

15

Sequential Isotopic Signature Along Gladius Highlights Contrasted Individual Foraging Strategies of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas)  

PubMed Central

Background Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. Methodology/Principal Findings Using ?13C and ?15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue), we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length) jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius ?13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (?8–9 months), during which ?15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰). One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ ?15N decrease (more than one trophic level), thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. Conclusions/Significance The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes. PMID:21779391

Lorrain, Anne; Argüelles, Juan; Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

2011-01-01

16

Assessment of the Contemporary Population Structure and Admixture of Atlantic Swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) via Mixed Stock Analysis and Bayesian Clustering of Multiple Nuclear SNPS Genotyped through High Resolution Melting  

E-print Network

stocks, sampling coverage has not been uniform or representative of all areas and estimates of admixture in areas of contact have not been provided. In this study, we examined: 1) the applicability of high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) in population...

Smith, Brad 1979-

2012-11-28

17

The Microscope of Linnaeus and His Blind Spot1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carl von Linné (Linnaeus) was the pioneering tax- onomist of the 18th century. His microscope survives along with the collections at his former residence in Sweden, though little has been known about it. The instrument is here described and its performance is demonstrated. Curiously, Linnaeus showed little in- terest in, or knowledge of, microscopic organisms. Very few of his drawings

Brian J. Ford

18

Abstract.-Gonad weights and re-sults of histological analyses from 85  

E-print Network

80 Abstract.-Gonad weights and re- sults of histological analyses from 85 swordfish, Xiphias offemale swordfish, Xiphias gladius. This study uses previously unpublished data as well as histological with data obtained from histological analyses, which provide a verifiable measure of the reproductive status

19

LINNAEUS: BOOSTING NEAR EARTH ASTEROID CHARACTERIZATION RATES  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near Earth objects (NEOs) are being discovered at a rate of about 1000 per year, and this rate is set to double by 2015. However, the physical characterization of NEOs is only ~100 per year for each type of follow-up observation. We have proposed the LINNAEUS program to NASA to raise the characterization rate of NEOs to the rate of their discovery. This rate matching is necessary as any given NEO is only available for a relatively short time (days to weeks), and they are usually fainter on subsequent apparitions. Hence follow-up observations must be initiated rapidly, without time to cherry-pick the optimum objects. LINNAEUS concentrates on NEO composition. Optical spectra, preferably extending into the near-infrared, provide compositions that can distinguish major compositional classes of NEOs with reasonable confidence (Bus and Binzel 2002, DeMeo et al. 2009). Armed with a taxonomic type the albedo, pV, of an NEO is better constrained, leading to more accurate sizes and masses. Time-resolved spectroscopy can give indications of period, axial ratio and surface homogeneity. A reasonable program of spectroscopy could keep pace with the NEO discovery rate. A ground-based telescope can observe faint NEOs about 210 nights a year, due to time lost due to weather, bright time, and equipment downtime (e.g. Gemini), for a total of ~2000 hours/year. At 1 hour per NEO spectrum, a well-run, dedicated, telescope could obtain almost 2000 spectra per year, about the rate required. If near-IR spectra are required then a 4 m or larger telescope is necessary to reach 20. However, if the Bus-Binzel taxomonmy suffices then only optical spectra are needed and a 2 meter class telescope is sufficient. LINNAEUS would use 50% of the KPNO 2.1 m telescope with an IFU spectrometer, the SED-machine (Ben-Ami et al. 2013), to obtain time-resolved optical spectra of 1200-2000 NEOs/year, or 4200-7000 in 3.5 years observing in an NEOO program. Robust pipeline analysis will release taxonomic types via the Minor Planet Center within 24 hours and a full archive of spectra and products will be provided.

Elvis, Martin; Beeson, C.; Galache, J.; DeMeo, F.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Konidaris, N.; Najita, J.; Allen, L.; Christensen, E.; Spahr, T.

2013-10-01

20

LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature  

PubMed Central

Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton) to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/. PMID:20149233

2010-01-01

21

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?  

E-print Network

Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts? Andy Dobson* , Kevin D. Lafferty , Armand M emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300

Utrecht, Universiteit

22

Systems and How Linnaeus Looked at Them in Retrospect  

PubMed Central

Summary A famous debate between John Ray, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and Augustus Quirinus Rivinus at the end of the seventeenth century has often been referred to as signalling the beginning of a rift between classificatory methods relying on logical division and classificatory methods relying on empirical grouping. Interestingly, a couple of decades later, Linnaeus showed very little excitement in reviewing this debate, and this although he was the first to introduce the terminological distinction of artificial vs. natural methods. In this paper, I will explain Linnaeus's indifference by the fact that earlier debates were revolving around problems of plant diagnosis rather than classification. From Linnaeus's perspective, they were therefore concerned with what he called artificial methods alone – diagnostic tools, that is, which were artificial no matter which characters were taken into account. The natural method Linnaeus proposed, on the other hand, was not about diagnosis, but about relations of equivalence which played a vital, although largely implicit role in the practices of specimen exchange on which naturalists relied to acquire knowledge of the natural world.

Müller-Wille, S.

2013-01-01

23

INTRODUCTION Cicada barbara Stl and C. orni Linnaeus (Hemiptera,  

E-print Network

ISSN 1210-5759 Calling songs of sympatric and allopatric populations of Cicada barbara and C. orniINTRODUCTION Cicada barbara Stål and C. orni Linnaeus (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) are a pair of sibling cicada species, very similar in morphology, with only slight differences in external characteristics

Seabra, Sofia G.

24

Zur Morphologie des Zentralnervensystems von Erethizon dorsatum , Linnaeus (Rodentia, Hystricomorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Das Gehirn von Erethizon dorsatum (E. dorsatum dorsatum, Linnaeus 1758) wird beschrieben. Es ergibt sich bei der Analyse von 6 Gehirnen aus der gleichen Subspecies eine starke Variabilität in der Form der Hemisphären. Der Quotient Hypothalamuslänge: Großhirnlänge schwankt zwischen 0,21 und 0,29 mit einem Durchschnittswert von 0,25 Für Hystrix cristata, hodgsoni und javanicus wurde ein Wert von 0,26 errechnet. Der

G. Pilleri

1960-01-01

25

Natural history and information overload: The case of Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Natural History can be seen as a discipline paradigmatically engaged in ‘data-driven research.’ Historians of early modern science have begun to emphasize its crucial role in the Scientific Revolution, and some observers of present day genomics see it as engaged in a return to natural history practices. A key concept that was developed to understand the dynamics of early modern natural history is that of ‘information overload.’ Taxonomic systems, rules of nomenclature, and technical terminologies were developed in botany and zoology to catch up with the ever increasing amount of information on hitherto unknown plant and animal species. In our contribution, we want to expand on this concept. After all, the same people who complain about information overload are usually the ones who contribute to it most significantly. In order to understand this complex relationship, we will turn to the annotation practices of the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The very tools that Linnaeus developed to contain and reduce information overload, as we aim to demonstrate, facilitated a veritable information explosion that led to the emergence of a new research object in botany: the so-called ‘natural’ system. PMID:22326068

Müller-Wille, Staffan; Charmantier, Isabelle

2012-01-01

26

ESPÉCIES DO GÊNERO Eimeria (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) EM TAMANDUÁS-BANDEIRA (Myrmecophaga tridactyla LINNAEUS, 1758) EM CATIVEIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT:- FREITAS, F.L. DA C.; ALMEIDA, K. DE S.; ZANETTI, A.S.; NASCIMENTO, A.A. DO; MACHADO, C. R.; MACHADO, R.Z. (Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity). Espécies do gênero Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) em Tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) em cativeiro. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, v. 15, n. 1, p.

FAGNER LUIZ DA C. FREITAS; ANDRÉ S. ZANETTI; CÉLIO R. MACHADO; ROSANGELA Z. MACHADO

27

Isotopic evidence of distinct foraging ecology and movement pattern in two migratory1 predators (yellowfin tuna and swordfish) of the western Indian Ocean2  

E-print Network

(yellowfin tuna and swordfish) of the western Indian Ocean2 3 Frédéric Ménard(1)* , Anne Lorrain(1) , Michel tissues of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) of various20 sizes were access to a larger size range of prey than yellowfin tuna. In contrast, yellowfin32 juveniles and adults

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead

Luis Cardona; Irene Álvarez de Quevedo; Assumpció Borrell; Alex Aguilar

2012-01-01

29

Food habits of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus , off the southwest coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, is caught in the eastern North Atlantic as a regular bycatch of the surface-drift longline fishery, mainly directed towards swordfish, Xiphias gladius. Stomachs of 112 shortfin mako sharks, ranging in size from 64 cm to 290 cm fork length, showed teleosts to be the principal component of the diet, occurring in 87% of the stomachs and accounting

Anabela Maia; Nuno Queiroz; João P. Correia; Henrique Cabral

2006-01-01

30

The Genetics of Some Polymorphic Forms of the Butterflies Heliconius melpomene (Linnaeus)  

E-print Network

. erato (Linnaeus). II. The Hybridization of Subspecies of H. melpomene from Surinam and Trinidad.' (Plate between geographical races from Trinidad and central Suriname (South America). The differences between of the species in Trinidad (Text-fig. 1c) and from Moengo in Surinam (Text-fig. 2) where there is a polymorphic

Mallet, James

31

Ocorrência de Puma concolor (Linnaeus) (Felidae, Carnivora) em áreas de vegetação remanescente de Santa Catarina, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

PRESENCE OF PUMA CONCOLOR (LINNAEUS) (FELIDAE, CARNIVORA) ON REMNANT HABITATS IN SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL. Several reports on puma (Puma concolor) have been done in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, most of them in remnant original habitats above 800 meters. These records show a thight relationship between the puma with the altitude and mostly with the habitat quality. In

Marcelo Mazzolli

1993-01-01

32

REDESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE PIGFISH, ORTHOPRISTIS CHRYSOPTERA LINNAEUS (PISCES, HAEMULIDAE)  

E-print Network

REDESCRIPTION OF LARVAE OF THE PIGFISH, ORTHOPRISTIS CHRYSOPTERA LINNAEUS (PISCES, HAEMULIDAETexas. Larvae are rathe,' heavily pil(mented. principally along the ventral midline. Specimens up to about 9 mm, and ventral longitudinal stripes is pl·esen!. Pigfish larvae may be separated from similar cooccurring species

33

Verbreitung und Bestandssituation der Kreuzotter (Vipera berus berus (LINNAEUS, 1758)) in Bayern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current range and population trends of the adder (Vipera b. berus (Linnaeus, 1758)) in Bavaria. In Bavaria there are two main areas of distribution of the adder, which are very important for the conservation of the species in Germany: the eastern highlands and the pre-alpine hills and moorlands. Within these areas the adder still seemed to be rather widespread. In

HANS-JÜRGEN G RUBER; GÜNTER HANSBAUER; ULLRICH H ECKES; WOLFGANG V ÖLKL

34

Verbreitung, Lebensraum und Bestandssituation der Kreuzotter Vipera berus berus (LINNAEUS, 1758) im Freistaat Thüringen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution, living space and population status of the adder, Vipera berus berus (LINNAEUS, 1758), in Thuringia. The distribution of the adder ( Vipera berus berus) in Thuringia is described, listing all historical and actual records. From 1960 to 2003 the species was found at 613 locations, clustering in the Thuringian mountains and the Sandstone-Hill-Regions of southwestern- and eastern Thuringia. The

ANDREAS N ÖLLERT; ANDREAS NÖLLERT; Herrn GERHARD D ITTMANN

2004-01-01

35

Extract of Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus induces angiogenesis in vitro and activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus has long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in oriental medicine. The angiogentic activity of the extract of M. meretrix was investigated in this study, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Extract of M. meretrix Linnaeus (AFG-25) was prepared with acetone and ethanol precipitation, and further separated by Sephadex G-25 column. The results show that AFG-25 promoted proliferation, migration, and capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs, and in the presence of eNOS inhibitor NMA, the tube formation induced by AFG-25 is inhibited significantly. Moreover, AFG-25 could also promote the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the resultant elevation of nitric oxide (NO) production. The results suggested that M. meretrix contains active ingredients with angiogentic activity and eNOS/NO signal pathway is in part involved in the proangiogenesis effect induced by AFG-25.

Liu, Ming; Wei, Jianteng; Wang, Hui; Ding, Lili; Zhang, Yuyan; Lin, Xiukun

2012-09-01

36

Carolus Linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial plants.  

PubMed

In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (Artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. We here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of P. falciparum. The data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in Europe some 300 years ago. PMID:20936911

Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Thorsell, Walborg; Wahlgren, Mats

2010-12-01

37

Isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers from ladyfish ( Elops saurus Linnaeus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ladyfish (Elops saurus Linnaeus) is an economically important marine fish species. 76 microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched genomic library\\u000a of Elops saurus. Twelve of these markers were polymorphic in a test population with alleles per locus ranging from three to nine. The number\\u000a of observed, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) per locus in 20 individuals ranged

Zhen-Xia Sha; Shi-Chao Xing; Chang-Wei Shao; Yong-Sheng Tian; Xiao-Lin Liao; Song-Lin Chen

2009-01-01

38

Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

2009-01-01

39

Contribution to the knowledge of Leucosiidae I. The identity of Leucosia craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), and redefinition of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795 (Crustacea: Brachyura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the genus Leucosia Weber, 1795, led to the establishment of the identity of the type species, L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), designation of a neotype and redefinition of the genus. Leucosia is now restricted to 4 species: the type species L. craniolaris (Linnaeus, 1758), L. punctata Bell, 1855, L. moresbiensis Haswell, 1880, and a new species, L. rubripalma.

B. S. Galil

2003-01-01

40

Bioaccumulation and depuration of some trace metals in the mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus)  

SciTech Connect

Bivalves are well known for their ability to concentrate heavy metals in their tissue from environmental water. Experimental studies on the accumulation of these pollutants by molluscs have been extensively conducted. The depuration of accumulated metals in a toxicant free medium has also been studied. Bivalve molluscs may form useful tools in monitoring heavy metal pollution. However, such studies are scant in tropical species. This paper reports the bioaccumulation and depuration of Hg, Cu, Zn and Pb by the mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from seawater and explores its suitability as an indicator organism for metal pollution.

Lakshmanan, P.T. (Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin (India)); Nambisan, P.N.K. (Cochin Univ. of Science and Technology (India))

1989-07-01

41

Cloning of segment polarity gene homologues from the unsegmented brachiopod Terebratulina retusa (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify, clone and sequence homologues of the Drosophila segment polarity genes engrailed (en), cubitus interruptus Dominant (ciD) and wingless (wg) from the genome of the brachiopod, Terebratulina retusa (Linnaeus). The deduced translation products of brachiopod en and ciD share high levels of sequence identity with their Drosophila homologues. The brachiopod wg-related clone is divergent from Drosophila wg, although clearly a member of the wg/Wnt gene family. These results indicate that structural diversity of Drosophila segment polarity genes has been evolutionarily conserved in a divergent, ancient and unsegmented animal phylum. PMID:1682161

Holland, P W; Williams, N A; Lanfear, J

1991-10-21

42

Induction of metamorphosis in queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larvae by cues associated with red algae from their nursery grounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strombus gigas Linnaeus larvae are induced to metamorphose by a selection of substrata from their nursery grounds. The most effective inducers are cues associated with red algae, specifically Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux) Howe and the epiphyte Fosliella sp. (Foslie) found on Thalassia testudinum Köenig detritus. Larvae metamorphose in response to these intact rhodophytes and to aqueous extracts of these species. The

Anne A. Boettcher; Nancy M. Targett

1996-01-01

43

Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical cues are important in the exoge- nous and endogenous control of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval metamorphosis is induced by low molecular weight compounds associated with dominant species of red algae found in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux). The responses of conch larvae

ANNE A. BOETTCHER; NANCY M. TARGETT

44

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental  

E-print Network

1. ORIENTAL COCKROACH, Blatta orientalis Linnaeus. Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The oriental cockroach prefers dampness and is sometimes called a "water bug). Pictured (l. to r.) are a female, male, nymph, and egg capsule. The American cockroach is large -- up to 1

Ginzel, Matthew

45

Reproductive seasonality, settlement, and post-settlement mortality of Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus), at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) has seasonal gametogenesis and planula release at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, in contrast with several previous reports on the species at other locations. The number of planulae released and gonad development varied considerably among colonies sampled at the same time, but reproductive activity occurred predominantly in winter. P. damicornis planulae settled preferentially on algal-covered substrata, rather

Vicki J. Harriott

1983-01-01

46

Nuove segnalazioni di Zootoca vivipara Jaquin e di Vipera berus Linnaeus, in Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale  

E-print Network

Nuove segnalazioni di Zootoca vivipara Jaquin e di Vipera berus Linnaeus, in Piemonte, Italia nord about Zootoca vivipara and Vipera berus in Piedmont (NW Italy). The former species has been reported for (Zootoca vivipara) e il marasso (Vipera berus). Zootoca vivipara è una specie ad ampia distribuzione

Andreone, Franco

47

The effect of dissolved oxygen and salinity on oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and osmotic pressure of Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white shrimp Penaeus setiferus (Linnaeus) is an abundant species in the coastal lagoons and estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico. This species is well adapted to environments of low salinity and can tolerate low levels of dissolved oxygen. This study was designed to measure the effects of prolonged hypoxia and salinity level on: (a) the oxygen consumption and ammonia

Carlos Rosas; Evenor Martinez; Gabriela Gaxiola; Roberto Brito; Adolfo Sánchez; Luis A. Soto

1999-01-01

48

Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

George, Sam

2014-03-01

49

A retrospective description of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72) in a free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) and its accidental transmission to yellow canaries (Serinus canaria Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

A haemagglutinating virus was isolated in summer 1972 from a single free-living siskin (Carduelis spinus Linnaeus, 1758) in embryonated chicken eggs. Additional cases of morbidity or mortality were not observed in the area were the sick siskin was found. The virus was characterized as an avian influenza A virus of the subtype H7N1 and designated H7N1/Carduelis/Germany/72. The virus induced following experimental inoculation of chicken embryos a high rate mortality (mean death time approximately 24 hours), formed plaques in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures without addition of trypsin and has an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.80. Therefore, this virus is considered as a highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. Canaries (Serinus canarius Linnaeus, 1758), that were housed in the same room with the siskin were accidentially exposed by contact to the sick siskin which resulted in virus transmission followed by conjunctivitis, apathy, anorexia and a high rate mortality. PMID:15714871

Kaleta, E F; Hönicke, A

2005-01-01

50

Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

2014-09-01

51

Orchid biology: from Linnaeus via Darwin to the 21st century. Preface.  

PubMed

Orchidaceae are the largest family of flowering plants, with at least 24,000 species, and perhaps better than any other family of flowering plants, orchids represent the extreme specializations that are possible. As a result, they have long fascinated luminaries of the botanical world including Linnaeus and Darwin, but the size of the family has historically been an impediment to their study. Specifically, the lack of detailed information about relationships within the family made it difficult to formulate explicit evolutionary hypotheses for such a large group, but the advent of molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of the orchids. Their complex life histories make orchids particularly vulnerable to environmental change, and as result many are now threatened with extinction. In this Special Issue we present a series of 20 papers on orchid biology ranging from phylogenetics, floral evolutionary development, taxonomy, mycorrhizal associations, pollination biology, population genetics and conservation. PMID:19654223

Fay, Michael F; Chase, Mark W

2009-08-01

52

Subulura halli (Ascaridida: Subuluridae) from the endangered great bustard Otis tarda Linnaeus (Aves: Gruiformes) in China.  

PubMed

Subulurid nematodes identified as Subulura halli Barreto, 1918 were collected from the endangered bird Otis tarda Linnaeus (Gruiformes: Otididae) in China. A detailed redescription of the hitherto poorly known species is presented using both light and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy. Previously unreported and erroneous morphological features of taxonomic significance are revealed. This species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the relatively long oesophagus (1.47-1.92 mm long, representing 10.6-16.9% of body length), the number and arrangement of male caudal papillae (11 pairs in total, arranged as five pairs of precloacal and six pairs of postcloacal papillae), the equal length of spicules (1.35-1.52 mm long, representing 10.7-13.7% of body length) and the presence of a small medioventral, precloacal papilla in the male. PMID:24684055

Du, Li-Qiang; Xu, Zhen; Li, Shun-Cai; Li, Liang

2014-02-01

53

Radical scavenging and amino acid profiling of wedge clam, Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

Body, foot and viscera of Donax cuneatus (Linnaeus) were hydrolyzed using commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin and papain) and tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power assays. In comparison between all the hydrolysates, papain viscera (28.513?±?0.165 & 0.186?±?0.008) and foot (33.567?±?0.132 & 0.166?±?0.013) hydrolysates showed highest DPPH and reducing power ability respectively. The active hydrolysates were purified with DEAE- cellulose followed by Sephadex G-25 columns connected to FPLC. Further, the isolated active fractions were loaded onto HPLC for their amino acid profiling and found with the presence of potential amino acids viz., histidine, cysteine, alanine etc. These results suggest that the isolated antioxidant peptide from viscera and foot hydrolysate of D. cuneatus can be used in treating human diseases where free radicals and oxidative damage are involved. PMID:25477664

Nazeer, R A; Saranya, M A V; Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf

2014-12-01

54

First report of natural infection of least weasel (Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1776) with Leishmania major in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania major (L. major), is endemic in Tunisia. Several rodents have been identified as reservoir hosts of parasites. This study reports, for the first time, the natural infection with L. major zymodeme MON-25 in a specimen of least weasel: Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1776 (M. nivalis) collected in Sidi Bouzid. This finding justifies further research on larger samples of this animal to verify its role as a potential reservoir host for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia. PMID:21867414

Ghawar, Wissem; Snoussi, Mohamed Ali; Hamida, Nabil Bel Haj; Boukthir, Aïcha; Yazidi, Rihab; Chaâbane, Sana; Chemkhi, Jomâa; Zâatour, Amor; Salah, Afif Ben

2011-11-01

55

ON THE BIOLOGY AND BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION DYNAMIC OF THE DOG CONCH, STROMBUS CANARIUM LINNAEUS, 1758 (STROMBIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrak: Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 merupakan antara sumber perikanan gastropoda paling utama di perairan Selat Johor, Malaysia. Dalam kajian ini, persampelan dilakukan secara rawak menggunakan kaedah jalur transek, bermula dari Januari hingga Disember 2005. Data panjang cangkerang dibahagikan mengikut jantina dan panjang, dengan sela-kelas 2 mm. Secara keseluruhannya, nisbah jantan kepada betina adalah pada kadar 1:1.73, yang tidak berbeza secara

Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang

56

On a new species of the genus Cobboldina (Nematoda: Atractidae) from Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The specimens of the genus Cobboldina Leiper, 1911 and family Atractidae (Railliet, 1917) Travassos, 1919 recovered from the faecal matter of Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758) from the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India recognized as a new species after careful observation. The collected nematode differs from the only valid species Cobboldina vivipara Leiper, 1911, in the presence of gubernaculum (13.2-29.7 ?m in length) and the number of caudal papillae (10 pairs) and named as Cobboldina gubernacularia sp. n., This is the second species of the genus Cobboldina recorded from the host Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captive in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India. PMID:24082537

Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

2012-10-01

57

Ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae).  

PubMed

Previous studies of insect spermatozoa indicate that these specialized cells have undergone significant morphological evolution and exhibit traits useful for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. Although leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) are among the largest and most economically important insect families, few comparative studies of their spermatozoa have been published. Here, the ultrastructure of mature spermatozoa of two leafhoppers Psammotettix striatus (Linnaeus) and Exitianus nanus (Distant), representing two different tribes of the largest leafhopper subfamily, Deltocephalinae, was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. The shape and ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the two species are very similar to those of other Cicadellidae as well as other Auchenorrhyncha, comprising a conical acrosome invaginated to form a subacrosomal space, a filiform homogeneously condensed nucleus, a lamellate centriolar adjunct connecting the nucleus with the mid-piece/flagellum, a long flagellum with a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme pattern and two symmetrical mitochondrial derivatives with an orderly array of peripheral cristae, and two drop-shaped accessory bodies. They may be distinguished by the size of the sperm, and the shape of the nucleus, accessory bodies, and paracrystalline region of mitochondrial derivatives. The fine morphology and ultrastructure of spermatozoon in P. striatus and E. nanus are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of the implications for classification and phylogenetic analyses of the subfamily. PMID:25014413

Su, Mei; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin; Dai, Wu

2014-11-01

58

Antitumor effects of a polypeptide isolated from Tegillarca granosa linnaeus and the related molecular mechanism.  

PubMed

This study is to investigate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus-1 (TG-1) on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells in vitro. The proliferation of OS-RC-2 cells was evaluated under various concentrations of TG-1 using MTT assay. The apoptosis of OS-RC-2 cells was analyzed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. And the cell cycle distribution of OS-RC-2 cells was detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression level of Ki67 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR and level of casepase-3 was examined by Western blot analysis. TG-1 incubation significantly inhibited the proliferation of renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and arrested cells at G0/G1 phase (P <0.05). And TG-1 also significantly inhibited the expression of Ki67 mRNA (P<0.05). Additionally, TG-1 significantly promoted apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 in cells (P<0.05). Moreover, the optimal effects of TG-1 was achieved at the concentration of 100 mg/L The results indicate that TG-1 has antitumor effects on renal carcinoma OS-RC-2 cells and that the underlying mechanisms may be acted through inhibiting proliferation and Ki67 mRNA expression, and promoting apoptosis and caspase-3 expression. PMID:24811818

Xu, Wenhua; Chang, Zhishang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Changqing; Wang, Chunbo; Xu, Luo

2014-05-01

59

Correlation between the occurrence of mites (Demodex spp.) and nematodes in house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the Gdaæsk urban agglomeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-infection of house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) with skin mites and helminths was studied. Intensity of their infection with skin mites (Demodex arvicolae musculi Oudemans, 1897 and D. flagellurus Bukva, 1985) was found to be proportional to their infection with the nematode Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802).

JOANNA N. IZDEBSKA; LESZEK ROLBIECKI

60

Distribution patterns and calling song variation in species of the genus Cicada Linnaeus, 1758 (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in the Aegean Sea area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper gives a comparative analysis of the calling songs of selected populations within species of the genus Cicada Linnaeus from the Greek and Turkish mainlands as well as from a number of representative Aegean islands, with a view to compare present cicada biogeography patterns with the palaeogeography of the area. Recordings of the male calling songs and analyses

P. C. SimÕes; J. A. Quartau

2008-01-01

61

Establishment and characterization of a cell line developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).  

PubMed

A new cell line named RIRI-PaDe, developed from the neonate larvae of Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, was established in modified Grace's medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. The cell line was incubated at 28°C and consisted of attached round and short spindle-like cells. The population doubling time was 55 h. The chromosome numbers varied widely from 24 to 136 with a mode of 59 at the 71st passage. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of the cell line and neonate larvae confirmed that the cell line was of P. demoleus origin. This cell line was susceptible to the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus and Apocheima cinerarius nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:23299317

Ding, Wei-Feng; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xian; Wang, Cheng-Ye

2013-02-01

62

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D’Amelio

Sarra Farjallah; Paolo Merella; Sofia Ingrosso; Andrea Rotta; Badreddine Ben Slimane; Giovanni Garippa; Khaled Said; Marina Busi

2008-01-01

63

Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.  

PubMed

Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

2011-07-01

64

The spawning, embryonic and early larval development of the green wrasse Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae) in controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Green wrasse, Labrus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758), is an endangered species in the southern Adriatic Sea, but it is also of interest for potential rearing in polyculture with other commercial species for the repopulation of areas where it is endangered or as a new aquaculture species. A parental stock of the green wrasse was kept in aquaria for six years. The spawning, embryonic and early larval development maintained under controlled laboratory conditions are described and illustrated. The average diameter of newly spawned eggs was 1.01±0.03 mm. Mature and fertilized eggs were attached to the tank bottom by mucus. Hatching started after 127 h at a mean temperature of 14.4±0.8°C. The average total length of newly hatched larvae was 4.80±0.22 mm. Absorption of the yolk-sac was completed after the 5th day when larvae reached 5.87±0.28 mm. Larvae were fed with the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis. The pigmentation of L. viridis larvae is similar to that of Labrus merula and Labrus bergylta, but the main differences between these species are in the size of larvae and the development time of the melanophores on the anal fin-fold (five days later than with L. merula) and on top of the head (nine days earlier than with L. merula). PMID:21342751

Kožul, V; Glavi?, N; Tutman, P; Bolotin, J; Onofri, V

2011-05-01

65

[Mortality in free living siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758) due to Salmonella typhimurium, phage type DT104 and DT013].  

PubMed

This report deals with an enzootic due to Salmonella Typhimurium in two free living Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus Linnaeus, 1758). Other birds in the vicinity of the siskins were not affected. Clinical signs consisted of non-specific symptoms such as ruffled plumage, apathy and reduced food intake. During necropsy, gross lesions were enlarged livers with focal necrosis, pale spleens, enlarged kidneys, pneumonia and enteritis. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from internal organs in pure culture. Using the polymerase chain reaction, the detection of Salmonella according to EN ISO 6579:2002 was confirmed. The detailed characterisation of both isolates in the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and in the Robert Koch Institute yielded for the first siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4, 5, 12: i : 1, 2, LT DT104, BT a and for the second siskin Salmonella Typhimurium, 4,12 i : 1, 2, LT DT013, BT c. These phage types were identified for the first time in siskins. The detected phage types have importance as causes of disease not only for free living siskins but also as infectious and zoonotic agents for domestic poultry and poultry products. PMID:19813449

Krüger, Alexandra; Redmann, Thomas; Sommer, Dagmar; Antakli, Ali; Kaleta, Erhard F

2009-09-01

66

Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the osteoglossiform fish Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Mormyridae) in Central Africa.  

PubMed

A new nematode species, Dujardinascaris mormyropsis n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the cornish jack Mormyrops anguilloides (Linnaeus) (Osteoglossiformes; Mormyridae) in the Sangha River (Congo River basin) in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic. Based on light and scanning electron microscopical examination, the new species differs from the only other congeneric species parasitising fishes in Africa, D. malapteruri (Baylis, 1923), mainly in the presence of dentigerous ridges on lips, absence of lateral caudal alae in the cloacal region, in the anteriorly curved, non-bifid distal tip of the gubernaculum and larger eggs (60-90 × 52-78 vs 45 × 30 ?m); males of D. mormyropsis are characterised by the presence of a ventral precloacal cuticular ornamentation not observed in other Dujardinascaris spp. Dujardinascaris mormyropsis and D. malapteruri also differ in the order of their fish hosts (Osteoglossiformes vs Siluriformes). Specimens previously reported as Dujardinascaris graberi Troncy, 1969, a junior synonym of D. malapteruri, from Mormyrops engystoma Boulenger in Chad belong to the new species D. mormyropsis. PMID:24711112

Moravec, František; Jirk?, Miloslav

2014-05-01

67

The helminth fauna study of European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) in the Volga basin.  

PubMed

In this paper we considered information on the helminth fauna of the European common brown frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758) from 10 regions of the Volga basin. This study includes consolidated data of different authors over the last 30 years, supplemented by the results of our own research. There are reliably known finds of 29 species of helminths: Monogenea - 1, Trematoda - 21, Nematoda - 7. Trematodes Gorgodera asiatica Pigulevsky, 1945, Paralepoderma cloacicola (Luhe, 1909), mtc. and nematodes Icosiella neglecta (Diesing, 1851) were observed for the first time in a given host on the territory of Russia and the Volga Basin. Six species of worms make the basis of helminth fauna: nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Neoxysomatium brevicaudatum and Cosmocerca ornata, trematode Haplometra cylindracea and monogenea Polystoma integerrimum. These six species are the most common and widespread parasites of the brown frog. For each species of helminths there is the following information included: taxonomic position, localization, area of detection, biology, definitive hosts, geographic distribution, the degree of host-specificity. PMID:25119361

Chikhlyaev, Igor; Ruchin, Alexander

2014-09-01

68

Bioaccumulation of trace metals in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the suitability of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the German Wadden Sea as a biomonitor for the trace metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn and to analyse whether the two-compartment model sensu OECD could be used as a predictive tool to assess environmental quality. The tested decapods accumulated Cd and Pb upon exposure and it was possible to estimate significant model parameters of two-compartment models, while they did not respond to waterborn Cu and Zn. Kinetic BCFs at theoretical equilibrium were 860 for Cd and 750 for Pb. A tentative estimation showed the following sensitivity of C. crangon to an increase of soluble metal exposure: 0.4 microg Cd l(-1) and 0.9 microg Pb l(-1). Available information can be used to quantify a measure of agreement or disagreement between bioaccumulation in various decapods. This can be regarded as an important step in the calibration of biomonitors, which is necessary to assess the potential for bioaccumulation on different temporal and geographical scales. PMID:18571744

Jung, K; Zauke, G-P

2008-07-30

69

Effect of unialgal diets on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus.  

PubMed

This study has investigated the effects of six different unialgal diets ( Chaetoceros calcitrans , Platymonas helgolandica , Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana , Nannochloropsis oculata , and Pavlova viridis ) on the composition of fatty acids and sterols in juvenile ark shell Tegillarca granosa Linnaeus. The best feeding effects on the growth of shellfish were found in C. calcitrans, followed by I. galbana and P. viridis, whereas Chlorella sp. and N. oculata exhibited relatively poor effects. The fatty acid and sterol compositions in the six microalgae and the juvenile ark shell after feeding were analyzed, and 39 fatty acids and 18 sterols were identified. Although the results demonstrate a close correlation between the sterol compositions in algal species and juvenile ark shell, a similar correlation was not observed between fatty acids. In the juvenile ark shell fed microalgae, the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) rapidly decreases, whereas the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increases considerably. The abundances of AA, EPA, and DHA increase most significantly in shellfish with better growth (fed C. calcitrans, I. galbana, and P. viridis). The number of sterol species is reduced, but the total sterol content in groups fed corresponding microalgae increases, and abundant plant sterols, instead of cholesterol, are accumulated in juvenile ark shell fed appropriate microalgae I. galbana and P. viridis. Therefore, to be more conducive to human health, I. galbana and P. viridis, of the six experimental microalgae, are recommended for artificial ark shell culture. PMID:22443233

Xu, Jilin; Zhou, Haibo; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Chengxu; Zhu, Peng; Ma, Bin

2012-04-18

70

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Monogalactosyl Diacylglycerols and a Monoacylglycerol from the Edible Brown Seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC50 of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia

2014-01-01

71

Anti-inflammatory potential of monogalactosyl diacylglycerols and a monoacylglycerol from the edible brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus.  

PubMed

A monoacylglycerol (1) and a 1:1 mixture of two monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDGs) (2 and 3) were isolated from the brown seaweed Fucus spiralis Linnaeus. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS) and by comparison with the literature. Compound 1 was composed of a glycerol moiety linked to oleic acid (C18:1 ?9). Compounds 2 and 3 contained a glycerol moiety linked to a galactose unit and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ?3) combined with octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 ?3) or linolenic acid (C18:3 ?3), respectively. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. All of them inhibited NO production at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The fraction consisting of compounds 2 and 3, in a ratio of 1:1, was slightly more effective than compound 1 (IC?? of 60.06 and 65.70 µg/mL, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds from F. spiralis and on their anti-inflammatory capacity. PMID:24619274

Lopes, Graciliana; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia

2014-03-01

72

Geographically Widespread Swordfish Barcode Stock Identification: A Case Study of Its Application  

PubMed Central

Background The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a cosmopolitan large pelagic fish inhabiting tempered and tropical waters and it is a target species for fisheries all around the world. The present study investigated the ability of COI barcoding to reliably identify swordfish and particularly specific stocks of this commercially important species. Methodology We applied the classical DNA barcoding technology, upon a 682 bp segment of COI, and compared swordfish sequences from different geographical sources (Atlantic, Indian Oceans and Mediterranean Sea). The sequences of the 5? hyper-variable fragment of the control region (5?dloop), were also used to validate the efficacy of COI as a stock-specific marker. Case Report This information was successfully applied to the discrimination of unknown samples from the market, detecting in some cases mislabeled seafood products. Conclusions The NJ distance-based phenogram (K2P model) obtained with COI sequences allowed us to correlate the swordfish haplotypes to the different geographical stocks. Similar results were obtained with 5?dloop. Our preliminary data in swordfish Xiphias gladius confirm that Cytochrome Oxidase I can be proposed as an efficient species-specific marker that has also the potential to assign geographical provenance. This information might speed the samples analysis in commercial application of barcoding. PMID:22039414

Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Guarino, Francesca; Reina, Simona; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito

2011-01-01

73

Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, ?(9)-, ?(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased ?(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

2014-01-01

74

Análisis sobre las Unidades de Manejo (UMAs) de ciervo rojo (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) y wapiti (Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777) en México: problemática para la conservación de los ungulados nativos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red deer, elk or wapiti are the largest cervid in Mexico and they are considered exotic species. The native subspecies in Mexico was Cervus canadensis merriami (Nelson, 1902), that was extirpated at the beginning of last century, and now it is considered extinct. Now, elk (Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777) and European red deer (C. elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) have been introduced

Sonia Gallina; Luis Arturo Escobedo-Morales

75

Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae).  

PubMed

The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852) is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus. PMID:18278323

Medeiros, A P T; Chellappa, S; Yamamoto, M E

2007-11-01

76

Rhinoceronema unicornensis gen. n., sp. n. (Cosmocercoidea: Atractidae) from Indian one horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758) captivated at the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India.  

PubMed

During survey of nematodes from the faecal samples of Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758 remaining captivated in the Alipore Zoological Garden, Kolkata, India 2,500 specimens were recovered in 3 years from March, 2007 to February, 2010. After processing the specimens were identified as a member of the family Atractidae (Railliet 1917) Travassos 1919 which have 22 valid genera. The present specimens differs from all other valid atractid genera in the features of cephalic region, cup-shaped buccal cavity with a pair of teeth, structure of the oesophagus and coarse transversely striated body. A new genus Rhinoceronema has been created to accommodate the present newly erected type species R. unicornensis. A Key to the genera of family Atractidae is added. PMID:24431555

Mondal, Sagata; Manna, Buddhadeb

2013-04-01

77

Taxonomic and morphological survey of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Toxocampinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The taxa of the Lygephila lusoria (Linnaeus, 1758) species-group are revised. The genital features of all known taxa are described and illustrated with special reference to the structure of vesica. The male genitalia of L. pallida pallida (Bang-Haas, 1907) are described and illustrated for the first time. L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971) is treated here as a species, L. pallida subpicata (Wiltshire, 1971), stat. n., distinct from L. pallida. A new species, L. minima, sp. n.,from South Russia is described. Illustrations of the holotype and its genitalia are provided; a diagnostic comparison with L. pallida is given. L. alaica Remm, 1983 is included in the L. lusoria species-group for the first time. PMID:24294088

Pekarsky, Oleg

2013-01-01

78

Coccidia of New World psittaciform birds (Aves: Psittaciformes): Eimeria ararae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

In the New World, the avian order Psittaciformes comprises 142 species, yet to date only 3 (2%) of the species have been examined for coccidia, and from these only four species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 have been described. In this study, a new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) obtained from the blue-and-yellow macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus) is reported from Brazil. Oöcysts of Eimeria ararae n. sp. are ovoidal, measure 28.7 × 20.2 ?m and have a smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.1 ?m thick. Both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal and measure 17.0 × 8.3 µm, with knob-like, prominent Stieda body and sporocyst residuum is composed of granules; sub-Stieda body is absent. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fifth description of an eimerid coccidian infecting a New World psittaciform bird. PMID:24832188

do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Carvalho Balthazar, Lianna Maria; Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

2014-06-01

79

Linnaeus University Vxj, Sweden  

E-print Network

sciences School of education, psychology and sport science School of social work School of language of natural sciences School of Engineering Kalmar Maritime Academy School of Computer sciences, physics Communication Science Comparative Literature Computer Science Computer and systems sciences Computer

Duchowski, Andrew T.

80

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D'Amelio et al. 2007 from Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) from west-central Florida, USA. The sequencing of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (rrnS) and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the same gene and of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) allowed the identification of all specimens of C. rudolphii from P. aristotelis as C. rudolphii A. The results confirmed that the definition of genetic markers, following the analysis of nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, provides quick and practical diagnostic tools for the detection of the 3 sibling species of C. rudolphii. The occurrence of C. rudolphii in P. aristotelis is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean area, improving the picture of the dispersal patterns of the populations of these piscivorous birds, and confirming the existence of different and isolated populations between the North and South European waters. PMID:18571974

Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Ingrosso, Sofia; Rotta, Andrea; Slimane, Badreddine Ben; Garippa, Giovanni; Said, Khaled; Busi, Marina

2008-12-01

81

Caligus solea n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the common sole Solea solea (Linnaeus) from the north-eastern Mediterranean off the Turkish coast.  

PubMed

A new species of caligid copepod, Caligus solea n. sp., is described from the common sole Solea solea (Linnaeus) caught off the north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Both sexes of the parasite were collected from all over the upper body surface of its host. The new species belongs to the macarovi-group of species as established by Boxshall & Gurney (Bull Br Mus (Nat Hist) (Zool), 39:161-178, 1980), with which it shares the following four characters: (i) leg 4 with two-segmented exopod, distal segment carrying three apical spines but no lateral spine; (ii) distal exopodal segment of leg 1 with three plumose setae posteriorly plus four distal margin elements, spine 1 naked, spines 2 and 3 with accessory process and spine 4 about twice length of the others; (iii) females with one-segmented abdomen while males with two-segmented abdomen; (iv) male maxilliped with myxal process opposing the tip of the subchela. However, the new species differs from its congeners within the macarovi-group in the number of sensillae on each papilla on and around the postantennal process, and also in the absence of serrations along the distal margin of the maxilla. This is the twenty-eighth species of Caligus to be reported from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:25079813

Demirkale, Ibrahim; Özak, Argun A; Yanar, Alper; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

2014-09-01

82

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

2008-08-07

83

Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 ?Gy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 ?Gy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

2008-08-01

84

Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).  

PubMed

Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18327481

Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

2008-01-01

85

Seasonal distributions and migrations of Northwest Atlantic swordfish: inferences from integration of pop-up satellite archival tagging studies.  

PubMed

Data sets from three laboratories conducting studies of movements and migrations of Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) using pop-up satellite archival tags were pooled, and processed using a common methodology. From 78 available deployments, 38 were selected for detailed examination based on deployment duration. The points of deployment ranged from southern Newfoundland to the Straits of Florida. The aggregate data comprise the most comprehensive information describing migrations of swordfish in the Atlantic. Challenges in using data from different tag manufacturers are discussed. The relative utility of geolocations obtained with light is compared with results derived from temperature information for this deep-diving species. The results show that fish tagged off North America remain in the western Atlantic throughout their deployments. This is inconsistent with the model of stock structure used in assessments conducted by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which assumes that fish mix freely throughout the North Atlantic. PMID:25401964

Neilson, John D; Loefer, Josh; Prince, Eric D; Royer, François; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Lopez, Rémy; Andrushchenko, Irene

2014-01-01

86

Unique Extracellular Matrix Heparan Sulfate from the Bivalve Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) Safely Inhibits Arterial Thrombosis after Photochemically Induced Endothelial Lesion*  

PubMed Central

Heparin-like glycans with diverse disaccharide composition and high anticoagulant activity have been described in several families of marine mollusks. The present work focused on the structural characterization of a new heparan sulfate (HS)-like polymer isolated from the mollusk Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) and on its anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties. Total glycans were extracted from the mollusk and fractionated by ethanol precipitation. The main component (>90%) was identified as HS-like glycosaminoglycan, representing ?4.6 mg g?1 of dry tissue. The mollusk HS resists degradation with heparinase I but is cleaved by nitrous acid. Analysis of the mollusk glycan by one-dimensional 1H, two-dimensional correlated spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance revealed characteristic signals of glucuronic acid and glucosamine residues. Signals corresponding to anomeric protons of nonsulfated, 3- or 2-sulfated glucuronic acid as well as N-sulfated and/or 6-sulfated glucosamine were also observed. The mollusk HS has an anticoagulant activity of 36 IU mg?1, 5-fold lower than porcine heparin (180 IU mg?1), as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. It also inhibits factor Xa (IC50 = 0.835 ?g ml?1) and thrombin (IC50 = 9.3 ?g ml?1) in the presence of antithrombin. In vivo assays demonstrated that at the dose of 1 mg kg?1, the mollusk HS inhibited thrombus growth in photochemically injured arteries. No bleeding effect, factor XIIa-mediated kallikrein activity, or toxic effect on fibroblast cells was induced by the invertebrate HS at the antithrombotic dose. PMID:20053999

Gomes, Angélica M.; Kozlowski, Eliene O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; de Barros, Cintia Monteiro; Zaganeli, José L.; Pavão, Mauro S. G.

2010-01-01

87

The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their prey  

PubMed Central

Mercury distribution in the oceans is controlled by complex biogeochemical cycles, resulting in retention of trace amounts of this metal in plants and animals. Inter- and intra-specific variations in mercury levels of predatory pelagic fish have been previously linked to size, age, trophic position, physical and chemical environmental parameters, and location of capture; however, considerable variation remains unexplained. In this paper, we focus on differences in ecology, depth of occurrence, and total mercury levels in 9 species of commercially important pelagic fish (Thunnus obesus, T. albacares, Katsuwonus pelamis, Xiphias gladius, Lampris guttatus, Coryphaena hippurus, Taractichthys steindachneri, Tetrapturus audax, and Lepidocybium flavobrunneum) and in numerous representatives (fishes, squids, and crustaceans) of their lower trophic level prey sampled from the central North Pacific Ocean. Results indicate that total mercury levels of predatory pelagic fishes and their prey increase with median depth of occurrence in the water column and mimic concentrations of dissolved organic mercury in seawater. Stomach content analysis results from this study and others indicate a greater occurrence of higher-mercury containing deeper-water prey organisms in the diets of the deeper-ranging predators, X. gladius, T. obesus, and L. guttatus. While present in trace amounts, dissolved organic mercury increases with depth in the water column suggesting that the mesopelagic habitat is a major entry point for mercury into marine food webs. These data suggest that a major determinant of mercury levels in oceanic predators is their depth of forage. PMID:19666614

Choy, C. Anela; Popp, Brian N.; Kaneko, J. John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

2009-01-01

88

Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

Schofield, Pamela J.

2009-01-01

89

Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools  

SciTech Connect

Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females.

Fossi, M.C. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: fossi@unisi.it; Casini, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Marsili, L. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via PA Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

2007-05-15

90

Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

2014-12-01

91

Application of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) for Pre-grading Tuna Freshness On-board  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of ORP as a rapid indicator for grading tuna's freshness on the ship was studied. The long line trawling process was used for catching the sample tuna in the South Pacific Ocean. All captured sample tuna were weighed, gender identified and investigated for their mortality, then measured ORP and K value. Three species of tuna were caught: blue marlin (Makaira mazara), yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares), and swordfish (Xiphia gladius). Most of the fish captured were male and they had been dead after picking onboard. The measured ORP values of blue marlin varied in the range of 0.295-0.362 Volt, with pH between 5.35-5.84. Both ORP and pH of swordfish was similar to that of blue marlin. But for yellow fin tuna, the ORP value was about the same as blue marlin while its pH was significantly higher. ORP value in all species tended to increase with pH of the fish meat decrease. It is interesting that ORP value of tuna increased in correlation with K value. These results suggested that ORP and pH change, which are measured in the short time, are the effective indicators for grading tuna's freshness on-board.

Cheevaporanapivat, Mongkol; Sakai, Hisaharu; Mine, Yuuji; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

92

Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

2013-10-01

93

Total mercury, cadmium and lead levels in main export fish of Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Total mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the muscle of four commercialised exported fish species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Xiphias gladius (swordfish), Makaira indica (black marlin) and Lutjanus sp (red snapper) collected from the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka, during July 2009-March 2010 and measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results show that swordfish (n = 176) contained the highest total Hg (0.90 ± 0.51 mg/kg) and Cd (0.09 ± 0.13 mg/kg) levels, whereas yellowfin tuna (n = 140) contained the highest Pb levels (0.11 ± 0.16 mg/kg). The lowest total Hg (0.16 ± 0.11 mg/kg), Cd (0.01 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.04 ± 0.04 mg/kg) levels were found in red snapper (n = 28). Black marlin (n = 24) contained moderate levels of total Hg (0.49 ± 0.37), Cd (0.02 ± 0.02) and Pb (0.05 ± 0.05). Even though there are some concerns during certain months of the year, this study demonstrates the safety of main export fish varieties in terms of total Hg, Cd and Pb. PMID:25070289

Jinadasa, B K K K; Edirisinghe, E M R K B; Wickramasinghe, I

2014-12-01

94

Massive Consumption of Gelatinous Plankton by Mediterranean Apex Predators  

PubMed Central

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

95

Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.  

PubMed

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing. PMID:22470416

Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

2012-01-01

96

Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes.  

PubMed

Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey. PMID:15649365

Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J

2005-01-11

97

The responses of the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a polluted site: implications for their use in environmental risk assessment.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the response of three hepatic biomarkers in adult sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Linnaeus 1758) caged at a wastewater outlet of an oil refinery with fish caged at a pristine site used as controls. The biomarkers that were investigated were the hepatosomatic index (HSI), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, we have measured the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc) in sediment samples at the polluted site. Although the polluted site had high environmental levels of PAHs and heavy metals, there was no difference in hepatic EROD activity and HSI between fish caged at the polluted site and controls. On the other hand, GST activity was significantly lower in fish caged at the polluted site compared to controls. Our results point out that the studied biomarkers have limited use in environmental risk assessment studies, at least when caged adult sea bass is used as the sentinel species and complex toxicant mixtures are involved. PMID:23644668

Traven, Luka; Mi?ovi?, Vladimir; Vuki? Luši?, Darija; Smital, Tvrtko

2013-11-01

98

The biological oceanography of the East Australian Current and surrounding waters in relation to tuna and billfish catches off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface and sub-surface biological oceanography of tuna fishing grounds within the East Australian Current (EAC) was compared in 2004 with two other fishing areas further offshore. Our aim was to determine whether the biological oceanography of the region could explain the distribution and intensity of pelagic fishery catches inside and outside the EAC at that time. The EAC fishing area was noticeably warmer, less saline and lower in nutrients than waters in the other fishing areas. The EAC waters were dominated by large diatoms, the biomass of which was significantly higher than in the seamount and offshore areas, apparently the result of a cold core eddy beneath the EAC surface filament. Over the seamount and offshore more typical Tasman Sea waters prevailed, although the presence of a relatively deeper oxygen minimum layer over the seamount suggested topographically induced mixing in the area. Notably, sub-surface zooplankton and micronekton biomass was significantly higher around the seamount than in the two other areas. The offshore region was characterised by frontal activity associated with the Tasman front. Micronekton net biomass was generally highest in surface waters in this region. Examination of tuna catch records at that time showed yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) dominated the catches of the EAC, whereas swordfish ( Xiphias gladius) and bigeye tuna ( Thunnus obesus) were the main species caught offshore. We suggest the yellowfin tuna concentrate in waters that are not only warmer but where prey species are concentrated near the surface. Offshore, deeper living species such as swordfish and bigeye tuna ( T. obesus) can take advantage of prey species that are distributed deeper in the water column and along the flanks of the many seamounts in the region, or that are concentrated at fronts associated with the Tasman Front. Although only a snapshot of the region, relatively consistent catch data over time suggests the underlying biological oceanography may persist over longer time periods, particularly during the Austral spring.

Young, J. W.; Hobday, A. J.; Campbell, R. A.; Kloser, R. J.; Bonham, P. I.; Clementson, L. A.; Lansdell, M. J.

2011-03-01

99

Influence of mesoscale features on micronekton and large pelagic fish communities in the Mozambique Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the diversity and distribution of two communities, micronekton organisms and large predatory fishes, sampled in mesoscale features of the Mozambique Channel from 2003 to 2009, by combining mid-water trawls, stomach contents of fish predators and instrumented longline fishing surveys. The highest species richness for assemblages was found in divergences and fronts rather than in the core of eddies. Despite an unbalanced scheme, diversity indices did not differ significantly between cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, divergences and fronts. We found that eddies and associated physical cues did not substantially affect the distribution of micronektonic species which are mainly driven by the diel vertical migration pattern. Top predators exhibited a more complex response. Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) associated better with mesoscale features than tunas, with a clear preference for divergences which is consistent with the diel vertical migrations and occurrence of its main prey, the flying squids Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (Ommastrephidae). On the other hand, the probability of presence of yellowfin tuna was not tied to any specific eddy structure. However, the highest values of positive yellowfin CPUEs were associated with low horizontal gradients of sea-level anomalies. We also showed a non-linear response of positive yellowfin CPUEs with respect to the depth of the minimal oxygen content. The larger the distance between the hooks and the minimal oxygen layer, towards the surface or at greater depths, the higher the CPUE, highlighting that yellowfin congregated in well-oxygenated waters. Micronekton sampled by mid-water trawls and stomach contents exhibited different species composition. The highly mobile organisms were not caught by trawling whereas they remain accessible to predators. The combination of stomach contents and mid-water trawls undoubtedly improved our understanding of the micronekton assemblage distribution. Our results provide some evidence that mesoscale features in the Mozambique Channel do not strongly affect the distribution of the mid-trophic level organisms such as micronekton and most of the large predatory fishes, and hypotheses are proposed to support this result.

Potier, Michel; Bach, Pascal; Ménard, Frédéric; Marsac, Francis

2014-02-01

100

Pelagic cephalopods in the western Indian Ocean: New information from diets of top predators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of diverse large predatory fishes and one seabird, we collected information on the cephalopod fauna of the western Indian Ocean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 35 fishes representing ten families (Xiphiidae, Istiophoridae, Scombridae, Carangidae, Coryphaenidae, Alepisauridae, Dasyatidae, Carcharhinidae, Alopiidae and Sphyrnidae) and of the sooty tern Onychoprion fuscata of the Mozambique Channel from 2000 to 2010. Both fresh and accumulated beaks were used for identifying cephalopod prey. Cephalopods were important prey for twelve predators; swordfish Xiphias gladius had the highest cephalopod proportion; sooty tern (O. fuscata) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) had high proportions too. We recovered 23 cephalopod families and identified 38 species. Ten species from four Teuthida families (Ommastrephidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae and Ancistrocheiridae) and two Octopoda families (Argonautidae and Bolitaenidae) occurred very frequently in the stomach contents, while Sepiida were rare. Ommastrephidae were the most cephalopod food sources: the purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis was the most prevalent prey by far, Ornithoteuthis volatilis was important for eleven predators and few but large specimens of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii were recovered in the stomachs of swordfish in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre province only. Predators' groups were identified based on cephalopod prey composition, on depth in which they forage, and on prey size. Surface predators' diets were characterized by lower cephalopod diversity but greater average numbers of cephalopod prey, whereas the deep-dwelling predators (swordfish and bigeye tuna) preyed on larger specimens than surface predators (O. fuscata or yellowfin tunas Thunnus albacares). Our findings emphasized the usefulness of a community of marine predators to gain valuable information on the biology and the distribution of the cephalopod forage fauna that are discussed with regard to biogeographic province, marine predator, fishing gear to catch the large pelagic fishes, and size of the beaks recovered in the stomachs.

Ménard, Frédéric; Potier, Michel; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Romanov, Evgeny; Sabatié, Richard; Cherel, Yves

2013-10-01

101

Defining dynamic pelagic habitats in oceanic waters off eastern Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many species in the pelagic ocean are widespread, they are not randomly distributed. These species may have associations with particular water masses or habitats, but to best understand patterns in the ocean, these habitats must be identified. Previous efforts have produced static or seasonal climatologies, which still represent smearing over habitats. The Eastern Tuna and Billfish Longline Fishery (ETBF) targets a range of high trophic level species in oceanic waters off eastern Australia. In this study, dynamic ocean habitats in the region were identified for each month based on cluster analysis of five oceanographic variables averaged at a monthly time scale and a spatial scale of 0.5° for the period 1995-2006. A total of seven persistent habitats were identified off eastern Australia with intra and interannual variation in size and location, indicating the importance of spatial and temporal variation in the dynamics of the region. The degree to which these dynamic habitats were distinguished was tested using (i) stable isotope analysis of top fish predators caught in the region and (ii) estimates of variation in estimated abundance generated from catch data from the fishery. More precise estimates (measured as lower total CV) of isotopic values from swordfish ( Xiphias gladius), yellowfin tuna ( Thunnus albacares) and albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) were obtained for 4 of 6 isotope comparisons using the dynamic habitat groupings, which indicate that stratifying by pelagic habitat improved precision. Dynamic habitats produced more precise abundance estimates for 7 of 8 large pelagic species examined, with an average reduction in total CV of 19% compared to when abundance was estimated based on static habitat stratification. These findings could be used to guide development of effective monitoring strategies that can distinguish patterns due to environmental variation, and in the longer term, climate change.

Hobday, A. J.; Young, J. W.; Moeseneder, C.; Dambacher, J. M.

2011-03-01

102

Prediction of fishing effort distributions using boosted regression trees.  

PubMed

Concerns about bycatch of protected species have become a dominant factor shaping fisheries management. However, efforts to mitigate bycatch are often hindered by a lack of data on the distributions of fishing effort and protected species. One approach to overcoming this problem has been to overlay the distribution of past fishing effort with known locations of protected species, often obtained through satellite telemetry and occurrence data, to identify potential bycatch hotspots. This approach, however, generates static bycatch risk maps, calling into question their ability to forecast into the future, particularly when dealing with spatiotemporally dynamic fisheries and highly migratory bycatch species. In this study, we use boosted regression trees to model the spatiotemporal distribution of fishing effort for two distinct fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) troll fishery and the California drift gillnet fishery that targets swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Our results suggest that it is possible to accurately predict fishing effort using < 10 readily available predictor variables (cross-validated correlations between model predictions and observed data -0.6). Although the two fisheries are quite different in their gears and fishing areas, their respective models had high predictive ability, even when input data sets were restricted to a fraction of the full time series. The implications for conservation and management are encouraging: Across a range of target species, fishing methods, and spatial scales, even a relatively short time series of fisheries data may suffice to accurately predict the location of fishing effort into the future. In combination with species distribution modeling of bycatch species, this approach holds promise as a mitigation tool when observer data are limited. Even in data-rich regions, modeling fishing effort and bycatch may provide more accurate estimates of bycatch risk than partial observer coverage for fisheries and bycatch species that are heavily influenced by dynamic oceanographic conditions. PMID:24640535

Soykan, Candan U; Eguchi, Tomoharu; Kohin, Suzanne; Dewar, Heidi

2014-01-01

103

Distribution and Habitat Associations of Billfish and Swordfish Larvae across Mesoscale Features in the Gulf of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted in surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) over a three-year period (2006–2008) to determine the relative value of this region as early life habitat of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Kajikia albida), and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Sailfish were the dominant billfish collected in summer surveys, and larvae were present at 37.5% of the stations sampled. Blue marlin and white marlin larvae were present at 25.0% and 4.6% of the stations sampled, respectively, while swordfish occurred at 17.2% of the stations. Areas of peak production were detected and maximum density estimates for sailfish (22.09 larvae 1000 m?2) were significantly higher than the three other species: blue marlin (9.62 larvae 1000 m?2), white marlin (5.44 larvae 1000 m?2), and swordfish (4.67 larvae 1000 m?2). The distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae varied spatially and temporally, and several environmental variables (sea surface temperature, salinity, sea surface height, distance to the Loop Current, current velocity, water depth, and Sargassum biomass) were deemed to be influential variables in generalized additive models (GAMs). Mesoscale features in the NGoM affected the distribution and abundance of billfish and swordfish larvae, with densities typically higher in frontal zones or areas proximal to the Loop Current. Habitat suitability of all four species was strongly linked to physicochemical attributes of the water masses they inhabited, and observed abundance was higher in slope waters with lower sea surface temperature and higher salinity. Our results highlight the value of the NGoM as early life habitat of billfishes and swordfish, and represent valuable baseline data for evaluating anthropogenic effects (i.e., Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the Atlantic billfish and swordfish populations. PMID:22509277

Rooker, Jay R.; Simms, Jeff R.; Wells, R. J. David; Holt, Scott A.; Holt, G. Joan; Graves, John E.; Furey, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

104

KTH ACCESS is a Linnaeus Centre Young people are the  

E-print Network

transportation systems, active buildings, and smart power grids. Home-based health care, wireless manufacturing with safety and security issues, which involves everything from ensuring that systems continue to function.The researchers at ACCESS work on assessing vulnerabilities,build in security and defences against outside attacks

Lagergren, Jens

105

The cutlassfish, Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus 1758, occurs throughout trop-  

E-print Network

, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea (Jiang et al., 1991), and about 15% of the catch on northern pop- ulations in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, and the Bo Hai. Similar work on populations (Wang et al., 1992, 1993, 1994). Populations of T. lepturus in the Bo Hai, the Yellow Sea, and the East

106

Geographic variation in Elaphe guttata (Linnaeus) (Serpentes: Colubridae  

E-print Network

~ . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ Anal Sacs . o o o . ~ o . ~ o . . a ~ Maxillary Teeth Coloration . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Dorsal Color Ventral Color ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 50 56 Pattern ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Cephalic Spear-point . Nuchal Blotch-Spear... col- oration and quantitati. ve and qualitative analysis of pattern than on scale conditions. Special attention has been paid to several pattern conditions that are con- sistantly referred to in the literature for this group. The "spear...

Thomas, Robert Allen

1974-01-01

107

Recording South Indian Architecture: Linnaeus Tripe and Edmund David Lyon  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the invention of photography was publicly announced in 1839, the new medium was soon perceived as an essential tool for surveying new territories. From the early 1850s the Government of India made official the recording of architecture and antiquities and sponsored several photographic expeditions. This article presents the development of official photography in India from its inception in the

Stéphanie Roy Bharath

2010-01-01

108

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in clams Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The concentration of sixteen individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured in the clam Ruditapes decussatus whole soft tissues from several places of the Ria Formosa lagoon (Portugal). Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations were higher in the summer (August) and winter (January) than in the other months and the distribution pattern of the individual PAHs was generally dominated by the 4 aromatic ring PAHs, followed by the 2 + 3 aromatic rings PAHs. Benzo[a]anthracene and acenaphthene were the most representative PAHs of the two fractions. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that, in the Ria Formosa, seasonal variations are more important than spatial variations, due to changes in PAH source. These sources ranged from petrogenic to pyrolytic or a mixture of both. The origin of clam PAHs was also assessed by partial least squares (PLS) analysis using nineteen different PAH signatures, taken from the literature. It was possible to identify boat traffic, especially in the summer, as one of the most relevant PAH sources to the Ria Formosa. The influence of boat traffic was revealed by several signatures including diesel soot, oil and weathered oil and a mixture of different individual PAHs usually found in harbour sediments. Other relevant sources included combustion of organic matter such as forest fires and diverse domestic activities, occurring mainly in the summer. Most of the clams were considered safe for human consumption, except for some point samples, which presented unusually high PAH concentrations, suggesting the need for a regular survey of PAHs in clam tissues. PMID:17285162

Barreira, Luísa A; Mudge, Stephen M; Bebianno, Maria J

2007-02-01

109

Recursively invoking Linnaeus: A Taxonomy for Naming Systems  

E-print Network

Naming is a central element of a distributed or network system design. Appropriate design choices are central. This paper explores a taxonomy of naming systems, and engineering tradeoffs as an aid to the namespace designer. ...

Sollins, Karen R.

2002-03-01

110

Occupational sensitivity to Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm).  

PubMed

Tenebrio molitor is an abundant stored-grain pest in the northern United States. We evaluated an individual with work-related symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis on exposure to this insect. Prick skin tests with extracts prepared from the larval, pupal, and adult-life stages were positive for the patient and for another individual with allergy to a closely related species of beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus. Specific IgE antibodies to the extracts were demonstrated by RAST. RAST inhibition demonstrated immunologic cross-reactivity between the life stages of T. molitor and also between T. molitor and A. diaperinus, as well as slight cross-reactivity with blowfly. The proteins in the extracts of each life stage were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 15 protein bands were detected in each of the extracts, although the patterns of separation were different for each life stage. After immunoblotting and autoradiography, six different IgE-binding proteins were identified in the larval extract, five in the pupal extract, and seven in the adult extract, with similar IgE-binding patterns noted for the larval and adult extracts. We conclude that this patient developed IgE-mediated sensitivity to T. molitor antigens as the result of occupational exposure. This study confirms the fact that beetles of the Tenebrionid family are potentially significant allergens for workers exposed to grains or grain products. PMID:2384648

Schroeckenstein, D C; Meier-Davis, S; Bush, R K

1990-08-01

111

[Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].  

PubMed

In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland. PMID:19338229

Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

2008-01-01

112

Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

2014-06-01

113

The vertical distribution of black drum (Pogonias cromis Linnaeus) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus Linnaeus) in a power plant effluent subject to gas supersaturation  

E-print Network

graduate students Ron Biever, Gary Furness, Jim Hanifen, Fred Jones, Brian Pridgeon, and Pete Romanowsky for their help and friendship during the course of my work. I appreciate the aid of Drs, Frank Schlicht and George Greene, members of the Houston..., in the heart, and elsewhere in the vascular system of fish. Death is usually due to stasis caused by bubbles forming in the larger vessel of the heart, blocking the flow of blood (Marsh and Gorham 1905; Harvey 1975). The Environmental Protection Agency has...

Waldrop, Robert Rush

2012-06-07

114

The Genetics of Some Polymorphic Forms of the Butterflies Heliconius melpomeneLinnaeus and H. eratoLinnaeus. I. Major Genes.'2  

E-print Network

of the New York Zoological Society at Simla, Arima Valley, Trinidad, West Indies. The Station was founded see "Introduction to the Ecology of the Arima Valley, Trinidad, B.W.I." by William Beebe, Zoologica in Surinam (Dutch Guiana) and between the Surinam stock and insects from Trinidad, West Indies, where

Mallet, James

115

The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

2010-01-01

116

Reproductive behaviour and mutilations in sally lightfoot Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea, Decapoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analysed molt frequency and reproductive behaviour of G. grapsus in relation to mutilation frequency and cannibalism observed during mating. Observations and surveys were carried out between December 1990 and December 2001, on a 200 m stretch rocky shore in the south of Ancon Bay, Lima, Peru. Population of G. grapsus was organized in groups of variable numbers around

Leonardo Romero

117

Die orbitotemporale Region im Schädel von Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Chelonia) und Lacerta sicula Rafinesque (Lacertilia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the ontogenesis of the chondrocran¡um gives the following homologies in the skull of Lacerta and Chelydra: Chelydra Lacerta Pila metoptica subiculum infundibuli cartilago hypochiasmatica Pila antotica pila antotica pila accessoriaDorsal border of planum supraseptale part of the taenia marginalis closing the fenestra epioptica dorsally Caudal process of the pila antotica dorsal to the incisura prootica part of

Olivier Rieppel

1976-01-01

118

Hematology and plasma biochemistry of wild-caught Indian cobra Naja naja (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Background Hematology and plasma biochemistry parameters are useful in the assessment and management of snake physiological status. Although reference ranges are readily available for many snake species, they are lacking for most venomous ophidians. We determined hematology and plasma biochemistry reference ranges for the wild-caught Indian cobra, Naja naja. Results Blood samples, taken from the ventral tail vein, were assessed for erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, considering the sex of snakes. Results revealed the erythrocyte numbers (male, 390000?±?12503.33/mm3 and female, 347500?±?7505.55/mm3), shapes and the centrally located oval nuclei. Leukocytes were round, circular or disk-shaped, and the mean size was larger in male than female snakes. The maximum number of leukocytes was found to be 11700?±?100/mm3 in male and 12100?±?200/mm3 in female snakes, and mean values of differential leukocyte count differed statistically between male and female snakes. The total leukocyte levels were found to be higher in female snakes, but the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV values were higher in male snakes. However, the MCH and MCHC values remained higher in female snakes throughout the study period. Mean protein and cholesterol contents differed significantly between male (45.32?±?1.76 and 3.76?±?0.06 mg/mL) and female (12.47?±?0.82 and 4.72?±?0.2 mg/mL) snakes. Conclusions In conclusion, monitoring snake hematological and biochemical parameters can serve as a means to evaluate the physiological and health status of N. naja populations, which may be a useful indicator of their environmental status. PMID:24735569

2014-01-01

119

Multiplexing of novel microsatellite loci for the vulnerable slipper lobster Scyllarus arctus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The marine slipper lobster Scyllarus arctus represents an important economic resource in the NE Atlantic, and in some regions it has been severely exploited for decades. Even so, the basic aspects of the biology and ecology of S. arctus remain largely unknown and there is very little information available for the species, especially in terms of stock assessment and population dynamics. The aim of this study was to develop novel microsatellite markers using 454 sequencing for the slipper lobster S. arctus. Ten novel loci were described and amplified in 114 individuals using 3 multiplex reactions. Overall, microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, and the number of detected alleles per locus across all individuals ranged from 6 to 29. Conservation strategies in the NE Atlantic region may consider these novel markers to study the population structure of S. arctus throughout its distribution area so that future efforts could be focused on identifying scales of connectivity and preserving stocks that have been severely depleted. PMID:24311522

Faria, João; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Cabezas, Patricia; Alexandrino, Paulo; Froufe, Elsa

2014-02-01

120

Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region) and nuclear (18S, ITS-1) DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI), and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI), but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus. PMID:24892781

Lavery, Shane D; Farhadi, Ahmad; Farahmand, Hamid; Chan, Tin-Yam; Azhdehakoshpour, Ashkan; Thakur, Vibhavari; Jeffs, Andrew G

2014-01-01

121

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

122

Histological and ultrastructural study of Zona Radiata in oocyte of common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Oocytes and fertilized eggs of teleosts are enclosed by a non-cellular envelope, the Zona Radiata (ZR). It has structural differences in various ecological and systematic groups of fish. Ultrastructural analysis has shown that ZR is formed during the previtellogenic stages. Morphological characteristics of ZR suggest various functional and ecological importance that are exhibited during oocyte development and adaptations to the released oocytes. In this research work, the structure of ZR in oocytes of Cyprinus carpio was investigated from its first appearance until final growth stage as matured ones. For this purpose, the left ovary was fixed in Bouin's solution. The histological slide preparations were studied by both light and scanning electron microscope. ZR was not observed in stage I and stage II of oocyte development. The onset of ZR appearance was in stage III which gradually increased in thickness until stage IV (vitellogenesis) and lowered in thickness during following stage V. Very fine outgrowths were observed growing from oolemma. ZR was shown porous on both inner and outer sides. Striations (pore-canals) were distinguished with crenated edges. PMID:20605473

Shabanipour, N; Hossayni, S N

2010-10-01

123

Arterial vascularization and morphological characteristics of adrenal glands in the Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

This research presents morphological characteristics of adrenal glands and a demonstration of arterial vascularization in the Pampas deer, which is considered to be in extreme danger of extinction. A total of ten deer constituted the material of the study. Vascularization of organs was investigated by using latex injection technique. Left adrenal glands were basically supplied by coeliac, cranial mesenteric, renal and lumbal arteries. The arterial vascularization of the left adrenal glands was very complex in comparison with right adrenal glands. In two examples, branch of the lumbal artery was divided into phrenic caudal artery and cranial adrenal artery. In six examples, it was observed that the caudomedial and ventral regions of the left adrenal glands were also supplied by thinner branches that stemmed from second left lumbal artery. Besides, coeliac and cranial mesenteric arteries also gave off shorter branches supplying the cranial region of the left adrenal glands in five examples. It was determined that two branches originated from abdominal aorta directly for supplying left adrenal glands in only two examples. In four examples, two caudal adrenal arteries stemmed separately from left renal artery in a short distance. Arterial vascularization of right adrenal glands was more constant and supplied by lumbal and renal arteries. The adrenal glands were generally oval or round shaped. In only two examples, left adrenal glands were 'V-' or heart-shaped. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sizes between right and left adrenal glands. PMID:24001368

Erdo?an, S; Pérez, W

2014-10-01

124

Coronary arteries of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; Linnaeus 1758) heart.  

PubMed

A study of the coronary arteries of the roe deer heart was performed on 21 hearts of animals of both sexes and various ages. The roe deer heart is supplied by two arteries: the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The left coronary artery arises from the left aortic sinus and forms a short common trunk. The left coronary artery reaches the coronary groove, then divides into the paraconal interventricular branch and the circumflex branch. The circumflex branch gives off several branches to the left ventricle wall and terminates in the subsinuosal interventricular groove as the subsinuosal interventricular branch. The right coronary artery is less pronounced than the left coronary artery. It arises from the right aortic sinus and enters the coronary groove as the right circumflex branch. We found the left arterial cone branch in 75% and the right arterial cone branch in 80% of the cases investigated. The coronary arteries of the heart run subepicardially. In 9 cases we found muscular bridges over the coronary arteries, mostly on the paraconal interventricular branch. In conclusion we affirm the left type of the arterial vascularisation in the roe deer heart. PMID:17882934

Frackowiak, H; Jasiczak, K; Pluta, K; Godynicki, S

2007-01-01

125

[The helminth fauna of Emys orbicularis (european pond turtle) (Linnaeus, 1758) living in freshwater.].  

PubMed

Twelve European pond turtles, Emys orbicularis, collected during 1996-2003 in various areas of the Bursa region were examined for helminths. During dissection, the following organs were surveyed for parasites: alimentary tract, lungs and urinary bladder. The 4 helminth species found were Patagium lazarewi (Digenea), Serpinema microcephalus, Spironoura armenica and Spiroxys contortus (Nematoda). This study that aimed at determining the helminth fauna of vertebrates in Turkey is the first survey on the host, Emys orbicularis. Also, this is the first time that Spiroxys contortus has been found among the helminth fauna of Turkey. PMID:17167746

Yildirimhan, Hikmet Sami; Sah?n, Ramazan

2005-01-01

126

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

The phylogeny and phylogeography of Emys orbicularis was inferred from mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene analysed by DNA sequencing and RNA heteroduplex analysis. Within the family Emydidae the monotypic genus Emys is affiliated with the nearctic taxa Emydoidea blandingii and Clemmys marmorata. The analysis of 423 individuals of E. orbicularis, originating throughout its distribution range, revealed a remarkable intraspecific differentiation in 20 different haplotypes with distinct geographical ranges. Maximum parsimony analysis produced a star-like phylogeny with seven main lineages which may reflect separations in the late Pliocene. The haplotype distribution examined by partial Mantel tests and analysis of molecular variance revealed a substantial effect of glacial periods. This historical perspective suggests the existence of multiple glacial refugia and considerable Holocene range expansion which was modulated by climatic traits. Further support is gained for the occurrence of long-term parapatry in glacial refugia. PMID:10620234

Lenk, P; Fritz, U; Joger, U; Wink, M

1999-11-01

127

The ultrastructure of the epicardium epithelium of the slug, Arion ater (Linnaeus, 1758), (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora).  

PubMed

In the present paper we investigated the fine structure of terrestial slug Arion ater (L.) Interacisternal microtubules were formed in Arion ater, however they do not correspond to interacisternal polycylinders because they differ in size and they are not continuous with the membrane cistern. From our study it may be concluded that these intracisternal microtubules suggest an accumulation of protein. PMID:2767281

Angulo, E; Moya, J

1989-01-01

128

Report on survey for Oak Processionary Moth Thaumetopoea processionea (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Oak Processionary Moth (OPM) is a well-known pest in continental Europe. It is a forest of deciduous species of oak. The distribution is mainly central and southern, but since the 1980s it has spread

129

Removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek.  

PubMed

Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter R(L) is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < R(L) < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C-H stretching vibrations of -CH3 and -CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

2012-01-01

130

Cycles of Activity, Group Composition, and Diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6–8 individuals. However, we found the animals

Robert W. Sussman; Ian Tattersall

1976-01-01

131

Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Background Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior. PMID:19878557

2009-01-01

132

Evaluation of serum protein electrophoresis in greater rhea ( Rhea americana Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum proteins from 47 healthy greater rheas (Rhea americana; male and female) were separated by electrophoresis in order to characterize normal reference ranges. Determination of total\\u000a protein concentration was performed through biuret reaction. The mean value of total serum protein was 4.4 g\\/dL. Absolute\\u000a concentrations of serum proteins were determined by agarose gel electrophoretic fractioning. Five fractions were analyzed:\\u000a albumin, alpha,

Cybele Esteves Almeida; Barbara Charlotte Bach; Maristela Lovato Flores; Rogério Pereira Fontoura; Stefanie Dickel Segabinazi; Marta Helena Carlesso Aita

2010-01-01

133

Morphology of accessory genital glands of spotted paca (Agouti paca Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

The spotted paca is the second largest rodent in Brazil, where it is of great economic interest in impoverished regions in view of its prominence as a low-cost source of protein. Little is known about the morphology of the accessory genital glands of this species. Thus, we studied the position and morphology of the genitals in ten adult male spotted pacas. The animals were divided into two groups, five animals were used for fixing of samples in 10% aqueous formaldehyde for macroscopic studies and the other five animals were designated for microscopic analysis. These were arranged in pairs and had the vesicular, prostate, coagulating and bulbourethral glands identified, being structured as mucous glands, which lead into the pelvic urethra. It was concluded that the accessory genital glands found in the paca are the same as those found in most rodents, showing similar histological aspects. PMID:24461579

Borges, Edson Moreira; Branco, Érika; de Lima, Ana Rita; Leal, Leonardo Martins; Martins, Leandro Luiz; Reis, Ana Carolina Gonçalves; Cruz, Claudinei; Machado, Márcia Rita Fernandes; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2014-02-01

134

Gross anatomy of the male genital organs of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

To describe the macroscopic anatomy of the genital organs of the male pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), organs from ten animals found dead in a captive breeding station were dissected. The unpigmented scrotum was located in the inguinal region near the body, and was covered by the thighs. In the investments of the testicles the dartos tunic was greatly developed. The cremaster muscle was located dorsocaudal to the testicle, and was divided caudally into three bundles of fibers. The right testicle was significantly heavier than the left, and there was a positive relationship between body weight and the weight of both testicles. The tail of the epididymis, ventrally located, had a caudal portion attached to the caudal extremity of the testicles by the proper ligament of the testicles, and a portion elongated free caudally located. The deferent duct was located caudomedially to the corresponding testicle. The accessory genital glands were the ampullary glands, vesicular glands, and a small pars disseminata of the prostate. The penis was fibroelastic, without sigmoid flexure, with a thick albuginea. The retractor penis muscle was very long, and ended in the distal part of the penis near the rudimentary glans. The general disposition of the male genital organs of the pampas deer were similar to that of other ruminants, with some differences, such as size and location of the testicles, the absence of the sigmoid flexure of the penis, and fewer accessory genital glands. PMID:23381482

Pérez, William; Vazquez, Noelia; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

2013-06-01

135

Haemocyte persistence after grafting for pearl production in Pinctada margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The grafting process used for pearl production in pearl oysters triggers a significant haemocyte response which has an influence on the quality of pearls formed. One hundred and ten selected healthy adult Pinctada margaritifera were grafted for pearl production. Beginning two days after grafting, oysters were sacrificed regularly until the 48th day and the pearl-sacs of sampled oysters were sectioned for histological analysis. The level of haemocytes present in the pearl-sacs decreased overtime with the samples from day 2 showing the highest levels. Haemocyte levels also varied between samples from a particular day. The exact cause(s) of varying levels of haemocyte accumulation during pearl-sac development in P. margaritifera is not known. However, it is reasonable to assume that haemocyte production is positively related to the degree of damage caused to host oyster tissues during the grafting procedure. While haemocytes have an important wound healing role in pearl oysters, excessive haemocyte presence may be detrimental to maximizing pearl quality. PMID:25482059

Kishore, Pranesh; Southgate, Paul C

2015-02-01

136

Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

2013-12-01

137

Using a toxicity test with Ruppia maritima (Linnaeus) to assess the effects of Roundup.  

PubMed

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Monsanto's broad-spectrum herbicide Roundup, consists of one of the most used pesticides worldwide, but its effects on the marine flora are still not well understood. Were examined Roundup toxic effects on Ruppia maritima specimens collected from Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, MA, Brazil) and acclimatized under laboratory conditions. The numbers of new and dead leaves, the root and leaf length, the chlorophyll a content, and the weight of R. maritima branches were determined before and after exposure to different Roundup concentrations for seven days. High concentrations caused a significant lethal effect. In addition, significant changes were observed in the wet and dry weights, the number and length of the leaves, and the chlorophyll a content. Leaf elongation was observed in the branches exposed to low concentrations, and this change was likely activated as a compensatory mechanism. The results indicate that high concentrations of this herbicide may compromise estuarine flora. PMID:25455815

Castro, Aline de Jesus Veloso; Colares, Ioni Gonçalves; Franco, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues Dos Santos; Cutrim, Marco Valerio Jansen; Luvizotto-Santos, Ricardo

2014-10-25

138

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of `SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance

Ray Ming; Shaobin Hou; Yun Feng; Qingyi Yu; Alexandre Dionne-Laporte; Jimmy H. Saw; Pavel Senin; Wei Wang; Benjamin V. Ly; Kanako L. T. Lewis; Lu Feng; Meghan R. Jones; Rachel L. Skelton; Jan E. Murray; Cuixia Chen; Wubin Qian; Junguo Shen; Peng Du; Moriah Eustice; Eric Tong; Haibao Tang; Eric Lyons; Robert E. Paull; Todd P. Michael; Kerr Wall; Danny W. Rice; Henrik Albert; Ming-Li Wang; Yun J. Zhu; Michael Schatz; Niranjan Nagarajan; Ricelle A. Acob; Peizhu Guan; Andrea Blas; Ching Man Wai; Christine M. Ackerman; Yan Ren; Chao Liu; Jianmei Wang; Jianping Wang; Jong-Kuk Na; Eugene V. Shakirov; Brian Haas; Jyothi Thimmapuram; David Nelson; Xiyin Wang; John E. Bowers; Andrea R. Gschwend; Arthur L. Delcher; Ratnesh Singh; Jon Y. Suzuki; Savarni Tripathi; Kabi Neupane; Hairong Wei; Beth Irikura; Maya Paidi; Ning Jiang; Wenli Zhang; Gernot Presting; Aaron Windsor; Rafael Navajas-Pérez; Manuel J. Torres; F. Alex Feltus; Brad Porter; Yingjun Li; A. Max Burroughs; Ming-Cheng Luo; Lei Liu; David A. Christopher; Stephen M. Mount; Paul H. Moore; Tak Sugimura; Jiming Jiang; Mary A. Schuler; Vikki Friedman; Thomas Mitchell-Olds; Dorothy E. Shippen; Claude W. Depamphilis; Jeffrey D. Palmer; Michael Freeling; Andrew H. Paterson; Dennis Gonsalves; Lei Wang; Maqsudul Alam

2008-01-01

139

Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Abstract The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

2014-09-01

140

NOTES ON THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD OF THE PINFISH LAGODON RHOMBOIDES (LINNAEUS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Adult pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were collected during September and October, 1974 and 1975. Following a minimum of one week holding period, females were initially injected with 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin and injected with 400 IU every second day thereafter until matur...

141

Arthropods (Acari, Mallophaga, Siphonaptera) collected from Procyon lotor (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae) in Poland.  

PubMed

From 9 specimens of Procyon lotor collected in vicinity of Dobroszyn and Górzyca (Lubuskie province) 61 arthropods of 6 species were obtained: Siphonaptera (one specimen), Acari (3 species), Phthiraptera (one specimen--Trichodectes octomaculatus; new species to fauna of Poland) and one specimen of Psocoptera. PMID:19579787

Haitlinger, Ryszard; ?upicki, Dariusz

2009-01-01

142

Organization of deutocerebral neuropils and olfactory behavior in the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda).  

PubMed

Myriapods represent an arthropod lineage, that originating from a marine arthropod ancestor most likely conquered land independently from hexapods and crustaceans. Establishing aerial olfaction during a transition from the ocean to land requires molecules to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Considering that the olfactory sense of myriapods has evolved independently from that in hexapods and crustaceans, the question arises if and how myriapods have solved the tasks of odor detection and odor information processing in air. Comparative studies between arthropod taxa that independently have established a terrestrial life style provide a powerful means of investigating the evolution of chemosensory adaptations in this environment and to understand how the arthropod nervous system evolved in response to new environmental and ecological challenges. In general, the neuroethology of myriapods and the architecture of their central nervous systems are insufficiently understood. In a set of experiments with the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata, we analyzed the central olfactory pathway with serial semi-thin sectioning combined with 3-dimensional reconstruction, antennal backfilling with neuronal tracers, and immunofluorescence combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Furthermore, we conducted behavioral experiments to find out if these animals react to airborne stimuli. Our results show that the primary olfactory and mechanosensory centers are well developed in these organisms but that the shape of the olfactory neuropils in S. coleoptrata is strikingly different when compared with those of hexapods and malacostracan crustaceans. Nevertheless, the presence of distinct neuropils for chemosensory and mechanosensory qualities in S. coleoptrata, malacostracan Crustacea, and Hexapoda could indicate a common architectural principle within the Mandibulata. Furthermore, behavioral experiments indicate that S. coleoptrata is able to perceive airborne stimuli, both from live prey and from a chemical extract of the prey. These results are in line with the morphological findings concerning the well-developed olfactory centers in the deutocerebrum of this species. PMID:20962283

Sombke, Andy; Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

2011-01-01

143

Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

2013-03-01

144

Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

George, Sam

2014-01-01

145

GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS LINNAEUS) CONSUMPTION RATES ON AND PREY PREFERENCES AMONG FOUR BIVALVE PREY SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, is a recent invader to Pacific Northwest (PNW) estuaries with a voracious appetite, especially for bivalves. To assess their potential impact, we estimated green crab consumption rates on four PNW bivalve species, Yaquina oyster (Ostrea ...

146

Determination of some blood and seminal plasma ions in the beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters are essential for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses, fish stock conservation and development of artificial propagation methods via extender improvement. In this study, comparison of blood and seminal plasma ionic parameters in beluga, Huso huso (30-45 kg, 1-2 m, n = 10), was made. The results obtained show that Na(+) (82.54 ± 5.46), Cl(-) (15.95 ± 0.72) and K(+) (3.57 ± 0.15) were predominant ions in the seminal plasma (as mm). Blood ionic values (as mm) were determined for Na(+) (110.2 ± 1.26), K(+) (3.77 ± 0.081), Cl(-) (60.12 ± 1.5), Ca(2+) (2.05 ± 0.35) and Mg(2+) (1.9 ± 0.16). Results of the comparison between ionic parameters of seminal and blood plasma indicated that the concentrations of all parameters of blood plasma with the exception of K(+) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of seminal plasma. PMID:25041321

Aramli, M S; Habibi, E; Aramli, S; Nouri, H A

2015-02-01

147

Biological activities of Wiedemannia multifida (Linnaeus) Bentham and Wiedemannnia orientalis Fisch. & Mey.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate total phenolic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the Wiedemannia multifida (W. multifida) and Wiedemannnia orientalis (W. orientalis). Methods Phosmomolybdenum assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Results The total phenolics were found to be (22.45±0.60) and (9.53±0.00) mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g in W. multifida and W. orientalis extracts, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD in the both extracts were rutin+ellagic acid and kaempferol. Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of W. multifida were higher than W. orientalis. In ?-carotene-linoleic acid system, both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. Antimicrobial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion method against fifteen microorganisms. Both extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity. Conclusions The present study suggests that methanolic extracts of W. multifida and W. orientalis could be a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in foods, pharmaceuticals preparations. PMID:23620837

Albayrak, Sevil; Aksoy, Ahmet

2013-01-01

148

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report a draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree crop. The papaya genome has more than two times the DNA but about 28% fewer genes than the genome of the related botanical model Arabidopsis. A lack of genome duplication, atypical of angi...

149

GENETIC VARIABILITY OF FOUR SPECIES OF THE GENUS TESTUDO(LINNAEUS, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary analysis of four taxa in the genus Testudo, at 14 presumed loci does not fully accord with current taxonomy. T. h. hermanni and T. g. gracca on one hand, and T. h. boettgeri and T. horsfieldii on the other hand, are placed in close relationship. These results do not corroborate the proposal to separate T. horsfieldii in a

HAKIMA SQALLI-HOUSSAINI; CHARLES P. BLANC

1990-01-01

150

Behavioural evidence for a sleep-like quiescent state in a pulmonate mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, expresses a sleep-like behavioural state. We found that snails spontaneously enter a relatively brief (22±1 min) quiescent state characterized by postural relaxation of the foot, mantle and tentacles, and cessation of radula rasping. Quiescence was reversed ('aroused') by appetitive (sucrose solution) and aversive (tactile) stimuli. Responsiveness to both stimuli was significantly lower in quiescent snails than in active snails. However, tactile stimuli evoked a more sustained defensive response in quiescent snails. Quiescence bouts were consolidated into 'clusters' over an infradian timescale and were only weakly affected by time of day. Clusters contained 7±0.5 bouts, lasted 13±1 h and were separated by long (37±4 h) intervals of almost continuous activity. Analysis of Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that the quiescent bout duration was described by an exponential probability distribution (time constant 15±1 min). Active bout duration was described by a bi-exponential probability distribution (time constants 62±4 and 592±48 min). We found no evidence for a 'sleep rebound' mechanism and quiescence expression appeared to be regulated through stochastic processes causing state transitions to resemble a Markovian random walk. We conclude that Lymnaea is a potentially valuable model system for studies of cellular function in sleep. PMID:21307060

Stephenson, Richard; Lewis, Vern

2011-03-01

151

Morphometric analysis of fetal development of Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) by ultrasonography--pilot study.  

PubMed

Measurements on the growth process and placental development of the embryo and fetuses of Cavia porcellus were carried out using ultrasonography. Embryo, fetus, and placenta were monitored from Day 15 after mating day to the end of gestation. Based on linear and quadratic regressions, the following morphometric analysis showed a good indicator of the gestational age: placental diameter, biparietal diameter, renal length, and crown rump. The embryonic cardiac beat was first detected at an average of 22.5 days. The placental diameter showed constant increase from beginning of gestation then remained to term and presented a quadratic correlation with gestational age (r(2) = 0.89). Mean placental diameter at the end of pregnancy was 3.5 ± 0.23 cm. By Day 30, it was possible to measure biparietal diameter, which followed a linear pattern of increase up to the end of gestation (r(2) = 0.95). Mean biparietal diameter in the end of pregnancy was 1.94 ± 0.03 cm. Kidneys were firstly observed on Day 35 as hyperechoic structures without the distinction of medullar and cortical layers, thus the regression model equation between kidney length and gestational age presents a quadratic relationship (r(2) = 0.7). The crown rump presented a simple linear growth, starting from 15 days of gestation, displaying a high correlation with the gestational age (r(2) = 0.9). The offspring were born after an average gestation of 61.3 days. In this study, we conclude that biparietal diameter, placental diameter, and crown rump are adequate predictive parameters of gestational age in guinea pigs because they present high correlation index. PMID:24560548

Santos, Juliana; Fonseca, Erika; van Melis, Juliano; Miglino, Maria Angélica

2014-04-15

152

The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3× draft genome sequence of ‘SunUp’ papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree1 to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far2–5, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties. PMID:18432245

Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H.; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V.; Lewis, Kanako L. T.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R.; Skelton, Rachel L.; Murray, Jan E.; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E.; Michael, Todd P.; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W.; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J.; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A.; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M.; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E.; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Delcher, Arthur L.; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y.; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J.; Feltus, F. Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A. Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A.; Mount, Stephen M.; Moore, Paul H.; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A.; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E.; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H.; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

2010-01-01

153

Pancreatic infections of Myxobolus osburni Herrick (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in the pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus) in Iowa.  

PubMed

Cysts of Myxobolus osburni occurred throughout the pancreas in 119 of 150 (79.3%) pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) from West Lake Okoboji, northwest Iowa during the summer, 1980. None of 341 bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were infected. Lobate cysts (up to 3 mm diameters) adjacent to the gall bladder contained sporulating plasmodia and mature spore masses. Inflammatory responses in the infected pancreas included engorged blood vessels, endocrine cell nuclei pyknosis, leukocyte (mostly lymphocyte) infiltration, fibroblast proliferation, dark pigment deposition and fibrosis. Host reaction was most pronounced in pancreas containing unencapsulated spore aggregates. Spore variability and plasmodial structure are also described. PMID:6808159

Ingram, K M; Mitchell, L G

1982-01-01

154

Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae).  

PubMed Central

The bright green dorsal iridescence of the hindwings of Neurobasis chinensis chinensis males, very rare in Odonata, is known to play a significant role in their courtship behaviour. The mechanism responsible for such high contrast and spectrally pure colour has been investigated and found to be optical interference, producing structural colour from distinct laminations in the wing membrane cuticle. The ventral sides of these iridescent wings are dark brown in colour. In a single continuous membrane of wing cuticle, this is an effect that requires a specialized structure. It is accomplished through the presence of high optical absorption (kappa = 0.13) within two thick layers near the ventral surface of the wing, which leads to superior dorsal colour characteristics. By simultaneously fitting five sets of optical reflectivity and transmissivity spectra to theory, we were able to extract very accurate values of the complex refractive index for all three layer types present in the wing. The real parts of these are n = 1.47, 1.68 and 1.74. Although there is often similarly significant dorsal and ventral colour contrast in other structurally coloured natural systems, very few system designs comprise only a single continuous membrane. PMID:15156917

Vukusic, P.; Wootton, R. J.; Sambles, J. R.

2004-01-01

155

Olfactory sensilla of the antennal flagellum of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae)  

E-print Network

(Lewis, 1972). Grooved pegs are considered a subgroup of the thin-walled sensilla (Slifer, 1970) that are characterized by longitudinal grooves or clefts that run the distal 1/2 to 2/3's of the peg (Mercer and Mc- Iver, 1973; Chu et al. , 1975...). The hollow spoke arrangement has been speculated to be analogous to the pore-tubule system in the transportation of odor molecules (Steinbrecht, 1969). The exterior clefts between the cuticular grooves are filled with an apparently structureless material...

White, Sandy Lee

2012-06-07

156

Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).  

PubMed

This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group. PMID:22717095

Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

2013-05-01

157

Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek  

PubMed Central

Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

2012-01-01

158

An experimental demonstration of the life cycle of a Diplostomulum from Lampetra fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Metacercariae are recorded from the central nervous system of Lampetra fluviatilis in a British river. They are compared with metacercariae of Diplostomum phoxini, D. gasterostei, D. spathaceum and with measurements of Diplostomulum petromyzi-fluviatilis described by Gintovt (1969) from Lampetra planeri (Table 1). Other stages in the life-cycle of this diplostomulum were obtained experimentally; adults from immunosuppressed ducks (Anas platyrhynchus)

Roger Sweeting; John Cass

1976-01-01

159

Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals  

PubMed Central

Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals – lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

2012-01-01

160

Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J; Love, Adrian C; Waring, Colin P

2013-01-01

161

Rock preference of planulae of jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus 1758) for settlement in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planulae of Aurelia aurita were exposed to 11 types of rocks (basalt, gabbro, granite, rhyolite, sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, gneiss, quartzite, marble and schist) to examine their attachment preference among rock material and position. Numbers of attached polyps was the highest on marble and the least on limestone. Their preference with regard to settling position was the same among the rocks, showing the highest density of polyps on the underside (88.5%) compared to upper (23.6%) and perpendicular sides (10.3%) of rock. The results showed that while position preference is more important than rock property, higher numbers of polyps were observed in rocks with a medium surface hardness.

Yoon, Won Duk; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Han, Changhoon; Park, Won Gyu

2014-06-01

162

Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766)  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. Results The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11?±?0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Conclusions Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera. PMID:23800301

2013-01-01

163

Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

2013-01-01

164

Isolation, purification and biochemical characterization of conotoxin from Conus figulinus Linnaeus (1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cone snails are remarkable for the extent and diversity of gene-encoded peptide neurotoxins that are expressed in their venom apparatus. The protein content of the crude toxin extract of Conus figulinus Linneaus was found to be 1900 µg\\/mL. The crude extract (dilution up to 10 -5) expressed hemolytic activity. The crude extract subjected to gel filtration chromatography yielded 60 fractions;

R Saravanan; S Sambasivam; A Shanmugam; D Sathish Kumar; T Tamil Vanan; R A Nazeer

165

Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in ticks collected from European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The role of wild mammals in the dissemination and maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still under investigation. European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are often heavily infested by tick and flea species that are known to harbor and transmit different Rickettsia spp. We investigated ixodid ticks sampled from European hedgehogs for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 471 Ixodes ricinus and 755 I. hexagonus were collected from 26 German and 7 British European hedgehogs. These were tested by a genus-specific real-time PCR assay targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). The rickettsia minimum infection rate was 11.7% with an increase detected with each parasitic tick stage. No significant difference in Rickettsia prevalence in the 2 Ixodes species was detected. Using sequencing of partial ompB, Rickettsia helvetica was the only species identified. More than half of the hedgehogs carried Rickettsia-positive ticks. In addition, tissue samples from 2/5 hedgehogs (where tissue DNA was available) were PCR-positive. These results show that European hedgehogs are exposed to R. helvetica via infected ticks and might be involved in the natural transmission cycle of this Rickettsia species. PMID:23337491

Speck, Stephanie; Perseke, Lea; Petney, Trevor; Skuballa, Jasmin; Pfäffle, Miriam; Taraschewski, Horst; Bunnell, Toni; Essbauer, Sandra; Dobler, Gerhard

2013-04-01

166

The energetics of growth, respiration, and egestion of juvenile striped mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus  

E-print Network

of Priestley, Scheele, and Lavoisier to their recent concern with growth, biochemistry, and nutrition. Brody ~ (1945), in particular, has had an important role in the development of a bioenergetics approach to the study of growth in domestic animals...

Muska, Carl Frank

2012-06-07

167

vol. 175, no. 2 the american naturalist february 2010 Natural History Note  

E-print Network

without Falling Prey: Chemical Camouflage Protects Honeydew-Producing Treehoppers from Ant Predation resources. Thus chemical camouflage in G. xiphias allows the trophobiont to attract predaceous bodyguards camouflage, cuticular profile, multitrophic interaction, mutualism. Introduction Interactions between

Oliveira, Paulo S.

168

Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: are there regional differences.  

PubMed

Media coverage has made the public aware of both the benefits and the risks from eating self-caught fish, but information on contaminants in commercial fish is much more limited, especially on a local level. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration website provides methylmercury data for a variety of fish, but for many species sample sizes are small and data are more than a decade old, whereas commercial fish sources are highly dynamic. A few state agencies are beginning to provide contaminant information for commercial fish, including canned tuna. We examined the mercury concentration of six types of fish purchased in supermarkets in Chicago, Illinois in 2005. We measured total mercury (methylmercury accounts for about 90% of the total mercury in fish). One key question was whether the concentrations of mercury in fish available locally were similar to those reported in other areas of the country and in the FDA U.S. national data base. Such information is critical for the public, especially pregnant women or those planning on pregnancy, making decisions about types and quantities of fish to consume. Some fish are available generally throughout the U.S., but others are more locally available, suggesting a need for site-specific information. This research was stakeholder driven, and reflected local interest in the safety of local fish. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among the fish, ranging from a mean of 0.03 microg/g (ppm-wet weight) for salmon (Salmo spp.) to 1.41 ppm for swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Maximum values for three species of fish (orange roughy Hoplostethus atianticus, swordfish walleye Sander vitreus) were over 1 ppm (FDA action level), and all of the fish except salmon had some values above 0.5 ppm, the action level set by some states and countries. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations among three types of canned tuna (Thunnus spp): "gourmet tuna" had the least amount of mercury, and white tuna had the most. The mean concentrations reported in this study were generally similar to those reported by the FDA, but there were important differences: 1) although the mean mercury concentrations for orange roughy for the Chicago data was similar to the FDA data, the maximum concentration was higher; 2) the mean for the Chicago swordfish was higher than the FDA data (1.26 vs 0.97 ppm, methylmercury); 3) the maximum for tuna steaks was higher in the FDA data set; and, 4) mean values for grouper (Epinephelus spp.) were higher in the FDA data set than the Chicago data. Further, the FDA has virtually no data on walleye and none on "gourmet tuna". These conclusions suggest that there are enough variations between the local data (Chicago) and the FDA data to warrant periodic local monitoring of commercial fish to provide up-to-date information to consumers about mercury in the fish they eat. PMID:16815532

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2006-08-31

169

COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF SPECIES appendix 5  

E-print Network

, Carcharhinus leucas Great hammerhead, Sphyrna mokarran Lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris Nurse shark hake, Urophycis chuss Silver hake (whiting), Merluccius bilinearis White hake, Urophycis tenuis gladius White marlin, Kajikia albidus Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares Other tunas, Family Scombridae

170

Mercury in wild terrestrial carnivorous mammals from north-western Poland and unusual fish diet of red fox  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations were determined in the kidney (K), liver (L), and pectoral muscle (M) of 19 individuals representing\\u000a wild carnivorous mammals from NW Poland: 10 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758), 3 raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834, 2 badgers Meles meles Linnaeus, 1758, 3 pine martens Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758, and 1 polecat Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758. The

El?bieta Kalisi?ska; Piotr Lisowski; Wies?aw Salicki; Teresa Kucharska; Katarzyna Kavetska

2009-01-01

171

Age and growth of the blue shark, Prionace glauca Linnaeus, 1758, in the Northwest coast off Mexico Edad y crecimiento del tiburón azul, Prionace glauca Linnaeus, 1758, en la costa noroeste de México  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue shark is one of the main species caught in the artisanal fisheries in the northwest coast of Mexico. The age and growth was estimated by counting the growth bands on vertebral centra stained with silver nitrate from 204 sharks. Shark sizes ranged from 81 to 270 cm total length (TL), with a mean of 165 ± 35 cm

María del Pilar Blanco-Parra; Felipe Galván-Magaña; Fernando Márquez-Farías

2008-01-01

172

Characterization of a germination-accelerating factor from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) of entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus, Nomuraea rileyi, has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of a host insect-derived extract. This extract therefore appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi, although the substance (germination-accelerating factor, GAF) responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Our previous study was extended to the isolation of GAF from pupae of the silkworm, a host insect of N. rileyi. This present work subjects GAF to a structural analysis. The chemical structure of GAF is characterized as 2S-amino-tetradeca-4-ene-1,3R-diol (D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine) based on spectroscopic data. An examination of the structure-activity relationship shows that the activity of D-erythro-C(14)-sphingosine was superior to that of sphingosines with shorter and longer carbon chains. It is suggested that the molecular species with a 14-carbon chain of a sphingosine is important for host recognition. PMID:20530914

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

173

[Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene variation in brown bear (Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758) from southern part of Russian Far East].  

PubMed

The genetic variability of brown bear Ursus arctos from the southern part of the Russian Far East was first ex- amined based on the variations in the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence. The presence of two phylogenetic groups of haplotypes described previously for other parts of the species range was demonstrated. Part of the samples belonged to the haplotype group distributed across the whole range, while another part belonged to the rare group previously only reported for Japan and Alaska. These findings partially clarify the pattern of brown-bear colonization on the territory of the Russian Far East and Japan. PMID:25508131

2013-12-01

174

Diverse Microbiota Identified in Whole Intact Nest Chambers of the Red Mason Bee Osmia bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

Microbial activity is known to have profound impact on bee ecology and physiology, both by beneficial and pathogenic effects. Most information about such associations is available for colony-building organisms, and especially the honey bee. There, active manipulations through worker bees result in a restricted diversity of microbes present within the colony environment. Microbial diversity in solitary bee nests remains unstudied, although their larvae face a very different situation compared with social bees by growing up in isolated compartments. Here, we assessed the microbiota present in nests and pre-adults of Osmia bicornis, the red mason bee, by culture-independent pyrosequencing. We found high bacterial diversity not comparable with honey bee colonies. We identified a variety of bacteria potentially with positive or negative interactions for bee larvae. However, most of the other diverse bacteria present in the nests seem to originate from environmental sources through incorporated nest building material and stored pollen. This diversity of microorganisms may cause severe larval mortality and require specific physiological or symbiotic adaptations against microbial threats. They may however also profit from such a diverse environment through gain of mutualistic partners. We conclude that further studies of microbiota interaction in solitary bees will improve the understanding of fitness components and populations dynamics. PMID:24205188

Keller, Alexander; Grimmer, Gudrun; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-01-01

175

Levels of heavy metals in green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (Linnaeus) from Muar Estuary, Johore, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 microg g(-1) dry weights, Cd with 0.58 microg g(-1) dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 microg g(-1) dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 microg g(-1) dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption. PMID:19137835

Kamaruzzaman, B Y; Ong, M C; Zaleha, K; Shahbudin, S

2008-09-15

176

Mercury and Selenium Bioaccumulation in the Smooth Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead\\u000a shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 ?g g?1 ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 ?g g?1 ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that

O. Escobar-Sánchez; F. Galván-Magaña; R. Rosíles-Martínez

2010-01-01

177

Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena Linnaeus, from the Mexican Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

We analyzed total mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in muscle tissue and cartilage fibers (fins) from smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena, caught off Baja California Sur, Mexico. In muscle tissue, the mercury concentration ranged from 0.005 to 1.93 microg g(-1) ww (wet weight), which falls within the safety limits for food set by international agencies (Hg > 1.0 microg g(-1) ww). Only one specimen showed a mercury value that exceeded this limit. In fins, the mercury bioaccumulation was lower (<0.05). Selenium in muscle ranged from 0.11 to 1.63 microg g(-1) ww, while in fins it ranged from 0.13 to 0.56 microg g(-1) ww. PMID:20352184

Escobar-Sánchez, O; Galván-Magaña, F; Rosíles-Martínez, R

2010-04-01

178

Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).  

PubMed

The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank. PMID:22012220

Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

2011-09-01

179

Late Miocene diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the huge toads in the Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) species group (Anura: Bufonidae).  

PubMed

We investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of the Rhinella marina group, using molecular, morphological, and skin-secretion data, contributing to an understanding of Neotropical faunal diversification. The maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyzes of the combined data recovered a monophyletic R. marina group. Molecular dating based on Bayesian inferences and fossil calibration placed the earliest phylogenetic split within the R. marina group at ? 10.47 MYA, in the late Miocene. Two rapid major diversifications occurred from Central Brazil, first northward (? 8.08 MYA) in late Miocene and later southward (? 5.17 MYA) in early Pliocene. These results suggest that barriers and dispersal routes created by the uplift of Brazilian Central Shield and climatic changes explain the diversification and current species distributions of the R. marina group. Dispersal-vicariance analyzes (DIVA) indicated that the two major diversifications of the R. marina group were due to vicariance, although eleven dispersals subsequently occurred. PMID:20813190

Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

2010-11-01

180

Molecular phylogeography of the asp viper Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Italy: evidence for introgressive hybridization and mitochondrial DNA capture.  

PubMed

Owing to its temperature dependence and low vagility, the asp viper (Vipera aspis) is an interesting model species to study the effects of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on vertebrate genomes. We genotyped 102 specimens from the whole Italian distribution range at three mitochondrial DNA regions (2278 characters, total) and six microsatellite DNA loci (Short Tandem Repeats, STR). The molecular phylogeny was constructed according to Bayesian, Neighbour Joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood procedures. All methods grouped individuals of the three morphological subspecies (V. a. aspis, V. a. francisciredi, V. a. hugyi) into five different haploclades. Specimens assigned to hugyi clustered in two highly differentiated clades, one being sister group to the complex comprising the second clade of hugyi (i.e., a paraphyletic status), plus two clades of francisciredi. The Bayesian clustering of the STR variability disclosed only two groups, the first including aspis and francisciredi, the second all hugyi. Introgressive hybridization and capture of francisciredi-like lineages in the hugyi mitochondrial genome were suggested to explain the discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data. The phylogeographic pattern was compatible with population contractions in three glacial refuges. Plausibility of derived hypothesis was checked using coalescence simulations as post hoc tests. Long-term drift and serial founder effects, rather than selection, appeared the main factors affecting the genetic make-up of the Italian asp viper. PMID:19236928

Barbanera, F; Zuffi, M A L; Guerrini, M; Gentilli, A; Tofanelli, S; Fasola, M; Dini, F

2009-07-01

181

The Feeding Ecology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758), at Kung Krabaen Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand  

PubMed Central

The natural diet of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus, was investigated from October 2008 to October 2009 using hand sampling and a crab gill net. The results showed that the major prey items in the stomach contents of P. pelagicus were teleost fish (29.61%), organic matter (20.69%), crustaceans (18.3%) and shelled molluscs (11.46%). Significant differences were found in diet composition between juvenile and mature crabs, between crabs inside and outside the bay and among seasons. In contrast, significant differences were not found between male and female crabs. PMID:25210585

Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

2014-01-01

182

Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in tributary of Amazonas River (Brazil).  

PubMed

This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa) and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea), and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem. PMID:24728360

Bittencourt, Luana Silva; Pinheiro, Douglas Anadias; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Fernandes, Berenice Maria; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

2014-03-01

183

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

184

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

185

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

186

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMNAEIDAE (MOLLUSCA, BASOMMATOPHORA), INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica LINNAEUS, 1758 (TREMATODA, DIGENEA) IN BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003

Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

2014-01-01

187

Distribution and biological features of the common pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus, 1758), in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic analysis of the distribution, abundance and some biological traits of the common pandora ( Pagellus erythrinus) was performed. Data were gathered in 15 experimental bottom trawl surveys carried out off the southern Tyrrhenian Sea from 1994 to 2008. A total of 2,166 P. erythrinus were found in the investigated area, with a preference for the upper continental shelf (10-100 m). The highest persistence was recorded in the trawl-banned areas. The sex ratio Sr = F/( F + M) ranged between 0.60 and 0.96 (overall 0.78). The size at which 50 % of the individuals were mature was 157 and 170 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The length-weight relationship for all individuals was described by the following parameters: a = 0.016 and b = 2.905. Growth was evaluated (sexes combined) by applying length-based methods; up to eight significant modal components were evidenced. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for the whole population were estimated at L ? = 454 mm, K = 0.08 and t 0 = -2.57. The present results are in agreement with the information available for the other Mediterranean stocks suggesting common biological features.

Busalacchi, B.; Bottari, T.; Giordano, D.; Profeta, A.; Rinelli, P.

2014-12-01

188

Genotoxicity, potential cytotoxicity and cell uptake of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766).  

PubMed

Nanoparticles have physicochemical characteristics that make them useful in areas such as science, technology, medicine and in products of everyday use. Recently the manufacture and variety of these products has grown rapidly, raising concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Adverse effects of exposure to nanoparticles have been reported for both terrestrial and aquatic organisms, but the toxic effects of the substances on marine organisms remain poorly understood. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of TiO2-NP in the marine fish Trachinotus carolinus, through cytogenotoxic methods. The fish received two different doses of 1.5?g and 3.0?g-TiO2-NPg(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples were collected to analyze erythrocyte viability using the Trypan Blue exclusion test, comet assay (pH>13), micronucleus (MN) and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA) 24, 48 and 72h after injection. The possible cell uptake of TiO2-NP in fish injected with the higher dose was investigated after 72h using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that TiO2-NP is genotoxic and potentially cytotoxic for this species, causing DNA damage, inducing the formation of MN and other ENA, and decreasing erythrocyte viability. TEM examination revealed that cell uptake of TiO2-NP was mainly in the kidney, liver, gills and to a lesser degree in muscle. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this is the first in vivo study of genotoxicity and other effects of TiO2-NP in a marine fish. PMID:25481788

Vignardi, Caroline P; Hasue, Fabio M; Sartório, Priscila V; Cardoso, Caroline M; Machado, Alex S D; Passos, Maria J A C R; Santos, Thais C A; Nucci, Juliana M; Hewer, Thiago L R; Watanabe, Ii-Sei; Gomes, Vicente; Phan, Ngan V

2015-01-01

189

Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus  

PubMed Central

Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

2011-01-01

190

Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control. PMID:23569922

Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O

2012-01-01

191

[Parasite fauna and features of the parasite community structure in the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus) from Yenisei and Kacha rivers].  

PubMed

Phoxinus phoxinus is a species widely distributed throughout Palaearctic and is a good model for investigation of parasite communities. Species composition and structure of parasite communities in the minnow from the streams if different types, namely Yenisei river near Krasnoyarsk City and its left affluent Kacha River, were examined. Indices of Shannon, Simpson, and Berger-Parker were used to describe the component parasite communities. Twenty five parasite species of seven classes were revealed, and ectoparasite were found to be dominating among them. The host-specific parasite species Paratrichodina phoxini (Infusoria), Dactylogyrus borealis (Monogenea), Parahemiurus merus and Diplostomum phoxini (Digenea) constitute the peculiarity of the parasite fauna in minnow. Parasite community of minnow in the Kacha river is the most various one. It is caused by the following factors--favorable temperature conditions, composition of ichthyofauna, and a high density of fish population in the Kacha river. Metacercaria of Diplostomum phoxini, the specific parasites of minnow's brain, are dominating in both streams. PMID:20349627

German, Iu K; Pronin, N M

2010-01-01

192

Ultrastructure of sperm of the Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus, Linnaeus, 1766) observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

An investigation was conducted to understand the sperm cell morphology and ultrastructure of Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The present study reveals that the sperm of S. argus can be differentiated into three major parts - an acrosome-less spherical head, a short mid-piece, and a cylindrical flagellum. The scat sperm cell had a mean total length of 21.32±1.80?m with the presence of ovoid electron-dense nucleus. The mean length and width of ovoid nucleus measured 1.44±0.34 and 1.54±0.33?m, respectively. The structural characteristics of the nucleus were found to be a shallow axial nuclear fossa and centriolar complex. The two centrioles were positioned nearly perpendicular to each other with a conventional "9+0" pattern in the proximal centriole. The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and contains 5 or 6 spherical and unequal-sized mitochondria. The mitochondria were separated from the axoneme by a cytoplasmic canal. The flagellum was inserted at the base of the nucleus with the presence of an axoneme structure of 9+2 paired micro tubules. The sperm flagellum had short irregular lateral fins. The present study reveals that Spotted scat sperm can be categorized as being of a "primitive or ect-aquasperm type" and belongs to the teleostean "type I" sperm. This is the first report on the morphology and ultrastructure of sperm in Scatophagidae family. PMID:25577714

Madhavi, M; Kailasam, M; Mohanlal, D L

2015-02-01

193

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

2001-01-01

194

EVALUATION OF THE MOLLUSCICIDAL POTENTIAL OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Jatropha gossypiifolia Linnaeus, 1753 ON Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)  

PubMed Central

The action of extracts from the stem, leaves, and fruit of Jatropha gossypiifolia on Biomphalaria glabrata was studied by analyzing survival, feeding capacity and oviposition ability. The extracts were obtained by macerating the plant parts in 92% ethanol, which were then evaporated until a dry residue was obtained and phytochemically studied. The molluscicidal activity on B. glabrata was investigated using the procedures recommended by WHO (1965). The amount of food ingested and oviposition were measured during each experiment. The extract of leaves from J. gossypiifolia was shown to be a strong molluscicidal agent, causing 100% mortality of B. glabrata, even in the lowest concentration tested, of 25 ppm. Regarding the fruit extract, there was variation in the mortality, depending on the concentration used (100, 75, 50 and 25 ppm). The snails that were in contact with the fruit extract had significant reduction in feeding and number of embryos in comparison to the control. The stem extract did not present molluscicidal activity nor had any influence on the feeding and oviposition abilities of B. glabrata, in the concentrations tested. In conclusion, the extracts of leaves and fruits of J. gossypiifolia investigated in this work show molluscicidal effect and may be sources of useful compounds for the schistosomiasis control. PMID:25351545

Pereira, Adalberto Alves; França, Clícia Rosane Costa; Oliveira, Dorlam's da Silva; Mendes, Renato Juvino de Aragão; Gonçalves, José de Ribamar Santos; Rosa, Ivone Garros

2014-01-01

195

Ecotype Differentiation in the Face of Gene Flow within the Diving Beetle Agabus bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767) in Northern Scandinavia  

PubMed Central

The repeated occurrence of habitat-specific polyphyletic evolved ecotypes throughout the ranges of widely distributed species implies that multiple, independent and parallel selection events have taken place. Ecological transitions across altitudinal gradients over short geographical distances are often associated with variation in habitat-related fitness, these patterns suggest the action of strong selective forces. Genetic markers will therefore contribute differently to differences between ecotypes in local hybrid zones. Here we have studied the adaptive divergence between ecotypes of the water beetle Agabus bipustulatus along several parallel altitudinal gradients in northern Scandinavia. This water beetle is well known for its remarkable morphological variation associated with mountain regions throughout the western Palaearctic. Two morphological ecotypes are recognised: a montane type with reduced flight muscles and a lowland type with fully developed muscles. Using a multilocus survey of allozyme variation and a morphological analysis with landmark-based morphometrics, across thirty-three populations and seven altitudinal gradients, we studied the local adaptive process of gene flow and selection in detail. Populations were sampled at three different elevations: below, at and above the tree line. The results indicate that the levels of divergence observed between ecotypes in morphology and allele frequencies at ?-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase relative to those shown by neutral molecular markers reflects local diversifying selection in situ. Four main lines of evidence are shown here: (1) A repeated morphological pattern of differentiation is observed across all altitudinal transects, with high reclassification probabilities. (2) Allele and genotype frequencies at the ?-Gpdh locus are strongly correlated with altitude, in sharp contrast to the presumable neutral markers. (3) Genetic differentiation is two to three times higher among populations across the tree line than among populations at or below. (4) Genetic differentiation between ecotypes within independent mountain areas is reflected by different sets of allozymes. PMID:22348080

Drotz, Marcus K.; Brodin, Tomas; Saura, Anssi; Giles, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

196

Stock structure analysis of Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758) along the Indian coast based on truss network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of Megalaspis cordyla (horse mackerel) from four areas, two each from the east (Digha and Mandapam regions in the Bay of Bengal) and west (Cochin and Mumbai regions of the Arabian Sea) coasts of the Indian peninsula, were studied using body shape morphometrics. A truss box method (Strauss and Bookstein, 1982) was followed, and 33 distance variables were extracted

A. M. Sajina; S. K. Chakraborty; A. K. Jaiswar; D. G. Pazhayamadam; Deepa Sudheesan

2011-01-01

197

Liver, gills, and skin histopathology and heavy metal content of the Danube sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) is a bottom-feeding fish species with a direct exposure to contaminants from water and sediments. Although heavy metal pollution is believed to be one of the main threats to the sterlet population in the Danube River basin, there is a lack of knowledge of the exact impact of heavy metals on their survival. In the present study, effects of heavy metal pollution on sterlet in the Danube basin were assessed as well as the utility of different sterlet organs and tissues as indicators of heavy metal contamination. The sterlet were sampled at three different sites in the Danube basin, in Hungary and Serbia, isolated from each other by dams. Heavy metal analysis included measurement of Cd, As, Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations in sterlet gills, muscle, liver, and intestine, and histopathological analyses comprised assessment and scoring of the extent and intensity of alterations in skin, gills, and liver tissue. Analysis revealed a significant presence of sublethal histopathological changes that were most pronounced in the liver and skin and increased accumulation of heavy metals, with the highest concentrations in the liver. Canonical discriminant analysis showed significant differentiation among the three studied localities, suggesting that the heavy metal concentrations in sterlet populations were site specific. The present study concludes that the accumulation of heavy metals is a response to the presence of these pollutants in the environment, and, together with other pollutants, it affects the vital organs of natural sterlet populations. PMID:20821473

Poleksic, Vesna; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Jaric, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana; Gacic, Zoran; Cvijanovic, Gorcin; Raskovic, Bozidar

2010-03-01

198

Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda) with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway  

PubMed Central

Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda) are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggests that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum (DC). The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes (DCL) are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli (og). Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum (lPC) are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract (PNT) with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans. PMID:24109435

Kenning, Matthes; Harzsch, Steffen

2013-01-01

199

First Molecular Identification and Phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a Symptomatic Sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758)?  

PubMed Central

Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:21490184

Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2011-01-01

200

Relative growth and reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga (Linnaeus, 1758) sampled from the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative growth and the reproductive cycle of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga were studied from September 2002 to October 2003 in the Bizerte Bay (Northern Tunisia). Relationships between shell length and shell width, shell height as well as volume-related variables (shell dry weight, soft tissues dry weight and total wet weight) showed negative allometries in both sexes except for shell width in males (isometry) and shell height in both sexes (positive allometry). The sex ratio was unbalanced, within the length range of 6-48 mm, 49.43 % of the animals were males, 24.39 % females and 26.17 % sexually undifferentiated; within the length range of 49-92 mm, the respective values were 41.19, 52.7 and 6.1 %. Histological investigations as well as analyses of the condition index and the gonadosomatic index (CI and GSI) revealed the presence of a single reproductive cycle per year. Spawning occurred at the end of August and early September and was associated with a decrease in seawater temperature and salinity. A resting phase occurred in winter, coinciding with the lowest water temperatures. Histological examinations of the gonads of a total of 130 specimens revealed only two cases of hermaphroditism. The present study constitutes a useful baseline for a sustainable management of local wild stocks of L. lithophaga.

Kefi, Ferdaous Jaafar; Boubaker, Samir; Menif, Najoua Trigui El

2014-09-01

201

Northern refugia and recent expansion in the North Sea: the case of the wrasse Symphodus melops (Linnaeus, 1758)  

PubMed Central

Pleistocene climate changes have imposed extreme conditions to intertidal rocky marine communities, forcing many species to significant range shifts in their geographical distributions. Phylogeographic analyses based on both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers provide a useful approach to unravel phylogeographic patterns and processes of species after this time period, to gain general knowledge of how climatic changes affect shifts in species distributions. We analyzed these patterns on the corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops, Labridae), a rocky shore species inhabiting North Sea waters and temperate northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco including the Azores, using a fragment of the mitochondrial control region and the first intron of the nuclear S7 ribosomal protein gene. We found that S. melops shows a clear differentiation between the Atlantic and the Scandinavian populations and a sharp contrast in the genetic diversity, high in the south and low in the north. Within each of these main geographic areas there is little or no genetic differentiation. The species may have persisted throughout the last glacial maximum in the southern areas as paleotemperatures were not lower than they are today in North Scandinavia. The North Sea recolonization most likely took place during the current interglacial and is dominated by a haplotype absent from the south of the study area, but present in Plymouth and Belfast. The possibility of a glacial refugium in or near the English Channel is discussed. PMID:22408733

Robalo, Joana I; Castilho, Rita; Francisco, Sara M; Almada, Frederico; Knutsen, Halvor; Jorde, Per E; Pereira, Ana M; Almada, Vitor C

2012-01-01

202

Effects of rearing temperature on hematological and biochemical parameters of great sturgeon ( Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of environmental temperature changes on hematological and biochemical parameters of Huso huso juveniles was studied. Six-month-old juveniles with mean body weight of 69.2?±?4.1 g were subjected to different temperatures\\u000a (9–14°C, 15–20°C, and 21–26°C, respectively). The hematological parameters, ion Ca2+, glucose, and the cortisol concentrations\\u000a were assessed after a period of 21 days rearing at these temperatures. The results show that

Asad Mohammadi Zarejabad; Mohammad Sudagar; Somayeh Pouralimotlagh; Kazem Darvish Bastami

2010-01-01

203

Investigation of the leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843).  

PubMed

Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted by adipose tissues in the various teleost fish and vertebrates. Leptin has been suggested to have an important role in a range physiological function, including regulation of food intake, reproduction, immune function, energy expenditure, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. In this study, leptin levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio and Capoeta trutta were determined. Then the results were compared between two species and between sexes of each species. In addition, leptin levels were also compared with the body weight and length of both C. carpio and C. trutta. Leptin level was analysed using available enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit (Rat leptin ELISA kit, catalog no: SK00050-08). Leptin levels showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) that in relation to between two species and between sexes of each species. It has been shown that not significantly correlated when examined correlations between the leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.192, p = 0.380) or length (r = 0.102, p = 0.644) of C. carpio. Similarly, the correlations between leptin level in blood serum and body weight (r = 0.021, p = 0.959) or length (r = 0.123, p = 0.595) of C. trutta were also not significant. PMID:25440001

Köprücü, S; Algül, S

2014-12-01

204

Chemistry of the sternal gland secretion of the Mediterranean centipede Himantarium gabrielis (Linnaeus, 1767) (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Himantariidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophilomorph centipede, Himantarium gabrielis, when disturbed, discharges a viscous and proteinaceous secretion from the sternal glands. This exudate was found by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry and NMR analyses to be composed of hydrogen cyanide, benzaldehyde, benzoyl nitrile, benzyl nitrile, mandelonitrile, mandelonitrile benzoate, 3,7,6 O-trimethylguanine (himantarine), farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate and farnesyl farnesoate. This is the first report on the presence of benzyl nitrile and mandelonitrile benzoate in secreted substances from centipedes. Farnesyl 2,3-dihydrofarnesoate is a new compound, while himantarine and farnesyl farnesoate were not known as natural products. A post-secretion release of hydrogen cyanide by reaction of mandelonitrile and benzoyl nitrile was observed by NMR, and hydrogen cyanide signals were completely assigned. In addition, a protein component of the secretion was analysed by electrophoresis which revealed the presence of a major 55 kDa protein. Analyses of the defensive exudates of other geophilomorph families should produce further chemical surprises.

Vujisi?, Ljubodrag V.; Vu?kovi?, Ivan M.; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Ili?, Bojan S.; Anti?, Dragan Ž.; Jadranin, Milka B.; Todorovi?, Nina M.; Mrki?, Ivan V.; Vajs, Vlatka E.; Lu?i?, Luka R.; ?ur?i?, Božidar P. M.; Miti?, Bojan M.

2013-09-01

205

Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Staphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds. PMID:23569831

Periyasamy, N; Srinivasan, M; Balakrishnan, S

2012-01-01

206

Mitochondrial genome of Babesia orientalis, apicomplexan parasite of water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) endemic in China  

PubMed Central

Background Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia, Theileria and Plasmodium are very closely related organisms. Interestingly, their mitochondrial (mt) genomes are highly divergent. Among Babesia, Babesia orientalis is a new species recently identified and specifically epidemic to the southern part of China, causing severe disease to water buffalo. However, no information on the mt genome of B. orientalis was available. Methods Four pairs of primers were designed based on the full genome sequence of B. orientalis (unpublished data) and by aligning reported mt genomes of B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. parva. The entire mt genome was amplified by four sets of PCR. The obtained mt genome was annotated by aligning with published apicomplexan mt genomes and Artemis software v11. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using cox1 and cob amino acid sequences. Results The complete mt genome of B. orientalis (Wuhan strain) was sequenced and characterized. The entire mt genome is 5996 bp in length with a linear form, containing three protein-coding genes including cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1), cytochrome b (cob) and cytochrome c oxidase III (cox3) and six rRNA large subunit gene fragments. The gene arrangement in B. orientalis mt genome is similar to those of B. bovis, B. gibsoni and Theileria parva, but different from those of T. orientalis, T. equi and Plasmodium falciparum. Comparative analysis indicated that cox1 and cob genes were more conserved than cox3. Phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of cox1, cob and cox1 + cob, respectively, revealed that B. orientalis fell into Babesia clade with the closest relationship to B. bovis. Conclusions The availability of the entire mt genome sequences of B. orientalis provides valuable information for future phylogenetic, population genetics and molecular epidemiological studies of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:24580772

2014-01-01

207

An important natural genetic resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) threatened by aquaculture activities in Loboi drainage, Kenya.  

PubMed

The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

2014-01-01

208

An Important Natural Genetic Resource of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Threatened by Aquaculture Activities in Loboi Drainage, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The need to improve food security in Africa through culture of tilapias has led to transfer of different species from their natural ranges causing negative impacts on wild fish genetic resources. Loboi swamp in Kenya is fed by three hot springs: Lake Bogoria Hotel, Chelaba and Turtle Springs, hosting natural populations of Oreochromis niloticus. The present study aimed at better genetic characterization of these threatened populations. Partial mtDNA sequences of the D-loop region and variations at 16 microsatellite loci were assessed in the three hot spring populations and compared with three other natural populations of O. niloticus in the region. Results obtained indicated that the hot spring populations had mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variability similar to or higher than the large closely related populations. This may be attributed to the perennial nature of the hot springs, which do not depend on rainfall but rather receive permanent water supply from deep aquifers. The study also revealed that gene flow between the three different hot spring populations was sufficiently low thus allowing their differentiation. This differentiation was unexpected considering the very close proximity of the springs to each other. It is possible that the swamp creates a barrier to free movement of fish from one spring to the other thereby diminishing gene flow. Finally, the most surprising and worrying results were that the three hot spring populations are introgressed by mtDNA genes of O. leucostictus, while microsatellite analysis suggested that some nuclear genes may also have crossed the species barrier. It is very likely that the recent intensification of aquaculture activities in the Loboi drainage may be responsible for these introgressions. Taking into account the importance of these new genetic resources, protection and management actions of the Loboi swamp should be accorded top priority to prevent the loss of these spring populations. PMID:25222491

Ndiwa, Titus Chemandwa; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Agnese, Jean-François

2014-01-01

209

Histopathological and genotoxic effects of pollution on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Billings Reservoir (Brazil).  

PubMed

The Billings Reservoir shows eutrophic waters due to the large amount of sewage, and consequently, the fish can be a problem for public health. Thus, this project aimed to analyze the histological gills and liver of Nile tilapia to verify morphological changes caused by environment, and the frequency of micronuclei was done, to observe the response to genotoxic activity. We observed histological alterations in gills and livers of Nile Tilapia classified as mild to severe, and the presence of micronucleus. The results enable better environmental monitoring and quality control of this species. PMID:24835316

Rezende, Karina Fernandes Oliveira; Santos, Rubens Martins; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Salvo, Lígia Maria; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

2014-09-01

210

Thermal tolerance during early ontogeny in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1785): Bioenergetics, nurse egg partitioning and developmental success  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature is arguably the primary factor affecting development in ectotherms and, as a result, may be the driving force behind setting species' geographic limits. The shallow-water gastropod Buccinum undatum is distributed widely throughout the North Atlantic, with an overall annual thermal range of below zero to above 22 °C. In UK waters this species is a winter spawner. Egg masses are laid and develop when sea temperatures are at their coolest (4 to 10 °C) indicating future climate warming may have the potential to cause range shifts in this species. In order to examine the potential impacts of ocean warming, we investigate the effects of temperature on the early ontogeny of B. undatum across a thermal range of 0 to 22 °C. Each egg mass consists of approximately 100 capsules, in which embryos undergo direct development. Successful development was observed at temperatures ranging from 6 to 18 °C. Rates of development increased with temperature, but the proportion of each egg mass developing successfully decreased at the same time. With increasing temperature, the mean early veliger weight increased, but the number of early veligers developing per capsule decreased, suggesting a negative impact on the number of crawl-away juveniles produced per capsule. Elemental analysis showed both carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to increase with temperature in early veligers but not in hatching juveniles, indicating greater energy reserves are accumulated during early ontogeny to compensate for the higher energetic demands of development at higher temperature. The developmental plasticity observed in B. undatum suggests this species to be capable of adapting to temperatures above those it currently experiences in nature. B. undatum may possess a thermal resilience to ocean warming at its current upper temperature distribution limit. This thermal resilience, however, may come at the cost of a reduced offspring number.

Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven; Hauton, Chris

2013-05-01

211

Senilia senilis (Linnaeus, 1758), a biogenic archive of environmental conditions on the Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental archives are useful tools for describing past and current climate variations and they provide an opportunity to assess the anthropogenic contribution in coastal ecological changes. Along the West African coast, few studies have focused on such archives in coastal ecosystems. The bloody cockle Senilia senilis, an intertidal bivalve mollusk species, is widely distributed from Western Sahara to Angola, and has been harvested by humans over thousands of years. Therefore, this species appears to be a good candidate for assessing past variations of key environmental parameters such as temperature, primary production, and Saharan dust advection within West African coastal ecosystems. In the present paper, we focused (i) on the identification of growth rhythms of S. senilis shells in Mauritania (Banc d'Arguin), and (ii) on the potential of these shells as (paleo-)environmental archives. The method we used combined environmental survey, sclerochronology, and geochemical analyses of aragonite samples. We showed that microgrowth line formation was controlled by a tidal forcing, leading to the formation of two lines per lunar day. Brightness and thickness of these microgrowth lines progressively decreased from spring to neap tides (fortnightly cycle). Lunar daily growth rates displayed strong seasonal variations, with highest values (> 300 ?m per lunar day) recorded in summer. The oxygen isotope composition of S. senilis shells (?18Oaragonite) accurately tracked seawater temperature seasonal variations, with a precision of 0.8 °C. Finally, we discussed the opportunity to use Ba:Ca ratio in shells as a proxy for primary production or for Saharan dust transport. We also hypothesized that either Canary Currentvariations or, more probably, massive aerosol transfers from Sahara to the Atlantic Ocean could control uranium availability in coastal waters and explain the occurrence of U:Ca peaks within S. senilis shells.

Lavaud, Romain; Thébault, Julien; Lorrain, Anne; van der Geest, Matthijs; Chauvaud, Laurent

2013-02-01

212

Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (PBDE-47) on the Chamelea gallina clam (according to current commercial regulations: Venus gallina). PBDEs, which are used as flame retardants in various industrial products, are classed as hazardous substances by Directive 2011/65/EU. They are bioaccumulative compounds, considered to be endocrine disruptors, genotoxic, neurotoxic and practically ubiquitous, and their concentration in the environment has considerably increased in recent years. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of PBDE-47 on Chamelea gallina: toxic power and any harmful effects on the gonads, bioaccumulation capacity in the tissues, and possible entry into the food chain. The research used 96-hour and 21-day experimental tests on clams housed in filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a period of acclimatisation of the molluscs lasting five to seven days. The clams were fed on seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta). The choice of the toxic compound PBDE-47 was based on the high concentration, among the congeners of PBDE, found in some aquatic species. The study demonstrated that the concentration of the contaminant used did not alter the vital functions, cause significant levels of mortality or lead to evident alteration in the gonads of Chamelea gallina. However, the research demonstrated the bioaccumulation capacity of the bivalve mollusc, allowing PBDE-47 to enter the food chain. PMID:23564589

Angioni, Salvatora Angela; Scortichini, Giampiero; Diletti, Gianfranco; Perletta, Fabrizia; Ceci, Roberta; Ferri, Nicola

2013-01-01

213

The feeding habits of three Mediterranean sea anemone species, Anemonia viridis (Forskål), Actinia equina (Linnaeus) and Cereus pedunculatus (Pennant)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feeding habits of the Mediterranean sea anemones Cereus pedunculatus, Actinia equina and Anemonia viridis were examined mainly by analysing their coelenteron contents. The three species are opportunistic omnivorous suspension feeders. Main source of food for A. viridis and C. pedunculatus are crustaceans (mainly amphipods and decapods, respectively), while for the midlittoral species A. equina, it is organic detritus. Using the same method, the temporal and spatial changes in the diet of A. viridis were examined. During the whole year, crustaceans seem to be the main source of food for A. viridis. The diet composition of this species, however, differs remarkably in space, possibly reflecting the different composition of the macrobenthic organismic assemblages in different areas. The data collected are compared with the limited bibliographical information.

Chintiroglou, Ch.; Koukouras, A.

1992-03-01

214

Selection of nest platforms and the differential use of nest building fibres by the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus Linnaeus 1766  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice by the Baya weaver between different plant species as nesting platforms and sources of nesting fibre was analysed on an agricultural study plot at Chorao (15°30?N, 73°50?E), an island in the Mandovi estuary in Goa, India. The bird chose eucalyptus over coconut palms, as shown by a higher ratio of utilised trees to available trees and by the

S. D. Borges; M. Desai; A. B. Shanbhag

2002-01-01

215

Evaluation of the use of transplanted Nassarius reticulatus (Linnaeus, 1758), in monitoring TBT pollution, within the European Water Framework Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires monitoring programmes, to establish a coherent and comprehensive overview of ecological and chemical water status. Recently and within this context, the use of biomarkers has been proposed for incorporation into WFD monitoring programmes. In the present study, cages have been used to transplant (ranging between 14 and 75 days) adults of the dogwhelk

J. Germán Rodríguez; Piero Rouget; Javier Franco; Joxe Mikel Garmendia; Iñigo Muxika; Victoriano Valencia; Ángel Borja

2010-01-01

216

Characterization of ectoparasites in an urban cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) population of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites are capable of transmitting infectious diseases and, therefore, are of zoonotic concern. Cats submitted to a spay/neuter program in the city of Rio de Janeiro were examined to determine the distribution of ectoparasites in cats from a city with a tropical climate. Independent of gender, breed, or age, 292 cats were combed and subjected to otoscopic examination. Ectoparasites were collected, and blood samples were taken to determine packed cell volume. The majority of the 292 cats were female (71%), and most of them were categorized as domestic short hair cats (92%). Different species of ectoparasites that produced both single agent and multi-agent infestations were detected in these cats. Most cats were infested by Ctenocephalides felis (60%); however, other ectoparasites were found to a lesser degree in the sampled population (Felicola subrostratus (5.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (1.4%), Lynxacarus radovskyi (1%), and Otodectes cynotis (6.2%)). Within the infested cats, 16.3% were also anemic, and there was a significant association between the occurrence of anemia and flea infestation. Of all sampled cats, 65% were infested by at least one species of ectoparasites, which suggests both a heavy infestation of the environment and owner negligence. Ectoparasites are not only nuisances to both cats and owners, but they are also significant carriers of disease. Therefore, the implementation of rigorous, safe preventive measures is of great importance. PMID:21181196

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Crissiuma, Ana Lucia; Gershony, Liza Crissiuma; Willi, Liliane Maria Valentin; Paiva, Jonimar Pereira; Guerrero, Jorge; Labarthe, Norma

2011-06-01

217

Erfahrungen beim Schutz der Kreuzotter (Vipera berus (LINNAEUS, 1758)) in der Radeburger und Laußnitzer Heide (Freistaat Sachsen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die vorgestellten ganzheitlichen Bemühungen zum Schutz der Kreuzotter und ihrer gefährdeten Lebensstätten sind das Ergebnis einer mehr als 25jährigen Freizeitarbeit. Diese Langzeit-Er- fassungen bilden die fachliche Grundlage für die beschriebenen praktischen Artenschutzmaßnah- men. Die Erhaltung moorbestimmter Lebensräume ist ein Schwerpunkt des Kreuzotterschutzes, zumal sie Lebensstätte weiterer seltener und gefährdeter Tiere und Pflanzen von europäischer, bundes- und landesweiter Bedeutung sind.

MATTHIAS S CHRACK

218

Analysis of the expression of p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Ontogenesis comprises a series of events including cell proliferation and apoptosis and resulting in the normal development of the embryo. Protein p53 has been described as being involved in the development of several animal species. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of protein p53 during the morphogenesis of the gastroesophageal mucosa of Gallus gallus domesticus and to correlate it with the histogenesis of structures present in this tissue. We used 24 embryos (at 12-20 days of incubation) and the thymus of two chickens. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed with the ABC indirect method. The expression of p53 in the gastroesophageal mucosa increased during the formation of the organ, mainly at the stages during which tissue remodeling and cell differentiation began. In the esophagus at stages 42 and 45, we observed immunoreactive (IR) cells in the surface epithelium and in early esophageal glands. In the proventriculus at stages 39-45, IR cells were present in the epithelial mucosa and rarely in the proventricular glands. In the gizzard after stage 42, we found IR cells mainly in the medial and basal epithelial layers of the mucosa and especially within the intercellular spaces that appeared at this phase and formed the tubular gland ducts. Thus, protein p53 occurs at key stages of development: in the esophagus during the remodeling of esophageal glands, in the proventriculus during the differentiation of the epithelium of the mucosa and in the gizzard during the formation of tubular glands. PMID:24068480

Ventura, Adriana; do Nascimento, Aparecida Alves; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Vieira-Lopes, Danielle Alcantara; Sales, Armando; Pinheiro, Nadja Lima

2014-01-01

219

An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.  

PubMed

A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo. PMID:24471438

Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-02-19

220

Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758)  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day?1), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day?1 (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 1.77±0.253 from control where it was 2.56±0.25. Serum protein level increased from 9.33±2.90 mg/ml (control) to 11.67±1.45 mg/ml after MLT treatment while there was depressed serum triglycerides (86.16±1.078 mg/dl) and cholesterol (126.66±0.88 mg/dl) as compared to control values where these were 123.0±1.23 mg/dl and 132.0±1.65 mg/dl respectively. Histological structure of ovary showed small eggs of early perinucleolus stage after MLT treatment while testicular structure of control and MLT treated fish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day?1, GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes. PMID:25049476

Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A. K.; Tripathi, Madhu

2012-01-01

221

Lectin-Induced Mucus Release in the Urn Cell Complex of the Marine Invertebrate Sipunculus nudus (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

The mucociliary urn cell complex of the marine coelomate Sipunculus nudus secretes mucus 4 to 5 minutes after being exposed to Lotus tetragonolobus and Ricinus communis I agglutinins. Surface binding of both lectins is confined to the secretory area of the urn cell complex and, like the release of mucus, is inhibited by the specific saccharides L-fucose and D-galactose or by incubation in L-fucosidase and D-galactosidase. Mucus secretion may therefore be initiated by the interaction of mucus-releasing stimuli with fucosyl or galactosyl residues of specific membrane receptors. PMID:17796936

Nicosia, S V

1979-11-01

222

Peptide toxin glacontryphan-M is present in the wings of the butterfly Hebomoia glaucippe (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).  

PubMed

Protein profiling has revealed the presence of glacontryphan-M, a peptide toxin identified only in the sea snail genus Conus, in the wings of Hebomoia glaucippe (HG). The wings and body of HG were homogenized and the proteins were extracted and analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel digestion. Posttranslational protein modifications were detected and analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. An antibody was generated against glacontryphan-M, and protein extracts from the wings of HG samples from Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines were tested by immunoblotting. Glacontryphan-M was unambiguously identified in the wings of HG containing the following posttranslational protein modifications: monoglutamylation at E55, methylation at E53, quinone modification at W61, cyanylation at C56, and amidation of the C terminus at G63. Immunoblotting revealed the presence of the toxin in the wings of HG from all origins, showing a single band for glacontryphan-M in HG samples from Malaysia and Philippines and a double band in HG samples from Indonesia. Intriguingly, sequence analysis indicated that the Conus glacontryphan is identical to that of HG. The toxin may function as a defense against diverse predators, including ants, mantes, spiders, lizards, green frogs, and birds. PMID:23071323

Bae, Narkhyun; Li, Lin; Lödl, Martin; Lubec, Gert

2012-10-30

223

The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in Galicia has a normal development in wild boars, presenting its own characteristics in shape and size in comparison with other host species. The high prevalence of infection detected in the wild boar, the normal fluke development in the liver, and the possibility of shedding F. hepatica eggs capable of embryonating and giving rise to viable miracidia with the potential to infect intermediate hosts suggest a possible role of this species as a secondary reservoir in this Spanish region. PMID:24103736

Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

2013-12-01

224

Studies on the isolation of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida from diseased golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus) and antibacterial agents sensitivity.  

PubMed

An epizootic occurred among cultured golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus); it involved mass mortality on fish farms in Linshui in Hainan province, China, in 2008. Diseased fish exhibited no obvious clinical signs, but pathological studies showed that nodules were scattered over the spleen and kidney. To investigate the nature of the pathogen, we studied the surviving fish, and a Gram-negative bacterium (designated strain TOS1) was isolated from the spleens of golden pompano. Pathogenicity assays revealed that TOS1 was virulent for golden pompano when they were challenged by intraperitoneal injection, and the lethal dose (LD(50)) was 1.1 × 10(6)colony forming units (CFU)g(-1). 16S rDNA gene sequence of TOS1 demonstrated high similarity (99%) to that of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Phylogenetic analysis also showed a clear association of strain TOS1 with P. damselae subsp. piscicida, and this agreed with the results of morphological, physiological and biochemical identification. The results also showed that TOS1 was sensitive to norfloxacin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, neomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline, and was very sensitive to Psidium guajava and Atractylodes lancea (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC=10(-6)g/mL). This paper describes a systematic study of P. damselae subsp. piscicida isolated from diseased golden pompano in China, including its sensitivity to different antibiotics and Chinese herbal extracts, which will contribute to the diagnosis and prevention of the associated disease. PMID:23140939

Wang, Ruixuan; Feng, Juan; Su, Youlu; Ye, Lingtong; Wang, Jiangyong

2013-03-23

225

Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98 +/- 0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia. PMID:23660672

Tripathi, Ratnesh Kumar; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Akanksha; Kumar, Rajesh; Mishra, Rahasya Mani; Jena, Joy Krushna

2013-06-01

226

Effect of Acute Exposure of the Organophosphate Insecticide Rogor on Some Biochemical Aspects of Clarias batrachus(Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian catfish (Clarias batrachus), a common fish of commercial importance, was exposed to a sublethal concentration (1\\/3 of 96 h LC50 value) of Rogor for periods ranging from 24 to 192 h. The changes in glycogen, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase (a,ab) contents of muscle tissue were studied. A gradual decrease in muscle glycogen and an increase in lactate

Ghousia Begum; Shantha Vijayaraghavan

1999-01-01

227

Transcriptome generation and analysis from spleen of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) through normalized cDNA library.  

PubMed

Catfishes are commercially important fish for both the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Clarias batrachus, an Indian catfish species is economically important owing to its high demand. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from spleen of the Indian catfish to identify genes associated with immune function. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven ESTs were submitted to the GenBank with an average read length of approximately 700 bp. Clustering analysis of ESTs yielded 1,698 unique sequences, including 184 contigs and 1,514 singletons. Significant homology to known genes was found by homology searches against data in GenBank in 576 (34 %) ESTs, including similarity to functionally annotated unigenes for 158 ESTs. Additionally, 433 ESTs revealed similarity to unigenes and ESTs in the dbEST but the remaining 658 EST sequences (39 %) did not match any sequence in GenBank. Of a total of 1,698 ESTs generated, 65 ESTs were found to be associated with immune functions. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of C. batrachus ESTs collectively revealed a preponderance of immune relevant pathways apart from the presence of pathways involved in protein processing, localization, folding and protein degradation. This study constitutes first EST analysis of lymphoid organ in aquaculturally important Indian catfish species and could pave the way for further research of immune-related genes and functional genomics in this catfish. PMID:24162781

Singh, Akanksha; Barman, A S; Sood, Neeraj; Mohindra, Vindhya

2013-12-01

228

Infecção por helmintos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) errantes procedentes do município de Recife - PE.  

E-print Network

??Os helmintos gastrintestinais assumem importância significativa na etiologia das gastrenterites em caninos, sendo as helmintoses de origem canina um problema mundial e de prevalência elevada,… (more)

Auxiliadora de Moraes Ostermann

2008-01-01

229

Inapparent Virus Infections and their Interactions in Pupae of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When honey bee pupae from seemingly healthy Australian colonies were injected with various salt solutions, inapparent infections of black queen-cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), sacbrood virus (SBV) and, occasionally, cricket paralysis virus were activated. The activated viruses replicated to detectable concentrations after pupae were incubated at 35 °C for 3 days. Inapparent infections of SBV, but not

D. L. Anderson; A. J. Gibbs

1988-01-01

230

Oxidative stress in the clam Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758) in relation to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon body burden.  

PubMed

Seasonal variation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidases) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were studied in the clam Ruditapes decussatus in relation to body burdens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Clams were sampled in eight sites from the Ria Formosa lagoon. PAH concentrations were seasonally rather than spatially dependent, being higher in summer (August). Antioxidant enzymes activities and LPO levels in the clam digestive gland were also seasonally dependent. Antioxidant enzymes presented distinct seasonal variations: Mit SOD (superoxide dismutase activity measured in the mitochondrial fraction) was induced in the summer and down-regulated in winter and spring, while Cyt SOD activity (measured in the cytosolic fraction) was highest in autumn and lower in the summer. Neither Mit nor Cyt SOD were related to the clam PAH body burden, suggesting that cells are using other antioxidant systems to eliminate oxyradicals. Catalase (CAT), however, was induced in spring and down-regulated in summer, the inverse of the PAH concentrations in clam tissues. CAT induction in spring appears to be related to the excess of oxyradicals arising from the metabolic activity associated with the reproductive cycle. Conversely, the decrease in CAT activity in the summer may be related to the high water temperatures reached in the Ria Formosa (up to 30 degrees C). Glutathione peroxidases (total fraction - T-GPx and dependent on selenium - Se-GPx) presented a similar seasonal pattern, and were negatively related to PAH concentrations, which may indicate a precarious state of the clams, associated with PAH toxicity. Similarly, LPO was also inversely correlated to the PAH concentrations indicating that increases in PAH concentrations were not causing membrane oxidative damage in R. decussatus digestive gland. The results suggest that antioxidant enzymes in R. decussatus digestive gland are strongly affected by seasonal factors stressing the need of other experiments to clarify the PAHs effect on this clam species. PMID:17366572

Barreira, Luísa A; Mudge, Stephen M; Bebianno, Maria J

2007-04-01

231

Diel variation of the RNA/DNA ratios in Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck) and Ruditapes decussatus (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time of day on RNA/DNA ratios among fed and starved Crassostrea angulata and Ruditapes decussatus juveniles. Sampling to investigate the day and night condition of juveniles was carried out for 48 h. A highly sensitive method for nucleic acid quantification was applied to bivalves. The results suggest that there is some variation in nucleic acid quantities with the time of the day. For the two species analysed, the RNA/DNA ratio was particularly high during the night and was higher in the fed animals. The results seem to indicate that there is some endogenous rhythm in the production of RNA. If there are diel changes in RNA/DNA ratios, it follows that average RNA/DNA ratios can be unrepresentative if there is any day or night bias in sampling. PMID:11325380

Chícharo, L M.Z.; Chícharo, M A.; Alves, F; Amaral, A; Pereira, A; Regala, J

2001-04-30

232

The essential oil of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi in larval control of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762)  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use. Results The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: ?-3-carene (55.43%), ?-pinene (16.25%), sylvestrene (10.67%), germacrene D (2.17), ?-myrcene (1.99%), and isoterpinolene (1.4%). The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 ?g mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 ?g mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil. Conclusions The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti. PMID:20799936

2010-01-01

233

Identification of a Novel Metalloproteinase and Its Role in Juvenile Development of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus)  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:105–117, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475557

Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J

2013-01-01

234

Comparatively examining of the apelin-13 levels in the Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843) and Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Apelin is a recently discovered peptide produced by several tissues in the various vertebrates and fish. Apelin has been suggested to have role in regulation of many diverse physiological functions including food intake, energy homoeostasis, immunity, osmoregulation and reproduction. In this study, apelin-13 levels in the blood serum of Cyprinus carpio and Capoetta trutta were determined. Then the results were compared between two species and sexes of each species. Apelin-13 level was analysed using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit (Rat apelin-13 ELISA kit, catalog no: CSB-E14367r). Apelin-13 level in the blood serum of C. trutta was significantly higher than those of the C. carpio (p < 0.05). However, its levels were observed to be no significant difference (p > 0.05) that compared to between sexes of each species. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.829, p = 0.0001) between the apelin-13 level and body weight of C. carpio. However, no significant correlation (r = -0.022, p = 0.924) between the apelin-13 level and weight of C. trutta observed. PMID:25124358

Köprücü, S; Algül, S

2014-08-14

235

Ultrastructure and Glycoconjugate Pattern of the Foot Epithelium of the Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Haliotidae)  

PubMed Central

The foot epithelium of the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata is studied by light and electron microscopy in order to contribute to the understanding of the anatomy and functional morphology of the mollusks integument. Study of the external surface by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the side foot epithelium is characterized by a microvillus border with a very scant presence of small ciliary tufts, but the sole foot epithelium bears a dense field of long cilia. Ultrastructural examination by transmission electron microscopy of the side epithelial cells shows deeply pigmented cells with high electron-dense granular content which are not observed in the epithelial sole cells. Along the pedal epithelium, seven types of secretory cells are present; furthermore, two types of subepithelial glands are located just in the sole foot. The presence and composition of glycoconjugates in the secretory cells and subepithelial glands are analyzed by conventional and lectin histochemistry. Subepithelial glands contain mainly N-glycoproteins rich in fucose and mannose whereas secretory cells present mostly acidic sulphated glycoconjugates such as glycosaminoglycans and mucins, which are rich in galactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine, and N-acetyl-glucosamine. No sialic acid is present in the foot epithelium. PMID:22645482

Bravo Portela, I.; Martinez-Zorzano, V. S.; Molist- Perez, I.; Molist García, P.

2012-01-01

236

Division of Mammals The Museum of Southwestern BiologyMammal Division, established in  

E-print Network

,5 Alces americanus (Clinton, 1822) Elk2 Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Mule Deer Odocoileus hemionus) Red Sheep1 Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 Bighorn Sheep2 Ovis canadensis Shaw, 1804 Faunal Composition · 10

237

75 FR 45675 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) to review the sites' management plans and...Glacier (ASPA 131), Linnaeus Terrance (ASPA 138), and Botany Bay (ASPA 154) Dates: September 1, 2010 to August 31,...

2010-08-03

238

A review of the subgenus Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) Wheeler from Borneo with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera  

E-print Network

species-group together with P. xiphias Fr. Smith, 1863 from New Guinea and P. shixingensis Wu & Wang, 1995 are illustrated. Keywords: Formicidae, Polyrhachis (Campomyrma), Borneo, taxonomy, new species INTRODUCTION of which are endemic toAustralia. METHODS Here I propose two new species-groups to incorporate three

Villemant, Claire

239

Dorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(the Goldfish, or Swordfish—sometimes shown as Xiphias; abbrev. Dor, gen. Doradus; area 179 sq. deg.) A southern constellation which lies between Pictor and Reticulum, and culminates at midnight in early December. It was first shown on Petrus Plancius' celestial globe of c. 1598, though it is usually attributed to the Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser (also known as Petrus Theodorus) and F...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

240

Reported Trip Costs, Gross Revenues, and Net Returns for U.S. Atlantic Pelagic Longline Vessels  

E-print Network

) longline fleet harvests a multitude of species. In a recent study by Cramer and Scott1, over 30 species reported landing swordfish, Xi phias gladius, 65% reported landing at 1 Cramer, J., and G. P. Scott. 1998 migratory species (HMS), have affected vessels that target multi ple species (NMFS, 1999a). The addi tional

241

Variação sazonal na sociabilidade de forrageamento das garças Ardea alba (Linnaeus, 1758) e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variation in the foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) (Aves: Ciconiiformes) in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil. The seasonal variation of foraging sociability of Great White Egret (Ardea alba) and Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) on the lagoons of the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil, was analyzed. Quarterly samplings of birds were

Márcio Rodrigo

242

Isolation of a bioactive substance from the silkworm (Bombyx mori Linnaeus) that accelerates the germination of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson.  

PubMed

The conidium of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi has been found to germinate rapidly in the presence of host insect-derived extracts. Thus the extract appears to contain an important factor involved in host recognition by N. rileyi. However, the substance responsible for such unique germination behavior has yet to be identified. Hence we attempted to purify this substance. One thousand g of dried silkworm pupae was subjected to methanol extraction, followed by methanolysis, two different solvent partitions, and three different column chromatographies. A total of 12.4 mg of substance was obtained in the active fraction. The substance obtained exhibited an activity more than 46,000 times higher than that of the methanol extract. The substance was detected as a single peak on Sephadex LH20 column chromatography and as a single band on high-performance thin-layer chromatography. These data indicate that the concentrated fraction contained a high-purity substance. PMID:20208348

Noda, Takahiro; Ono, Masateru; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Araki, Tomohiro

2010-01-01

243

SEROPREVALENCE OF Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) AND RETROVIRAL STATUS OF CLIENT-OWNED PET CATS (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-01-01

244

[Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].  

PubMed

Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). PMID:18666556

Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

2008-04-01

245

Macroscopic Lesions of the Ventriculus of Rhea americana , Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Rheidae) Naturally Infected by Sicarius uncinipenis (Molin, 1860) (Nematoda: Habronematidae).  

PubMed

Abstract :? There are few studies concerning the parasites of rheas. However, parasitism is the major cause of the limited success in captive breeding of these birds. Deletrocephalus dimidiatus, Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi, Paradeletrocephalus minor, and Sicarius uncinipenis are the most prevalent nematode species affecting these birds, but the lesions caused by these parasites have not been previously reported. Four adult rheas were necropsied to determine the presence or absence of gross lesions within the gastrointestinal tract, associated with parasitic infection. Two rheas parasitized by S. uncinipenis had ulcers on the koilin layer or had parasites penetrating this layer, resulting in widespread necrosis and hemorrhagic areas, whereas the 2 nonparasitized birds did not present lesions. The degree of injury was proportional to the parasitic load found in the birds. Thus, high parasitic loads can result in necrosis of the ventriculus, which may contribute to the death of birds, resulting in economic losses in the rural production of these birds. PMID:25001213

Ederli, N B; de Oliveira, F C R

2014-12-01

246

Biomonitoring of Hg, Cd, Pb and other elements in coastal regions of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the transplanted mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitoring of coastal areas using marine organisms is an attractive approach for studying pollution caused by anthropic\\u000a discharges. Most of the experiments are based on the collection and analysis of native organisms, but this method has the\\u000a disadvantage of dealing with many natural variations. In this work, the marine bivalve Perna perna, very abundant in the coast of the State

M. G. M. Catharino; M. B. A. Vasconcellos; E. C. P. M. de Sousa; E. G. Moreira; C. D. S. Pereira

2008-01-01

247

[The influence of branchial parasitism by monogenoid trematodes on the development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Linnaeus, 1757 bred in net-pond systems in Capivara Dam, PR].  

PubMed

Tilapias are fish originally from Africa which nowadays are commercially bred in almost 100 countries, being one of the most commercially bred species in the world. In this work the trematode population of the monogenoidea group present in the branchiae of Nile tilapias bred in 4 net-ponds with volume of 4 m3 each, was monitored during 5 months. The juvenile fish, presenting initial average weight of 37.65 g originated from other piscicultures, were stocked in the density of 250 animals.m(-3) and monthly monitored until their commercialization, with final average weight of 485.4 g. The prevalence of these ectoparisites was high, between 90 and 100% in all months. The highest values of average intensity of infestation--AII and average abundance of infection--AAI occurred during the 2 first months of captivity, presenting a new increase in the last month of breeding. The only monogenoidea group present in the branchiae of the animals examined belonged to the Dactylogyridae family. The values of the dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, nitrite and ammonia were within normal rate. In these conditions there were no significant differences between the relative condition factor--Kn among the parasited and non-parasited animals and also in the different levels of infestation, showing that, in these breeding conditions, the relationship parasite-host-environment presented itself in balance without causing great harm to the animals. PMID:19500461

Zanolo, Rodrigo; Leonhardt, Júlio Hermann; Silva e Souza, Angela Teresa; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi

2009-01-01

248

Effectiveness of Gambusia holbrooki fish in domestic water containers and controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in southwest Saudi Arabia (Jeddah).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Gambusia holbrooki (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) fishin domestic containers in Jeddah, as well as its effectiveness in the control of immature A.aegypti. The use of G. holbrooki compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i.)was donein domestic containers. In a first home visit, G. holbrooki or B.t.i were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 & 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. G. holbrooki fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. The infestation rate was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the B.t.i group (IR ratio=21.60, 95% CI: 6.46-72.28). In deposits where the fish remained, efficacy was 85% better than B.t.i. The permanence of fish was higher in concrete tanks (48.5%) located outside the house (47.5%) and at ground level (53.3%). PMID:22662590

Gamal, Zakia A

2012-04-01

249

Sanitary conditions of a colony of urban feral cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in a zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

The colony of urban stray cats living in the Rio de Janeiro zoological garden was studied in order to develop a population and health control program. As many cats as possible were captured during two months (47 animals) and were classified according to gender, age, weight and coat markings. They were submitted to a general health evaluation, examined for the presence of ectoparasites and sent to a surgical neutering program. All animals had a blood sample drawn for CBC, platelet count, heartworm and retroviruses detection. Capillary blood smears were made for hemoparasites detection. Coat marking and colors were tabby (59.7%), followed by solid black (17%); torbie (10.6%); bicolor (10.6%) and harlequin (2.1%). The only ectoparasites found were fleas, which infested 28% of the animals. The hemoparasites found were Haemobartonella felis (38%) and piroplasmas that could not be differentiated between Cytauxzoon spp. and Babesia spp. (47%). No cat was found infected by Dirofilaria immitis or FeLV (Feline Leukemia Virus), although FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies could be detected (21%). There was no correlation between hemoparasites and FIV infections. The estimated total cat population (mark-recapture method) was 59; 68% female and 32% male, suggesting that a neutering program is in fact needed. PMID:15517031

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Souza, Aline Moreira; Almosny, Nádia; Charme, Márcia; Labarthe, Norma

2004-01-01

250

Follow-up of the health conditions of an urban colony of free-roaming cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Similar to other urban areas where food and shelter are abundant, the zoological garden of Rio de Janeiro has dealt for years with a colony of feral or semi-feral domestic cats. A survey was conducted during 2002-2004 as a follow-up to a previous study in 2001 of the cat colony to identify pathogens circulating among the population and to annually follow the status of the cats to analyze morbidity coefficients and associations among infections and infestations identified in the colony. During the 3 years of the present study, 75 cats were sampled at least once, including 44 that were caught and examined only once, 14 that were examined twice, and 17 that were examined three times. For each cat that was caught, records were kept regarding sex, age, general health, and the presence of ectoparasites. Each year, a blood sample was taken for hematologic testing, platelet count, hemoparasite detection, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, and retrovirus detection. Blood counts were within normal range for the majority of cats tested. Feline immunodeficiency virus, fleas, and lice were detected in all years; however, incidence rates for each of these varied significantly throughout the years. Prevalence of Cytauxzoon spp., Mycoplasma spp., T. gondii infections were variable among the 3 years, although differences were not significant. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus increased significantly over the 3 years. Mycoplasma spp. and flea infestations were significantly associated, but no other associations among the pathogens were detected. Over the 3 years, the rate of new cat introductions decreased, and the pathogens showed a tendency to disseminate throughout the colony; however, there was virtually no evidence of clinically detectable disease. Therefore, it seems that stabilizing the population by a judicious control program facilitated the distribution of the pathogens throughout the colony, while the general well-being of the cats was not seriously affected. PMID:17481822

Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Labarthe, Norma; Guerrero, Jorge; Faria, Maria Carolina Ferreira; Branco, Aline Serricella; Pereira, Cássia Dias; Barreira, Jairo Dias; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim

2007-06-20

251

Effects of the passage in chicks on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758 (Syn. A. lumbricoides var. suum, A. suum, A. suis  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ average inorease and deorease in siss of larvae (in miorons) from days 2 to 12 post infeotion 1n rabbits infested w1th ova reoovered and 1noubated after passage through the digestive of ohioks ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 4... ~ average inorease and deorease in siss of larvae (in miorons) 1n the lungs and livers of chioks and rabb1ts from days 2 to 12 post- infeotion ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 54' Clinioal...

Manuel, Mauro Fernando

1966-01-01

252

A Stock Assessment of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) for Sustainable Management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand  

PubMed Central

A stock assessment of blue swimming crabs, Portunus pelagicus was conducted with crab gill nets and collapsible crab traps at Kung Krabaen Bay, in the eastern Gulf of Thailand, from 2008 to 2009. Several key indicators show that P. pelagicus population is in crisis. Fishing mortality shows an increase to 4.14. The exploitation rate is 0.71, higher than the optimal value of 0.38. The size of the mature females has also decreased from 8.10±0.39 cm to 7.52±1.14 cm. The average fecundity is 0.572×106±0.261×106 eggs per batch, and the sex ratio (male:female) is 1:0.92. Based on these results, a sustainable management program for P. pelagicus was proposed as follows: (i) closing the bay during the spawning season, (ii) restoration of the Enhalus acoroides seagrass beds, (iii) restocking crab larvae in the bay and (iv) educating and networking all stakeholders to develop a better understanding of the ecology of the crab to support sustainable fishery management in Kung Krabaen Bay. PMID:25210587

Kunsook, Chutapa; Gajaseni, Nantana; Paphavasit, Nittharatana

2014-01-01

253

Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

254

The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2002-01-01

255

Evaluation of dietary exposure to minerals, trace elements and heavy metals from the muscle tissue of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus 1758).  

PubMed

Twenty-five samples of Pterois volitans caught in Jamaican waters were analyzed for 25 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The mean values for calcium (355 mg/kg), copper (107 ?g/kg), iron (0.81 mg/kg), potassium (3481 mg/kg), magnesium (322 mg/kg), manganese (0.04 mg/kg), selenium (0.47 mg/kg), sodium (700 mg/kg) and zinc (4.46 mg/kg) were used to estimate dietary intake. The percentage contribution to provisional tolerable weekly intake for a 70 kg male and a 65 kg female were also estimated for the toxic elements arsenic (1.28% M, 1.38% F), cadmium (0.26% M. 0.28% F), mercury (3.85% M, 4.15% F) and lead (0.17% M, 0.18% F). To further assess the risk of mercury toxicity and the role of mitigation provided by selenium, selenium-mercury molar ratios were calculated for all samples. All samples were shown to have a molar excess of selenium. In addition the suggested selenium health benefit value was calculated, and was positive for all samples. It was concluded that P. volitans appears to contribute modestly to mineral and trace element nutrition, while not being a significant contributor to dietary exposure of toxic elements. PMID:23891700

Hoo Fung, Leslie A; Antoine, Johann M R; Grant, Charles N; Buddo, Dayne St A

2013-10-01

256

Plant food resources exploited by Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna, Linnaeus 1758) at an urban area in Central Brazil.  

PubMed

In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches. PMID:25166327

Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J

2014-05-01

257

Gut Lactobacillus sp. bacteria as probiotics for Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) larviculture: effects on survival, digestive enzyme activities and water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of indigenous probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, as an additive to water in Portunus pelagicus larviculture was investigated on survival rate, digestive enzyme activities and water quality. All experiments were triplicated and designed with three different administrations of probiotic 1.0?×?10?cfu?mL (T-1), 5.0?×?10?cfu?mL (T-2) and 1.0?×?10?cfu?mL (T-3) added daily and one control without any probiotic. The supplementation of

Allah Dad Talpur; Abdul Jabbar Memon; Muhammad Iqbal Khan; Mhd Ikhwanuddin; Muhd Danish Daniel Abdullah; Abol-Munafi Ambok Bolong

2012-01-01

258

STUDY ON TRACE ELEMENT DETERMINATION IN LIVER SAMPLES OF GREAT-WHITE-EGRET Ardea alba LINNAEUS, 1758 (ARDEIDAE, AVES) FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION BIOMONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret ( Ardea

Rita de Cássia; A. Silva; Mitiko Saiki

2009-01-01

259

Insecticide residues in cotton soils of Burkina Faso and effects of insecticides on fluctuating asymmetry in honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus).  

PubMed

Four insecticides (acetamiprid, cypermethrin, endosulfan and profenofos) are used quarterly in the cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. These insecticides were investigated in soils collected from traditionally cultivated and new cotton areas. Also, the effects of insecticide exposure on the developmental instability of honey bees, Apis mellifera, were explored. In soil samples collected three months after insecticide treatments, endosulfan and profenofos concentrations varied in the range of 10-30 ?g kg(-1) in the traditionally cultivated zones and 10-80 ?g kg(-1) in the new cotton zones, indicating a pollution of agricultural lands. However, only profenofos concentrations were significantly higher in the new cotton zone than the traditionally cultivated zones. In addition, the index of fluctuating asymmetry, FA1, in the length of second tarsus (L(HW)) was increased for bees when exposed to pesticide treated cotton fields for 82d, and their FA levels were significantly higher than those in the control colony in an orchard. The other studied traits of bees exposed to insecticides were not significantly different from controls. Our results indicate that FA may be considered as a biomarker reflecting the stress induced by insecticide treatments. However, the relationship between FA and stressors needs further investigations. PMID:21190716

Ondo Zue Abaga, Norbert; Alibert, Paul; Dousset, Sylvie; Savadogo, Paul W; Savadogo, Moussa; Sedogo, Michel

2011-04-01

260

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole & Manceaux, 1909) and retroviral status of client-owned pet cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Cats, as definitive host, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to establish the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins G and M, and determine the frequency of oocysts in the feces of the domestic cat population in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also aimed to study the association between T. gondii infection and age, sex, breed, lifestyle, diet and retroviral infection. A total of 108 cats were included in the study and fecal samples of 54 of those cats were obtained. Only 5.6% of the cats were seropositive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins using the indirect hemagglutination test. None of the 54 cats presented oocysts in their fecal samples. Although not statistically significant, males, mixed-breed, free-roaming and cats aged two years and older were found to be more exposed. Age, lifestyle and the use of litter boxes were found to play an important role as risk factors. Anemia and retroviral infections were independent of T. gondii infection. No antibodies were detected in the majority of cats (94.4%), indicating that those cats had never been exposed to the parasite and, therefore, once infected, they could present the risk of shedding large numbers of oocysts into the environment. PMID:24878997

Bastos, Bethânia Ferreira; Brener, Beatriz; Gershony, Liza; Willi, Liliane; Labarthe, Norma; Pereira, Cássia; Mendes-De-Almeida, Flavya

2014-01-01

261

Description of a hair follicle mite (Acari: Demodecidae) parasitic in the earless seal family Phocidae (Mammalia: Carnivora) from the harbor seal Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex phocidin. sp. is described (all life stages) from a captive Atlantic harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, from Seward, Alaska. This is the first description of a demodecid hair follicle mite from the earless seal family Phocidae. The mites reside in the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles and are associated with persistent areas of hyperkeratosis.

Clifford E. Desch; Murray D. Dailey; Pamela Tuomi

2003-01-01

262

Separation possibilities and genital measurement variations in two cryptic species of European pierid butterflies, Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946 and L. sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758).  

PubMed

Of the three recently separated cryptic butterfly species of the Leptidea sinapis complex, the two species L. sinapis and L. juvernica occur sympatrically and syntopically in central Europe. As the separation of these species requires genital or genetic characters, their correct identification is a fundamental problem to be solved prior to any biological and distributional studies. In the present study a morphometric approach was applied to test for separation possibilities and to examine genital measurement variations based on large population samples of the two species (347 females and 636 males). Butterflies were collected at 456 localities distributed across Poland. Specimens of both sexes could be separated using either the shape or the length of the antrum bursae (females), phallus and saccus (males). Intraspecific seasonal differences in these measurements may affect the discrimination of males only. Genital characters were significantly larger in butterflies of the spring brood than in those of the second brood. In females, antrum bursae length ranges were separated by an interval, allowing for the exact identification of each specimen. In males, no such intervals were found between phallus and saccus length ranges, which slightly overlapped. Discriminant analysis resulted in 100% of males correctly classified. The present study confirmed the validity of interspecific differences in the shape of phallus and saccus for species identification without measurements. The length of these two characters discriminates the two species when separation is limited to specimens from the same generations. As an alternative for discriminant analysis, either phallus length and vinculum width or phallus length and the ratio of the ventral edge of genital capsule length and saccus length (VEL/SL ratio) is recommended for the practical separation of the two species. The differences in the shape and size of the copulatory organs of the two species seem to indicate reproductive isolation due to mechanical incompatibility of their genitals. PMID:23827501

Sachanowicz, Konrad

2013-08-01

263

Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ?10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ?30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ?30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

2011-01-01

264

The effect of dietary exogenous digestive enzymes on ingestion, assimilation, growth and survival of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata , Sparidae, Linnaeus) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of microdiets commonly used in the cultivation of marine fish larvae is limited to serving as partial replacements\\u000a for live food. This limited success is thought to be associated with a reduced digestive ability due to an incompletely developed\\u000a digestive system. The enhanced growth obtained from live food has been partially attributed to the digestive enzyme activity\\u000a of

S. Kolkovski; A. Tandler; G. Wm. Kissil; A. Gertler

1993-01-01

265

Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic).  

PubMed

In this note we report and discuss three cases involving two serious injuries and one death on three specimens of the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta, found in Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Plastic debris and lost/discarded fishing gear caused these accidents. In fact, these types of marine litter are known to cause several accidents all over the world involving many taxa. However, we think that this issue has probably a much wider impact and detected cases such as those reported here are but just a small sample of the whole unknown dimension of this serious marine pollution problem. PMID:25066455

Barreiros, João P; Raykov, Violin S

2014-09-15

266

The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 1. The summarising list of parasites noted.  

PubMed

During the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in Bison bonasus. These are 22 species of protozoa (Trypanosoma wrublewskii, T. theileri, Giardia sp., Sarcocystis cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, S. fusiformis, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium sp., Eimeria cylindrica, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. zuernii, E. canadensis, E. ellipsoidalis, E. alabamensis, E. bukidnonensis, E. auburnensis, E. pellita, E. brasiliensis, Babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species (Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola hepatica, Parafasciolopsis fasciolaemorpha, Paramphistomum cervi), 4 cestodes species (Taenia hydatigena larvae, Moniezia benedeni, M. expansa, Moniezia sp.), 43 nematodes species (Bunostomum trigonocephalum, B. phlebotomum, Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum radiatum, O. venulosum, Dictyocaulus filaria, D.viviparus, Nematodirella alcidis, Nematodirus europaeus, N. helvetianus, N. roscidus, N. filicollis, N. spathiger, Cooperia oncophora, C. pectinata, C. punctata, C. surnabada, Haemonchus contortus, Mazamastrongylus dagestanicus, Ostertagia lyrata, O. ostertagi, O. antipini, O. leptospicularis, O. kolchida, O. circumcincta, O. trifurcata, Spiculopteragia boehmi, S. mathevossiani, S. asymmetrica, Trichostrongylus axei, T. askivali, T. capricola, T. vitrinus, Ashworthius sidemi, Onchocerca lienalis, O. gutturosa, Setaria labiatopapillosa, Gongylonema pulchrum, Thelazia gulosa, T. skrjabini, T. rhodesi, Aonchotheca bilobata, Trichuris ovis), 7 mites (Demodex bisonianus, D. bovis, Demodex sp., Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes equi, P. ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei), 4 Ixodidae ticks (Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. hexagonus, Dermacentor reticulatus), 1 Mallophaga species (Bisonicola sedecimdecembrii), 1 Anoplura (Haematopinus eurysternus), and 2 Hippoboscidae flies (Lipoptena cervi, Melophagus ovinus). There are few monoxenous parasites, many typical for cattle and many newly acquired from Cervidae. PMID:25119348

Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

2014-09-01

267

Helminth communities of two species of piscivorous birds, Ardea alba (Linnaeus) and Nyctanassa violacea (Gmelin) (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae), in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero state, Mexico.  

PubMed

The composition and species richness in helminth communities of two species of heron, Ardea alba and Nyctanassa violacea, in two coastal lagoons from Guerrero, Mexico were examined. Nineteen species of helminth (7,804 individuals) were identified in 43 adult birds: 15 digeneans, 1 acanthocephalan, 1 cestode, and 2 nematodes. Eight species co-occurred in herons of both species and lagoons. The prevalence values of seven species and the mean abundance of five species varied significantly between species of birds and between lagoons. The heterophyid, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, was the helminth numerically dominant in the helminth community of A. alba in both lagoons, while the cestode, Parvitaenia cochlearii, dominated the community of N. violacea. At the component community level, species richness varied significantly: 10 species in A. alba from Coyuca to 16 in N. violacea (Tres Palos). All of the birds examined were infected with helminth parasites: three to seven species per host in A. alba from Coyuca, and two to eight species in A. alba and N. violacea from Tres Palos. The results indicate that even though species composition was similar between both species of heron, the structure of their communities was not the same. Differences in the feeding behavior of the birds (day/night habits), as well as local differences in the abundance of species of fish, and infection levels of helminths in each lagoon are suggested as being responsible for the variations registered in the structure of the helminth communities. PMID:22314783

Violante-González, Juan; Monks, Scott; Gil-Guerrero, Salvador; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín A; Flores-Rodríguez, Pedro

2012-07-01

268

Nuove segnalazioni di Zootoca vivipara Jaquin e di Vipera berus Linnaeus, in Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale (Novitates Herpetologicae Pedemontanae II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide new distribution data about Zootoca vivipara and Vipera berus in Piedmont (NW Italy). The former species has been reported for: Bognanco (VB), Sessera (BI), Mastallone (VC), Rimella (VC), and Strona (VB) valleys. The adder, on the other hand, has been observed in Sorba (VC) and Strona (VB) valleys. Comments on these new records are also provided. Riassunto. Vengono

Samuele Ghielmi; Paolo Eusebio Bergò; Franco Andreone

269

Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling. PMID:19965962

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

2011-01-01

270

The occurrence of helminth parasites in the gastrointestinal of catfish (Silurus glanis Linnaeus 1758) from the Zarrine-roud river, Iran  

PubMed Central

This investigation was undertaken to verify the prevalence of helminths parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of catfish. A total number of 116 catfish (Silurus glanis) were collected from Zarrine-roud river and examined for helminths. Fish were examined after washing contents of gastrointestinal tract and observed for the presence of helminths using a stereo microscope and a light microscope. Results indicated that 18.96% of the examined catfish were infected with digenean trematodes including Orientocreadium siluri (27%), Crowcrocoecum skrjabini (39%), and cestode Bothriocephalus gowkongensis (34%). All the parasites were found in the intestine. Mid-gut followed by foregut appeared to be the most commonly infected parts of the alimentary tract of hosts. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between infection rate, catfish body size, and weight (P < 0.05).

Yakhchali, Mohammad; Tehrani, Ali-Asghar; Ghoreishi, Mozafar

2012-01-01

271

The parasitic fauna of the European bison (Bison bonasus) (Linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. Part 2. The structure and changes over time.  

PubMed

During the last century the recorded parasite fauna of Bison bonasus includes 88 species. These are 22 species of protozoa, 4 trematode species, 4 cestode species, 43 nematode species, 7 mites, 4 Ixodidae ticks, 1 Mallophaga species, 1 Anoplura, and 2 Hippoboscidae flies. There are few monoxenous parasites, the majority of parasites are typical for other Bovidae and Cervidae species and many are newly acquired from Cervidae. This is an evident increased trend in the parasite species richness, in both the prevalence and intensity of infections, which is associated with the bison population size, host status (captive breeding or free-ranging) and the possibility of contact with other ruminant species. In light of the changes to parasite species richness during the last decades, special emphasis shall be given to new parasite species reported in European bison, their pathogenicity and potential implications for conservation. PMID:25119349

Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Wita, Irena; Moskwa, Bo?ena; Werszko, Joanna; Bie?, Justyna; Go?dzik, Katarzyna; Lachowicz, Jacek; Cabaj, W?adys?aw

2014-09-01

272

Description of the biology of Caspian vimba, Vimba vimba (Linnaeus, 1758), in Gorgan Bay-Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge (southeast Caspian Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected Vimba vimba throughout the spawning season (mid April to mid June, 2007) in Gorgan Bay (south-western Iran) and investigated its age, growth, and reproductive traits. The maximum age was 5+ years. Both sexes grew allometrically (positive for males: b=3.140 9 and negative for females: b=2.791 4). The von Bertalanffy growth functions were described by the formulae L t =32.565(1-e-0.184( t+0.530)) for males and L t =35.950(1-e-0.179( t+0.529)) for females. The overall sex ratio was balanced, but males were predominant in the smaller size classes and females in the larger size classes. Based on the gonadosomatic index (GSI) values, spawning appears to occur between late April and late May in the bay. The highest mean GSI was 6.44 for males in early May and 20.36 for females in late April. Absolute fecundity varies from the minimum of 5 436 eggs for age 3+ fish to the maximum of 36 141 eggs for age 5+ fish. Fecundity was also positively correlated with fish size (length and weight). Egg diameter ranged from 1.05 to 1.70 mm in the mean of 1.42 mm. There was no correlation between female size and ova diameter.

Patimar, Rahman; Safari, Sajjad

2010-11-01

273

Morphogenetic responses from protoplasts and tissue culture of Laminaria digitata (Linnaeus) J. V. Lamouroux (Laminariales, Phaeophyta): callus and thalloid-like structures regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regeneration of meristematic tissues from sporophytes of Laminaria digitata was studied by protoplast and tissue culture. Sequential treatment of explants in sterile seawater with 1% Betadine for 5 min,\\u000a 1% commercial bleach for 1–2 min and 2% antibiotic treatment supplemented with 1 ?M GeO2 overnight enabled viable explants as high as 55%. Different morphogenetic responses were observed from tissue culture on\\u000a media

Isabelle Mussio; Anne-Marie Rusig

2009-01-01

274

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a novel cystatin-like gene in a hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus [Linnaeus, 1758].  

PubMed

A novel member of Cystatin superfamily was identified from Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus, in response to oxidation stress induced by environmental hypoxia. Integrated genomic approaches, expression profiling and computational techniques showed that CbCystatin had putative cystatin/monelin like domain and might be a transmembrane and/or intermediate protein in signaling pathways. CbCystatin was found to be clustered into family 2 Cystatins. At transcriptional level, its expression was significantly up-regulated in response to short as well as long periods (more than 20 fold) of hypoxia, suggesting its positive association with oxygen concentrations lower than physiological concentrations. PMID:23246809

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Balvinder

2013-02-01

275

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits, HIF-1?, -2? and -3? in hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus [Linnaeus, 1758].  

PubMed

The present study aimed at characterization of three HIF-? subunits, HIF-1? -2? and -3? from hypoxia-tolerant Clarias batrachus, as well as to elucidate their expression pattern under short and long-term hypoxic conditions and identification of biomarker candidate. The complete cDNAs of HIF-1?, -2? and -3? were 2,833, 4,270 and 3,256 bp in length, encoding 774, 818 and 628 amino acid residues, respectively. In C. batrachus, HIF-? subunits were structurally similar in DNA binding, dimerization, degradation and transcriptional activation domains, but differed in their oxygen-dependent degradation domains. Presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase binding domain in HIF-? subunits was reported here for the first time in fish. In adult C. batrachus, three HIF-? mRNAs were detected in different tissues under normoxic conditions, however HIF-1? was highly expressed in all the tissues studied, in comparison to HIF-2? and -3?. Short-term hypoxia exposure caused significant increase in three HIF-? transcripts in brain, liver and head kidney, while after long-term hypoxia exposure, significant up-regulation of HIF-1? in spleen and -2? in muscle was observed and HIF-3? significantly down-regulated in head kidney. These observations suggest that the differential expression of HIF-? subunits in C. batrachus was hypoxic time period dependent and may play specialized roles in adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-2?, with its highly elevated expression in muscle tissues, can be a robust biomarker candidate for exposure to hypoxic environment. PMID:24065526

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep K

2013-10-01

276

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional response of drug-metabolizing enzymes to PAHs contamination in red mullet (Mullus barbatus, Linnaeus, 1758): a field study.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) liver detoxification enzymes to PAHs at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in the field. Fish were captured in the north-eastern Adriatic Sea, close to an oil refinery. Sixteen PAHs (EPA) were determined in sediments and fish fillets; transcription levels of cyp1a, cyp3a and abcc2 genes and EROD, BROD, B(a)PMO, BFCOD, GST and UDPGT enzymatic activities were measured. Levels of PAHs in sediments reflect the oil pollution gradient of the area, with weak correspondence in fish fillets. cyp1a gene transcription and EROD, B(a)PMO and BFCOD activities were significantly induced in the oil refinery site, and a slight up-regulation of cyp3a and abcc2 was also observed. GST and UDPGT remained unchanged. The present study provides the first data on detoxification responses at transcriptional levels in the liver of red mullet and confirms phase I enzymes as suitable biomarkers of exposure to PAHs in field studies. PMID:20417960

Della Torre, Camilla; Corsi, Ilaria; Nardi, Francesco; Perra, Guido; Tomasino, Maria Paola; Focardi, Silvano

2010-07-01

277

Urgent call for further breeding of the relic zoo population of the critically endangered Barbary lion ( Panthera leo leo Linnaeus 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barbary lion became extinct in the wild around 1942. Since the end of the 19th century, a last purebred captive breeding\\u000a stock existed at the court of Morocco. The rest of these animals became the core exhibition of the new Rabat Zoo after passing\\u000a through repeated bottlenecks and possibly some introgression events by foreign lions. This study uses mitochondrial

Joachim Burger; Helmut Hemmer

2006-01-01

278

Frugivory and seed dispersal of golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)) in a forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.  

PubMed

The influence of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) as a seed disperser was studied by monitoring two groups of tamarins from December 1998 to December 2000 (871.9 hours of observations) in a forest fragment in south-east Brazil. The tamarins consumed fruits of 57 species from at least 17 families. They ingested the seeds of 39 species, and 23 of these were put to germinate in the laboratory and/or in the field. L. rosalia is a legitimate seed disperser because the seeds of all species tested germinated after ingestion, albeit some in low percentages. These primates do not show a consistent effect in final seed germination, because they benefit some species while damaging others. Feces were examined for seeds that had been preyed upon or digested. PMID:18660951

Lapenta, M J; Procópio-de-Oliveira, P; Kierulff, M C M; Motta-Junior, J C

2008-05-01

279

Biogeography of helminth parasitism in Lemmus Link (Arvicolinae), with the description of Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus (Linnaeus).  

PubMed

We describe the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of true lemmings (Lemmus spp., Arvicolinae) based on published and original material throughout the Holarctic range of these hosts. According to the existing data, the helminth fauna of true lemmings consists of three widespread and/or locally common taxa: Hymenolepis horrida (sensu lato) (Hymenolepididae), Anoplocephaloides lemmi (Anoplocephalidae) and Heligmosomoides spp. (Heligmosomidae). Despite the taxonomic boundaries and ancient phylogenetic splits in the hosts, there are no major faunistic differences for parasites within western (Siberian) L. sibiricus and L. bungei, and eastern (North American) L. trimucronatus throughout their distribution range. In contrast, the Norwegian lemming L. lemmus, which is a Fennoscandian endemic and closely related to the western populations of L. sibiricus, has only a single host-specific helminth, the cestode Paranoplocephala fellmani n. sp. (Anoplocephalidae). We describe the new species and show that it differs consistently from related species by its long and slender cirrus-sac. However, there are also a number of other significant differences, e.g., P. fellmani n. sp. and Andrya primordialis in Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (Sciuridae) evidently have a unique (sub)type of uterine development among Andrya/Paranoplocephala spp. Because P. fellmani n. sp. was also found to occur in Alaska (host L. trimucronatus), this species seems to follow the same biogeographical pattern as the other specialist helminths of Lemmus. We suggest alternative explanations for the absence of three major helminth taxa in the Norwegian lemming in Fennoscandia. PMID:11389326

Haukisalmi, V; Henttonen, H

2001-05-01

280

Distribution and genetic diversity of the terrestrial slugs Arion lusitanicus Mabille, 1868 and Arion rufus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland based on mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The slugs Arion lusitanicus and Arion rufus inhabit ecologically degraded areas and are serious vegetation pests. In recent years, new localities of these species have been found in various parts of Poland. Here we study the morphology of 90 specimens from 9 populations of slugs. The morphology of the genital system allowed for the identification of 60 A. lusitanicus specimens from 6 populations and 30 A. rufus individuals from another 3 localities. In order to describe their genetic diversity at the level of the individual, population, and species, we compared sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene. The morphological analysis revealed that each of the studied populations comprised a single species, which was also confirmed by the molecular assay. We obtained 674-bp sequences of the cox1 gene for each species that showed a total of eight haplotypes. The genetic diversity of A. lusitanicus individuals ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%, whereas that of A. rufus was twice as low: 0.4-1.0%. The difference between the two species within the cox1 gene was at the level of 12%. Three A. lusitanicus and two A. rufus populations were found to be monomorphic. Large inter-population variability was found within each of the studied species, which suggests that the Polish populations of A. lusitanicus may have originated from repeated, separate introductions arriving from various parts of Europe. PMID:19459464

Soroka, Marianna; Koz?owski, Jan; Wiktor, Andrzej; Ka?uski, Tomasz

2009-01-01

281

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

282

Serum immunoglobulin G concentration in Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758), from Elephant Island (Antarctica): sexual and adrenal steroid hormones effects.  

PubMed

Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG; indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), as well as sexual and adrenal steroid hormones' concentrations (radioimmunoassay) were determined in 63 (male and female) Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonine) at different developmental stages (weaned pups, juveniles and adults). In females, IgG values (mean+/-S.D.) were higher (P<0.05) in adults (15.9+/-6.5mg ml(-1)) than in juveniles (7.9+/-4.0mg ml(-1)), but similar to weaned pups (12.0+/-5.0mg ml(-1)). Estrogen concentration was higher (P<0.05) in adults than in the weaned pups. In females, a significant (P<0.05) correlation (R=0.4) between serum IgG level and progesterone concentration was observed. In males, testosterone concentration was higher (P<0.05) in adults than in the juveniles and weaned pups. Aldosterone and cortisol concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in weaned pups (1056.0+/-643.1pmol 1(-1) and 272.7+/-110.0 nmol 1(-1), respectively) than in the juveniles (638.6+/-579.7pmol1(-1) and 152.9+/-97.3nmol 1(-1), respectively) and adults (386.5+/-209.1pmol (-1) and 145.7+/-67.3nmol 1(-1), respectively). These findings indicate that weaned pups are subjected to a higher natural stressful condition in the field. Despite this, humoral immunity, measured through IgG concentration, is not impaired in weaned pups. PMID:15963822

Ferreira, Ana P S; Martínez, Pablo E; Colares, Elton P; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Berne, Maria E A; Miranda Filho, Kleber C; Bianchini, Adalto

2005-07-15

283

Assimilation efficiencies and turnover rates of trace elements in marine bivalves: a comparison of oysters, clams and mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) and physiological turnover-rate constants (k) of six trace elements (Ag, Am, Cd, Co, Se, Zn) in four marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, Macoma balthica Linnaeus, Mercenaria mercenaria Linnaeus, and Mytilus edulis Linnaeus) were measured in radiotracer-depuration experiments. Egestion rates of unassimilated elements were highest during\\u000a the first 24?h of depuration and declined thereafter. Significant egestion of unassimilated

J. R. Reinfelder; W.-X. Wang; S. N. Luoma; N. S. Fisher

1997-01-01

284

Received 26 Jun 2012 | Accepted 14 Dec 2012 | Published 22 Jan 2013 Reduced plumage and flight ability of a new  

E-print Network

containing Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 but not Oviraptor philoceratops Osborn, 1924; see Supplementary most-inclusive clade containing Dromaeosaurus albertensis Matthew and Brown, 1922 but not P. domesticus

Claeys, Philippe

285

Pholeter anterouterus Fischthal & Nasir, 1974 (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae) redescribed, together with remarks on the genera Pholeter Odhner, 1914 and Phocitrema Goto & Ozaki, 1930 and their relationship to the centrocestine heterophyids.  

PubMed

Photoleter anterouterus Fischthal & Nasir, 1974, from Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus and Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin from Florida, USA and the ventro-genital complexes of Photeleter gastrophilus (Kossack, 1910) from Delphinus delphis Linnaeus from Queensland, Australia and of Phocitrema fusiforme Goto & Ozaki, 1930 from Alopex lagopus (Linnaeus) and Phoca vitulina Linnaeus from Alaska are redescribed. The genus Photoleter Odhner, 1914 is emended and compared with Phocitrema Goto & Ozaki, 1930 and both genera are compared with members of, and as a result transferred from the family Opisthorchiidae Looss, 1899 to, the subfamily Centrocestinae Looss, 1899, family Heterophyidae Odhner, 1914. PMID:876682

Pearson, J C; Courtney, C H

1977-06-01

286

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, Mediterranean strain (killer algae) Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth Hydrilla verticillata (Linnaeus f.) Royle...

2011-01-01

287

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, Mediterranean strain (killer algae) Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth Hydrilla verticillata (Linnaeus f.) Royle...

2012-01-01

288

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, Mediterranean strain (killer algae) Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth Hydrilla verticillata (Linnaeus f.) Royle...

2013-01-01

289

7 CFR 360.200 - Designation of noxious weeds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...wetland weeds: Azolla pinnata R. Brown (mosquito fern, water velvet) Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh, Mediterranean strain (killer algae) Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth Hydrilla verticillata (Linnaeus f.) Royle...

2014-01-01

290

Biología reproductiva y caracterización morfológica de los estadios larvarios de Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Bases para su producción masiva en Europa.  

E-print Network

??Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) es un díptero estratiomido (Diptera, Stratiomyidae) vulgarmente denominado "mosca soldado negra" (Black Soldier Fly, BSF en inglés) de origen posiblemente neotropical… (more)

Gobbi, Flavia Paola

2012-01-01

291

ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA Acta zool. bulg., Suppl. 4, 2012: 129-136  

E-print Network

2002). So far six species are stud- ied regarding their trophic spectrum ­ Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768), Lacerta trilineata Bedriaga, 1886, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, Podarcis muralis (Laurenti

Mollov, Ivelin Aldinov

292

Texas 4-H Forestry Invitational Handbook  

E-print Network

Spinyelmcaterpillar Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus) Southernpinebeetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmerman) Tussockmoth Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae *Locustleafminer Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Whiteoakborer Goes tigrinus (DeGeer) Palesweevil Hylobius pales (Hbst...

Bruton, Derrick

2009-04-05

293

Host - parasite interactions between Lernaeocera branchialis (Copepoda: Pennellidae) and its host Gadus morhua (Teleosti: Gadidae).  

E-print Network

??Abstract Lernaeocera branchialis (Linnaeus, 1767) is a parasitic copepod possessing a complex dual-host lifecycle. The “definitive” gadoid hosts, including Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod), Melanogrammus aeglefinus… (more)

Barker, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

294

Hierarchical, self-similar structure in native squid pen.  

PubMed

The structure of native squid pen (gladius) was investigated in two different species on different length scales. By combining microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction, the experiments probed length scales from millimetres down to nanometres. The gladii showed a hierarchical, self-similar structure in the optical experiments with fibres of different size oriented along the long axis of the gladius. The fibre-like structure was reproduced at the nanoscale in AFM measurements and fibres with diameters of 500 ?m, 100 ?m, 10 ?m, 2 ?m and 0.2 ?m were observed. Their molecular structure was determined using X-ray diffraction. In the squid gladius, the chitin molecules are known to form nano-crystallites of monoclinic lattice symmetry wrapped in a protein layer, resulting in ?-chitin nano-fibrils. Signals corresponding to the ?-coil protein phase and ?-chitin crystallites were observed in the X-ray experiments and their orientation with respect to the fibre-axis was determined. The size of a nano-fibril was estimated from the X-ray experiments to be about 150 × 300 Å. About 100 of these nano-fibrils are needed to form a 0.2 ?m thick micro-fibre. We found that the molecular structure is highly anisotropic with ?90% of the ?-coils and ?-chitin crystallites oriented along the fibre-axis, indicating a strong correlation between the macroscale structure and molecular orientation. PMID:24957525

Yang, Fei-Chi; Peters, Robert D; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2014-08-14

295

I. The Early Days A. Folk Taxonomy  

E-print Network

;10/24/2012 8 One of many of Linnaeus's critics: Johann Georg Siegesbeck (1686-1755), botanical garden in St's critics: Johann Georg Siegesbeck (1686-1755), botanical garden in St. Petersburg In response Linnaeus of photo: Cyber Herb Medicine Simulation Room V. The French A. Adanson Adanson (1727-1806) Familles des

Hardy, Christopher R.

296

Reference: Bid. Bull. 194: 132-142. (April, 1998) Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis  

E-print Network

Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems ANNE A of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux

Boettcher, Anne

297

Wolves, elk, and aspen in the winter range of Jasper National Park, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a retrospective study of aspen age structure in the winter range of Jasper National Park to assess potential trophic cascades in wolf-elk-aspen systems. We compiled historical wolf (Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758) and elk (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758) population data and, in 2005, sampled 42 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands within the Palisades site along the Athabasca Valley

R. L. Beschta; W. J. Ripple

2007-01-01

298

Enemy-free space maintains swallowtail butterfly Shannon M. Murphy*  

E-print Network

relative of P. m. aliaska (2), is monophagous on Artemisia dracunculus Linnaeus (7). It is unclear, however species (Artemisia arctica and Petasites frigidus). I analyzed growth and survival of P. m. aliaska larvae, but also on Artemisia arctica Lessing and Petasites frigidus (Linnaeus) Franchet (6) in the distantly

Murphy, Shannon

299

Redescriptions of critical type species in the Eustylini Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed morphological redescriptions and illustrations are provided for the following type species of six diverse and taxonomically overlapping genera of broad-nosed weevils, traditionally placed in or near the Neotropical tribe Eustylini Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae): Compsus argyreus (Linnaeus), Diaprepes abbreviatus (Linnaeus), Eustylus puber (Olivier), Exophthalmus quadrivittatus (Olivier), Exorides wagneri (von Harold), and Lachnopus valgus (Fabricius), which is apparently not a

Nico M. Franz

2009-01-01

300

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

301

Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the cockle Cerastoderma edule and the tellin Macoma balthica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of marine bivalve, Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus) and Macoma balthica (Linnaeus), were exposed to particles contaminated with three commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors® 1242, 1254 and 1260. The accumulation of PCB in bivalve tissue was monitored for periods of up to 40 days. In addition to measuring total PCB concentrations, which reached 60 ppm of Aroclor 1242 in

W. J. Langston

1978-01-01

302

New records of alien monogeneans from Lepomis gibbosus and Silurus glanis in Italy.  

PubMed

The first geographical records of five alien monogeneans for Italy is reported. Four species have been detected from Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758): Actinocleidus recurvatus Mizelle et Donahue, 1944, Actinocleidus oculatus (Mueller, 1934), Urocleidus similis (Mueller, 1936) and Urocleidus dispar (Mueller, 1936); one species from Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758: Thaparocleidus vistulensis (Siwak, 1932) n. comb. PMID:15267103

Galli, P; Stefani, F; Benzoni, F; Crosa, G; Zullini, A

2003-12-01

303

77 FR 53236 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay to conduct a review of their management plans. The Antarctic...White Island, ASPA 138-Linnaeus Terrace, and, ASPA 154-Botany Bay. Dates August 15, 2012 to August 31, 2017. Nadene...

2012-08-31

304

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 794, pp. 19, 3 figs. Equus asinus. By Martha I. Grinder, Paul R. Krausman, and Robert S. Hoffmann  

E-print Network

Equus Linnaeus, 1758:73. Type species [Equus] caballus Linnae- us, 1758:73 (domestic), by original designation. Caballus Rafinesque, 1815:55. Substitute name for [Equus] ca- ballus Linnaeus, 1758. Asinus GrayMAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 794, pp. 1­9, 3 figs. Equus asinus. By Martha I. Grinder, Paul R. Krausman

Hayssen, Virginia

305

A Synoptical Classification of the Bivalvia (Mollusca)  

E-print Network

plesions and paraplesions, is provided in Appendix 3 (p. 27 herein). Symbols: • = extinct; ! = paraphyletic; underlining = former members of Anomalodesmata; ? = taxonomic placement uncertain. Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 in 1758–1759 •Grade... Order Solenida Dall, 1889 Order Hiatellida Carter, nov. DETAILED CLASSIFICATION Class Bivalvia Linnaeus, 1758 in 1758–1759 •Grade Euprotobranchia! Nevesskaja, 2009 •Order Fordillida! Pojeta, 1975 •Superfamily Fordilloidea! Pojeta, 1975...

Carter, Joseph G.; Altaba, Cristian R.; Anderson, Laurie C.; Araujo, Rafael; Biakov, Alexander S.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Campbell, David C.; Campbell, Matthew; Chen, Jin-hua; Cope, John C. W.; Delvene, Graciela; Dijkstra, Henk H.; Fang, Zong-jie; Gardner, Ronald N.; Gavrilova, Vera A.; Goncharova, Irina A.; Harries, Peter J.; Hartman, Joseph H.; Hautmann, Michael; Hoeh, Walter R.; Hylleberg, Jorgen; Jiang, Bao-yu; Johnston, Paul; Kirkendale, Lisa; Kleemann, Karl; Koppka, Jens; K?í ž, Ji?í Machado, Deusana; Malchus, Nikolaus; Má rquez-Aliaga, Ana; Masse, Jean-Pierre; McRoberts, Christopher A.; Middelfart, Peter U.; Mitchell, Simon; Nevesskaja, Lidiya A.; Ö zer, Sacit; Pojeta, John Jr.; Polubotko, Inga V.; Pons, Jose Maria; Popov, Sergey; Sá nchez, Teresa; Sartori, André F.; Scott, Robert W.; Sey, Irina I.; Signorelli, Javier H.; Silantiev, Vladimir V.; Skelton, Peter W.; Steuber, Thomas; Waterhouse, J. Bruce; Wingard, G. Lynn; Yancey, Thomas

2011-10-27

306

Reproductive biology of female Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Leach, in Icelandic waters during the period 1960-2010: comparative overview of distribution areas in the Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

Maturity size, reproductive cycle, sex ratio and fecundity of female Nephrops were investigated at SW, S and SE Iceland for the period 1960-2010. Time series of biological parameters and fisheries data displayed significant relationships. In addition, female biological data from 20 areas in the Atlantic and Mediterranean were compared. Fifty percentage maturity estimates had an overall range of 23.9-34.4mm CL with some anomalies in the 2000s. The reproductive cycle in Iceland has been biennial during the whole study period from mid-1960s to 2010 with minor change in phase in the 2000s. Biennial moulting retards female growth more than annual spawning, and the length of incubation and hatch time of year show significant relationships with latitude and sea temperature. Variations in sex ratio were observed and relationships found between female sex ratio and CL, CPUE and stock biomass during 1961-2010, displaying apparent fishery-induced effects on sex ratio. Potential and realized fecundity estimates in Iceland are 35-50% of those reported from more southerly waters. Biennial spawning and low fecundity limit the number of progeny in Icelandic Nephrops and necessitate lower fishing mortality. Ambient temperature in Icelandic waters has risen by 1°C since the late 1990s, generating around 30 days shorter incubation time in the 2000s, but around 3°C rise is necessary for possible annual spawning. PMID:24981733

Eiríksson, Hrafnkell

2014-01-01

307

Etude comparative des conditions environnementales potentiellement limitantes dans l'etablissement d'une espece aquatique envahissante Clona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) dans deux systemes de bassins versants a l'ile-du Prince-Edouard, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic invasive species are a growing global problem. Since the late 1990s, the province of Prince Edward Island (PEI), located on the east coast of Canada, has seen the introduction and the establishment of several species of tunicate. Shortly after their introduction into new aquatic systems such as the Brudenell and Montague rivers, tunicate population exploded to extremely high levels which have had significant impacts on native species populations, the fisheries and aquaculture industries and on the economy of local communities. Brudenell and Montague rivers are located southeast of the province. Comparatively, the aquatic system of Orwell Bay, which is also located in this area, is an exception to the successful establishment of tunicates, despite several successive unintentional introductions. The objective of this research is to identify and understand the main key factors that could potentially limit the establishment of a tunicate species in PEI. This study is based on a comparative approach between the two aquatic systems previously mentioned. The results of this research shows that the Orwell Bay system is characterized by a slightly higher percentage of terrestrial areas with potential soil loss, a shorter water renewal time, a shallower aquatic area, a higher turbidity level, a slightly lower salinity and a slightly higher temperature than the Brudenell and Montague rivers system. One of the environmental variables that showed a significant difference between the two systems in the analysis is turbidity. This study also examines the relationship between different turbidity levels, in terms of suspended inorganic matter, and its potential role in the establishment of the invasive tunicate C. intestinalis. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of suspended inorganic matter on primary stages of this species of tunicate. The results show a significant negative effect at higher suspended inorganic matter levels on fertilization rate, larval establishment and survival of juvenile tunicates. All these elements can potentially be key factors on limiting the establishment of a population of C. intestinalis in the Orwell Bay aquatic system. Keywords: Invasive species, watershed, biogeography, tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, universal soil loss equation, hydrodynamic modeling, correspondence analysis, turbidity, environmental tolerance.

Mclaughlin, Janelle

308

Concentration of organochlorine in egg yolk and reproductive success of Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1758) at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

Contaminant analyses in animal eggs have illustrated the benefit of wildlife as indicators of xenobiotic contamination in natural habitats. In 2002, concentrations of 16 organochlorine insecticides were measured in egg yolk and the reproductive success of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, was studied in a population at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area Bang Pahan District, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand. Only 4,4'-dichloro diphenylethane (4,4'-DDE) was detected in the yolk of all samples (n=12) at the concentrations ranging from 33.4 to 116.0 ng/gwetwt. Mean eggshell thickness (n=24) was 0.261+/-0.005 mm. Relationships between the concentrations of 4,4'-DDE and eggshell thickness as well as the reproductive success at all stages were not found (P>0.05). Rather, major factors potentially influencing the decline of reproductive success observed during the field study may include strong wind, predators, intraspecific and interspecific competitions. PMID:17081607

Keithmaleesatti, S; Thirakhupt, K; Pradatsudarasar, A; Varanusupakul, P; Kitana, N; Robson, M

2007-09-01

309

First description of a hair follicle mite from the host order Xenarthra: Demodex dasypodi n. sp. (Acari: Demodecidae) from the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (Dasypodidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demodex dasypodin. sp. is described, including all life stages, from the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus, collected in Louisiana, USA. The mites were found inhabiting the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles in the eyelids and the periocular region. Mites appear to feed on secretory and epithelial cells of the gland acini. There is no inflammatory response in the dermis to

Clifford E. Desch; T. Bonner Stewart

2002-01-01

310

Pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae) on the monoecious plants Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and Jatropha mutabilis (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in a semi-arid Caatinga area, northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the superior competitive ability of honeybees compared with native bees in the exploitation of floral resources and nesting sites besides their low efficiency in pollinating native plant species. However, there is little evidence of the effect of this invading species on autochthonous plant populations in natural environments. Thus experiments were performed to test the pollination efficiency of honeybees in two species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae), J. mollissima (Pohl) Baill. and J. mutabilis (Pohl) Baill., after a single flower visitation. Samplings were carried out between March and April 2006 in a hyperxerophilous shrub-arboreal Caatinga at Estação Biológica de Canudos, Bahia (9º 56´ 34" S, 38º 59´ 17" W), the property of Fundação Biodiversitas. Apis mellifera was efficient at pollinating J. mollissima (100%) and J. mutabilis (85%). This high efficiency may be explained by 1) the simple floral characteristics of both plant species, which facilitate access to the sexual organs of the plant; and 2) the body size of A. mellifera that fits the flower's dimensions. PMID:21437406

Neves, E L; Viana, B F

2011-02-01

311

[Detection of the mitochondrial DNA haplotype characteristic of the least cisco (Coregonus sardinella, Valenciennes, 1848) in the vendace (C. albula, Linnaeus, 1758) population of Vodlozero (the Baltic Sea basin)].  

PubMed

Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial ND-1 gene in the vendace population in lake Vodlozero (the eastern part of the Baltic Sea basin) revealed a sequence variant that is closely related to that of the least cisco of Siberia (the Indigirka River). Thus, together with the results of morphological and allozyme analysis of this population performed earlier, the results obtained in this study are suggestive of the immigration of the least cisco to the Baltic Sea basin during the last glaciation. PMID:19239118

Borovikova, E A; Makhrov, A A

2009-01-01

312

Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

313

In situ evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the river Nile: II. Detection of DNA strand-breakage and apoptosis in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

This work is part of a wider eco-toxicological study proposed to evaluate the biological impact of contaminants along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. Here we present data on the presence of DNA strand-breaks and apoptotic cells assessed by use of comet and diffusion assays in erythrocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The results showed high degrees of DNA damage and increased frequencies of apoptotic nuclei in blood of fish collected from downstream compared with those sampled from upstream river Nile. Qualitative analysis revealed a shift in the frequency of DNA-damage classes towards higher damage levels correlating with the increasing pollution gradient. The degree of DNA damage measured by use of comet assay and diffusion assay exhibited seasonal variations. Both fish species showed significant increases in DNA damage during the summer. The results of our study indicated that the alkaline comet assay seems to be a useful technique for in situ genotoxic monitoring. At the same time the diffusion assay is sensitive enough to detect low frequencies of apoptotic nuclei. The results reveal species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared with the African catfish. Based on the outcome of the comet and diffusion assays, it can be concluded that the water quality of the river Nile with respect to the presence of genotoxic compounds needs to be improved, especially in its estuaries. As far as we know this is the first time that the comet and diffusion assays are used for genotoxic monitoring of the river Nile. PMID:22525358

Osman, Alaa G M; Abuel-Fadl, Khaled Y; Kloas, Werner

2012-08-30

314

Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, Linnaeus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Walbaum): predator diets, prey selection, and effects of sediments and macrophytes.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments and weekly trammel net surveys in the Navesink River, New Jersey (USA) were used to examine the predator-prey interaction between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and age-0 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Winter flounder (24-67 mm TL) were the dominant piscine prey of summer flounder (n=95, 252-648 mm TL) collected in trammel nets. We observed a temporal shift in summer flounder diets from sand shrimp (Crangon septemspinosa) and winter flounder, dominant during June and early July, to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and other fishes (primarily Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia and Atlantic menhaden, Brevortia tyrannus) later in the summer. Variations in prey selection appeared to be related to changes in the spatial distribution of predators and spatio-temporal variation in prey availability. In laboratory experiments, summer flounder (271-345 mm total length, TL) preferred demersal winter flounder to a pelagic fish (Atlantic silversides) and a benthic invertebrate (sand shrimp) prey, and the vulnerability of winter flounder increased with increasing prey body size from 20 to 90 mm TL. Experiments testing habitat effects showed that mortality of winter flounder in three different size classes (20-29, 40-49, 60-69 mm TL) was not influenced by sediment grain sizes permitting differential burial of the prey. However, vegetation enhanced survival, with fish suffering lower mortality in eelgrass (Zostera marina, 15+/-0.04%) than in sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca, 38+/-0.04%) or bare sand (70+/-0.07%) when the macrophytes were planted to produce similar leaf surface areas (5000 cm(2) m(-2)). Prey vulnerability appeared to be related to the role of vision in the predator's attack strategy and prey activity levels. PMID:10958899

Manderson; Phelan; Stoner; Hilbert

2000-08-23

315

Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): a new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish.  

PubMed

Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia. PMID:24845507

Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Yadav, Prabhaker; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K

2014-06-01

316

Hepatic biotransformation genes and enzymes and PAH metabolites in bile of common sole (Solea solea, Linnaeus, 1758) from an oil-contaminated site in the Mediterranean Sea: a field study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present field study was to evaluate the response of hepatic biotransformation genes and enzymes of the common sole collected from an area characterized by the presence of an oil-refinery. Based on ?PAHs levels detected in sediments, three sites were identified: an high-impact site in front of the refinery, a moderate impact site and a reference site at increasing distances from the refinery. Transcription of cyp1a, udpgt and gst genes and related enzyme activities, such as EROD, BROD, MROD, B(a)PMO, UDPGT and GST, were assessed in sole liver. PAHs bile metabolites were measured. The link between phases I and II is discussed with regard to levels of PAHs measured in sediments and fillets. Results provide sequencing data on biotransformation genes essential for further studies on transcriptional responses in common sole and confirm phase I enzyme activities as useful tools for future biomonitoring studies in marine coastal areas. PMID:21276988

Trisciani, Anna; Corsi, Ilaria; Torre, Camilla Della; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano

2011-04-01

317

Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective

Fernando Braga Stehling Dias; Marion Quartier; Christine A. Romaña; Liléia Diotaiuti; Myriam Harry

2010-01-01

318

Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs(Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).  

PubMed

Various nutrients, including K+ and NO3-, are increasingly being discharged into aquatic systems via anthropogenic sources, which may impact marine organisms. The present study was conducted on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) early juveniles to determine the acute toxicity of NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl; if a toxicity interaction exists between K+ and NO3-; the hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ changes; and the gill histopathological alterations following exposure to elevated NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl levels. A total of 20 replicate crabs were exposed to each of the five NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl concentrations for 96 h. After 96 h, the surviving crabs were sampled for hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ levels and fixed for histological examination of the anterior gills. The 96-h median lethal concentration of NaNO3-N, KNO3-N, KNO3-K, and KCl-K was 3,452, 112, 312, and 356 mg/L, respectively, for early P. pelagicus juveniles. The toxicity of NaNO3-N was significantly less (p < 0.01) than that of KNO3-N. Furthermore, at the same K+ levels, KNO3-K was significantly (p < 0.05) more toxic than KCl-K, indicating a toxicity interaction between K+ and NO3-. Following exposure to elevated KNO3 and KCl levels, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels compared to the control. Conversely, following exposure to elevated NaNO3 concentrations, the crabs had significantly higher (p < 0.01) hemolymph Na+ levels but significantly lower (p < 0.01) hemolymph K+ levels. Despite the markedly different hemolymph ionic changes following NaNO3 and KNO3/KCl exposure, the histopathological changes to the anterior gill lamellae of the crabs appeared to be similar, including lamellae swelling, epithelial thickening, pillar cell disruption, necrosis, and distortion. PMID:17705664

Romano, Nicholas; Zeng, Chaoshu

2007-09-01

319

A review of the subfamily Harpypalpinae Fain, 1972 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)-parasites of passerine birds.  

PubMed

The subfamily Harpypalpinae Fain, 1972 (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) is revised. Diagnoses of the subfamily and its two constituent genera, Harpypalpus Dubinin, 1957 and Harpypalpoides Lombert and Moss, 1979, and keys to females of all known species are provided. Data on harpypalpine hosts and distribution are summarized, and nine new species are described: Harpypalpus lonchura sp. nov. from Lonchura castaneothorax (Gould) (Estrildidae) in Australia, Harpypalpus pyrrhula sp. nov. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Linnaeus) (Fringillidae) in the Netherlands, Harpypalpus sturnus sp. nov. from Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus (Sturnidae) in the Netherlands, Harpypalpus taeniopygia sp. nov. from Taeniopygia guttata (Vieillot) (Estrildidae) in Australia, Harpypalpoides hirundinoides sp. nov. from Hirundo rustica Linnaeus (Hirundinidae) in the Netherlands, Harpypalpoides johnstoni sp. nov. from Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus (Fringillidae) (type host) in the Netherlands and Fringilla montifringilla Linnaeus in Kazakhstan, Harpypalpoides regulus sp. nov. from Regulus regulus (Linnaeus) (Regulidae) in the Netherlands, Harpypalpoides sitta sp. nov. from Sitta pygmaea Vigors (Sittidae) in the USA (Arizona, California), and Harpypalpoides sylvia sp. nov. from Sylvia atricapilla (Linnaeus) (Sylviidae) in the Netherlands.  PMID:25283118

Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

2014-01-01

320

The genera of Mallophaga of North America north of Mexico with special reference to Texas species  

E-print Network

, 1838, may be recognized as Redi*s "louse of the teal? and Columbicola columbae (Linnaeus, 1758), of pigeons as the subject of Redi's !tPulex columbae majoris.1* In the period following Redifs publication until the appearance of Linnaeus* Tenth... Edition of Systema Naturae in 1758, Keler (1938) cites 19 works in which some reference is made to Mallophaga. Curious accounts and brief descriptions of some Mallophaga are found in the writings of Albin (1736), Linnaeus (174-6), Panzer (1798), De...

Wiseman, John Sumner

1959-01-01

321

Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.  

PubMed

This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis. PMID:19740501

Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

2010-01-01

322

A Silver Anniversary: The first 25 years of the Kenneth Spencer Research Library  

E-print Network

H.P. Kraus of two volumes of Gould drawings once owned by Sir William Jardine, 1800-1874. 6. Carl von Linne, Systema naturae, Lugduni Batavorum: T. Haak, 1735. j22 The first edition of Linnaeus' epoch-making Systema Naturae. This remarkably fine... of works by and about the great 18th century taxonomist Carolus Linnaeus in the hands of any private collector in the United States. Ellis himself stated Department of Special Collections that the next best collection of Linnaeus belonged to "a botany...

1994-01-01

323

The Condor 107:107113 The Cooper Ornithological Society 2005  

E-print Network

). In Peru, fossils of five modern genera (Vultur, Gymnogyps, Sarcoramp- hus, Coragyps, and Cathartes and vultures (Vultur Linnaeus 1758, Sarcoramphus Dume´ril 1806, Cathartes Illiger 1811, Gymnogyps Lesson 1842

Emslie, Steve

324

Fedorka & Mousseau: Nuptial Gifts in a Cricket 317 TIBIAL SPUR FEEDING IN GROUND CRICKETS  

E-print Network

with the volume of sperm transferred (Thornhill 1976). In contrast, nuptial feeding in the osprey, Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus), acts as paternal investment since it was positively associated with offspring growth

Fedorka, Ken

325

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Silver Y moth Autographa gamma Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared. Other common name gamma moth Systematic position Insecta > Lepidoptera > Noctuidae > Autographa gamma (Linnaeus). Global distribution Widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. Quarantine status

326

7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

2010-01-01

327

7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

2013-01-01

328

7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

2011-01-01

329

7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

2014-01-01

330

7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate...Virginia, and Wisconsin in order to prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect...

2012-01-01

331

SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST2007 6(2):191202 An Assessment of Leech Parasitism on Semi-aquatic  

E-print Network

because they are larger and provide more surface for leech attachment. Chelydra serpentina (Snap- ping. Bottom-dwelling species such as Chelydra serpentina Linnaeus (Common Snapping Turtle) and the mud

Dorcas, Michael E.

332

Biology of Aprostocetus Hagenowii (Ratzeburg), a parasitoid of cockroaches, and insect community composition in an interiorscape  

E-print Network

appendigaster Linnaeus, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Euborellia annulipes (Lucas). Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) is a gregarious parasitoid in the family Eulophidae. This wasp parasitizes oothecae from various species of cockroaches. Aprostocetus hagenowii...

Johnson, Elizabrth N.M

2012-06-07

333

Federal Noxious Weed List (as of June 30, 2006) Aquatic/Wetland  

E-print Network

Cuscuta odontolepis Engelmann Cuscuta pentagona Engelmann Cuscuta planiflora Tenore Cuscuta plattensis A. Alectra spp. Cuscuta spp. (dodders), other than following species: Cuscuta americana Linnaeus Cuscuta applanata Engelmann Cuscuta approximata Babington Cuscuta attenuata Waterfall Cuscuta boldinghii Urban

Nowak, Robert S.

334

Experimental nursery pond cultivation of the seagrass Halodule beaudettei  

E-print Network

in the number of wintering redhead ducks (Aythya americana Eyton) in the Galveston Bay System (GBS) (Figure 1) correlated with a decline of seagrass acreage (Brazda 1988). Additionally, a decline of wintering brant (Brantus bernicla Linnaeus) occurred...

Rosen, David J.

2012-06-07

335

~ JOURNAL OF-~ . EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

, AND ECOLOGY ELSEVIER 230 (1998) 183-192 Socialrecognitionusing chemicalcuesin cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis;accepted23 March 1998 Abstract Forty-five full-sized, virgin cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus) were

Boal, Jean

336

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

337

Post-release mortality of bonefish, Albula vulpes, exposed to different handling practices during  

E-print Network

Post-release mortality of bonefish, Albula vulpes, exposed to different handling practices during-release mortality of bonefish, Albula vulpes (Linnaeus), in El- euthera, The Bahamas, subjected to gentle handling

Cooke, Steven J.

338

38 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction  

E-print Network

38 Marine Fisheries Review Introduction The Northern Hemisphere blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus muscu- lus Linnaeus 1758; the pygmy blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus brevi- cauda Ichihara 1966; and the true blue whale65 , Balaenoptera musculus inter- media Burmeister 1871, are members

339

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus  

E-print Network

The Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The blue whale, Balaenoptera mus- culus (Linnaeus, 1758), is not only the largest of the whales

340

Erasmus Darwin's pedagogical purpose in The Loves of the Plants: reconfiguring images of women in Linnaean botany  

E-print Network

Linnaeus encoded into botany with his own more liberal social vision. Two of Loves' most prominent characteristics, (1) the parallel presentation of information in poetic.couplets linked with scientific footnotes and (2) a discontinuous narrative structure...

Peery, Brenda Langworthy

1997-01-01

341

Ecology 2006 20, 812818  

E-print Network

in a wild population of breeding Dark-Eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) T. J. GREIVES, J. W. MCGLOTHLIN, J. M. 3. In a wild breeding population of Dark-Eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis Linnaeus), we asked whether

342

Fisheries Research 110 (2011) 9297 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Cyprinus carpio population in relation to thermal influences on invasive populations Dalmas O. Oyugia carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) population of Lake Naivasha between June 2008 and November 2009

Cucherousset, Julien

343

Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.  

PubMed

Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses. PMID:24807935

Kerren, Andreas

2013-01-01

344

MATING BEHAVIOR OF CEPHALONOMIA TARSALIS (ASHMEAD)(HYMENOPTERA: BETHYLIDAE) AND THE EFFECT OF FEMALE MATING FREQUENCE ON OFFSPRING PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The courtship behavior of Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead), a solitary semi-ectoparasitoid of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), was investigated in the laboratory. Courtship behavior includes a series of stereotypic movements. Males play the most active role, executing th...

345

INTRODUCTION The effect of oxygen limitation on the energy allocation of fishes at  

E-print Network

status in arterial and venous blood of resting and exercising adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Linnaeus) (Heath and Hughes, 1973). In addition, Taylor and colleagues

Farrell, Anthony P.

346

10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of January 10, 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. BUST OF LINNAEUS OVER SOUTH ENTRANCE - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

347

11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of 1906 photograph. Glass negative in Paul A. Kohl's office, Missouri Botanical Garden. CLOSE VIEW OF LINNAEUS BUST - Missouri Botanical Garden, Linnaean House, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

348

Mimulus suksdorfii in NM ............................1  

E-print Network

Mimulus suksdorfii in NM ............................1 Plant Distribution Reports cognitiorem tradit. -- Linnaeus Number 51 Verification of Mimulus suksdorfii in New Mexico Chick Keller 4470 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544 [Ed. Note: Mimulus suksdorfii Gray was listed for New Mexico by Kartesz

Johnson, Eric E.

349

Red & black or black & white? Phylogeny of the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and evolution of seasonal  

E-print Network

Red & black or black & white? Phylogeny of the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). In this species, adults of the May-flying spring generation and Brensym- thia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalini) is reconstructed, based on 140 morphological

Fric, Zdenek

350

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 159: 25-30 OCTOBER 2010 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

meridionalis (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906); Trochulus hispida (Linnaeus, 1758); Vertigo cristata Sterki, 1919; and Vertigo paradoxa Sterki, 1900. Most are native species of eastern North America, although T. hispida, Vertigo c

Nekola, Jeffrey C.

351

Vanishing the gap to exact lattice search at a subexponential complexity: LR-aided regularized decoding  

E-print Network

decoding Arun Singh and Petros Elia Mobile Communications Department EURECOM, Sophia Antipolis, France Email: {singhak, elia}@eurecom.fr Joakim Jald´en ACCESS Linnaeus Center, Signal Processing Lab KTH Royal

Gesbert, David

352

Complexity analysis for ML-based sphere decoder achieving a vanishing performance-gap to brute force ML decoding  

E-print Network

force ML decoding Arun Singh and Petros Elia Mobile Communications Department EURECOM, Sophia Antipolis, France Email: {singhak, elia}@eurecom.fr Joakim Jald´en ACCESS Linnaeus Center, Signal Processing Lab

Gesbert, David

353

Published in Without Nature: A New Condition for Theology (David Albertson and Cabell King, Eds.), Fordham Univ. Press, 2009  

E-print Network

-Enlightenment founders of modern biology: Carl Linnaeus, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Gregor Mendel, Matthias introduced Mendel's ideas to the English-speaking world and coined the term "genetics," were published under

Newman, Stuart A.

354

The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae)  

E-print Network

The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille) occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans (Linnaeus) and X. (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses...

Hannan, Mohammed A.; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

2012-06-14

355

The ornithology of the Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (1787-1803): An analysis of the manuscripts of José Mariano Mociño  

E-print Network

:235. Fields near Toluca [Estado de Me´xico]. Motacilla brevicauda, [Seiurus motacilla (Vieillot 1808)]; 2:267. Motacilla tepicensis, [Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus 1766)]; 2:250. Fields near Tepic [Nayarit]. (Descrip- tion refers to the migratory form...). Motacilla nigrifrons, [Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus 1766)]; 2:241. Near the Valle de Me´xico. (Description refers to the resident form, G. t. melanops). Motacilla mitrata, [Wilsonia citrina (Boddaert 1783)]; 2:259. Motacilla pileata, [Wilsonia pusilla...

Navarro-Sigü enza, Adolfo G.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Samper, Miguel Á ngel Puig; Zamudio, Graciela

2007-11-01

356

¿Vecinos o Enemigos?: Latino National Identity and the Debate over English as the National Language  

E-print Network

and least: God, angelic beings, humanity, animals, plants and minerals. However, in relation to linking the Great Chain of Being with a racial order, one must visit the work of Charles Linnaeus, known also as the father of taxonomy.44 To defend... this racial articulation of societal positioning, linking those of non-European background with lower forms of life, Linnaeus? 1735 book, In General System of Nature, provides the outline. Perhaps most frequently used by eighteenth and nineteenth century...

Brown, Donathan Lawrence

2012-07-16

357

Venezuelan Columnar Cacti  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three most abundant Venezuelan columnar cacti, from left to right, Pilosocereus lanuginosus (Linnaeus) Byles & Rowley, Stenocereus griseus (Haworth) Buxbaum, and Cereus repandus (Linnaeus) Miller. These species depend strictly on nectar-feeding bats for their pollination. Bat-mediated gene dispersal confers high levels of genetic exchange among populations of the three species, a process that enhances levels of genetic diversity within their populations.

Castro, Janet

2004-03-09

358

Associative Learning Capabilities of Adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Other Mosquitoes  

E-print Network

are interesting. I would also like to thank Dr. Aaron Tarone for his support in the final stages of my degree and for stimulating thoughtful consideration of all things Drosophila. I would like to thank Dr. W. Joe Lewis for allowing me to stay in his lab... in the genus Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae; Quinn et al. 1974), the honeybee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymentoptera: Apidae; VonFrisch 1956, Bitterman et al. 1983), the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae; Daly and Smith...

Sanford, Michelle Rene?e

2012-07-16

359

Habitat suitability, corridors and dispersal barriers for large carnivores in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnivores are often particularly sensitive to landscape fragmentation. Ecological corridors may help to connect local populations,\\u000a ensuring gene flow and retaining viable meta-populations. We aimed to establish habitat suitability models for two large carnivores\\u000a in Poland, the grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 and the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx Linnaeus, 1758, based on ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA). Secondly, we

Maren Huck; W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Tomasz Borowik; Ma?gorzata Mi?osz-Cielma; Krzysztof Schmidt; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Sabina Nowak; Robert W. Mys?ajek

2010-01-01

360

INDEX TO VOLUME 61 ABUNDANCE AND AGE O~' KVICHAK RIVER RED  

E-print Network

, and comparison of rudder fishes, Kyphosu8 secta.trix (Linnaeus) and K. i'l£i80l' (Cuvier) in 451-480 western at 53-60 CALANOID COPEPODS FROM EQUATORI....L W.~TERS OF THE P ....CIFIC OCE....N, by George D. Grice, DISTRIBUTION, AND COMPARISON OF RUDD);R b'ISHES, Kyphof1lts sectatrix (Linnaeus) AND K. incisor (Cuvier

361

[Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].  

PubMed

We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

2006-09-01

362

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

363

Microsatellites for next-generation ecologists: a post-sequencing bioinformatics pipeline.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A

2013-01-01

364

Microsatellites for Next-Generation Ecologists: A Post-Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies. The recent advent of next-generation pyrosequencing has drastically accelerated microsatellite locus discovery by providing a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at lower costs compared to other techniques. However, laboratory testing of PCR primers targeting potential microsatellite markers remains time consuming and costly. Here we show how to reduce this workload by screening microsatellite loci via bioinformatic analyses prior to primer design. Our method emphasizes the importance of sequence quality, and we avoid loci associated with repetitive elements by screening with repetitive sequence databases available for a growing number of taxa. Testing with the Yellowstripe Goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus and the marine planktonic copepod Pleuromamma xiphias we show higher success rate of primers selected by our pipeline in comparison to previous in silico microsatellite detection methodologies. Following the same pipeline, we discover and select microsatellite loci in nine additional species including fishes, sea stars, copepods and octopuses. PMID:23424642

Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Whitney, Jonathan; Wainwright, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly R.; Ylitalo-Ward, Heather; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.; Goetze, Erica; Karl, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

365

Quill mites of the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Syringophilidae) from North American birds.  

PubMed

Seven mite species belonging to the genus Syringophilopsis Kethley, 1970 (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) are recorded from 10 passeriform host species from the USA. Three new species are described and illustrated: Syringophilopsis polioptilus sp. n. from Polioptila caerulea (Linnaeus) (Polioptilidae); S. empidonax sp. n. from Empidonax hamrnmondii (Vesey) and Empidonax wrightii Baird (Tyrannidae); and S. sialiae sp. n. from Sialia mexicana Swainson (Turdidae). In addition, records of new hosts are given: Turdus migratorius Linnaeus (Turdidae) for Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958); three tyrannid species (Tyrannidae), Myiarchus crinitus (Linnaeus), M. cinerascens (Lawrence) and Tyrannus verticalis Say for S. tyranni Bochkov et Galloway, 2004; Euphagus cyanocephalus (Wagler) (Icteridae) for S. elongatus (Ewing, 1911); and two parulid species (Parulidae), Dendroica graciae Baird and Wilsonia pusilla (Wilson) for S. dendroicae Bochkov et Galloway, 2001. All known species of the genus Syringophilopsis from the Nearctic Region are summarized in tabular form. Syringophilopsis porzanae Bochkov et Galloway, 2004 is reassigned to the genus Ascetonmylla Kethley, 1970. PMID:19175207

Skoracki, Maciej; Flannery, Maureen E; Spicer, Greg S

2008-12-01

366

Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae) from Pakistan, with description of two new species  

PubMed Central

Abstract The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787) and Sathrophyllia rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK) and Tharparker (Sindh), Pakistan for first the time.

Sultana, Riffat; Panhwar, Waheed Ali; Wagan, Muhammad Saeed; Khatri, Imran

2014-01-01

367

New species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) from lories and lorikeets (Aves: Psittaciformes).  

PubMed

Five new species of the feather mite genus Protolichus Trouessart, 1884 (Astigmata, Pterolichidae) are described from parrots of the subfamily Loriinae (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae): Protolichus ornatus sp. n. from Trichoglossus ornatus (Linnaeus, 1758), P. lorinus sp. n. from Lorius lory (Linnaeus, 1758), P. placentis sp. n. from Charmosyna placentis (Temminck, 1835), P. pulchellae sp. n. from C. pulchella (Gray GR, 1859), and P. rubiginosus sp. n. from T. rubiginosus (Bonaparte, 1850). Protolichus ornatus belongs to the brachiatus species group; the other new species belong to the crassior species group. PMID:24871411

Mironov, Sergey V; Ehrnsberger, Rainer; Dabert, Jacek

2014-01-01

368

The development of resistance to organophosphorus compounds by Tetranychus (T.) urticae Koch and laboratory and field toxicological responses of Tetranychus (T.) Cinnabarinus (Boisduval) to some current acaricides  

E-print Network

Ncg go, ~et h (~fet h ) t' Ko h [th o o g t spotted spider mite, previouslyg T. bimaculatus Harvey and T ~ telarius (Linn) , Tetran chus (Tetran chus) cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (the common red tt ayhldpeloslykoasAcau tel Linnaeus, Acarus... material currently in use for control of these mites' CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Nomenclature Th g ~fet h e tebl' hdbyh fo 1832. Previously, in 1758, Linnaeus had described A t 1 ' *, h' h ' th fl *t p'd t k Banks (1900) stated...

Contreras Galvez, Saul Edgardo

1971-01-01

369

No evidence of interference competition among the invasive feral pig and two native peccary species in a Neotropical wetland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In South America, the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) has become established in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and in a wide range within Brazil, along the southern half of the Atlantic Forest, in the cerrado (savanna) and in the Pantanal wetland. The geographical ranges of the two most common South American native peccary (Tayassu pecari Link and Pecari tajacu Linnaeus) overlap almost entirely, and the feral pig now co-occurs with them in several areas. Because feral pig, white-lipped and collared peccary are considered ecological equivalents, there has been much speculation about possible competitive interactions among them (Desbiez et al. 2009, Sicuro & Oliveira 2002).

Oliveira-Santos, Luiz G. R.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Tomas, Walfrido M.; Mourao, Guilherme; Fernandez, Fernando A.S.

2011-01-01

370

Clinostomum complanatum and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819) (Digenea: Clinostomidae) are separate species based on differences in ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

Infections by metacercariae of Clinostomum (Leidy, 1856) species adversely affect aquacultured fish and are potentially transmissible to humans. Molecular methodologies are efficient tools, which enable diagnosis of all life-history stages of trematodes in their diverse hosts. The small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of adults of the Old World Clinostomum complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) and the New World Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), obtained from a little egret Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766) and the great blue heron Ardea herodias (Linnaeus, 1758), respectively, were amplified, sequenced, and aligned. The resulting alignment was used to develop a genetic assay to differentiate between these species. PMID:15165071

Dzikowski, R; Levy, M G; Poore, M F; Flowers, J R; Paperna, I

2004-04-01

371

A checklist of Linneana, 1735-1835, in the University of Kansas Libraries  

E-print Network

and expansion of the Genera Plantarum: the first edi tion (1737) contained 935 genera, but in the sixth (1764), the last that Linnaeus personally edited, the number of genera reached 1239. On the death of Linnaeus (he took the form Carl von Linné in 1762... handed down to his family. After the death of his son, Carl von Linné the younger, the entire precious archive was purchased by an Englishman, James Ed ward Smith, who, with Sir Joseph Banks, then President of the Royal Society, and Samuel Goodenough...

Williams, Terrence

1964-01-01

372

Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

373

SOUTHEASTERN NATURALIST2005 4(3):435446 Abundance and Community Composition of Waterbirds  

E-print Network

. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors Linnaeus) were the most abundant duck (74%) followed by Mottled Ducks (Anas fulvigula Ridgway, 21%). Mean wading bird species richness was 8.48 ± 0.35 (n = 20 surveys waterfowl used the river during migration or winter, but Mottled Ducks (Anas fulvigula Ridgway) and possibly

Dugger, Bruce

374

HABITUATION OF THE CARDIAC RESPONSE TO INVOLUNTARY DIVING IN DIVING AND DABBLING DUCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Bradycardia in response to forced submergence was habituated in dabbling (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus) and diving (Aythya americana, Eyton) ducks by repetitively submerging the animals, each day for several days, for periods of 40 and 20 s, respectively. The onset of pronounced bradycardia was delayed with each successive trial, until little or no bradycardia occurred during submergence. Diving bradycardia

GEOFFREY R. J. GABBOTT; DAVID R. JONES

375

Summertime activity patterns of common weasels Mustela nivalis vulgaris under differing prey abundances  

E-print Network

Summertime activity patterns of common weasels Mustela nivalis vulgaris under differing prey. Summertime activity patterns of common weasels Mustela nivalis vulgaris under differing prey abundances in grassland habitats. Acta Theriologica 50: 67­79. Weasels Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 in Kielder Forest

Lambin, Xavier

376

Introduction Specialist predators rely heavily on just one  

E-print Network

­7051 Movement patterns of a specialist predator, the weasel Mustela nivalis exploiting asynchronous cyclic field. Movement patterns of a specialist predator, the weasel Mustela nivalis exploiting asynchronous cyclic field and movement characteristics of male weasels Mustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 during the breeding season through

Lambin, Xavier

377

La distribuzione delle due sottospecie di Donnola Mustela nivalis nivalis eMustela nivalis vulgaris (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) nella Val Bregaglia svizzera (Canton Grigioni, Svizzera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO - Nel presente lavoro viene indagata la distribuzione delle due sottospecie di Donnola Mustela nivalis nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 e Mustela niva- lis vulgaris Erxleben, 1777 nella Val Bregaglia svizzera (Canton Grigioni). Dai dati raccolti in oltre 35 anni risulta che M. n. nivalis è stata rinvenuta\\/osservata tra 800 e 2580 m, mentre M. n. vulgaris tra 770 e 1490

REMO MAURIZIO

378

Distribution and diversity of the soil mites of Svalbard, with redescriptions of three known species (Acari: Oribatida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of oribatid mites, Camisia dictyna Colloff, 1993, Ceratoppia sphaerica (L. Koch, 1879) and Diapterobates notatus (Thorell, 1871) are studied in detail, and their supplementary descriptions with precise illustrations are presented. The specimens were collected from the soils of the Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis Linnaeus, 1758) nest site areas in the Arctic archipelago Svalbard. Camisia dictyna is recorded as

Badamdorj Bayartogtokh; Heinrich Schatz; Torbjørn Ekrem

2011-01-01

379

Introduction to Plant SystematicsLecture readings  

E-print Network

and floristic surveys) Cannabis sativa Linnaeus (widely cultivated) Cannabis indica Lamarck (India) Cannabis ruderalis Janischevsky (Russia) Cannabis and herbarium taxonomists in the 1960's & 1970's Richard E, Schultes (1915-2001) Arthur J. Cronquist (1919-1992) Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa Cannabis sativa subsp

Hardy, Christopher R.

380

A NEWLY DESCRIBED SPECIES OF ARCTOSTAPHYLOS (ERICACEAE) FROM THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COAST  

E-print Network

uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. origi- nally described by Linnaeus in 1700 to recent descriptions of new speciesA NEWLY DESCRIBED SPECIES OF ARCTOSTAPHYLOS (ERICACEAE) FROM THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COAST MICHAEL C, Arctostaphylos ohloneana M.C. Vasey and V.T. Parker, is found scattered within populations of another

Parker, V. Thomas

381

Crustaceana 85 (7) 779-787 LATITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SIZE  

E-print Network

Crustaceana 85 (7) 779-787 LATITUDINAL VARIATION IN THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SIZE OF THE NORTHERN ROCK BARNACLE SEMIBALANUS BALANOIDES (L.) (CIRRIPEDIA, ARCHAEOBALANIDAE) IN THE BAY OF FUNDY, 2000). The acorn (or northern rock) barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (Linnaeus, 1767), is a common

Aiken, Ron

382

Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus

Goutam Chandra; Samir K Mandal; Arup K Ghosh; Dipanwita Das; Siddhartha S Banerjee; Sumanta Chakraborty

2008-01-01

383

Yolk androgens vary inversely to maternal androgens in Eastern Bluebirds: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Female birds deposit variable amounts of androgens in the yolks of their eggs, and it has been suggested that yolk androgen deposition is an adaptive mechanism preparing offspring for a competitive environment. Breeding pairs of Eastern Bluebirds ( Sialia sialis ) Linnaeus were stimulated with an intruder presentation while ovarian follicles were developing. Yolk steroid concentrations in eggs

K. J. NAVARA; L. M. SIEFFERMAN; G. E. HILL; M. T. MENDONÇA

2006-01-01

384

Allozyme and morphological evidence for a newly introduced species of Aurelia in San Francisco Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) is usually considered to be a cosmopolitan species. Aurelia sp. medusae observed at Foster City, San Francisco Bay, California, USA, since 1988 are morphologically distinct from Aurelia sp. collected 200 km away in Monterey Bay, but are morphologically similar to aquarium-cultured Aurelia sp. from Japan. They differ consistently in radial canal morphology. In allozyme

N. Greenberg; R. L. Garthwaite; D. C. Potts

1996-01-01

385

D A R G A N M . W . F R I E R S O N D E P A R T M E N T O F A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S  

E-print Network

points: ÷ Freezing point (32o) ÷ Cold temperature of an ice/salt/water mixture (0o) ÷ Underarm body on 0o for boiling and 100o for freezing! ¡ Switched by Linnaeus in 1745 #12;Central England temperature on record ¡ We can't say what the global temperature is with perfect accuracy Why we can still make strong

Frierson, Dargan

386

Sequence analysis and molecular characterization of larval midgut cDNA transcripts encoding peptidases from the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peptidase sequences were analyzed in randomly picked clones from cDNA libraries of the anterior or posterior midgut or whole larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. Of a total of 1,528 sequences, 92 sequences encoded potential peptidases, from which 50 full-length cDNA sequences w...

387

Relative importance of estuarine flatfish nurseries along the Portuguese coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of nursery areas and their relationships with several environmental variables were evaluated in nine estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast based on trawl surveys. Historical data were used to outline changes and trends in the nursery function of some of these estuaries over the past decades. The dominant flatfish species in Portuguese estuaries were Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus,

Henrique N. Cabral; Rita Vasconcelos; Catarina Vinagre; Susana Franga; Vanessa Fonseca; Anabela Maia; Patrick Reis-Santos; Marta Lopes; Miguel Ruano; Joana Campos; Vânia Freitas; Paulo T. Santos; Maria José Costa

2007-01-01

388

Discarded queen conch ( Strombus gigas ) shells as shelter sites for fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Caribbean millions of queen conch (Strombus gigas Linnaeus) are harvested each year and shells discarded randomly or as middens. Fish use of discarded conch shells was investigated in four different habitat types: sand, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. The study was carried out in the waters off South Caicos, Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI), between October

S. K. Wilson; T. Sato

2005-01-01

389

Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 196 (1996) 29-52  

E-print Network

OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLGGY AND ECOLOGY Induction of metamorphosis in queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus in relation to temporal and spatial variability in the suitability of seagrass beds as sites for conch metamorphosis. Keywords: Gastropod; Larvae; Metamorphosis; Queen conch; Red algae; Strombus gigas 1

Boettcher, Anne

390

The queen conch fishery on Pedro Bank, Jamaica: discovery, development, management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, methods, problems and regulation of fishing of the last remaining large queen conch resource in the world, located on a Jamaican fishing bank, are examined. The fishery activities for the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus are briefly described with the main activities in the industrial sector which produce the bulk of the harvest, which is exported. There are

Karl A Aiken; G Andre Kong; Stephen Smikle; Robin Mahon; Richard Appeldoorn

1999-01-01

391

The Sexually Dimorphic Cephalofoil of Bonnethead Sharks, Sphyrna tiburo  

E-print Network

tiburo (Linnaeus, 1758), the bonnethead shark. Bonnethead sharks are small, coastal hammerhead sharksThe Sexually Dimorphic Cephalofoil of Bonnethead Sharks, Sphyrna tiburo STEPHEN M. KAJIURA1, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida 33431; 2 Center for Shark Research, Mote

Summers, Adam P.

392

Growth history and age at recruitment of European glass eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) as revealed by otolith microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth history and age at recruitment of Anguilla anguilla Linnaeus, 1758 were studied, based on growth increments in sagittal otoliths of glass eels and elvers collected from the eastern Atlantic coast in 1989 and in 1990. The maximum otolith radius varied with pigmentation stage. Deposition of the transition ring was complete at Stage VIA0. The size of the leptocephalus

R. Lecomte-Finiger

1992-01-01

393

Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outbreaks of adult Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus) have appeared at irregular intervals, arriving 3 yr after heavy rains (>100 cm in 3 months) following droughts (A. planci follow typhoons that bring heavy rains, but do not follow “dry” typhoons of equivalent wind force. Outbreaks occur around the high islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, but not around the atolls at intermediate locations.

C. Birkeland

1982-01-01

394

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-print Network

Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. PUBLICATION 444-288 American Cockroach americana (Linnaeus) AKA: Palmetto bug or water bug Size The American cockroach is a large cockroach and has a yellow margin on the pronotum (region directly behind the head). Immature American cockroaches

Liskiewicz, Maciej

395

Polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue mussels ( Mytilus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue mussels of the genus Mytilus (M. edulis Linnaeus 1758; M. galloprovincialis Lamarck 1819; M. trossulus Gould 1850) are widely distributed in Southern and Northern hemispheres. This ecological plasticity together with the existence of interspecific hybridization in overlapping regions (Skibinski et al. 1978) makes them an interesting model for studies of population dynamics in marine habitats. Genetic marker surveys on

Pablo Presa; Montse Pérez; Angel P. Diz

2002-01-01

396

Genetic consequences of long larval life in the starfish Linckia laevigata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) on the Great Barrier Reef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene flow between populations of the asteroid Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus) was investigated by examining over 1000 individuals collected from ten reefs throughout the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, for genetic variation at seven polymorphic enzyme loci. Despite geographic separations in excess of 1000 km, Nei's unbiased genetic distance (0 to 0.003) and standardised genetic variation between populations (FST) values (mean

S. T. Williams; J. A. H. Benzie

1993-01-01

397

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

398

Ultrastructure of the corallinaceae. I. The vegetative cells of Corallina officinalis and C. cuvierii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique utilizing combined fixation and gentle decalcification has been employed to study the ultrastructure of the vegetative cells of the articulated calcareous coralline algae Corallina officinalis Linnaeus and C. cuvierii Lamouroux (Rhodophyta: Cryptonemiales). The epidermal cells are distinctive, with many cell wall inggrowths which pass between the chloroplasts. It is suggested that these cells function as “transfer cells”. The

M. A. Borowitzka; M. Vesk

1978-01-01

399

SYSTEMATICS AND BIOLOGY OF THE BONEFISH, ALBULA NEMOPTERA (FOWLER) 1  

E-print Network

the family Albulidae waf! known from several fossil forms and one living species, Albula vulpes (Linnaeus of Mexico identified as "Albula vulpes," was published by Kumada and Hiyama (1937). According to Walford with those of 1l ulpes. The ecology and distribution of nemoptera and vulpes is discussed. During its cruise

400

44 Marine Fisheries Review The Fin Whale  

E-print Network

1758,isthesecondlargestmem- ber of the family Balaenopteridae (after the blue whale, B. musculus uniform gray- blue color. This asymmetry may be linked to the whale's feeding behavior44 Marine Fisheries Review The Fin Whale Introduction The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus Linnaeus

401

To cite this article: Borsa P., Nugroho D.A. 2010. Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and other cetaceans in Raja Ampat waters, West Papua. Marine Biodiversity Records 3, e49  

E-print Network

and strandings of blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Also, a series of reports has been whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus, the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops sp., the false killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens and the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus. Keywords

Boyer, Edmond

402

True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

Jerini?-Prodanovi?, Dušanka; Proti?, Ljiljana

2013-01-01

403

A method of marking larval lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological investigations of lamprey populations in central New York have indicated a need for developing a method of marking larvae of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottei (Lesueur) Since lamprey larvae live in burrows in the soft sediments of the stream bottom, the use of an external tag is impractical.

Wigley, Roland L.

1952-01-01

404

Six new feather mite species (Acari: Astigmata) from the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae), an extinct parrot of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe six new feather mite species collected from museum skins of the carolina parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758, which lived in North America and became extinct at the beginning of the 20th century: Genoprotolichus simplex sp. n., Lopharalichus beckeri sp. n., Neorhytidelasma conuropsis sp. n. (Pterolichidae: Pterolichinae), Chiasmalges carolinensis sp. n. (Psoroptoididae: Pandalurinae), Fainalges gracilitarsus sp. n., and Protonyssus

S. V. Mironov; J. Dabert; R. Ehrnsberger

2005-01-01

405

Aphid species of genus Macrosiphum Passerini, 1860 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) inhabiting Knautia L. in Belarus: Aphididae) r?šys, aptinkamos ant Knautia L. genties augal? Baltarusijoje  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphological analysis of extensive material from Belarus (45 localities, 117 samples, 2002–2010) confirms that Macrosiphum silvaticum Meier, 1985 is a junior synonym of Macrosiphum knautiae Holman, 1972. Two species of the genus Macrosiphum were found on Knautia arvensis in Belarus in 2002–2010: M. rosae (Linnaeus, 1758), and M. knautiae Holman, 1972, the latter species being predominant. In addition to

Sergey Buga; Nina Voronova; Rimantas Rakauskas

2012-01-01

406

Chemical defense of a marine cyanobacterial bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

A popular Guam beach experienced a temporary closure in May 1994 due to the simultaneous occurrence of a blue-green algal bloom and a massive die-off of juvenile rabbitfishes (Siganus argenteus (Quoy and Gaimard) and Siganus spinus (Linnaeus). The microbial assemblage was composed primarily of the marine cyanobacterium Schizothrix calcicola (Ag.) Gomont with sparsely distributed strands of Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. Palatability

Dale G. Nagle; Valerie J. Paul

1998-01-01

407

Morphological differences between sympatric populations of the Poecilochirus carabi complex (Acari: Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) associated with burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of two sympatric populations of the parasitid mite Poecilochirus carabi G. & R. Canestrini, one preferring Nicrophorus vespillo (Linnaeus) as carrier beetle species and the other N. vespilloides Herbst, could be separated by differences in the form of the structures associated with the male genital orifice and the size of the female endogynum. Adults and deuteronymphs of the two

Anne S. Baker; Horst H. Schwarz

1997-01-01

408

Timing of septal formation in two species of Nautilus based on radiometric and aquarium data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rates of four Nautilus scrobiculatus Lightfoot and three N. pompilius Linnaeus captured in Papua New Guinea in 1985 were measured using a chronology based on the naturally occurring radionuclides 210Pb and 210Po. The age of the las septum in mature specimens of both species was more than one year, whereas the time of septal formation in a submature specimen

N. H. Landman; J. K. Cochran; J. A. Chamberlain; D. J. Hirschberg

1989-01-01

409

HELMINTH FAUNA OF SANDHILL CRANE POPULATIONS IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of trematode (Orchipedium jolliei Schell, 1967; Prohyptiamus grusi Kocan, Waldrup, Ramakka, and Iverson, 1982; Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich, 1802)), three species of nematode (Tetrameres grusi Shumakovich, 1946; Synhimanthus sp.; Contracaecum sp.), and one species of cestode (Anomotaenia sp.) were recovered from 146 sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis (Linnaeus), collected in Alaska, Canada, and two areas in Texas. The only common

Glen D. Gaines; Robert J. Warren; Danny B. Pence

410

Genetic analysis of sympatric morphotypes of common dolphins (genus Delphinus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympatric populations of two forms of the common dolphin, currently recognized collectively as Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, occur in several areas of the world's oceans. A molecular genetic study was initiated to determine whether these forms are genetically distinct in the Northeast Pacific. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences from the control region and cytochrome b gene between specimens of the long-beaked

P. E. Rosel; A. E. Dizon; J. E. Heyning

1994-01-01

411

MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 721, pp. 18, 3 figs. Mellivora capensis. By Jana M. Vanderhaar and Yeen Ten Hwang  

E-print Network

. Meles: Thunberg, 1811:306. Part, not Meles Linnaeus (vide Sclater 1900). Gulo Desmarest, 1820:176. Type species Gulo capensis ( Gulo mellivora Smith). Ratellus Gray, 1827:118. Based on Viverra capensis Schreber). Gulo capensis Desmarest, 1820:176. Type locality ``Vicinity of Cape of Good Hope.'' Gulo mellivora

Hayssen, Virginia

412

Beitr. Palont., 26:195, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozn  

E-print Network

Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien 2001 Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas von Doris D�PPES*) D�PPES, D., 2001. Gulo gulo (Mustelidae, Mammalia) im Jungpleistozän Mitteleuropas. -- Beitr. Paläont., 26:1­95, Wien. Inhalt 1. Biologie des rezenten Gulo gulo (LINNAEUS, 1758

Döppes, Doris

413

Allium in New Mexico .................................1  

E-print Network

· Allium in New Mexico .................................1 · What's in a Name?....6 · Botanical cognitiorem tradit. -- Linnaeus April 1, 2003Number 27 ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE GENUS ALLIUM (LILIACEAE Reprinted from New Mexico Naturalist Notes 1(1):43-56. 1998 The genus Allium is distributed throughout

Johnson, Eric E.

414

Mus spretus (Rodentia: Muridae) L. JAVIER PALOMO, ENRIQUE R. JUSTO, AND J. MARIO VARGAS  

E-print Network

:230) determined that this is a synonym of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758. Mus spicilegus lynesi Cabrera, 1923, 1923:431. Type locality ``alrededores de Melilla, Rif oriental,'' Morocco. Mus musculus spretus: Mus musculus. They recognized 15 subspecies, including M. m. spretus, and proposed the evolutionary

Hayssen, Virginia

415

Relationships between abiotic variables and geographic variation in skulls of pumas ( Puma concolor : Mammalia, Felidae) in North and South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between patterns of geographic variation in cranial morphology and selected abiotic variables were studied in the puma (Puma concolorLinnaeus). Our dataset consisted of 11 cranial, 6 dental, and 2 mandibular measurements of 1700 adults, which were separated by gender and age class and analysed by univariate and multivariate statistical procedures. Variation in size was correlated with precipitation, but size

SAMANTHA W. GAY; TROY L. BEST

1996-01-01

416

Evidence of Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillidae) in the Upper Volga River (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

*2) Synopsis: Microscopical observations of diatom mounts, processed from material of the Upper Volga Expedition 2005, revealed the presence of sponge spicules that corresponded to Spongilla lacustris (LINNAEUS 1758), Ephydatia mülleri (LIEBERKÜHN 1855), Trochospongilla horri- da WELTNER 1893, and likely Heteromeyenia baileyi (BOWERBANK 1863). These species have three different zoogeographical distributions, namely, cosmopolitan, holarctic and holarctic-amphiatlantic. In the paper illustrations

Martin SCHLETTERER; Thomas Ols EGGERS

417

77 FR 2243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat and Taxonomic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act). We are also recognizing the recent change to the taxonomy of the currently threatened taxon in which the species was...Charadrius alexandrinus (Linnaeus 1758)). We accepted this taxonomy and have used this name in all Service documents up to...

2012-01-17

418

Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Côte d'Ivoire: evidence for a microgeographic genetic differentiation of mosquitoes from Bouaké  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus, C., 1762. Zweyter Theil, enhalt Beschreibungen veschiedener wichtiger Naturalien. In: Hasselquist, F. (Ed.), Reise nach Palastina in den Jahren von 1749 bis 1752, Rostock, Germany, pp. 267–606) represents the principal vector of yellow fever. This study reports the use of microsatellite markers to characterise various A. aegypti populations from Côte d'Ivoire according

S. Ravel; J.-P. Hervé; S. Diarrassouba; A. Kone; G. Cuny

2002-01-01

419

Saffron Quality: Effect of Agricultural Practices, Processing and Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saffron, the most expensive spice worldwide, is comprised of the dried stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus Linnaeus of the Iridaceae family, a sterile triploid not found in the wild. According to the definition given by FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) it forms ‘a loosely matted mass of dark, reddish-brown flattened threads, amongst which a few narrower yellow ones can

Stella A. Ordoudi; Maria Z. Tsimidou

420

Entomological Research 36 (2006) 196201 2006 The Authors  

E-print Network

scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) is a serious pest of fruit trees in many countries. In the present that is attractive to nectar seeking insects such as ants, but excess honeydew can adhere to leaf shoot surfaces of humans, and now has a broad distribu- tion including the Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical and Pale

Eastwood, Rod

421

Notes on taxonomy and taphonomy of two Upper Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) scleractinian corals from Limburg, The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lectotype has been assigned for Placosmilia? robusta Umbgrove, 1925. This taxon, although fitting into the original diagnosis of Placosmilia, is not defined by the emended diagnosis of Alloiteau and later authors. Specimens from the Upper Maastrichtian of The Netherlands, that were formerly wrongly attributed to Galaxea fasciculata (Lamarck, 1816), a homonym of the extant species Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1758),

J. Leloux

2004-01-01

422

Applying the Scientific Method & Phylogenetics to Understand the Transition from Kingdoms to Domains: Does One Plus One Equal Five, Six, or Three?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The progression of the taxonomic organization of life from Linnaeus's original two kingdoms to the traditional five-kingdom system to today's widely accepted three-domain system is explored in a group-learning activity. Working with a set of organisms, students organize them into each system. Discussion after each step focuses on viewing…

Davis, Sandra L.

2012-01-01

423

Fly populations associated with landfill and composting sites used for household refuse disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calyptrate fly populations were monitored with sticky traps at the following sites in Hampshire, UK during August to November 1998: a landfill and composting site (Paulsgrove), a site adjacent to this landfill (Port Solent), a site with no landfill nearby (Gosport), and a composting site with no landfill nearby. Overall, house flies Musca domestica (Linnaeus) and lesser house flies Fannia

D. Goulson; W. O. H. Hughes; J. W. Chapman

1999-01-01

424

Study of insect succession and rate of decomposition on a partially burned pig carcass in an oil palm plantation in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects found associated with corpse can be used as one of the indicators in estimating postmortem interval (PMI). The objective of this study was to compare the stages of decomposition and faunal succession between a partially burnt pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) and natural pig (as control). The burning simulated a real crime whereby the victim was burnt by murderer. Two

Heo Chong Chin; Mohamad Abdullah Marwi; Ahmad Firdaus Mohd; John Jeffery; Hiromu Kurahashi; Baharudin Omar

2008-01-01

425

INTRODUCTION Understanding both male and female mating beha-  

E-print Network

(Linnaeus). The two-spot ladybird is a naturally pro- miscuous beetle, with both males and females mating consider male and female mating behaviour in two populations of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunc- tata; Haddrill et al., 2008). Two-spot ladybird populations are known to Eur. J. Entomol. 110(1): 87­93, 2013

426

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton (2nd edition)  

Microsoft Academic Search

he background to Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton is found in the history of the study of skeletal anatomy of fossils and animals. Coming out of the Age of Exploration, natural historians, including Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lamarck, and Darwin, began to analyze skeletal morphology, which was the catalyst for the development of theories of human evolution and variation that are

M. Anne Katzenberg; Shelley R. Saunders

427

SELECTED CUTTINGS FROM WASHINGTON PARK ARBORETUM  

E-print Network

near the Arboretum's south end 2) Lonicera ciliosa · A climbing honeysuckle native to the Pacific Northwest · Part of the native matrix, they are found scattered throughout the Arboretum. 3) Lonicera maackii var. erubescens · The genus Lonicera was named by Linnaeus in honor of the 16th century German

Kaminsky, Werner

428

Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

Flannery, Maura C.

2013-01-01

429

ASSESSMENT OF CORN POLLEN AS FOOD SOURCE FOR TWO TEPHRITID FRUIT FLY SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a serious pest of cucurbit crops. Although melon fly females oviposit in cucurbit crops, both males and females are frequently associated with a range of non-host plants, including both crops such as corn (Zea mays C. Linnaeus) and wild plants su...

430

Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

431

49, 9(2), 2009 Rsels Froschbuch (1758) und danach  

E-print Network

(1758) und vor allem von Laurenti (1768). Damals vergebene, bino- minale Artnamen seiner aus dem escu- lentus (Linnaeus, 1758)), der Knoblauchkröte (Pe- lobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1758)) und der Kreuzkrö- te (Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768) haben bis heute ihre Gültigkeit behalten. Vor allem im 19

432

Long-term effects of litter sex ratio on female reproduction in two iteroparous mammals  

E-print Network

, litter size, Marmota flaviventris, masculini- zation, Oryctolagus cuniculus, yellow-bellied marmot scenarios. For that, we used data from two long-term field projects studying yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris Audubon and Bachman, 1841) and European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758). We

Blumstein, Daniel T.

433

Genetische Verarmung des Alpenmurmeltieres (Marmota m. marmota ) in Österreich: Befunde aus Isoenzymanalysen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from 13 populations of the Alpine Marmot Marmota m. marmota (LINNAEUS, 1758) from the Eastern Alps were studied electrophoretically for allo- zyme variation. The amount of variation was remarkably low. Only 2 out of 50 enzyme loci were polymorphic, the average heterozygosity measured 1,1%. Although a total of more than 6000 genes have been examined, no rare alleles were

M. PRELEUTHNER; W. PINSKER

434

MODULATION OF HEART ACTIVITY IN THE TERRESTRIAL SLUG LIMAX MAXIMUS BY THE FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM, SMALL CARDIOACTIVE PEPTIDES AND STIMULATION OF BUCCAL NEURON Bl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activation of the feeding motor program (FMP) increases the force of ventricular contractions in heart\\/central nervous system (CNS) preparations of the terrestrial slug Limax maximus (Linnaeus). The FMP-induced increase in ventricular activity requires innervation of the heart by ahdominal ganglion nerves N9 and Nil . Application of the small cardioactive peptides SCPA and SCPB to isolated preparations of the

IAN G. WELSFORD; DAVID J. PRIOR

435

The Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus  

E-print Network

) statistical areas. They are based (to some degree) on humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, breedingThe Fin Whale, Balaenoptera physalus SALLY A. MIZROCH, DALE W. RICE, and JEFFREY M. BREIWICK Introduction The fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus (Linnaeus, 1758), is the sec- ond largest of the whales

436

2000. The Journal of Arachnology 28:351352 SHORT COMMUNICATION  

E-print Network

351 2000. The Journal of Arachnology 28:351­352 SHORT COMMUNICATION ADANSONIA IS A BAOBAB TREE are familiar with the genus Ad- ansonia Linnaeus 1753, which contains the mag- nificent Baobab trees. The Baobabs are particularly prolific in Madagascar but also widely distributed in continental Africa, and one

Hormiga, Gustavo

437

Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...

438

Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.  

PubMed

Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

2003-08-01

439

Discrimination among Japanese Species of the Orius Flower Bugs (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) Based on PCR-RFLP of the Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A PCR-RFLP-based method of species identification was considered for 5 Japanese species of Orius Wolff flower bugs, Orius strigicollis (Poppius), O. minutus (Linnaeus), O. sauteri (Poppius), O. nagaii Yasunaga, and O. tantillus (Motschulsky). Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the nuclear ribosomal gene and a portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene were compared among species

Masahiko MURAJI; Kenjiro KAWASAKI; Toru SHIMIZU; Takashi NODA

2004-01-01

440

(1947-1958) Proposals to reject twelve names emanating from Loefling's Iter Hispanicum (1758), Ayenia sidiformis (Malvaceae), Cofer (Symplocaceae), Cruzeta and C. hispanica (Amaranthaceae), Edechia inermis and E. spinosa...  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pehr Loefling’s Iter Hispanicum, published posthumously in 1758 by Linnaeus, is one of the earliest sources of American plant names. However, all of these names lack original material for typification, as there were no published figures for them and Loefling’s American specimens were all apparently ...

441

Ecology 1991. P. C. WAINWRIGHT:1:,  

E-print Network

were explored in the pumpkin- seed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus. Adult pumpkinseeds feed may originate as specific responsesto the demands of novel diets. Key-words:Allometry, Lepomis gibbosus, ontogeny, phenotypicplasticity Introduction It is common for populations of a single species

Osenberg, Craig W.

442

Embryological Comparison of Lepomis macrochirus X macrochirus and Lepomis macrochirus X gibbosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and the pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), were crossed by an artificial fertilization technique. This resulted in two types of offspring; that is, Lepomis macrochirus X macrochirus and Lepomis macrochirus X gibbosus. A comparative study was made: (1) to determine the incubation time, (2) to determine the per cent hatched, (3) to compare standard length of

James Robert Heckman

1969-01-01

443

Variation in resource abundance affects diet and feeding morphology in the pumpkinseed sunfish ( Lepomis gibbosus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus; Centrarchidae) feeds extensively on molluscs, crushing them between its pharyngeal jaws. To address whether differences in mollusc availability might affect pumpkinseed diet and jaw morphology, we collected pumpkinseed from six Wisconsin lakes that varied in mollusc abundance and diversity. The percentage of molluscs in the diet increased directly with mollusc abundance. Moreover, there was

Gary G. Mittelbach; Craig W. Osenberg; Peter C. Wainwright

1992-01-01

444

Artificial Propagation of Sunfishes, with Meristic Comparisons of Three Species of Lepomis and Five of Their Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

All possible crosses among three species of sunfishes—the bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque; the redear, Lepomis microlophus (Günther); and the redbreast, Lepomis auritus (Linnaeus)—were successfully produced. One cross, female redbreast X male bluegill, was made by placing one adult of each species in a plastic pool and allowing them to spawn. The five remaining crosses were produced two to nine times

R. Oneal Smitherman; F. Eugene Hester

1962-01-01

445

The effect of environmentally induced changes in the bark of young conifers on feeding behaviour and reproductive development of adult Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young plants of Sitka spruce, Scots and Corsican pine were subject to high and low light, and high and low nitrogen treatments in a polyhouse experiment. The effect of treatments on resin duct size and nitrogen concentration in stem bark was determined together with feeding by Hylobius abietis Linnaeus on the stems of 'intact' plants and on 'detached' stems cut

D. Wainhouse; J. Staley; J. Johnston; R. Boswell

2005-01-01

446

Chromosomal Proteins of the Sperm of a Cephalochordate (Branchiostoma jloridae) and an Agnathan (Petromyzon marinus): Compositional Variability of the Nuclear Sperm Proteins of Deuterostomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized for the first time the chromosomal proteins from the nucleus of the sperm of a lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostomaflor- idae (Hubbs, 1922) (Phylum Chordata: Subphylum Cephalochordata) and of a lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus, 17 5 8) (Phylum Chordata: Subphylum Verte- brata: Class Agnatha). In the first case, the major protein component of the sperm-chromatin of a

NURIA SAPERAS; MANEL CHIVA; ENRIC RIBES; HAROLD E. KASINSKY; ELLEN ROSENBERG; JOHN H. YOUSON; JUAN AUSI

447

Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

448

Further investigations of the mite genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) from North American passerines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new syringophilid species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 are described from North American passerines: S. zonotrichia n. sp. from Zonotrichia albicolis (Gmelin) (Emberizidae) on Texas; S. jackowiaki n. sp. from Poecile carolinensis (Auduborn) (Paridae) in Texas; and S. xanthocephalus n. sp. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) (Icteridae) and S. agelaius n. sp. from Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus (Icteridae), both from Arizona. Spizella

Andre V. Bochkov; Maciej Skoracki; Sarah A. Hendricks; Greg S. Spicer

2011-01-01

449

Phylogenetic relationships among Palearctic and Nearctic burbot ( Lota lota): Pleistocene extinctions and recolonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus, 1758) is the only freshwater species from the cod family. Various taxonomic hypotheses were tested against molecular data by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome b locus of 120 burbot from 41 populations together with the related species Molva molva (ling) and Brosme brosme (tusk), which represented the other Lotinae genera. Within the genus Lota two distinct

J. K Van Houdt; B Hellemans; F. A. M Volckaert

2003-01-01

450

Notes and records Habitat use by forest mammals in Dzanga-Ndoki  

E-print Network

- ogy of African forest mammals. These include: the pres- ence of forest mammals in the grassland, abundance and habitat use of forest buffalo (Molloy, 1997; Chamberlan, Mare´chal & Maurois, 1998; Blake, Linnaeus, 1758), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus, Boddaert, 1785), bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros

Penteriani, Vincenzo

451

NATURAL HISTORY OR NATURAL SYSTEM? ENCODING THE TEXTUAL SIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dichotomy of system versus history is a time-honoured issue that has inflicted many scientific disciplines, including biology. Ever since the publication of his Systema Naturae in 1735, Carolus Linnaeus' position as father of taxonomy has been established, but his attempt at systematisation has also been severely challenged from time to time by natural historians. This paper will discuss the

Han-liang Chang

452

Zoological Studies 44(1): 81-94 (2005) * To whom correspondence and reprint request should be addressed. Tel: 351-21-7500000. Fax: 351-21-7500028. E-mail  

E-print Network

be addressed. Tel: 351-21-7500000. Fax: 351-21-7500028. E-mail: jaquartau@fc.ul.pt Cicada orni Linnaeus is one of the most abundant and common cicadas throughout the Mediterranean area, being very familiar the Black Sea (Popov 1975). This cicada is known to occur in closed high shrubland and woodland (Patterson

Seabra, Sofia G.

453

Achieving a vanishing SNR-gap to exact lattice decoding at a subexponential complexity  

E-print Network

, Petros Elia and Joakim Jald´en Abstract--The work identifies the first lattice decoding solution-eNodeBS. A. Singh and P. Elia are with the Mobile Communications Department, EURECOM, Sophia Antipolis, France (email: {singhak, elia}@eurecom.fr) J. Jald´en is with the ACCESS Linnaeus Center, Signal

Gesbert, David

454

Reproduction and life history strategies of the common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in relation to its ambient environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) is a cosmopolitan species, having been reported from a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. It has been extensively studied over the last 100 years or so, and examination of the literature reveals three striking features: (1) the presence of populations in a wide range of environmental conditions; (2) large inter-population

Cathy H. Lucas

2001-01-01

455

Ranging behaviour and habitat selection of Alpine chamois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranging behaviour and habitat selection of 23 male and 6 female adult (5–10 years old) Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus 1758) were monitored from February 2000 to December 2002, in an area of the Western Alps. The chamois were radio-located for a minimum of 4 and a maximum of 35 months, until failure of radio transmitters. A mean number of

I. Nesti; M. Posillico; S. Lovari

2010-01-01

456

Larval growth of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus , in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) were sampled in July\\/August 1985 in the Western Mediterranean Sea; they were aged by means of growth rings in the sagittal otoliths. Daily growth rings were observed and subdaily rings were visible starting with the third or fourth daily increment. The Gompertz growth equation, commonly employed in larval growth analysis, suitably describes the growth of this

I. Palomera; B. Morales-Nin; J. Lleonart

1988-01-01

457

Evolution of the common shrew Sorex araneus: chromosomal and molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review data on the chromosomal variation in the common shrew Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 in the context of recent molecular findings. The article considers all aspects of chromosomal variation in this species: within-population polymorphism, karyotypic races, hybrid zones between karyotypic races, chromosomal evolution, and speciation. The recent molecular data provide vital information on different evolutionary processes such as inbreeding,

Jan M. WÓJCIK; Jeremy B. SEARLE

2002-01-01

458

Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection\\u000a and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study,

Jimei Song; Song Hua; Kai Song; Yong Zhang

2007-01-01

459

INTRODUCTION Numerous marine animals that migrate long distances, including  

E-print Network

turtles, seabirds and marine mammals, periodically forage in unfamiliar oceanic regions along to rapidly identify favorable areas, and to concentrate foraging in such locations, might be adaptive. The loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus 1758), undergoes one of the longest and most spectacular

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

460

CHAPTER XIX MAMMALS OF THE GULF OF MEXICO  

E-print Network

of the Gulf of Mexico consists of the manatee, the West Indian seal, and \\'"arious cetaceans. In this account. Manatees Trichecus manatus Linnaeus. West Indian Manatee Harlan (1824) described the Florida manatee as different from the West Indian or South American manatee and gave it the species name la.tirostris. True

461

Enriquecimiento del pienso de dorada con quitina y paredes de levaduras con fines preventivos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventive dietary supplements of chitin and yeast wall in gilthead seabream To determine the immunomodulatory effect of the dietary intake of commercial chitin and yeast cell walls in gilthead seabream, Sparus auratus Linnaeus, 1758, specimens were fed diets containing different con- centrations of chitin or yeast cell walls for 1, 2, 4 or 6 weeks. Subsequently, their main humoral (lysozyme

A. Rodríguez; M. A. Esteban; A. Cuesta; J. Ortuño; J. Polaina; J. Meseguer

462

Ein unbekanntes Porträt von Linné in Wien  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, preserves a remarkable portrait of Carolus Linnaeus in stone. It is a scagliola made by Wolfgang Kopp in c. 1800. This work is based on a copper engraving by A. Âker- man showing the famous Swedish naturalist in profile.

H. Walter Lack

463

Impact of Genomics on the Reconstruction of Evolutionary Relationships of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria and Implications for Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. SYSTEMATICS Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linné) introduced a system of classification of plants based on overall morphological similarities among their sexual organs. He established a workable classification of living organisms in his Systema Naturae published in 1735 that resulted in the birth of modern taxonomy. The Linnaean System of classification is a hierarchy that includes the categories

P. VAN BERKUM; B. D. EARDLY

464

Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

1972-01-01

465

[Mealworm allergy].  

PubMed

A 24 year-old female employed in a pet shop developed occupationally related asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and contact urticaria caused by exposure to the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus) sold as food for birds and reptiles. A wholebody extract of the mealworm showed positive prick test and histamine release. PMID:9411975

Bygum, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C

1997-10-27

466

Aquatic Invasions (2011) Volume 6, Issue 3: 447453 doi: 10.3391/ai.2011.6.3.11  

E-print Network

species [Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. miles (Bennett, 1828): Family Scorpaenidae] are the first non- native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Despite-habitat scale lionfish occupied areas dominated by hard coral and overhanging structure; the same microhabitats

Olden, Julian D.

467

Morphology and identification of the pupae of several species of soil-dwelling broad-nosed weevils from Central Europe (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae).  

PubMed

The pupae of Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) dieckmanni Magnano, 1979, O. (s.str.) tenebricosus (Herbst, 1784) form lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, Peritelus sphaeroides Germar, 1824, Strophosoma (Neliocarus) c.f. sus Stephens, 1831 and Tanymecus (s. str.) palliatus (Fabricius, 1787) are described and illustrated for the first time. The pupae of Barypeithes (Exomias) pellucidus (Boheman, 1834), Brachyderes (s. str.) incanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Liophloeus (s. str.) tessulatus (Müller, 1776), Phyllobius intrusus Kôno, 1948 (= Parascythopus exsulans Heijerman & Magnano, 2000) and Phyllobius (s. str.) pyri (Linnaeus, 1758) are redescribed and illustrated. Characteristic features including chaetotaxy, habitus and measurements are given. Pupae of the genera Peritelus, Strophosoma, and Tanymecus are described for the first time. Keys to the pupae of 14 genera of broad-nosed weevils, and to several species of Phyllobius and Otiorhynchus are also presented. PMID:25277585

Gosik, Rafa?; Sprick, Peter

2013-01-01

468

Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic activity of three cryptoendolithic microbial communities was studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. In two of these communities, the dominant organisms were lichens, collected from Linnaeus Terrace and from Battleship Promontory. The third community, dominated by cyanobacteria, was collected from Battleship Promontory. Both sites are in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land. Previous efforts have shown how physical conditions can influence metabolic activity in endolithic communities (Kappen and Friedmann 1983; Kappen, Friedmann, and Garty 1981; Vestal, Federle, and Friedmann 1984). Biological activity can also be strongly influenced by the chemical environment. Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated. Iron and manganese are two metals present in Linnaeus Terrace and Battleship Promontory sandstones, and their effects on photosynthesis were also studied. The results may add to our understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.

Johnston, C. G.; Vestal, J. R.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

1988-01-01

469

Demodex lutrae n. sp. (Acari) in European Otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora: Mustelidae) with Data from Other Demodecid Mites in Carnivores.  

PubMed

Abstract :? This article describes morphological characteristics and occurrence of Demodex lutrae n. sp., which was found on European otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland. The new species was found in hairy regions of otter skin, mainly in the head area. With respect to morphological features, D. lutrae is most similar to D. canis (Leydig, 1859) from the domestic dog Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages average 200 ?m in length); characteristic features of these mites are hammer-shaped supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) on dorsal side of gnathosoma and palps with 3 conical spines. Demodex lutrae is the first representative of the family Demodecidae described in a host from the subfamily Lutrinae. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecid mites known from carnivores. PMID:24945076

Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek

2014-12-01

470

Five new species of Isospora from Hawaiian birds.  

PubMed

The following species are described from Hawaiian birds: Isospora brayi sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 26 micron and sporocysts 19 X 12 micron, from the Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus Temminck & Schlegel; Isospora cardinalis sp. n., with oocysts 24 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 10 micron, from the cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus); Isospora ivensae sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 25 micron, and sporocysts 18 X 12 micron, from the spotted or white-throated munia, Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus); Isospora loxopis sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 13 micron, from the amakihi or honeycreeper, Loxops virens (Gmelin); and Isospora phaeornis sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 19 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 11 micron, from the omao or Hawaiian thrush, Phaeornis obscurus (Gmelin). All the host birds belong to the order Passerorida. PMID:7452523

Levine, N D; Van Riper, S; Van Riper, C

1980-08-01

471

Further investigations of the mite genus Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) from North American passerines.  

PubMed

Four new syringophilid species of Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970 are described from North American passerines: S. zonotrichia n. sp. from Zonotrichia albicolis (Gmelin) (Emberizidae) on Texas; S. jackowiaki n. sp. from Poecile carolinensis (Auduborn) (Paridae) in Texas; and S. xanthocephalus n. sp. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte) (Icteridae) and S. agelaius n. sp. from Agelaius phoeniceus Linnaeus (Icteridae), both from Arizona. Spizella breweri (Cassin) (Emberizidae) from California is a new host for Syringophiloidus sialius Skoracki, Flannery & Spicer, 2009; and Melospiza lincolnii (Auduborn) (Emberizidae) from Texas and Vermivora ruficapilla (Wilson) (Parulidae) from California are new hosts for S. seiuri (Ckark, 1964). S. daberti Bochkov, Fain & Skoracki, 2004 from Passerina ciris Linnaeus (Cardinalidae) is recorded in the USA for the first time. A table with the host associations and distribution of all of the North American species of Syringophiloidus is given. PMID:21643897

Bochkov, Andre V; Skoracki, Maciej; Hendricks, Sarah A; Spicer, Greg S

2011-07-01

472

Role of bivalve mollusks in the sediment balance of the Anapa Bay Bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sandy beaches of Anapa Bay Bar are a unique natural resource, but they are gradually being degrade under both natural and anthropogenic factors. The emissions of sand and shelly ground from the adjacent sea bottom partly compensate for this process. The concentration of carbonates may reach up to 50% in the beach sands, and most of these carbonates are of mollusk origin. The major deposit formation role belongs to the key bivalve species: Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758). The average biomass of this mollusk species reaches up to 450 g/m2 at the depths of 5-10 m. The other two subdominating mollusk species, the bivalve Donax trunculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), may impact as 16 g/m2 and 6 g/m2, respectively. Annually, 350 kg of shelly ground per running meter are newly deposited on Anapa beach.

Kosyan, A. R.; Kucheruk, N. V.; Flint, M. V.

2012-02-01

473

[Studies on the mites(Order Acarina) in Korea: I. Suborder Sarcoptiformes  

PubMed

Acarid mites were isolated from samples collected in Seoul during the period of October 1975 to August 1978. Samples consisted of stored foods such as rice, flour, sugar, dried fishes, dusts of houses and freight offices. The identified mites were classified into 12 species belonging to 12 genera, 5 families as following lists, of which 4 species (*) are newly recorded in Korea. Family Acaridae Ewing and Nesbitt, 1942 1. Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) 2. Acarus siro Linnaeus, 1758 *3. Aleuroglyphus ovatus Troupeau, 1879 4. Suidasia nesbitti Hughes, 1948 5. Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze and Robin, 1868) 6. Caloglyphus berlesei (Michael, 1903) 7. Lardoglyphus konoi (Sasa and Asanuma, 1951) Family Carpoglyphidae Oudemans, 1972 8. Carpoglyphus lactis Linnaeus, 1927 Family Glyphagidae Berlese, 1887 9. Glycyphagus destructor (Schrank, 1781) *10. Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1903) Family Chortoglyphidae Berlese, 1897 *11. Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879) Family Pyroglyphidae Cunliffe, 1958 *12. Euroglyphus maynei (Cooremant 1950) PMID:12902723

Lee, Won Koo; Choi, Won Young

1980-12-01

474

Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one. PMID:660569

Laird, M

1978-02-01

475

Karyomorphometry on three polyploid species of Arum L. (Araceae, Aroideae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract In this study three polyploid Arum Linnaeus, 1753 species from Southern Italy were chromosomally investigated. Arum italicum Miller, 1768 was found to have 2n = 84 chromosomes and a karyotype composed of numerous asymmetric chromosomes. Arum maculatum Linnaeus, 1753 and Arum apulum (Carano) P. C. Boyce, 1993 were found to have 2n = 56 chromosomes. In the examined taxa some chromosome pairs were characterized by the presence of weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments. The karyotype morphology of Arum italicum was found to be similar to that of Arum maculatum, but the more asymmetrical karyotype and numerous weakly coloured Feulgen-stained segments observed in the former suggest the existence of more extensive rearrangements. In contrast, Arum apulum was observed to have a symmetrical karyotype. The A1, A2 and SYi karyotype asymmetry indices are presented. The relationships between these taxa in terms of karyotype morphology and evolution are discussed. PMID:24744834

Turco, Alessio; Medagli, Pietro; Albano, Antonella; D’Emerico, Saverio

2014-01-01

476

18 Sharp-tailed Grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanuchus phasianellus (Linnaeus) 1858 Other vernacular names: Brush grouse, pintail grouse, prairie grouse, prairie pheasant, sharptail, speckle-belly, spike-tail, spring-tail, whitebelly, white-breasted grouse. Range: Currently from north central Alaska, Yukon, northern Mackenzie, northern Manitoba, northern Ontario, and central Quebec south to eastern Washington, extreme eastern Oregon, Idaho, northeastern Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado, and in the Great Plains from eastern Colorado and

Paul A. Johnsgard

2008-01-01

477

Summertime activity patterns of common weasels Mustela nivalis vulgaris under differing prey abundances in grassland habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

WeaselsMustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 in Kielder Forest, UK showed a diurnal rhythm of activity in summer and we argue that this is the prevailing\\u000a rhythm found in weasels under natural conditions. Climatic conditions influenced weasel activity with weasels decreasing activity\\u000a under rainy conditions, but we found no influence of month or weasel weight. In certain habitat types levels of weasel

Miriam J. Brandt; Xavier Lambin

2005-01-01

478

Weasel Mustela nivalis spatial ranging behaviour and habitat selection in agricultural landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study on the spacing pattern of a population of weaselsMustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1758 in central Italy. We describe this pattern at spatial and habitat level, meant as a set of vegetational and\\u000a environmental features. The study area is a typical agricultural landscape, consisting of highly fragmented natural habitat\\u000a modified by thousands of years

Caterina Magrini; Emiliano Manzo; Livia Zapponi; Francesco M. Angelici; Luigi Boitani; Michele Cento

2009-01-01

479

Movement patterns of a specialist predator, the weasel Mustela nivalis exploiting asynchronous cyclic field vole Microtus agrestis populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated habitat selection and movement characteristics of male weaselsMustela nivalis Linnaeus, 1766 during the breeding season through radio-telemetry in Kielder Forest (KF) in order to assess how weasel movement\\u000a is influenced by prey dynamics, mate searching and predation risk, and whether the scale of weasel movement corresponds to\\u000a the spatial scale of the asynchronous, multi-annual vole population cycles observed

Miriam J. Brandt; Xavier Lambin

2007-01-01

480

Amplification of DNA markers from scat samples of the least weasel Mustela nivalis nivalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the feasibility of using field-collected scats as a source of DNA in the study of the least weaselMustela nivalis nivalis Linnaeus, 1766, DNA was extracted from scat samples collected from captive weasels using a modified extraction protocol.\\u000a Using universal primers, the control region of the mitochondrial genome was successfully amplified from scat-extracted DNA.\\u000a This amplification resulted in two

Rongjiang Wang; Jodie N. Painter; Ilkka Hanski

2002-01-01

481

Notes on quill mites (Acariformes, Syringophilidae) from aquatic birds in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new monobasic genus of parasitic mites, Phalarophilus fulicarius gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acariformes, Syringophilidae) is described from feather quills of Phalaropus fulicarius (Linnaeus) (Charadriiformes, Scolopacidae) from USA. Females of the new genus differs from those of the genus Bochkovia Skoracki et OConnor, by having the rounded posteriorly stylophore, edentate movable cheliceral digits, propodonotal setae\\u000a arranged 2-1-1-2, thin and smooth

Maciej Skoracki; Andre V. Bochkov; Barry M. OConnor

2011-01-01

482

Diet of free-ranging American mink and European polecat in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomach and intestine contents of 211 American minkMustela vison Schreber, 1777 from two areas (Thy and Bornholm) in Denmark and stomach contents of 47 polecatsM. putorius Linnaeus, 1758 from Thy were analysed. Sympatric mink (from Thy) preyed mostly on mammals (55% occurrence), followed by amphibians\\u000a (36%), birds (33%) and fish (30%), whereas polecat preyed mostly on amphibians (87%) and mammals

Mette Hammershøj; Erik A. Thomsen; Aksel B. Madsen

2004-01-01

483

New and little known bees of the genus Colletes Latreille 1802 (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from Central Asia.  

PubMed

In addition to a previously published study about Central Asian Colletes bees we here further report on nine rarely collected and little known species. Now 85 species of Colletes are known from this region with three of them recorded for the first time: C. asiaticus Kuhlmann 1999, C. iranicus Noskiewicz 1962 and C. succinctus (Linnaeus 1758). Colletes pseudomirabilis sp. nov. is described from Turkmenistan.  PMID:25112270

Kuhlmann, Michael; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

2014-01-01

484

Distribution and abundance of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) and its zooplankton food in the Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita Linnaeus, 1758) in the Black Sea was determined from plankton samples collected above the anoxic zone (maximum depth 200?m)\\u000a in the summer, winter and spring during 1991–1995. Distribution was patchy. Average biomass ranged from 98 to 380?g?m?2, and abundance varied from 2 to 14 individuals m?2. Biomass and abundance peaked in late spring

E. Mutlu

2001-01-01

485

Structure and function of floating bubble nests of three armoured catfishes (Callichthyidae) in relation to the aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Armoured catfishes of the family Callichthyidae are represented in Suriname by 17 small-sized fishes of the well-known genus\\u000a Corydoras (Nijssen 1970) and three larger food fishes of the genera Hoplosternum and Callichthys (Hoedeman 1952). The latter three species Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock 1828) Hoplosternum thoracatum (Cuvier and Valenciennes 1840) and Callichthys callichthys (Linnaeus 1758), are the most preferred and expensive food

Jan H. A. Mol

486

Genetic diversity and relatedness within packs in an intensely hunted population of wolves Canis lupus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population of grey wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 inhabiting Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest (BPF) on the Polish-Belarussian border has recovered after near extermination\\u000a in the 1970s. Currently, it is intensively hunted in the Belarussian part of BPF and protected in the Polish part. We used\\u000a a combination of molecular analysis, radiotracking, and field observation to study genetic diversity of the population

W?odzimierz J?drzejewski; Wojciech Branicki; Claudia Veit; Ivica Me?ugorac; Ma?gorzata Pilot; Aleksei N. Bunevich; Bogumi?a J?drzejewska; Krzysztof Schmidt; Jörn Theuerkauf; Henryk Okarma; Roman Gula; Lucyna Szymura

2005-01-01

487

Influence of grapevine cultivars on the leafhopper Empoasca vitis and its egg parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) can cause economic damage in European vineyards. Egg parasitoids, in particular Anagrus atomus (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), are the most important natural enemies of the leafhopper. In four different years, leaves\\u000a of ten grapevine cultivars, which were grown in a vineyard of north-eastern Italy, were collected at the end of the leafhopper\\u000a 2nd generation

Francesco Pavan; Patrizia Picotti

2009-01-01

488

Mechanics of prey selection by ephyrae of the scyphomedusa Aurelia aurita  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ feeding patterns of ephyrae of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) revealed the importance of relatively large (>1?mm) prey in the diet of these scyphozoan predators. These studies\\u000a were carried out in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA in March and April, from 1993 through 1996. Rotifers were the only\\u000a small prey ingested in quantity, and then only when they

B. K. Sullivan; C. L. Suchman; J. H. Costello

1997-01-01

489

Artificial propagation of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Observations on the gland products, gonads, and general characteristics of sexually mature sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), from Lake Huron, and a need to obtain some information on very young larval lampreys, prompted an experiment on the stripping and hatching of eggs. Seventeen specimens were selected from a group of spawning migrants which had been trapped in the Ocqueoc River, Michigan, during June and held in live-cars in the lake until early August.

Lennon, Robert E.

1955-01-01

490

Plant extracts, isolated phytochemicals, and plant-derived agents which are lethal to arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases--a review.  

PubMed

The recent scientific literature on plant-derived agents with potential or effective use in the control of the arthropod vectors of human tropical diseases is reviewed. Arthropod-borne tropical diseases include: amebiasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), cholera, cryptosporidiosis, dengue (hemorrhagic fever), epidemic typhus (Brill-Zinsser disease), filariasis (elephantiasis), giardia (giardiasis), human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), isosporiasis, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease (lyme borreliosis), malaria, onchocerciasis, plague, recurrent fever, sarcocystosis, scabies (mites as causal agents), spotted fever, toxoplasmosis, West Nile fever, and yellow fever. Thus, coverage was given to work describing plant-derived extracts, essential oils (EOs), and isolated chemicals with toxic or noxious effects on filth bugs (mechanical vectors), such as common houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus), American and German cockroaches (Periplaneta americana Linnaeus, Blatella germanica Linnaeus), and oriental latrine/blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius) as well as biting, blood-sucking arthropods such as blackflies (Simulium Latreille spp.), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothschild), kissing bugs (Rhodnius Stål spp., Triatoma infestans Klug), body and head lice (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus, P. humanus capitis De Geer), mosquitoes (Aedes Meigen, Anopheles Meigen, Culex L., and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribálzaga spp.), sandflies (Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, Phlebotomus Loew spp.), scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, S. scabiei var hominis, S. scabiei var canis, S. scabiei var suis), and ticks (Ixodes Latreille, Amblyomma Koch, Dermacentor Koch, and Rhipicephalus Koch spp.). Examples of plant extracts, EOs, and isolated chemicals exhibiting noxious or toxic activity comparable or superior to the synthetic control agents of choice (pyrethroids, organophosphorous compounds, etc.) are provided in the text for many arthropod vectors of tropical diseases. PMID:21432748

Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Rezende, Alex Ribeiro; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

2011-04-01

491

John Clayton Herbarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the early collectors of plant specimens, John Clayton (1694-1773), has gained historical fame through his specimens, which were studied in Europe by the Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus. The Natural History Museum (London) hosts the John Clayton Herbarium homepage, providing historical information on John Clayton, a searchable database of Clayton's specimens (shown as JPEG images), a concise bibliography, and links to other historical botanical collections.

492

Climate records from a bivalved Methuselah ( Arctica islandica, Mollusca; Iceland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured annual shell growth rates of a 374-year-old (radiometrically confirmed) bivalve mollusk specimen of Arctica islandica (Linnaeus). This bivalve represents the oldest ever reported individual animal. In addition, we analyzed 1051 individual powder samples from ontogenetic years two to 40 (=80% of the entire shell height) for isotope analyses. Oxygen and carbon isotopes exhibit clear intra-annual cycles. The highest

Bernd R. Schöne; Jens Fiebig; Miriam Pfeiffer; Renald Gle?; Jonathan Hickson; Andrew L. A. Johnson; Wolfgang Dreyer; Wolfgang Oschmann

2005-01-01

493

A new species of Xorides Latreille (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Xoridinae) parasitizing Pterolophia alternata (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in  Robinia pseudoacacia.  

PubMed

A new species is described, Xorides benxicus Sheng, sp. n., reared from the cerambycid twig-boring pest of Robinia pseudoacacia Linnaeus, Pterolophia alternata Gressitt, 1938, in Benxi County, Liaoning Province, China. A key is given to the species similar to Xorides benxicus Sheng, namely Xorides asiasius Sheng & Hilszcza?ski, 2009, Xorides cinnabarius Sheng & Hilszcza?ski, 2009 and Xorides sapporensis (Uchida, 1928). PMID:23275750

Sheng, Mao-Ling; Zhao, Rui-Xing; Sun, Shu-Ping

2012-01-01

494

Effects of Copper Sulfate on Typha latifolia Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Aqueous and Sediment Exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vascular macrophyte Typha latifolia Linnaeus (common cattail) may be a sentinel for evaluating potential phytotoxicity to rooted aquatic macrophytes in aquatic\\u000a systems. To further evaluate the potential utility of this species, T. latifolia seed germination, shoot growth, and root elongation were measured in 7-day aqueous exposures using mean measured aqueous\\u000a copper concentrations of 10.0, 23, 41, 62, 174, and

S. L. Muller; D. B. Huggett

2001-01-01

495

Punctuationism, cladistics and the legacy of medieval neoplatonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current dominant orthoxy in paleoanthropology has adopted the stance of cladistics and\\/or punctuationism and abandonned\\u000a any concern for the mechanics by which selection has operated to control the course of human evolution. Rather than being\\u000a a «new» intellectual development, this is simply the most recent manifestation of a tradition of thinking that goes back via\\u000a Linnaeus to medieval scholasticism

C. L. Brace

1988-01-01

496

Wild hybrids of Lesser White-fronted Goose ( Anser erythropus)×Greater White-fronted Goose ( A. albifrons) (Aves: Anseriformes) from the European migratory flyway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lesser White-fronted Goose [Anser erythropus (Linnaeus, 1758)] is one of the most threatened Palearctic goose species, with the Fennoscandinavian subpopulation in particular having seen a drastic decline over the last century. In the 1990s, captive-bred Lesser White-fronted Geese were used successfully for reintroduction and restocking in Sweden and Finland. The discovery of Greater White-fronted Goose [Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769)

Vincent Nijman; Mansour Aliabadian

2010-01-01