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1

Insulation Degradation Diagnostic Technology to XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XLPE power cables have been in use for long time now and some of them are approaching 30 years of their designed lifetime. However, under the present severe economic situation, it is necessary to use the existing apparatus as long as possible. So, degradation diagnostic methods with high reliability are needed earnestly. This paper explains the insulation degradation mechanism of XLPE power cables and the newest diagnostic methods on each voltage class. In 3.3-77kV classes, fairly high extents of the cable accidents depend on the water-tree degradation. For 3.3-6.6kV class cables, on-line diagnostic methods with high reliability to detect bridged water-trees have been developed and put in practical use. And, for 22-77kV classes, two promising off-line diagnostic methods to detect un-bridged water-trees have begun to carry out in on-site tests.

Uchida, Katsumi; Okamoto, Tatsuki

2

Transient response of transformer with XLPE insulation cable winding design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in XLPE insulation cables that have higher electric field strength withstand capability have made it possible to apply these high voltage (HV) cables as windings in generators and transformers. Therefore, the recent advent of HV generator (Powerformer) that can be connected directly to the power transmission line has motivated the design of HV transformer (Dryformer) that performs one

M. J. Manyahi; M. Leijon; R. Thottappillil

2005-01-01

3

Electrical-breakdown characteristics and testing of high-voltage XLPE- and EPR-insulated cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Threshold voltages and other basic breakdown characteristics, spanning times from microseconds to cable life expectancy, were determined for cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables. These results are based upon measurements of 60Hz, high frequency, impulse, and impulse with dc bias voltages. Based on the breakdown characteristics an improved, procedure for the factory testing of full-reels of polymeric insulated cables and for 2 year qualification testing of XLPE cables is proposed. This procedure can help assure proper performance of cables throughout their service life.

Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.; Eaton, R.; Klein, K.

1982-10-01

4

Effect of tree channel conductivity on electrical tree shape and breakdown in XLPE cable insulation samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an investigation into electrical tree growth in XLPE cable insulation using an embedded needle electrode are reported for a range of voltages from 9 kV rms to 27 kV rms. The partial discharge (PD) activity and tree structures were measured simultaneously throughout the tree growth and the trees were recorded from initiation up to and including the

Xiangrong Chen; Yang Xu; Xiaolong Cao; S. J. Dodd; L. A. Dissado

2011-01-01

5

Analysis of electrical tree propagation in XLPE power cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical treeing is one of the major breakdown mechanisms for solid dielectrics subjected to high electrical stress. In this paper, the characteristics of electrical tree growth in XLPE samples have been investigated. XLPE samples are obtained from a commercial XLPE power cable, in which electrical trees have been grown from pin to plane in the frequency range of 4000-10,000 Hz, voltage range of 4-10 kV, and the distances between electrodes of 1 and 2 mm. Images of trees and their growing processes were taken by a CCD camera. The fractal dimensions of electric trees were obtained by using a simple box-counting technique. The results show that the tree growth rate and fractal dimension was bigger when the frequency or voltage was higher, or the distance between electrodes was smaller. Contrary to our expectation, it has been found that when the distance between electrodes changed from 1 to 2 mm, the required voltage of the similar electrical trees decreased only 1or 2 kV. In order to evaluate the difficulties of electrical tree propagation in different conditions, a simple energy threshold analysis method has been proposed. The threshold energy, which presents the minimum energy that a charge carrier in the well at the top of the tree should have to make the tree grow, has been computed considering the length of electrical tree, the fractal dimension, and the growth time. The computed results indicate that when one of the three parameters of voltage, frequency, and local electric field increase, the trends of energy threshold can be split into 3 regions.

Bao, Minghui; Yin, Xiaogen; He, Junjia

2011-04-01

6

Service Life Estimation Technique of Oxidized XLPE Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

XLPE which is the insulator of the XLPE cable will be oxidized by heat. But, an accident caused by oxidized XLPE has hardly reported until now. Therefore, oxidization of XLPE hasn’t been regard as important. But recently we found that XLPE cable used for a long time could break down due to the oxidization of XLPE by simulation result. So, we developed the service life estimation technique of oxidized XLPE cables used FT-IR.

Hatanaka, Masaki; Nakade, Masahiko; Hirose, Takafumi; Sugimoto, Syuu; Namiki, Yukihiko

7

Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

8

An Evaluation of High Frequency Acceleration Test at XLPE Cable’s Insulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated whether a high frequency acceleration method has validity at the degradation of XLPE in case of no influence of water for realizing a lifetime test at near the operating electric field. The tests was carried out at 50Hz, 1000Hz, and 3000Hz frequency using Recessed specimen and the specimen under Needle-plane electrode system, time-to-breakdown was measured. A clear property of frequency acceleration was checked in both results of tests, and the validity of the frequency acceleration technique was shown. And we realize that frequency acceleration factor is lower than the frequency ratio at both tests of specimens. We think the reason is that the amount of accumulation of the space charge per cycle at a defect or a tree tip at high frequency is less than the accumulation at 50Hz. Moreover, tree growth time effects at the time to breakdown of Needle-plane system specimen, but it effects a little at Recessed specimen, so there is difference of acceleration rate between both specimens. The lifetime exponent of V-t characteristic, n, increases at a 3000Hz examination, so it is suggested that n has a frequency dependence.

Iwasaki, Kimihiro; Nakade, Masahiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tanimoto, Mihoko; Okashita, Minoru; Ito, Kazumi

9

The characteristics of electrical trees in the inner and outer layers of different voltage rating XLPE cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical initiation and propagation characteristics of electrical trees in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables with different voltage ratings from 66 to 500 kV were investigated under a constant test voltage of 50 Hz/7 kV (the 66 kV rating cable is from UK, the others from China). It was found that the characteristics of electrical trees in the inner region of 66 kV cable insulation differed considerably from those in the outer region under the same test conditions; however, no significant differences appeared in the 110 kV rating cable and above. The initiation time of electrical trees in both the inner and the outer regions of the 66 kV cable is much shorter than that in higher voltage rating cables; in addition the growth rate of electrical trees in the 66 kV cable is much larger than that in the higher voltage rating cables. By using x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry methods, it was revealed that besides the extrusion process, the molecular weight of base polymer material and its distribution are the prime factors deciding the crystallization state. The crystallization state and the impurity content are responsible for the resistance to electrical trees. Furthermore, it was proposed that big spherulites will cooperate with high impurity content in enhancing the initiation and growth processes of electrical trees via the 'synergetic effect'. Finally, dense and small spherulites, high crystallinity, high purity level of base polymer material and super-clean production processes are desirable for higher voltage rating cables.

Xie, Ansheng; Li, Shengtao; Zheng, Xiaoquan; Chen, George

2009-06-01

10

Understanding Electrical Treeing Phenomena in XLPE Cable Insulation Adopting UHF Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major cause for failure of underground cables is due to formation of electrical trees in the cable insulation. A variety of tree structure can form from a defect site in cable insulation viz bush-type trees, tree-like trees, fibrillar type trees, intrinsic type, depending on the applied voltage. Weibull studies indicate that a higher applied voltage enhances the rate of tree propagation thereby reducing the life of cable insulation. Measurements of injected current during tree propagation indicates that the rise time and fall time of the signal is of few nano seconds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the partial discharges caused due to inception and propagation of electrical trees adopting UHF technique. It is realized that UHF signal generated during tree growth have signal bandwidth in the range of 0.5-2.0 GHz. The formation of streamer type discharge and Townsend type discharges during tree inception and propagation alters the shape of the tree formed. The UHF signal generated due to partial discharges formed during tree growth were analyzed adopting Ternary plot, which can allow one to classify the shape of tree structure formed.

Sarathi, Ramanujam; Nandini, Arya; Danikas, Michael G.

2011-03-01

11

Role of semiconducting compounds in the premature aging of XLPE cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clean, crosslinked polyethylene insulating material was sandwiched between two parallel layers of semiconducting shield compound in test cells which simulated extruded medium-voltage cables. Four commercial and four experimental semiconducting compounds were used. Cells were aged at 60 Hz, with a stress of 2.6 kV\\/mm (65 V\\/mil) or 3.4 kV\\/mm (85 V\\/mil), with one shielding layer exposed to air and

M. S. Mashikian; J. H. Groeger; S. Dale; E. Ildstad

1988-01-01

12

Microstructural characterization of XLPE electrical insulation in power cables: determination of void size distributions using TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to progress in our understanding of the ageing mechanisms of high voltage cables submitted to electrical and thermal stresses, we present a quantitative study of voids, the defects which are considered to be partly responsible for cable failure. We propose a method based on large data sets of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of replicated samples allowing for the determination of void concentration distribution as a function of void size in the mesoscopic to microscopic range at any point in the cable insulation. A theory is also developed to calculate the effect of etching on the apparent size of the voids observed. We present the first results of this sort ever obtained on two industrial cables, one of which was aged in an AC field. Results clearly indicate that a much larger concentration of voids occur near the inner semiconductor compared to the bulk of the insulation, independently of ageing. An effect of ageing can also be seen near the inner semiconductor, resulting in an increase in the total void internal surface area and a slight shift of the concentration curve towards larger voids, with the peak moving from about 40 nm to about 50 nm.

Markey, L.; Stevens, G. C.

2003-10-01

13

Electron spin resonance spectral study of PVC and XLPE insulation materials and their life time analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron spin resonance (ESR) study is carried out to characterize thermal endurance of insulating materials used in power cable industry. The presented work provides ESR investigation and evaluation of widely used cable insulation materials, namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The results confirm the fact that PVC is rapidly degrades than XLPE. The study also indicates that colorants and cable's manufacturing processes enhance the thermal resistance of the PVC. It also verifies the powerfulness and the importance of the ESR-testing of insulation materials compared to other tests assumed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 216-procedure, e.g. weight loss (WL), electric strength (ES) or tensile strength (TS). The estimated thermal endurance parameters by ESR-method show that the other standard methods overestimate these parameters and produce less accurate thermal life time curves of cable insulation materials.

Morsy, M. A.; Shwehdi, M. H.

2006-03-01

14

Electron spin resonance spectral study of PVC and XLPE insulation materials and their life time analysis.  

PubMed

Electron spin resonance (ESR) study is carried out to characterize thermal endurance of insulating materials used in power cable industry. The presented work provides ESR investigation and evaluation of widely used cable insulation materials, namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The results confirm the fact that PVC is rapidly degrades than XLPE. The study also indicates that colorants and cable's manufacturing processes enhance the thermal resistance of the PVC. It also verifies the powerfulness and the importance of the ESR-testing of insulation materials compared to other tests assumed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 216-procedure, e.g. weight loss (WL), electric strength (ES) or tensile strength (TS). The estimated thermal endurance parameters by ESR-method show that the other standard methods overestimate these parameters and produce less accurate thermal life time curves of cable insulation materials. PMID:16024271

Morsy, M A; Shwehdi, M H

2006-03-01

15

Investigation in to growth of electrical trees in XLPE cables under transient voltages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study about inception, propagation and termination of electrical trees in XLPE cable insulation. They address the problem relating to development of electrical trees under various transient voltage profiles and detail the method of generating the experimental database. Also the physico-chemical changes in the treed zone are analysed using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and through Fourier Transform Infra-red

R. Sarathi; K. Sridhar

1998-01-01

16

The Impulse Strength of Naturally Aged XLPE Cables Containing Water Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of impulse-voltage tests on 15 kV crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cables with a taped conductor strand shield which have been in service for eight years are reported. The tests were performed with the insulation dry and also containing visible water trees at conductor temperatures of 25° and 90°C. The impulse strength is significantly lower at the higher temperature and

R. J. Densley

1978-01-01

17

Approach for Wide Use of Diagnostic Method for XLPE Cables Using Harmonics in AC Loss Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 130 lines. In case of cable lines terminated at gas-insulated switchgear (GIS), we have to remove the lightning arrestor (LA) and the potential transformer (PT) out of the test circuit. The reason is that we are afraid that each of LA and PT disturbs the degradation signal from cable lines. It takes extra time (1 or 2 days) and costs more to remove LA and PT in GIS out of a circuit. In order to achieve easy and reasonable diagnosis, we have developed a new method for cable lines terminated at GIS, by utilizing a technique, which enables to reduce signal of LA and PT from disturbed signal of cable lines. We confirmed the effect of the new method by experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

18

Development of prefabricated joint for 275-kV XLPE cable  

SciTech Connect

Application of XLPE cables to extra-high-voltage (EHV) transmission lines is expanding due to its excellent electrical properties and ease of maintenance, and 275-kV long-distance underground transmission lines are reaching the stage of practical utility. Extrusion molded joints (EMJs) are widely used as the XLPE cable joint for EHV transmission lines. However, EMJs have presented problems because of their insulation, which are formed on site through extruding and molding of crosslinkable PE as like as the cable, need for long time installation on site and higher jointing technique. The prefabricated joints (PJs), which are already applied for 154-kV transmission line, are installed on site by using the parts manufactured and tested in the factory, they require shorter installation environment. This report introduces the results obtained regarding the improvement of electrical property, workability and the performance of PJs, designed for 275-kV XLPE cable. These joints are planned to be used for 275-kV transmission lines from 1995.

Nakanishi, Yutaka; Fujimori, Akiharu [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Fukunaga, Sadao [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, Teruyoshi [Furukawa Electric, Ltd., Chiba (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric, Ltd., Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, Masayuki [Hitachi Cable, Ltd. (Japan)] [Hitachi Cable, Ltd. (Japan); Shiseki, Nobuo [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ando, Kenichi [Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd., Saitama (Japan)] [Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

1995-07-01

19

Improvement of impulse breakdown strength of an XLPE cable by modifing semiconducting layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique was investigated which reduces insulation thickness by improving breakdown strength of XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) cables, using additives to improve interfaces of semiconducting layers, in order to restrain construction cost. Miniature model cables of 1mm insulation thick, 2mm diameter of inner semiconducting layer were manufactured. An additive was included in the semiconducting layer of each miniature cable to improve the interface with the insulating layer. The strength of dielectric breakdown was measured by testing of the impulsive pressure with lightning. The results of the impulse breakdown test show a rise in breakdown strength, indicating the effective function to make interface defects harmless. Based on the results of a previous report, a specific kind of additive which has an excellent function to improve both ac and impulse breakdown strength was selected. Additives used in this test are mainly nonionic surface active agents such as polyglyceric fatty acid esters.

Hozumi, N.; Okamoto, T.; Ishida, M.

1988-09-01

20

Analysis of the XLPE Insulation of Distribution Covered Conductors in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been the most common insulation applied to medium voltage covered conductors (MVCCs) in Brazil. The results of accelerated aging tests carried out at high voltage laboratory of UNIFEI (LAT-EFEI), combining the stresses of heat and voltage to ground aiming at enhancing surface corona activity assays, have identified the early failures in XLPE insulations of the Brazilian MVCCs. The observed failures indicate that complementary studies should be performed to better understand the degradation mechanisms of the MVCCs insulations manufactured in Brazil. In this paper, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle analysis (CA), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on samples of five Brazilian national/regional MVCCs are reported. XPS, CA, and PAS analysis indicated that a large variety of oxygen-containing groups associated to the oxidation of the XLPE insulations appear to be related to the manufacturing conditions. AFM analysis indicated that the average surface roughness and topography of the XLPE insulation changed significantly and depend on the selected manufacturer. XRD analysis indicates a strong heterogeneity of crystals nucleation that results into different degrees of crystallinity of the Brazilian MVCCs cables. The results of this work indicate strong evidences of manufacturing defects in the XLPE insulation of Brazilian's MVCCs. The origin of these defects seems to be inherent to the technology used by manufacturers to the production of the MVCCs. The production-related defects are not detectable by the standard tests as partial discharges or even the standard routine—acceptance power frequency assays routinely used in dielectric compatibility tests at high voltage laboratories.

Nóbrega, A. M.; Martinez, M. L. B.; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

2014-03-01

21

Aging diagnostics of power transmission cable insulation by fluorescence techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of spectroscopic investigations have been conducted on Conductor Products, Inc. Distribution cable, with cross-linked polyethylene as the insulation, subjected to accelerated aging tests. The principal finding of the study is that measurement of the ratio of XLPE inherent fluorescence at 580 and 650 nm, under 514.5 nm Ar-laser excitation, provides a means of determining remaining cable life. Penetration

F. M. Wu; D. M. Kulawansa; M. Solonenko; L. L. Hatfield; E. R. Menzel

1994-01-01

22

Compact Joint for 154kV Class XLPE and Oil-filled Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint of XLPE and Oil-filled cable is necessary and indispensable to meet the switch needs in replacing the oil-filled cable along with making of the underground power transmission system. However, because only connected space of the joint for the oil-filled cable is secured in narrow space of the existing manhole, the problem might be brought up to construction in the structure of the old model from the size and weight. Then, the compact joint that had reduced by about 80% of a structural size so far was developed by applying the high electric field technology according to making of EHV XLPE cable and the joint.

Gotoh, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mituyama, Yasuichi; Niinobe, Hiroshi

23

Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

24

The effect of dc poling duration on space charge relaxation in virgin XLPE cable peelings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dc poling time upon the time-dependent decay of space charge in insulation peelings of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable that had not previously experienced either electrical or thermal stressing is investigated. Two dc poling durations were used, 2 h and 26 h at an electric field of 50 kV mm-1 and at ambient temperature. Space charge was measured in the two samples investigated both during space charge accumulation and throughout its subsequent decay. The results show that the length of dc poling plays an important role in the subsequent decay. Despite the fact that both samples have had the same amount of space charge by the end of both short and long poling durations the time dependence of the space charge decay is different. Most of the charge stored in the sample that had experienced the short time poling decays rapidly after voltage removal. On the other hand, the charge that is stored in the sample with the long dc poling duration decays slowly and its decay occurs in two stages. The data, which are analysed by means of the de-trapping theory of space charge decay, imply that the charge stored in the material has occupied energy states with different trap depth ranges. The two poling durations lead to different relative amounts of charge in each of the two trap depth ranges. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

Tzimas, Antonios; Rowland, Simon M.; Dissado, Leonard A.; Fu, Mingli; Nilsson, Ulf H.

2010-06-01

25

A Study on the Actual Failure Situation of XLPE Cable and the Order of Priority of Degradation Diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the statics of dielectric breakdown failures caused by water tree degradation in 6 kV XLPE cables using the Hazard Analysis. The data used in this report are actual situation of XLPE cables. The data are classified by conductor size. The failure rates were calculated, and are different according to the conductor size. Furthermore, the failure rates were calculated based on the information of conductor size, cable length and cable age in this report, resulting that the order of the priority of degradation diagnosis can be made quantitatively.

Takeda, Toshinao; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Hisao; Morikawa, Masayuki

26

Fully synthetic taped insulation cables  

DOEpatents

A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

1984-01-01

27

Electrochemical-treeing (ECT) structures in high-voltage cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing and microscope techniques were used to study the influence on ECT conditions of the type of insulation and of the crosslinking technique. The ECT-structures produced under laboratory conditions resembled those found in cables after years of service. Results show that stressing field strength has an accelerating influence. Frequency, type of electrolyte and conductor material have no influence. The moisture content of the insulation and of the surroundings influence the growth of ECT-structures. The electrical breakdown strength of PE- and XLPE-Insulated model cables decreases with duration of water immersion and of electrical prestressing.

Henkel, H. J.; Mueller, N.; Kalkner, W.; Hans, H.; Sander, G.; Vanolshausen, R.; Vogel, U.

1983-05-01

28

Fully synthetic taped insulation cables  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

1983-07-15

29

Innovation on Energy Power Technology(5)A History on Development of 500kV XLPE Cable for Long Distance Power Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history in the development of 500kV XLPE cable, especially the struggles in the development work and field application by the engineers has been described in this article. Power cables are one of the large-sized industrial products; however, 500kV XLPE cable requires very sophisticated and fine technologies in its realization. On the way to the goal of its realization, engineers had many struggles against never-experienced subjects and finally they could overcome such difficulties. Field application of 500kV XLPE cable, including installation and jointing, had been established based on the much effort of many engineers.

Tanaka, Hideo

30

Development of Y-branch Joint for 275kV XLPE and Fluid Filled Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a new UHV substation is built in an urban region, generally, an existing underground transmission line shall be diverted and drawn into the new substation. Compared with above mentioned construction method, enormous cost reduction of switching facilities and cable construction is expected with applying a Y-Branch Joint (YJ) which is able to be a 3-way joint. The YJ has already been applied for 154kV class circuit, however, it has not been investigated for 275kV class circuit. Since both XLPE and Fluid-Filled cable are presently used in 275kV class underground cable line, an universal design YJ for both cables have been investigated. The YJ was applied a compact design which was based on our sophisticated electrical stress control technology for 500kV prefabricated type joint. Furthermore, the design was based on its prefabricated assembling technology. The YJ was verified its electrical and mechanical performance as 275kV cable joint by completion of its assembling test and a long term electrical test.

Goto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Makoto; Sakamaki, Masatoshi

31

Electrical conduction of a XLPE nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resistivity, breakdown strength, and formation of space charges are very important factors for insulation design of HVDC cable. It is known that a nano-sized metal-oxide inorganic filler reduces the formation of space charges in the polymer nanocomposite. Electrical conduction of cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE) nanocomposite insulating material is investigated in this paper. The conduction currents of two kinds of XLPE nanocomposites and XLPE without nano-filler were measured at temperature of 303 ~ 363 K under the applied electric fields of 10 ~ 50 kV/mm. The current of the nanocomposite specimen is smaller than that of XLPE specimen without nano-filler. The conduction mechanism may be explained in terms of Schottky emission and multi-core model.

Park, Yong-Jun; Sim, Jae-Yong; Lim, Kee-Joe; Nam, Jin-Ho; Park, Wan-Gi

2014-07-01

32

Effect of dc testing on extruded cross-linked polyethylene insulated cables  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to investigate the effect of dc testing on extruded crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables. A series of experiments were conducted in the laboratory, where the samples were aged under accelerated conditions of 60 Hz, 150 v/mil, nominal 90[degree]C conductor temperature load cycled daily, with tap water in the conductor strands and outside of the sample. DC test voltages at the factory level (70 kV), at the field proof level (55 kV), and the maintenance level (40 kV) were employed. The effect of dc testing on unaged and aged cables was studied using ac breakdown strength measured periodically and time to failure as criteria for life. The test program also encompassed aged and new cables spliced together. The effect of dc on such systems was investigated. Application of dc factory, proof and maintenance testing did not affect the ac breakdown strength. DC acceptance (maintenance level of 40 kV for 15 minutes) testing of aged XLPE insulated cables reduces its remaining life. DC voltage testing at 40 kV of XLPE cable that failed during ac aging reduces its remaining life, when subjected further to ac voltage after splicing with a new cable section. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a probable existence of an inflection point in the aging time, beyond which cables subjected to multiple dc voltage applications during aging start to fail at an increased rate. DC testing of new cable at factory level (70 kV) does not cause any reduction in its service life. Water tree growth appears to increase upon dc testing. Recommendations are made to operating utility companies not to do dc acceptance (proof or maintenance) testing at 40 kV on XLPE insulated cables, failed once in service and then spliced. DC testing can be done at 55 kV in the field on a new cable prior to energizing when there is no aged cable spliced in the system.

Srinivas, N.N. (Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States)); Duffy, E.K.; Starrett, W. (Essex Cable Co., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-01-01

33

Development of cold-shrinkable joints with silicone rubber sleeve for 110-230 kV XLPE cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

One piece, pre-molded joints have been used all over the world for extra high voltage (EHV) XLPE cables. For those pre-molded joints, ethylene-propylene rubber has mainly been applied for many years. We have succeeded to apply a new cold-shrink technology on those pre-molded joints with using silicone rubber that has lower elasticity, better mechanical properties, such as lower permanent set.

D. Muto; S. Kobayashi; S. Tanaka; M. Suetsugu

2002-01-01

34

Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

35

46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable insulation tests. 111.60-21...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power...

2010-10-01

36

The Application of Novel Polypropylene to the Insulation of Electric Power Cable (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having higher melting temperature than polyethylene, polypropylene has been expected as insulation material for power cable. But isotactic polypropylene used generally is unsuitable as cable insulation because it shows poor flexibility, low breakdown strength due to growing spherulites, and so on. But stereoregular syndiotactic polypropylene (s-PP) newly developed with metallocene catalyst shows quite different properties from i-PP. The authors had investigated the basic properties of s-PP and the initial properties as a cable which was manufactured using s-PP insulation, in the previous paper. As the results of this, it was revealed that s-PP had superior thermal and electrical properties to cross-linked polyethylene and the s-PP insulation cable showed satisfactory initial properties. However, in order to apply to an actual cable, the properties must be maintainable over 30 years after construction. In this paper, we estimated the long term and remaining properties for s-PP insulation cable. A series of experiments on long term properties gave following results. (1) S-PP cable shows longer life over 30 years. (2) The breakdown strength of s-PP cable after long term experiment equal to 30 years is slightly lower than initial breakdown strength, but it’s sufficient as remaining property. Furthermore, water-tree resistivity of s-PP was investigated and it was revealed that s-PP significantly suppressed the water tree propagation compared with XLPE. These results suggested that s-PP cable would be available as next generation cable.

Kurahashi, Kiyoshi; Matsuda, Yoshiji; Miyashita, Yoshitsugu; Demura, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Asakiyo; Yoshino, Katsumi

37

Direct-detect Type Residual Charge Method with Short-term Voltage Up-down for Water Tree Deterioration Diagnosis in XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the unique type of deterioration in XLPE cable, which is the primary cause of aging breakdown. Water tree, which bridges between conductor and shield, can be detected easily, such as DC leakage current method. However, 22kV class or above XLPE cable, most of breakdown occurs before water tree bridges, and there used to be no effective method for detecting non-bridged water tree. In this paper, we've found residual charge in harmful water tree relaxes quickly with AC voltage application. To detect this type of residual charge, we've developed new diagnosis method with “direct-detect type residual charge method" and “short-term voltage up-down method". This new method found to be very effective for diagnosing over 22kV class XLPE cable lines.

Ootaka, Iwao; Aoki, Masaru; Togashi, Hirotaka; Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko

38

Laser-excited fluorescence and fluorescence probes for diagnosing bulk damage in cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser excited fluorescence (LEF) and fluorescence probes have been used to observe bulk damage in aged cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation of power transmission cable. 'Water trees' in the shape of bow-ties (50 micrometers to 1 mm) and striations near the cable core were observed under a microscope when the aged XLPE samples were irradiated by an Argon-ion laser. Changes in the bulk fluorescence of samples subjected to various aging conditions were observed as well. XLPE samples could be bulk-stained by soaking them in solutions of fluorescent dyes such as rhodamine 6G, Acridine Yellow G, resorufin and Nile Red in order to probe and highlight defects under similar LEF conditions. Resorufin proved useful for preferential staining of the water-trees making them flagrantly visible. Rhodamine 6G and Acridine Yellow G soaked samples provided evidence of chemical and/or physical changes surrounding these trees: A halo arising from dye fluorescence quenching could be observed surrounding the trees. The chemical and spectroscopic properties of fluorescent probes may provide insight into chemical/physical features of observed defects.

Ordonez, Ishmael D.; Crafton, J.; Murdock, R. H.; Hatfield, Lynn L.; Menzel, E. R.

1991-04-01

39

Pulse Response Measurement Aiming for Locating Water Tree Degradation in XLPE Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water treeing is a degradation mode of power cable with polymeric insulation. A water tree is composed of small droplets filled with water. As the conductivity in water tree is very high, it leads to dielectric breakdown when it grows up. As inside of the water tree is filled with trap sites, it is polarized with a certain distribution of relaxation time when a DC poling voltage is applied. Although its depolarization process after removing the poling voltage is determined by ambient temperature, applying a “depolarizing voltage” with the opposite polarity can accelerate the process. If a short pulse propagating through the cable is employed as a depolarization voltage, we may locate the water tree through looking at the time-resolved pulse response. This would lead to a diagnosing method with spatial resolution. In order to retain 100 m of spatial resolution, the response should be as sharp as 1 ?s. As a preliminary study, a coaxial communication cable was aged to form water trees. A DC poling voltage was applied followed by a pulse voltage with opposite polarity. The rising time of the pulse was several hundreds of microseconds. A sharp pulse current response with 50 ?s in width was observed, suggesting that a rapid depolarization took place. No such response was seen when the cable specimen was not aged. We concluded that the technique is quite feasible. As the response was found to be as quick as several microseconds, an experiment using 405 m-long cable, with 5 m of degraded length in the middle, was performed. It was shown that the degraded point was successfully located.

Hiei, Susumu; Hozumi, Naohiro; Kurihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Uchida, Katsumi; Tsuji, Taizo

40

The Application of Novel Polypropylene to the Insulation of Electric Power Cable (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors had investigated the basic properties of newly developed stereoregular syndiotactic polypropylene (s-PP) which had been synthesized with homogeneous metallocene catalyst, in the previous paper. As the result of this, it was revealed that s-PP had superior thermal and electrical properties to cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) which was adopted as conventional insulating material for high voltage power cable. In this paper, we estimated the possibility to apply s-PP to the actual power cable from the viewpoint of long-term thermal durability and processability. Consequently, it was found that the thermal stability of s-PP could be significantly improved by adding both hindered phenol and sulfur antioxidants, and wide molecular weight distribution of s-PP contributed to good processability during extrusion. On the basis of these results, 600V and 22kV class cables with insulation of s-PP were manufactured. Successfully manufactured cables proposed that s-PP could be available to electric power cable. Lightning Impulse and AC breakdown strength of both cables at the temperature range of RT to 120°C will be discussed.

Miyashita, Yoshitsugu; Demura, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Asakiyo; Someya, Akira; Kawahigashi, Masaki; Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Yoshiji; Kurahashi, Kiyoshi; Yoshino, Katsumi

41

Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 °C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki

2011-02-01

42

Development of radiation resistant electrical cable insulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two new polyethylene cable insulations have been formulated for nuclear applications and have been tested under gamma radiation. Both insulations are based on low density polyethylene, one with PbO and the other with Sb2O3 as additives. The test results show that the concept of using inorganic antioxidants to retard radiation initiated oxidation (RIO) is viable. PbO is more effective than Sb2O3 in minimizing RIO.

Lee, B. S.; Soo, P.; Mackenzie, D. R.

1994-01-01

43

Propylene based systems for high voltage cable insulation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) remains the material of choice for extruded high voltage cables, possessing excellent thermo-mechanical and electrical properties. However, it is not easily recyclable posing questions as to its long term sustainability. Whilst both polyethylene and polypropylene are widely recycled and provide excellent dielectric properties, polypropylene has significantly better mechanical integrity at high temperatures than polyethylene. However, while isotactic polypropylene is too stiff at room temperature for incorporation into a cable system, previous studies by the authors have indicated that this limitation can be overcome by using a propylene-ethylene copolymer. Whilst these previous studies considered unrelated systems, the current study aims to quantify the usefulness of a series of related random propylene-ethylene co-polymers and assesses their potential for replacing XLPE.

Hosier, I. L.; Cozzarini, L.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

2009-08-01

44

A new diagnosis of the XLPE insulation with water treeing by space charge measurements with the thermal step method and water nuclear magnetic resonance imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the XLPE insulation degraded by water trees by water inception through external cracks in the PVC sheath has been studied by different techniques. Classical techniques has been used as the optical microscope examination of water trees after coloration, FT-IR mapping of cut thin films but also with other methods of investigation as space charges measurement by the

J. Castellon; S. Agnell; A. Toureille; G. Platbrood; P. Adriaensens; R. Carleer; D. Vangulick

2005-01-01

45

Elucidation for Electro-chemical Degradation of Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water treeing phenomenon has been recognized as an ultimate difficulty for long-term service life of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated power cables. Elucidation of substantial mechanistic pathway of water treeing is quite important to suppress water treeing. Many factors which affect water treeing have been found, such as electrical stress, existence of water, temperature and mechanical stress, and somewhat complicated synergestic interaction between them has also been pointed out. These factors make water treeing very difficult to be understood. The author studied the role of water in this phenomenon. To obtain certain analogical evidence for water treeing, a series of experiments was conducted by employing, as substituents of water, several organic solvents which possess relatively high dielectric constant and dissimilar electrochemical behavior, respectively. Consequently, it was found that a new type of treeing in XLPE matrix could be generated by certain organic solvent without water, and such treeing became easier to incept and propagate when the solvent contained particular electrolyte. Further, it was also indicated that cation was more effective than anion on such solvent treeing. Water tree inception and propagation mechanism was discussed from these experimental results.

Miyashita, Yoshitsugu

46

30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 56.12008 Section 56.12008 Mineral...12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated adequately where they...

2013-07-01

47

30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. 75.517-2 Section 75...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. (a) On or before December...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables installed prior to March...

2013-07-01

48

30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section 57.12008 Mineral...12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated adequately where they...

2010-07-01

49

30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section 57.12008 Mineral...12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated adequately where they...

2011-07-01

50

30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section 57.12008 Mineral...12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated adequately where they...

2013-07-01

51

30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. 75.517-2 Section 75...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. (a) On or before December...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables installed prior to March...

2011-07-01

52

30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. 75.517-2 Section 75...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. (a) On or before December...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables installed prior to March...

2012-07-01

53

30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. 75.517-2 Section 75...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables. (a) On or before December...insulation of existing bare power wires and cables installed prior to March...

2010-07-01

54

Effects of mineral wool insulation on electric cables in buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the seventies, energy conservation in all its forms has grown. This mindset has lead to the addition of thermal insulation in existing buildings, without concern for the existing electric cables. The addition over-insulates the cables, inhibiting heat dissipation, and possibly creating a hazardous situation.

Marc G. Theriault; Alain J. Theriault

1992-01-01

55

30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and cables installed on or after March...

2011-07-01

56

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...resistance tests shall be made when wires or cables are installed and at least once...tests shall be performed when wires, cables, and insulation are dry. ...when insulation resistance of wire or cable is found to be less than...

2011-10-01

57

30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...75.516-2 Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...representative. (c) All communication wires and cables installed in track entries...

2013-07-01

58

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...resistance tests shall be made when wires or cables are installed and at least once...tests shall be performed when wires, cables, and insulation are dry. ...when insulation resistance of wire or cable is found to be less than...

2012-10-01

59

30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and cables installed on or after March...

2012-07-01

60

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resistance tests shall be made when wires or cables are installed and at least once...tests shall be performed when wires, cables, and insulation are dry. ...when insulation resistance of wire or cable is found to be less than...

2013-10-01

61

30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires,...

2011-07-01

62

30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires,...

2012-07-01

63

30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...75.516-2 Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...representative. (c) All communication wires and cables installed in track entries...

2011-07-01

64

30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires,...

2013-07-01

65

30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...75.516-2 Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...representative. (c) All communication wires and cables installed in track entries...

2012-07-01

66

30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and cables installed on or after March...

2013-07-01

67

30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and cables installed on or after March...

2010-07-01

68

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...resistance tests shall be made when wires or cables are installed and at least once...tests shall be performed when wires, cables, and insulation are dry. ...when insulation resistance of wire or cable is found to be less than...

2010-10-01

69

30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires,...

2010-07-01

70

30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...75.516-2 Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation...representative. (c) All communication wires and cables installed in track entries...

2010-07-01

71

AUTOMATED COMPLEX FOR EB TREATMENT OF CABLE AND WIRE INSULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improved electron accelerator for cable insulation treatment equipped with 4-side irradiation system was developed in Budker -Institute of Nuclear Physics on the basis of ELV series accelerator and was put into operation in \\

N. K. Kuksanov; R. A Salimov; P. I Nemytov; A. V. Lavruchin; I. Golubenko; S. N. Fadeev

72

Dielectric insulation characteristics of liquid-nitrogen-impregnated laminated paper-insulated cable  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the electric characteristics and insulation design strength of a liquid-nitrogen-impregnated synthetic insulation was considered. It found to detect the impregnation of liquid nitrogen by measuring the electrostatic capacitance of the cable [epsilon] [center dot] tan [delta] an index of the dielectric loss, was 0.31% for cellulose paper and 0.18% for semisynthetic paper, PPLP and OPPL. It is found that the decline of the thickness dependence of the breakdown strength of the liquid-nitrogen-impregnated insulating cable is steeper than that of the OF cables. It is possible to design the insulation strength of the 66 kV cable to 10 kV/mm.

Suzuki, H.; Ishihara, K.; Akita, S. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka (Japan))

1992-10-01

73

Influence of Radiation on the Dielectric Properties of XLPE Based Insulation Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the possibilities of acquiring and processing the dielectric data in the range of very low frequency (VLF) and also design and construction of an impedance analyzer for measurements in this frequency range. The impedance measurements in the VLF range were used for investigation of the influence of radiation on the cross-linked polyethylene cable dielectric. An expressive ?-type relaxation process was found in this type of cable. Most of the dielectric response parameters of the process depend significantly on the absorbed dose of radiation. The analysis of the process parameters showed that the most probable reason of the structural changes in cross-linked polyethylene was additional cross-linking. The results also proved that the impedance measurements in the VLF range could be effectively used in practice for estimation of the absorbed dose in the cross-linked polyethylene cables stressed by radiation.t data only. In order to identify or classify motion, data processing in real time is needed.

?urman, Vladimír; Lelák, Jaroslav

2010-07-01

74

Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive review of the technical and scientific publications relating to crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. A new methodology for the investigation of breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed which is based on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and a.c. voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. A model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 900 C.

Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.

1980-09-01

75

Optimization of the design of metallic shield-concentric conductors of extruded dielectric cables under fault conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum metallic shield withstand temperatures under short-circuit conditions were determined for round wire and flat strap shielded XLPE insulated cables with various commonly used insulation shield and jacket compounds in sleeved and extruded jacket constructions. A mathematical model and computer program were developed for the calculation of shield temperatures under short-circuit conditions involving various currents and reclosing sequences for the cables tested in this project. These important accomplishments permit the cable engineer to optimize the designs of XLPE insulated cable with round wire and flat strap shields. A simplified laboratory short-circuit test was developed which can be used to establish the short-circuit limitations of cable designs which (1) are subjected to short-circuit conditions significantly different from those utilized in this program and (2) employ insulation shield and jacket compounds with significantly different physical and thermal characteristics than those employed on the cables tested.

Silver, D. A.; Lukac, R. G.; Hartlein, R. A.

1983-04-01

76

He II heat transfer through superconducting cables electrical insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For NbTi magnets cooled by superfluid helium (He II), the most severe heat barrier comes from the electrical insulation of the cables. Tests on electrical multi-layer insulations, made of Kapton ®, dry fiber and epoxy resin impregnated fiberglass tapes, indicate that heat transfer is influenced by He II contained in the insulation. Electrical insulation can be considered as a composite material made of a solid matrix with a complicated helium channels network. For several insulations, this network is characterized by steady-state heat transfer experiment through an elementary insulation pattern. Measurements in Landau regime for low temperature difference (10 -5-10 -3 K) and in Gorter-Mellink (GM) regime for higher temperature differences permit to determine an equivalent He II channel cross-section (10 -6 m 2) with an equivalent channel thickness (25 ?m). We use the assumptions that He II heat transfer through the channels network and conduction in the insulation are decoupled and that the channels length is determined from the insulation overlap. It is observed that He II heat transfer is competing with conduction in the insulation. Furthermore, the measurements reveal an anomaly of heat transfer in the vicinity of the ? temperature which is associated to the phenomenon of ?-point depression.

Baudouy, B.; François, M. X.; Juster, F.-P.; Meuris, C.

2000-02-01

77

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24

78

Thermal degradation of cable and wire insulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosive products produced during thermal degradation of insulating materials in air and nitrogen were measured. The effects of heating rate on modes of degradation as well as a heat-release-rate calorimeter were surveyed. Results indicate that both neoprene and PVC samples form considerable amounts of HCl even at low heating rates and low irradiance levels. However, if CaCOâ or MgCOâ is

N. J. Alvares; A. E. Lipska-Quinn; H. K. Hasegawa

1982-01-01

79

Theoretical Investigation on Skin Effect Factor of Conductor in Power Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a newly-derived theoretical equation on the skin effect factor of power cables, and its application to large-size OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors, including insulated wires. The skin effect factors calculated with the new equation were fit very well to measurements in wide range conductor sizes. In the new equation, the important factor which characterizes the skin effect of segmental conductors is the `equivalent conductivity ratio' ? defined by the ratio of longitudinal conductivity in axial direction of conductor to conductivity of conductor wires. Since the obtained ratio ? in XLPE cable was three times greater than that in OF cable, the larger longitudinal eddy current passing from a wire to another increased the eddy current loss in conductor, which increased the conductor loss of XLPE cable. The new equation enables us to investigate quantitatively the dominant loss component affecting the skin effect factor. Then, the skin effect factors and coefficients for OF and XLPE cables were investigated with the new equation. It was revealed that the best number of separation, in which the skin effect became minimum, existed in OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors. In addition, it was confirmed that the skin effect coefficients ks1 calculated with the new equation were consistent well with those used in JCS.

Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanaoka, Mamoru

80

Bulk solid dielectric for cryogenic cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates a number of bulk solid dielectric approaches applicable to both superconducting and cryoresistive cables, including solidification of ambient temperature dielectric fluids as well as conventional bulk solid dielectrics. The initial effort culminated with the successful testing for 20 h of 20 m of XLPE cable, in liquid helium at 4.2 K, preceded by a 30-day test in liquid nitrogen (77 K), both at four times rated voltage for comparable conventional cable. Thus, bulk solid cryogenic dielectric cables emerge not only as a feasible alternative to laminar insulated cryocables, but, potentially, as a superior form.

Bahder, G.; Rabinowitz, M.; Sosnowski, M.

81

DC conduction and breakdown characteristics of Al2O3/cross-linked polyethylene nanocomposites for high voltage direct current transmission cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discussed a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposite insulating material that is able to DC voltage applications. Nanocomposites, which are composed in polymer matrix mixed with nano-fillers, have received considerable attention because of their potential benefits as dielectrics. The nano-sized alumina oxide (Al2O3)/XLPE nanocomposite was prepared, and three kinds of test, such as DC breakdown, DC polarity reversal breakdown, and volume resistivity were performed. By the addition of nano-sized Al2O3 filler, both the DC breakdown strength and the volume resistivity of XLPE were increased. A little homogeneous space charge was observed in Al2O3/XLPE nanocomposite material in the vicinity of electrode through the polarity reversal breakdown test. From these results, it is thought that the addition of Al2O3 nano-filler is effective for the improvement of DC electrical insulating properties of XLPE.

Park, Yong-Jun; Kwon, Jung-Hun; Sim, Jae-Yong; Hwang, Ju-Na; Seo, Cheong-Won; Kim, Ji-Ho; Lim, Kee-Joe

2014-08-01

82

The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-01-01

83

A New Corona-and Heat-Resistant Cable Insulation Based on Etkylene Propylene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a review of water-resistant insulations now in use for power cables, the properties of a new corona and heat-resistant rubber-like water-resistant cable insulation based on ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) are compared with those of butyl-base rubber and cross-linked (vulcanized) polyethylene. It is concluded that the new insulation has a more attractive combination of properties than either butyl or cross-linked polyethylene

R. B. Blodgett; R. G. Fisher

1963-01-01

84

Dielectrometry measurements of moisture diffusion and temperature dynamics in oil impregnated paper insulated electric power cables  

E-print Network

Paper insulated lead covered (PILC) cables have played an important role in underground power distribution for a hundred years. Replacing aged PILC before failure is critical to managing power distribution. Three prominent ...

Thomas, Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

2007-01-01

85

Thermally Enhanced Cable Insulation for the Nb-Ti High Luminosity LHC Inner Triplet Model  

E-print Network

A new concept of polyimide electrical insulation for superconducting cables of accelerator magnets was developed in the last years. Its enhanced He II permeability allows a significant improvement of the heat extraction from the coil. This cable insulation concept is used for the quadrupole magnet prototype for the insertion region of the High Luminosity - Large Hadron Collider project. It aims at pushing the limits of the Nb Ti technology to withstand high heat deposition. Cable samples wrapped with the new insulation scheme were characterized from the thermal standpoint, as well as from the electrical and mechanical ones. In particular, heat transfer measurements from insulated cables towards the helium cooling bath were performed in a coil-like configuration. Various wrapping schemes were tested in different mechanical conditions, and a model was developed to explain the experimental results. The paper summarizes the main results of all these investigations.

Granieri, P P; Richter, D; Tommasini, D

2012-01-01

86

The Characteristic of Residual Charge for Water-tree Degraded XLPE and the Measurement Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently the measurement of residual charge has been studying as insulation deterioration diagnosis of XLPE insulated cables. Authors have studied the measurement process and the charge characteristic. The specimens are XLPE sheets of 1mm which are degraded with water-trees. There are four processes of charge removal, charge injection, ground and charge release in the measurement. The process of charge removal was introduced to measure a little charge successfully. In the process of charge injection, it was confirmed that the relation between the applied dc voltage and the charge was examined, and the higher dc voltage was, more the charge was. In addition, it has been showed that the applied process of the dc voltage greatly influences the measured charge. In the process of ground, the grounding period is changed and the charge is measured. It has been showed that the grounding period doesn't influence the measured charge greatly. In the process of charge release, the frequency and the period of applied ac voltage were changed and the charge was measured. It has been showed that neither the frequency nor the period of ac voltage greatly influence the charge measured. In addition, the dc voltage was superimposed to ac voltage, and the charge was measured. It has been showed that the charge measured changes greatly even if the dc voltage is low. The method of the insulation deterioration measurement of cable was examined from these results, and the measurement conditions and a newer method were suggested.

Ebinuma, Yasumitsu; Masui, Noriaki

87

Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with micro-cavity in tracking failure test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Installation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joint possibly introduces defects into the XLPE-silicon rubber interface, such as micro-cavity and micro-wire. Those defects greatly decrease the interfacial breakdown strength and endanger the stability of power system. However, the traditional method only measures the breakdown strength, which alone is limited and can not provide detailed information to more clearly understand the dielectric performance and tracking failure mechanism. This paper investigated the effect of micro-cavity on tracking failure by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization. Interfaces with those defects were setup by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. A 50 Hz AC voltage was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm until tracking failure occurred. The evolution of both discharge light and carbonization at the interface from discharge to the failure was recorded with a video recorder and then their channel width was analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that micro-cavity at an XLPE-silicon rubber interface strengthens the transportation of charge and easily leads to interfacial discharge and tracking failure. The distribution of discharge light and carbonization at the interface with micro-wire proves this.

Gu, L.; Li, S.; Wang, S. B.; Lei, S. L.; Liu, S. X.

2011-12-01

88

Transition of Progressing Aspect of Negative Creeping Discharge along Aerial Insulated Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a stroke of lightning happens in the vicinity of the outdoor high voltage distribution lines, the inductive lightning surge invades to the central line of aerial insulated cables. The creeping discharges can progress along the cable surface from the free end of the binding wire just after the flashover of the insulator at the cable supporting points. If the weak points such as the pin-holes exist in the insulated coating near the cable supporting points, the creeping discharges may give rise to a punch-through breakdown of the insulated coating and melting or snapping accidents of the cable. To prevent these disasters, it is important to clarify the mechanism of the creeping discharge phenomena along the cable surface. The negative creeping discharge along the cable surface depends on the peak value of surge voltage and its progressing process is extremely complicated. We already reported photographically the progressing aspect of the negative creeping discharge using a high-speed image converter camera. In this paper, we consider the progressing mechanism of negative creeping discharge using the discharge models which propose on the basis of the discharge photographs that have been obtained by experimental observations.

Nishi, Toshiyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

89

Concept for thermal insulation arrangement within a flexible cryostat for HTS power cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful application of high temperature superconducting power cables requires improved flexible cryostats with respect to their thermal heat load between environment (300 K) and LN2 (77 K) operating temperature. Heat transfer through the thermal insulation consists of thermal radiation, solid and residual gas conduction. Considering this heat load contributions, a new concept for the thermal insulation arrangement is presented

H. Neumann

2004-01-01

90

Development of optimized PPP insulated pipe-cable systems in the commercial voltage range  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of this project included the development of an alternate domestic source of Paper-Polypropylene-Paper (PPP) laminate and the development of optimized designs for PPP-insulated pipe-type cable systems in the commercial voltage range. The development of a domestic source of PPP laminate was successfully completed. This laminate was utilized throughout the program for fabrication of full-size prototype cables submitted for laboratory qualification tests. Selected cables at rated voltages of 138, 230 and 345kV have been designed, fabricated and subjected to the series of qualification tests leading to full laboratory qualification. An optimized design of 2000 kcmil, 345kV cable insulated with 600 mils of domestic PPP laminate was fabricated and successfully passed all laboratory qualification tests. This cable design was subsequently installed at Waltz Mill to undergo the series of field tests leading to full commercial qualification.

Allam, E.M.; McKean, A.L. (Cablec Corp., Yonkers, NY (United States))

1992-05-01

91

The Effect of Aging on the Breakdown Voltage of Artificially Damaged Cables.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of damage, and the thermal and radiation aging of damaged cable on the dielectric strength of low -voltage cable was studied. Breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR cable were measured for both damaged and undamaged cable. For EPR cable, the following three types of artificial damage were studied: scrapes, transverse cuts, and longitudinal cuts. For XLPE, the following two types of damage were studied: scrapes and transverse cuts. For both types of cables, some were radiation aged up to 1 MGy and others were thermally aged at 130^circC for up to 50 days. For the cable used, breakdown voltage versus thickness data reveals that when the remaining insulation thickness is greater than 0.60 mm, the breakdown voltage of EPR and XLPE cable is not affected. Once damage is significant, there is a linear decrease in the breakdown voltage with decreasing thickness. Previous theoretical work related the critical electric field required for partial discharge initiation within microvoids to microvoid size. The microvoids were modeled as spherical pores. The results of this theoretical work were applied in the analysis of the data collected. The analysis of the data strongly suggests that microvoids within the insulation are the cause of electrical breakdown. Finite element analysis was used to determine the electric field at breakdown. The pore radius histogram was fitted to known distributions, and was found to have a lognormal distribution. Statistical comparisons were made between groups as based on aging and damage type. The results reveal that neither the damage nor the aging studied affects the dielectric strength of the EPR cable. This means that based on the proposed model the pore radii of EPR cable are not affected by aging or damage. From the breakdown voltage versus thickness data for XLPE cable, it was determined that transverse cuts were a more severe type of damage than scrapes; and that the insulation with transverse cuts did not endure radiation aging as well as the undamaged or scraped cable. From the statistical analysis no effects on dielectric strength were observed due to aging or scrape damage for the XLPE cable.

Hanson, Brett Allen

92

Comparison of antioxidants for combined radiation and thermal aging and superposition of radiation and thermal aging for EPR and XLPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal and combined thermal and radiation aging of low voltage EPR and XLPE cable insulation with Agerite MA antioxidant and with the ZMTI/Aminox antioxidant system was examined to compare the relative effectiveness of the antioxidant and polymer systems. All provided significant stability with no clear choice of any particular combination being superior to the others. A comparison of degradation from thermal and radiation aging with degradation from combined thermal/radiation aging showed that the damage from the individual aging effects was superposable. This indicates that synergistic effects have little importance for the EPRs and XLPEs tested under the aging conditions observed.

Reynolds, A. B.; Wlodkowski, P. A.

93

Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations. Task 2: Investigation of oil-filled paper insulated cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threshold voltage of oil-impregnated paper insulated cables are investigaed. Experimental work was done on model cables specially manufactured for this project. The cables were impregnated with mineral and with synthetic oils. Standard impulse breakdown voltage tests and impulse voltage breakdown tests with dc prestressing were performed at room temperature and at 1000C. The most important result is the finding of

M. Sosnowski; G. S. Eager Jr.

1983-01-01

94

Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

2014-05-01

95

Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

96

Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

1988-01-01

97

Computation of the Electric Field in Cable Insulation in the Presence of Water Trees and Space Charge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of space charge changes locally the electric field distribution in power cable insulation and may play an important role in tree development, thus accelerating the dielectric breakdown. This paper is concerned with the computation of the electric field in polyethylene-insulated power cables affected by water trees which grow from the following: 1) the inner semiconducting layer; 2) the

Cristina Stancu; Petru V. Notingher; Florin Ciuprina; JÉrÔme Castellon; Serge Agnel; Alain Toureille

2009-01-01

98

Development of 500-kV AC cable employing laminar insulation of other than conventional cellulosic paper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an investigation to develop a 500 kV ac laminar dielectric power cable and joint having insulation with lower losses than conventional cellulosic paper insulation are presented. Background information is presented on proposed low loss synthetic and composite synthetic/cellulosic paper insulations. From these studies, fibrous polypropylene paper tape and cellulosic paper-polypropylene film-cellulosic paper composite paper (PPP) were chosen. Extensive testing of handwrapped cable models fabricated with each type of tape served to eliminate the fibrous polypropylene paper tape from further consideration. Cable model tests indicate that the PPP tape is satisfactory for insulation in 500 kV ac cable, and that oil impregnants now used in conventional cellulosic paper insulated cables are unsuitable, but that silicone oil with an additive is satisfactory for PPP tapes.

Bahder, G.; Eager, G. S., Jr.; Walker, J. J.; Dima, A. F.

1980-09-01

99

Microstructure Assessments for Determining Electric Cable Insulation Remaining Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of electrical insulation aging covers the gamut of industry, military, government, and private arenas with an existing short-term focus on nuclear power plants, aircraft, electrical transmission and distributions systems, fossil power plants, and aging industrial facilities. Both the nuclear and aircraft industries have an immediate need for an acceptable electrical insulation monitoring technique. Ideally, this technique would be

D. A. Horvath; R. L. Steinman

100

Development of new 500kV laminated paper insulated self-contained oil-filled cable and its accessories  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of cellulose paper/plastic film/cellulose paper laminate insulated Self-Contained 500 kV Oil-Filled (OF) Cable and its accessories. Dielectric loss of this new cable was confirmed to be about one third that of conventional kraft paper cable. Moreover, by employing the reduced insulation thickness of 25 mm rather than that of 33 mm, as is usual with conventional cables, the new cable could be made very compact, due to the high dielectric strengths of laminated paper. As a result, the shipping reel length of the new cable, which is about 10% lighter in total weight and 10% smaller in overall diameter than conventional cables, could be dramatically increased. The reliability and the stability of the new cable have been demonstrated by the successful completion of a one and a half year field test.

Watanabe, Y.; Fukagawa, H.; Iwata, Z.; Hata, R.; Yoshida, S.; Saitoh, H.; Fujiwara, Y.

1988-01-01

101

Heat transfer through Rutherford superconducting cable with novel pattern of polyimide electrical insulation in pressurized superfluid helium environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future LHC accelerator luminosity upgrade will increase a beam losses heat deposition in the superconducting magnet coils. Main barrier of the heat evacuation from the coils made of Rutherford type cables is a cable electrical insulation. The insulation is made of polyimide tapes wrapped around the cable in a special configuration. Presently used insulation wrapping schemes constitute very good electrical insulation with relatively low heat transport ability. Therefore a new insulation wrapping schemes with enhanced helium permeability and adequate dielectric properties have been developed at CERN. An experimental comparative study of heat transfer perpendicular to the Rutherford type cable, for an old and new insulation wrapping schemes have been accomplished at Wroclaw University of Technology. The tests have been performed in pressurized superfluid helium conditions, and at 60 MPa of the sample applied external pressure simulating the Lorentz forces. This paper presents the measurements methodology and gives experimental results.

Chorowski, Maciej; Polinski, Jaroslaw; Strychalski, Michal

2012-06-01

102

New silicon rubber cable insulation promises circuit integrity, in flaming environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide an improved alternative to fluoropolymers and other halogenated materials used for insulation of most plenum cables, a project was undertaken to develop silicone elastomers which would meet Steiner Tunnel test criteria. Equally important, the project aimed to retain the long recognized ability of silicone elastomers to form a nonconductive ash when burned. The new material resulting from this

M. A. Cabey

1983-01-01

103

"Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"  

SciTech Connect

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

White, Shannon O. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Tomich, A. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.

2010-01-01

104

Safety considerations of aerial systems using insulated and covered wire and cable  

SciTech Connect

Insulated and covered wires and cables have been used in aerial applications for over fifty years. Their various constructions, characteristics, and applications are discussed in Design and Application of Aerial Systems Using Insulated and Covered Wire and Cable. Some have suggested that covered wires and cables should be used in general applications solely for the purpose of providing safety to operating personnel and the general public. This paper discusses factors leading to the conclusion that nonshielded, covered conductor should not be installed solely to assure personal safety. The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) treats covered conductors as bare conductors for purposes of clearances to personnel spaces; such a requirement is strongly supported by this paper.

Landinger, C.C.; McAuliffe, J.W. [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States)] [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States); Clapp, A.L.; Dagenhart, J.B. [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States)] [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States); Thue, W.A.

1997-04-01

105

Design and application of aerial systems using insulated and covered wire and cable  

SciTech Connect

Insulated and covered wires and cables have been used in aerial applications for over fifty years. Despite this long history, the design, application and operation of these different types of conductor constructions are frequently misunderstood and confused with one another. Utilities have increasing needs for greater reliability and higher quality of service, growing concerns over electromagnetic fields, increased difficulty in obtaining right-of-way and tree trimming, and difficulty in maintaining clearances in congested areas. These challenges have resulted in expanded interest in using covered or insulated cables in aerial systems. This paper (a) describes the differences between the constructions, (b) answers questions, concerns and misconceptions about these aerial designs, and (c) ranks the performance of each relative to desired attributes. A logical system for classifying covered wire and cable is proposed.

Clapp, A.L.; Dagenhart, J.B. [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States)] [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States); Landinger, C.C.; McAuliffe, J.W. [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States)] [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States); Thue, W.A.

1997-04-01

106

ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables.

GROVE,E.; LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; HSU,F.

2000-04-06

107

Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

2014-09-01

108

Determination of lead oxide and sulfate content in polyvinyl chloride used for cable insulation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to develop a rapid and reproducible procedure for determining lead as the key component of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) stabilizers, used for cable insulation. To develop this method, the authors paid attention also to the effect of the other inorganic ions present in the insulation. Lead ions can be determined complexometrically using xylenol orange as an indicator. The authors efforts to determine lead in the inorganic residue of cable insulation by direct titration with EDTA solution did not yield satisfactory results due to the difficulty in pinpointing the moment of color change at the end of the titration, so the authors employed back titration, binding lead(II) into a stable complex of lead by treating the mixture with an excess of EDTA under heating, and determining this excess by titration with a standard solution of lead (nitrogen trioxide). Since complexometric determination is carried out in an acidic medium, Al(III), Fe(III), and Cu(II) are titrated together with lead ions. The authors recommend this method for separate determinations of lead oxide and sulfate determination in PVC used for cable insulation.

Popova, E.M.; Dimitrova, V.T.; Tsonkova, S.D.; Kulev, I.I.

1987-03-01

109

MgO insulated coaxial instrument cable development for FFTF in-vessel temperature and voltage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgO insulated nuclear instrument cable designed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility or breeder reactor in-vessel service environments were successfully tested to temperatures to 650°C. Breakdown Pulse Noise (BPN) thresholds in excess of 800 Vdc at 650°C were achieved on the bulk cable; cable resistivities at 650°C were 10 ft. The effect of 1000°C annealing was a minimal

A. I. Y. Chan; C. P. Cannon

1978-01-01

110

IFSMTF experiences and conclusions regarding the use of Kapton insulated, high-voltage cable in a vacuum/cryogenic environment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the experiences of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF), formerly called the Large Coil Test Facility, with regard to the use of Kapton insulated cable for high-voltage instrumentation within the IFSMTF vacuum vessel. Initial high-potential tests performed on the General Dynamics electrical system were disappointing and led to a general review and subsequent change of the philosophy and technology associated with the use of Kapton insulated cable.

Wilson, C.T. Jr.; Luton, J.N. Jr.; Shen, S.S.

1985-01-01

111

A recent development in the electrical insulation systems of generators and transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mica\\/epoxy and oil\\/cellulose have dominated insulation systems of rotating machines and power transformers for over 100 years. In recent years, however, XLPE cables have been introduced to generators and transformers as HV windings. This has resulted in a new type of generator (Powerformer TM), a new type of wind-power system (Windformer TM) and a new type of transformer (Dryformer TM).

M. Leijon; M. Dahlgren; L. Walfridsson; Li Ming; A. Jaksts

2001-01-01

112

TSDC study of XLPE recrystallization effects in the melting range of temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), employed in mid-voltage cable insulation are studied using thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. A complex heteropolar peak appears by TSDC between 50 and 110 °C, with a maximum at 105 °C. These measurements reveal that there is an optimal polarization temperature (Tpo) around 90 °C. For this polarization temperature, the measured discharge peak area is maximum. Although the presence of a Tpo is common in the study of relaxations by TSDC, in this case one would expect a monotonic decrease in the TSDC response with increasing polarization temperatures due to the decrease in the total crystalline fraction. In this paper, TSDC curves obtained under several conditions are interpreted in terms of recrystallization processes in XLPE during the polarization stage, if the sample is polarized in the melting temperature range. In this case, the recrystallization of a fraction of the material molten at this temperature promotes the formation of more stable and defect-free crystals. The presence of recrystallization processes is detected by DSC and confirmed by x-ray diffractometry. TSDC measurements have been performed with samples polarized at several temperatures (Tp) cooling from the melt or heating from room temperature. Also, TSDC results are obtained with previous annealing or with several cooling rates. These results allow us to infer that crystalline material grown from recrystallization processes that take place in the polarization stage attains a particularly stable polarization. Possible microscopical causes of this effect are discussed.

Diego, J. A.; Belana, J.; Òrrit, J.; Sellarès, J.; Mudarra, M.; Cañadas, J. C.

2006-05-01

113

The investigation of using magnesium hydroxide as a flame retardant in the cable insulation material by cross-linked polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of magnesium hydroxide was investigated as a flame retardant in the cable insulation material that has low density polyethylene cross-linked by silane grafting method. The different insulation samples with low density polyethylene filled magnesium hydroxide were prepared and physical and mechanical properties of these samples were measured such as tensile strength, elongation at break, impact, bending, oxygen index,

Ahmet Akin Sener; Enver Demirhan

2008-01-01

114

An examination of the potential for nano-composites in the formulation of HV cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find an appropriate cable dielectric material, nanodielectrics consisting of silica particles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) have been formulated using melt-mixing. Various types of chemical modifications were provided to the surface of the nanoparticles in order to understand the mechanism of the particle-polymer interface and to tailor the properties of overall composites. The particulates and the composites formulated have been characterized utilizing several techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and microscopy. These nanomaterials were examined for their electrical attributes, and substantial improvement in electrical voltage endurance was demonstrated. In addition significant improvements in electric strength were measured and other physical properties important to the processing and application of cable dielectrics were not sacrificed. It was established that the interfacial charge build-up that is a common feature of micro-filled material is absent in nanodielectrics, and there was also a reduction in over all permittivity of the nanocomposite below that of the base resin. To understand the mechanism involved in the improvement in the dielectric properties, the chemistry and physics of the particle-polymer interface was crucial. Therefore, some electrical characterizations of the composite materials were performed to find the trap-site separation, trap depth, mobility of the charge carriers, threshold field for internal charge accumulations etc. The chain scission mechanism proposed by Artbauer via free volume theory was extended to the interfacial defects in the composites; the size of such defects being significantly different for the nano- versus micro-composites. The defects resulted in a microcomposite with very low electric strength, and mitigation of the defects via chemical linkage between particle and polymer improved the overall dielectric strength of the nanocomposite. The field at which electron injection occurred was delayed by the surface-treatment provided to the nanoparticles. Particularly the improvement of electric strength for the nano-filled material with polar modifiers was found to be due to charge trapping. For the untreated nano-filled material the charge build-up is absent simply through the leakage via overlapping of conductive interfaces.

Roy, Mihir

115

DESIGN NOTE: Technical problems encountered with the laser induced pressure pulse method in studies of high voltage cable insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser induced pressure wave propagation method is often used to measure the space charge distribution in solid insulators. This method gives rise to many advantages, so it is widely used both in industrial and in research laboratories. However, it is necessary to take some precautions before treating induced signals in order to minimize calculation errors. Here, some quantitative information about the effects of approximations and the technical problems arising from this method used to study cable insulators are presented. Data from semiconductor/polyethylene samples have been obtained. Some recommendations defining an appropriate experimental protocol of space charge measurement in high voltage cable insulators are given.

Malec, David

2000-05-01

116

Mechanisms for degradation of TR-XLPE impulse strength during service aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the retained AC strength of TR-XLPE distribution cable appears to be quite good at about 80% of the AC strength of degassed, as-manufactured cable, the impulse strength appears to drop linearly over time and has been reported to drop by as much as 50% during the first two years of normal service aging before leveling off. In this paper,

Steven A. Boggs

2002-01-01

117

Heat transfer through the electrical insulation of Nb3Sn cables  

E-print Network

For the LHC upgrade projects, CERN will rely on the Nb3Sn technology to build high field dipole and quadrupole superconducting magnets. In the frame of this R&D program, cooling studies are carried out to determine the heat extraction from this new type of accelerator magnets and the relevant quench limits. In this paper we present and discuss experimental results of heat transfer through the electrical insulation of Nb3Sn cables. A cable-stack was prepared using fiberglass sleeves and CTD-101K impregnation resin. Two different measurement methods were compared, consisting of instrumenting the sample before or after the vacuum impregnation. The tests were performed both in 1.9 K superfluid and 4.2 K liquid helium baths, using different heating configurations. We also present results of the numerical model developed to reproduce the experimental results.

Granieri, P; van Weelderen, R; 10.1109/TASC.2014.2301216

2014-01-01

118

A Novel Electrical Insulating Material for 275 kV High-Voltage HTS Cable with Low Dielectric Loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cables at high voltage operation, the electrical insulation technique in consideration of the dielectric loss reduction becomes crucial. In this paper, we focused on a Tyvek/polyethylene (PE) sheet, instead of the conventional polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). We obtained the dielectric characteristics (epsilonr, tan?) and partial discharge inception strength (PDIE) of PPLP, Tyvek and Tyvek/PE. We pointed out that the dielectric loss of 275 kV HTS cable with Tyvek/PE insulation will be reduced to 21 % of that with PPLP, and the total electrical loss including the AC loss will be reduced to 41 %.

Hayakawa, N.; Nishimachi, S.; Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Liu, J.; Yagi, M.

2014-05-01

119

Electrical aging markers for EPR-based low-voltage cable insulation wiring of nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of electrical property measurements on EPR-based insulations of low-voltage power cables used in nuclear power plants. The specimens underwent accelerated aging through the simultaneous application of high temperature and gamma-radiation. Mechanical properties and the dielectric response at different frequencies were investigated. Results showed significant variation of the electrical and mechanical properties of aged cables at low frequencies, i.e. lower than 10-2 Hz. In particular, the real and imaginary parts of permittivity increase with aging time, accumulated dose and stress levels applied showing good correlation with elongation at break, which decreases as a function of extent of insulation aging.

Verardi, L.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G. C.

2014-01-01

120

Present Status of the Corona and Heat-Resistant Cable Insulation Based on Ethylene-Propylene Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented in 1962 and 1963 on a new corona- and heat-resistant cable insulation1 based on ethylene-propylene rubber are augmented by data on the long-term stability of the insulation in water at various temperatures and additional data on resistance to corona and stability in long-term load-cycling test at high temperature and voltage. Experience with 4 000 000 conductor feet

Robert Blodgett; Robert Fisher

1968-01-01

121

Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with silicon-grease in tracking failure test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging processing method was adopted to investigate the effect of silicon grease on tracking failure of the XLPEsilicon rubber interface by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization at the interface. Three interfaces were set up by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. One filled silicon grease and the other partly filled the grease. As comparison, the third one filled on grease. High voltage (AC 50 Hz) was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm. When the test voltage was raised to a certain value, discharge occurred and discharge light appeared and carbonization accumulated at the interface. The discharge light from discharge to the failure and the carbonization after the failure was recorded with a digital video recorder and then the images were analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that silicon grease at the interface weakens the transportation of charge and enhances the interfacial breakdown strength. However, interfacial discharge and tracking failure easily occur once discharge appears. Image processing method is helpful to understand the tracking failure process and mechanism of XLPE cable joint.

Gu, Liang; Liu, W.; Lei, S. L.; Wang, S. B.; Deng, Y. Y.

2011-06-01

122

Induced Surge Characteristics on a Control Cable in a Gas-Insulated Substation due to Switching Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper has investigated the basic characteristics of switching surges in a gas-insulated substation and induced surges to a control cable based on EMTP simulations. It has been found that a switching surge voltage on the core conductor of a gas-insulated bus (GIB) tends to increase and the oscillating frequency becomes lower as the number of spacers increases. The maximum switching overvoltages become greater at the nodes nearby an operating disconnector (DS)/circuit breaker (CB) and become smaller at the source side. An induced surge to a control cable tends to increase as the parallel length of the GIB and the control cable increases. However, in the case of an open-circuited GIB, there exists a length which gives the highest voltage. A transient current becomes very large if a voltage transformer (VT) or a spacer is installed right next to an operating CB or DS, although this current does not affect the induced and VT transferred surge to the control cable. Also it is observed that a ramp wave voltage causes polarity reversing of a transient voltage on the GIB tank and the control cable.

Ametani, Akihiro; Goto, Takahiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Omura, Hiroshi

123

Coaxial cable connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coaxial cable connector is provided, which resists radio frequency breakdown in coaxial cables used in the vacuum of outer space. The connector body surrounds an insulator which includes an easily compressible elastomeric portion. An insulated coaxial cable is prepared so that its insulation projects beyond the outer conductor and compresses the elastomeric portion of the connector insulator.

Caro, Edward R. (inventor); Bonazza, Walter J. (inventor)

1987-01-01

124

30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b) High-voltage insulated gloves, sleeves, and other insulated personal protective...In-Service Care of Insulating Gloves and Sleeves” (1997). (2) Be examined before...In-Service Care of Insulating Gloves and Sleeves, 1997) is incorporated by...

2011-07-01

125

Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations. Task II. Investigation of oil-filled paper insulated cables. Progress report No. 3. CTL83-016  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers investigations of threshold voltage of oil-impregnated paper insulated cables. Experimental work was done on model cables specially manufactured for this project. The cables were impregnated with mineral and with synthetic oils. Standard impulse breakdown voltage tests and impulse voltage breakdown tests with dc prestressing were performed at room temperature and at 100°C. The most important result of

M. Sosnowski; G. S. Jr. Eager

1983-01-01

126

Short Racetrack Windings for the Mechanical Characterization of Ceramic-Insulated Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical insulation is a key element in high field magnets design. The use of Nb3Sn, winded before reaction and then thermally treated to obtain the superconducting intermetallic compound, supposes to adapt the insulation process. CEA\\/IRFU (FR) is investigating the possibility of using a ceramic electrical insulation that follows the same thermal cycle than the superconductor. This ceramic insulation would make

Pierre Manil; Françoise Rondeaux

2010-01-01

127

Micro-analysis of Water-tree in XLPE by Synchrotron Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray micro-analysis of insulating material for XLPE cable was investigated to elucidate the influence of ion to water-tree extension. We analyzed the water-trees by applying a fluorescence scanning x-ray microscope at the beam-line BL16XU in SPring-8. Focused x-ray beam sizes at sample position are about 1?m at 9˜10keV. Then we confirmed the diffusion of the ion in water-tree. The ion diffused toward the electric field. Then the situation of the diffusion of the ion from metal particle was different entirely from the case of electrolyte. And X-ray diffraction was measured by adjusting the beam size to 100×100?m. The diffraction peak of the water-tree region was broadcloth in comparison with a normal region. It was confirmed that the crystal is disordered and that the degree of crystallinity of the BTT region is decreased. It was guessed that the ionized materials in under water were diffused widely by electrophoresis and that the diffusion of the ions promotes the growth of the water-tree.

Yamazaki, Takanori; Abe, Junichi; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Yasuharu

128

Dielectric spectroscopy measurements on very low loss cross-linked polyethylene power cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of dielectric spectroscopy are reviewed and the techniques in both time and frequency domains are explored in search of appropriate methods for measurement on low loss XLPE cables. By combining the techniques of frequency response analyzer, transformer ratio bridge and discharging current measurements, some preliminary tests results on homopolymer XLPE model cables have been presented and analyzed, in a wide frequency range of 10-4Hz~2×104Hz. Dielectric loss mechanisms of XLPE cables are discussed based on the measurement results.

Liu, Tong; Fothergill, John; Dodd, Steve; Nilsson, Ulf

2009-08-01

129

Technologies for Improved Reliability of Shielded Power Cable and Characterization of Capacitor Film Energy Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial Discharge (PD), a partial breakdown of insulation between high voltage electrodes, reduces cable reliability. Understanding electromagnetic propagation of PD-induced pulses in shielded power cable, including attenuation and dispersion, is essential to the application of PD diagnostics and, especially, PD location. Dispersion is caused by the transition of cable semicon-ducting layers (between the cable conductors and dielectric) from "resistive" at low frequency to "capacitive" at high frequency. Methods are presented to compute dispersion as a function of semiconducting material properties and evaluate the effect of dispersion on pulse characteristics (amplitude, shape, and width, etc.) as a function of distance propagated, the results of which are applied to investigate the effects of dispersion for PD detection and location. The location error induced by dispersion can be compensated from calibration. Electrochemical degradation of cable dielectrics, known as "water treeing", is one of the leading cause of premature failures in underground shielded power cable. Silane-based fluid has been used successfully for decades to rejuvenate HMWPE and XLPE dielectric cables to "cure" existing water trees and extend cable life. However the ability of the treatment to inhibit future water tree initiation is not known. A method for silane fluid treatment of un-aged cable insulation and semicon was developed based on the use of GC/MS to determine curing of the fluid within the dielectric. A wet electrical aging test at 5 kV/mm (127 V/mil) based on a sample which includes semicon electrodes on both sides of the XLPE insulation with a water electrode in contact with one semicon layer was used to age untreated samples, samples treated prior to the test, and samples treated at the mid-time of the test (3500 hrs). The result of aging is analyzed by microscopic examination to determine the number, length and types of water trees. The mechanism by which the silane-based fluid cures existing water trees and impedes the formation of future water trees is addressed. To characterize polymeric capacitor film, a solid state, high voltage switch rated 8 kV with a turn-on time in the range of 100 ns and current capability from muA to kA was developed based on the use of two SCR's in series. The system is used to measure energy release from linear and nonlinear dielectrics as a function of discharge time constant. Sufficient current is injected into the gates of the SCR's that the switch operates well from muA to kA with low current turn-on duration in the range of a second.

Shu, Wen

130

Crosslinking of polyolefin insulation of cables and insulated wires by the use of energy-rich radiation. Part 1: material of irradiation. Final report, March 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyolefins were selected that are crosslinkable by radiation including the copolymers of ethylene and polyolefin elastomer blends. Effective stabilizing systems against thermo-oxidative ageing and copper-catalized oxidation were developed. The influence of crosslink-reforcing, coagents fillers, and pigments was studied. For the materials XLPE, EPR and EVA the optimization of compounds in a scope of production trials resulted in useful proposals for

D. Pieper; A. Schillmoeller

1981-01-01

131

Discrimination between internal PD and other pulses using directional coupling sensors on HV cable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-site partial discharge (PD) measurement is required to ensure proper installation of extra high voltage (EHV) cable systems accessories. To achieve high sensitivity and good localization, two problems have to be overcome. First, the strong high frequency in long XLPE cables requires that the sensors be located along the cable, preferably directly at the accessories. Secondly, the detection system must

D. Pommerenke; T. Strehl; R. Heinrich; W. Kalkner; F. Schmidt; W. Weissenberg

1999-01-01

132

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2011-07-01

133

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2012-07-01

134

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2010-07-01

135

30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall be mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or portable cables with exposed wires or splices that heat or spark under load...

2013-07-01

136

Superconductor cable  

DOEpatents

A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

Allais, Arnaud (Hannover, DE); Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

2009-12-15

137

Selected developments in laser wire stripping. [cutting insulation from aerospace-type wires and cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of mechanical and thermal strippers and the early development of laser wire strippers are reviewed. NASA sponsored development of laser wire stripping for space shuttle includes bench-type strippers as well as an advanced portable hand-held stripper which incorporates a miniaturized carbon dioxide laser and a rotating optics unit with a gas-jet assist and debris exhaust. Drives and controls girdle the wire and slit the remaining slug without manual assistance. This unit can strip wire sizes 26 through 12 gage. A larger-capacity hand-held unit for wire sizes through 1/0 gage was built using a neodynium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The hand-held units have a flexible umbilical cable to an accompanying cart that carries the power supply, gas supply, cooling unit, and the controls.

1977-01-01

138

Molds for cable dielectrics  

DOEpatents

Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1996-12-10

139

Molds for cable dielectrics  

DOEpatents

Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

140

Experimental and analytical study of the DC breakdown characteristics of polypropylene laminated paper with a butt gap condition considering the insulation design of superconducting cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported that the insulation design under DC stress is considered as one of the critical factors in determining the performance of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) superconducting cable. Therefore, it is fundamentally necessary to investigate the DC breakdown characteristics of the composite insulation system consisting of liquid nitrogen (LN2)/polypropylene-laminated-paper (PPLP). In particular, the insulation characteristics under DC polarity reversal condition should be verified to understand the polarity effect of the DC voltage considering the unexpected incidents taking place at line-commutated-converters (LCC) under service at a DC power grid. In this study, to examine the variation of DC electric field strength, the step voltage and polarity reversal breakdown tests are performed under DC stress. Also, we investigate the electric field distributions in a butt gap of the LN2/PPLP condition considering the DC polarity reversal by using simulation software.

Seo, In-jin; Choi, Won; Seong, Jae-gyu; Lee, Bang-wook; Koo, Ja-yoon

2014-08-01

141

Submarine Coaxial Cable Pressure Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In equalization design of submarine coaxial cable system, the cable attenuation deviation due to pressure in deep sea bottom has significant weight. This paper treats the submarine coaxial cable characteristics pressure dependency. By using an artificial ocean test facility, 1.7 inch submarine coaxial cable attenuation, phase, capacitance and insulator core diameter were studied and their pressure coefficients under a pressure

K. Aida; M. Aiki

1978-01-01

142

Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

2006-10-01

143

Development of New-type Outdoor Termination using Composite Insulator with SF6 Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, composite insulators have been increasingly employed mainly from the economic viewpoint. We have been developed new type outdoor termination with composite insulator, which can be installed horizontally on the steel tower, in order to reduce the construction cost. In this outdoor termination, SF6 gas is filled in the composite insulator and a cold shrinkable pre-molded rubber unit is applied instead of the combinational use of rubber-molded stress relief cone, epoxy resin insulator and spring unit. The application of composite insulator, SF6 gas and cold shrinkable pre-molded rubber unit lights the total weight and makes it possible to install horizontally on the tower. The composite insulator type outdoor termination for 77kV XLPE cable has already applied as commercial use and enabled to reduce the construction cost of power transmission lines. A 154kV new type outdoor termination has been developed and successfully completed the initial electrical test. This paper describes the design and performance of both 77kV and 154kV new type outdoor termination, and the follow-up survey of 77kV outdoor termination in the commercial power transmission line.

Kusuda, Yusuke; Fukuda, Kinya; Matsumura, Masao; Hagisawa, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Gaku; Nakanishi, Tatsuo; Inoue, Yoshiyuki

144

End moldings for cable dielectrics  

DOEpatents

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed is a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

145

End moldings for cable dielectrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble- free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanuf...

L. D. Roose

1993-01-01

146

The effect of temperature gradient on space charge accumulation at SR\\/XLPE interface under DC stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the compound insulation which is comprised of cable accessory (e.g. terminal or sheath of cable), interface between different dielectrics or electrode and dielectric is often claimed to be the weakest points due to space charge accumulation and then the increase of adjacent electrical field. Furthermore, the higher temperature of cable conductor caused by Joule heating leads to conductivity gradient

Xia Wang; Mingbo Zheng; Xi Chen; Zongren Peng; Kai Wu; Song Liu; Jiakang Peng; Shouzhi Chen

2010-01-01

147

30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice...only through proper fittings. When insulated wires, other than cables, pass through metal frames, the holes...

2011-07-01

148

30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. [Statutory Provision] Cables shall enter metal frames of motors...through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames, the...

2010-07-01

149

30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice...only through proper fittings. When insulated wires, other than cables, pass through metal frames, the holes...

2013-07-01

150

30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. [Statutory Provision] Cables shall enter metal frames of motors...through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames, the...

2012-07-01

151

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2012-07-01

152

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2011-07-01

153

30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice...only through proper fittings. When insulated wires, other than cables, pass through metal frames, the holes...

2010-07-01

154

30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors, splice...only through proper fittings. When insulated wires, other than cables, pass through metal frames, the holes...

2012-07-01

155

30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. [Statutory Provision] Cables shall enter metal frames of motors...through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames, the...

2011-07-01

156

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2010-07-01

157

30 CFR 75.515 - Cable fittings; suitability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Electrical Equipment-General § 75.515 Cable fittings; suitability. [Statutory Provision] Cables shall enter metal frames of motors...through proper fittings. When insulated wires other than cables pass through metal frames, the...

2013-07-01

158

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2013-07-01

159

Monitoring cable systems  

SciTech Connect

The existing underground transmission system in the United States is worth about $5 billion. To optimize the return on that investment and on further investment in the growing system, EPRI has sponsored research to develop periodic and continuous diagnostic procedures and methodologies for evaluating underground cables. By using monitoring results to support maintenance and cable management decisions, utilities will be able to improve maintenance planning, reduce unscheduled outages, increase system reliability, and extend cable life. At the same time, they will be able to operate systems more efficiently and closer to true ratings. The scope of this paper are the following projects: application of dissolved-gas analysis to the periodic monitoring of liquid-filled, paper-wrapped cables (RP7895-1) and also cables insulated with a laminate of cellulose paper, polypropylene film, and cellulose paper, or PPP-insulated cables (RP7910-1); development of a transmission cable diagnostic system based on periodic power factor measurements (RP7910-5); development of an integrated, multifaceted online diagnostic monitoring system known as the Dynamic Rating and Underground Monitoring System (DRUMS) (RP7900); development of a protocol for using perfluorocarbon tracers to locate leaks in high-pressure, liquid-filled cables (RP7905-1); and a long-term cable life evaluation and management project, comprising 10 research areas (RP7914).

Samm, R.; Garcia, F.; Rodenbaugh, T.; Shimshock, J.

1990-12-01

160

Auto-Detection of Partial Discharges in Power Cables by Descrete Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the serious problems that may happen in power XLPE cables is destruction of insulator. The best and conventional way to prevent such a crucial accident is generally supposed to ascertain partial corona discharges occurring at small void in organic insulator. However, there are some difficulties to detect those partial discharges because of existence of external noises in detected data, whose patterns are hardly identified at a glance. By the reason of the problem, there have been a number of researches on the way of development to accomplish detecting partial discharges by employing neural network (NN) system, which is widely known as the system for pattern recognition. We have been developing the NN system of the auto-detection for partial discharges, which we actually input numerical data of waveform itself into and obtained appropriate performance from. In this paper, we employed Descrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to acquire more detailed transformed data in order to put them into the NN system. Employing DWT, we became able to express the waveform data in time-frequency space, and achieved effective detectiton of partial discharges by NN system. We present here the results using DWT analysis for partial discharges and noise signals which we obtained actually. Moreover, we present results out of the NN system which were dealt with those transformed data.

Yasuda, Yoh; Hara, Takehisa; Urano, Koji; Chen, Min

161

Process of modifying a cable end  

DOEpatents

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

162

Process of modifying a cable end  

DOEpatents

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves. 5 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1995-08-01

163

Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

2010-12-30

164

Applications of Elliptic Integral and Elliptic Function to Electric Power Cable Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes an application of elliptic function to a new measuring method of electric resistivity of outer-semiconductive layer of XLPE cable. The new measuring method may substitute the conventional method. The resistivity can be obtained easily by measuring resistance between two electrodes which are attached to a circumferential edge on one side of the outer-semiconductive layer of a cable core sample. The solution process is applicable to heat conduction as well as hydromechanics.

Watanabe, Kazuo

165

Effect of water on the space charge formation in XLPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the effect of water on the space charge in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). In order to study the effects of water and by-products of crosslinking, we prepared two types of samples. The water in the first one (Type A) is controlled by immersing in water after removing the by-products, and the water in the other type

H. Miyata; A. Yokoyama; T. Takahashi; S. Yamamaoto

1996-01-01

166

Test of two prototype high-temperature superconducting transmission cables  

SciTech Connect

Two 500-A class prototype high-temperature superconducting cables have been constructed by Southwire Company and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the first cable, no insulation was used to separate the individual HTS tapes. In the second cable, Kapton tape was used to insulate the HTS tapes between successive layers for the study of AC loss and current distribution. The cables were tested with both DC and AC currents in liquid nitrogen from 77 to 69 K. Both cables achieved DC critical current, I{sub c} greater than 500 A. A calorimetric technique that measures the cable temperature rise under ac currents was used to measure the ac loss of the cables. The un-insulated cable showed a cryoresistive behavior under the 60 Hz AC currents. The insulated cable started to show measurable loss at current where there was corresponding resistive loss.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Kroeger, D.M.; Martin, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A.; Jones, E.C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Sinha, U.; Hughey, R.L. [Southwire Co., Carrollton, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

167

Semiannual report for the period October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 106  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in a program whose objective is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, and would supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

Not Available

1980-07-07

168

Semiannual report for the period April 1-September 30, 1979 of work on: (1) Superconducting power transmission development; (2) Cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 99  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

Not Available

1980-01-15

169

Straight through cold-applied shrinkable EPDM cable joints designed for high stress medium voltage EPR cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of high electrical stress EPR insulated medium voltage cables leads to the development of new cable joints suitable for installation. This paper presents the joint design considerations and test data. The test program is based on IEEE Standard 404-1993. Test samples include joints for high stress EPR cables and transition joints from high stress EPR cables to PILC

Y. Wen; A. Shocket; P. L. Cinquemani; U. Vallauri; G. Lencot

1998-01-01

170

Dose-rate effects on the radiation-induced oxidation of electric cable used in nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dose-rate effects were measured for typical ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) electric cable used in nuclear power plants. The radiation source was the 60Co Irradiation Facility at the University of Virginia. Dose rates were varied from 5 Gy/h to 2500 Gy/h. It was found that there is little or no dose-rate effect at low doses for four of the five EPR cable products tested from 2500 Gy/h down to dose rates of 5 Gy/h but perhaps a small dose-rate effect at high doses for dose rates above 340 Gy/h. A small dose-rate exists for the fifth EPR above 340 Gy/h at all doses. A dose-rate effect exists above 40 Gy/h for two of the three XLPE cable products tested, but there is no dose-rate for these XLPE's between 40 Gy/h and 5 Gy/h. These results indicate that the dose-rate effects observed are due to oxygen diffusion effects during heterogeneous aging and suggest that there is no dose-rate effect for either EPR or XLPE during homogeneous aging.

Reynolds, A. B.; Bell, R. M.; Bryson, N. M. N.; Doyle, T. E.; Hall, M. B.; Mason, L. R.; Quintric, L.; Terwilliger, P. L.

1995-01-01

171

Development of a flat cable system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flat conductor cabling system for electrical/electronic interwiring is described. Six major items comprise the system: the cables, splices - one for flat cable to round wires and one for flat cable to flat cable; a series of flat cable connectors; the distributor, which is used for interconnecting the circuits; and a repair technique for the falt cable. Polyarylene, a new high performance melt-processable insulation material, permits the design of a completely standardized, modular flat conductor flat cable. The development of an advanced heat-shrinkable plastics technology involving the use of selectively bonded plastic film has resulted in the multiple termination module, used for making high-reliability sealed solder terminations to either flat conductor cable or round wires. All necessary tools and application equipment are included in the system design.

Neel, R. M.

1972-01-01

172

Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope  

E-print Network

Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

2004-01-01

173

Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I c and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Masuda, T.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Aoki, Y.; Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

2009-10-01

174

Cable Car  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners string a line across the room and build cable cars that can move from on end to the other. Learners construct their cable cars out of wood sticks, motors, and electrical circuits. Use this activity to introduce how cable cars work as well as physics principles related to center of gravity, rotational motion, electricity, and motors.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

175

Development of cold-shrinkable joints with carrier pipes for EHV cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

One piece, pre-molded joints have been used all over the world for extra high voltage (EHV) XLPE cables. For those premolded joints, ethylene-propylene rubber has mainly been applied for many years. We have succeeded in applying a new cold-shrink technology on those pre-molded joints by using silicone rubber which has lower elasticity and better mechanical properties, such as lower permanent

H. Suzuki; S. Kobayashi; T. Ono; D. Muto; S. Tanaka; H. Kurihara; H. Nomura

2000-01-01

176

High conductance surge cable  

DOEpatents

An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

1998-12-08

177

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 19, No. 1; February 2012 321 1070-9878/12/$25.00 2012 IEEE  

E-print Network

be sufficient to cause cyclic fatigue failure of the insulation, and, accordingly, fatigue measurements were that appears to have been neglected so far is the cyclic fatigue failure of the insulation. Typically materials-9878/12/$25.00 © 2012 IEEE Mechanical Fatigue as a Mechanism of Water Tree Propagation in TR-XLPE Zuoqian Wang1 , Piero

Ritchie, Robert

178

Low-Modulus Materials for Coaxial Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to evaluate and develop new materials for both insulation and jacketing. The objective was to improve low-temperature flexibility without sacrifice of the desirable electrical and physical properties of existing cable materials. The...

R. M. Kell, B. Bennett, P. B. Stickney

1966-01-01

179

Causes of Cracking of Ignition Cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described here show that the cracking at sharp bends, observed in the insulation of internal combustion engine high tension ignition wires after service, is due to a chemical attack upon the rubber by the ozone produced by the electric discharge that takes place at the surface of the cable. This cracking does not occur if the insulating material is not under tension, or if the cable is surrounded by some medium other than air. But it does occur even if the insulation is not subjected to electric stress, provided that the atmosphere near the cable contains ozone. The extent of this cracking varies greatly with the insulating material used. The cracking can be materially reduced by using braided cable and by avoiding sharp bends.

Silsbee, F B

1921-01-01

180

Asset Management of Medium Voltage Cable Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the background to research currently underway associated with asset management (AM) of degraded cable\\u000a networks in North Queensland. In the paper the main failure mode of cables installed twenty years ago is identified as the\\u000a growth of water trees through the cable insulation. The costs of managing water tree degradation in a large distribution network\\u000a are considered

D Birtwhistle; R Gilbert; J Lyall; B Oyegoke; L Powell; T Saha

181

Protected, high-temperature connecting cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic insulated, swaged stainless steel, sheathed, protective atmosphere cable admits electrical leads into an 1800 deg F air-environment test chamber. The cable has some bending capability and provides for nine niobium alloy conductors. An argon purge during the TIG weld closure protects internal wires from oxidation and embrittlement.

Engdahl, R. E.

1967-01-01

182

Cable compliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

1992-06-01

183

Cable compliance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

1992-01-01

184

46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1) Meet Section 310-13 of the NEC (NFPA 70) except that asbestos insulated cable and dry location cables can not be used; ...other standard specified by the Commandant. Ampacities for Navy cable must meet NAVSEA Design Data Sheet (DDS) 304-2...

2012-10-01

185

46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Meet Section 310-13 of the NEC (NFPA 70) except that asbestos insulated cable and dry location cables can not be used; ...other standard specified by the Commandant. Ampacities for Navy cable must meet NAVSEA Design Data Sheet (DDS) 304-2...

2013-10-01

186

46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) Meet Section 310-13 of the NEC (NFPA 70) except that asbestos insulated cable and dry location cables can not be used; ...other standard specified by the Commandant. Ampacities for Navy cable must meet NAVSEA Design Data Sheet (DDS) 304-2...

2011-10-01

187

30 CFR 18.40 - Cable clamps and grips.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...on the cable terminals of a machine. Also insulated clamps shall...cable or cord leading from a machine to a detached or separately...cables used for wiring around machines shall be provided in a...

2011-07-01

188

30 CFR 18.40 - Cable clamps and grips.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...on the cable terminals of a machine. Also insulated clamps shall...cable or cord leading from a machine to a detached or separately...cables used for wiring around machines shall be provided in a...

2013-07-01

189

30 CFR 18.40 - Cable clamps and grips.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...on the cable terminals of a machine. Also insulated clamps shall...cable or cord leading from a machine to a detached or separately...cables used for wiring around machines shall be provided in a...

2010-07-01

190

30 CFR 18.40 - Cable clamps and grips.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT...on the cable terminals of a machine. Also insulated clamps shall...cable or cord leading from a machine to a detached or separately...cables used for wiring around machines shall be provided in a...

2012-07-01

191

Comparative Testing of Shield Terminations of High Voltage Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In HV systems, cable terminations are one of the weakest links. They are especially stressed by the electric field in free space connections. In this light, several termination types for polyethylene HV cables were tested for dielectric strength and leakage current, down to a pico-ampere level. The tested terminations ranged from simple flush cut to graded insulation using non-linear insulation

Alex Pokryvailo; Costel Carp; Clifford Scapellati

2008-01-01

192

A study on the surface flashover characteristics for a HTS cable termination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terminal technology is important component to a HTS cable as well as a conventional cable. HTS cable terminations are required when the insulated shield HTS cables connect with other conductors such as a bus or a overhead lines. HTS cable terminations must span a temperature range from 77 K to 300 K. The termination is insulated with insulating oil or air, cryogenic gaseous nitrogen and liquid nitrogen. Particularly, difficult conditions for high voltage insulation had to be overcome with HTS cable. And, several environments can substantially raise the flashover possibility at the HTS cable termination. Therefore, in order to insulating design of HTS cable termination, this paper will report on experimental investigations of the surface flashover characteristics under various surface length and GFRP thickness in the atmospheric air, transformer oil, LN 2 at atmospheric pressure and complex condition.

Baek, Seung-Myeong; Ryoo, Hee-Seok; Kim, Sang-Hyun

2005-01-01

193

Induced transients in substation cables: Measurements and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive set of switching transient EMI response measurements on several types of substation cables and internal cable wires in described in this paper. Measured and predicted cable\\/wire current and voltage transients at both air-insulated substations (AIS) and gas-insulated substations (GIS) are presented, for system voltages ranging from 115 kV to 500 kV.. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of measured wire

D. E. Thomas; C. M. Wiggins; T. M. Salas; F. S. Nickel; S. E. Wright

1994-01-01

194

Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electrical cables - Part 4 Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds. Section Two  

E-print Network

Gives the methods for measurement of elongation at break after pre-conditioning, for wrapping test after pre-conditioning, for wraping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of mass increase, for long-term stability test and for measurement of copper-catalysed oxidative degradation, which apply to polyolefin insulations.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1990-01-01

195

Condition Monitoring of In-Service Nonceramic Insulators  

E-print Network

Condition Monitoring of In-Service Nonceramic Insulators and Underground Cables Final Project Monitoring of In-Service Nonceramic Insulators and Underground Cables Final Report R. S. Gorur, Project. #12;ii Executive Summary Part 1: Quantification of Corona Discharges on Polymer Insulators Corona

196

A novel method to test the quality of ADSS fiber optic cables installed in transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry-band arc resistance determines the quality of fiber optic cable insulation materials. Three different brands of ADSS fiber optic cable qualities are determined with IEEE 1222 standard test method. Results give a ranking of the cables. During the experiment, it is noticed that randomly spread water droplets are a factor for the results. Therefore, the same cables are tested with

Sadik Kucuksari; Ibrahim Gunes; George G. Karady

2009-01-01

197

Changes In Isomeric Composition of Lab Cable Oil Associated With A Range of Terminal Electron Acceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are used as insulating oils in underground elec- tricity transmission cables. Following accidental damage to the cables or a failure of the cable system, oil may leak into the surrounding soil. The cable is normally repaired quickly and the majority of the oil is recovered, but access to soil containing residual contamination may be hampered by

S. J. Johnson; N. Christofi; D. A. Barry

2002-01-01

198

An Insight on Right of Way and its Cost for Power Transmission Cable and Conventional Overhead Transmission Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the complete information related to Right of Way (RoW) for the construction of new power transmission line (TL) in terms of present cost for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable. The former part of the paper describes the general procedure and rules for acquisition of land for RoW by transmission asset owner (TAO) while in the later part the cost associated to acquire RoW and its impact on the cost of adjacent land have been detailed. It also discusses the actual dismantling cost including the cost of waste metal what TAO get after completion of lifecycle of TL due to increase in metal prices. In this paper cost of RoW after completion of lifecycle of TL is also highlighted. This paper compares the cost of RoW for overhead transmission line and underground XLPE transmission cable for construction of new TL. Also for old transmission infrastructure cost of RoW for change from overhead transmission line to underground XLPE transmission cable is detailed by application of replacement model.

Khandelwal, P.; Pachori, A.; Khandelwal, T.

2013-12-01

199

Cable design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The importance of material selection is stressed in the design and manufacture of FCC. Several applications of flat conductor cable are discussed relative to material selection and the reasons for using a particular material for each application is explained.

Gerpheide, B. A.

1972-01-01

200

An investigation on slot configuration in new generation of synchronous generators based on XLPE cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regarding the change of slot in high voltage synchronous generators, and the importance of slot leakage reactance in subtransient and transient short circuit currents and in the amount of synchronous reactance, this paper studies the effect of the changing of slot and conductor shape in high voltage synchronous on the amount of slot leakage reactance, using analytical formula and numerical

Mehdi Taherzadeh; Asghar Akbari; Mohammad Ardebili

2009-01-01

201

Two-dimensional impurity distributions in ``water trees'' occurring in field aged HV cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional mu-PIXE scans of sections through large (1 to 2 mm) vented "water trees", found at the inner semicon-XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) interface in underground HV cables, were made at 50 ?m spacing with a proton energy of 1.0 MeV. The visual appearance of one tree is reproduced by the spatial distributions of the elements Na, Cl, K and Ca, while Si and S show only minor variation except for the change at the semicon-XLPE interface. A second sample with three adjacent trees shows little or no correlation between the visual trees and the impurity distributions, although a high spatial correlation between Na and Cl suggests the presence of NaCl in one of these three trees.

Hinrichsen, P. F.; Houdayer, A. J.; Kajrys, G.; Parpal, J.-L.

1993-05-01

202

Cable manufacture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

Gamble, P.

1972-01-01

203

Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

204

Semiflex cable wires airborne microwave systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SiO2 semiflexible cable is made of a solid-copper center conductor, a high-purity low-density silicon dioxide ceramic dielectric, and an outer sheath of stainless-steel tubing over a thin copper inner lining. The high-temperature properties of the ceramic insulation make possible the full annealing of the outer sheath in the final processing step. This annealing step is responsible for the flexibility of the cable and is the main distinction between semiflexible SiO2 cable and semirigid Teflon cable. A simulatied application is presented, and considerations of phase stability and proper use are examined. It is pointed out that the semiflexible SiO2 cable's simple construction can result in a weight savings of 20 to 40 percent and a 25 percent reduction in diameter compared with equivalent-performance flexible Teflon cables.

Winkler, Martin; Gochenour, Tim; Turner, Gary

1991-01-01

205

Evaluation of Microscopic Structural Changes of XLPE Sheets due to Thermal Deterioration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sheets were thermally deteriorated in atmospheric air at 180°C for at most 100 hours, and microscopic structural changes due to oxidation such as material density, crystallinity, gel fraction and free volumes were evaluated by the Archimedes' technique, the X-ray diffraction method, the gel fraction measurement and the positron annihilation technique, respectively. As a result, it was found that the crystallinity and free volumes decreased after about 40 hours of heating on the upper surface of XLPE sheets where air supply was sufficient during heating and oxidation degree was high. However, on the lower surface that contacted with a metal plate during heating and was less oxidized, changes of crystallinity and free volumes were small after 40 hours of heating. When the crystallinity and free volumes decreased, the material density increased. It was also found that the gel fraction increased at 100 hours of heating. The observation results of cross-sections of XLPE sheets by the transmission electron microscope showed that lamella crystals disappeared after 40 hours of heating especially near the upper surface of XLPE sheets and agree with the change of the crystallinity. Then, the relationships between the material density, the crystallinity and free volumes in the cases of crystalline polymers such as polyethylene without deterioration and XLPE thermally deteriorated at 180°C were discussed.

Kurihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Dohi, Kenji; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

206

Hot-blade stripper for polyester insulation on FCC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stripper incorporates a blade which is electrically heated to a controlled temperature. Heated blade softens and strips insulation from cable while paper ribbon removes insulation material and keeps blade clean for next operation.

Angele, W.; Chambers, C. M.

1971-01-01

207

Extending cable life with better jackets  

SciTech Connect

Better materials may result from a $1.1 million research program funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California and awarded to Southwire Co., Carrollton, Ga. The University of Connecticut`s Electrical Insulation Center (EIRC) will assist Southwire in testing the results of a recent study that found a promising new way to improve the protective jackets on underground power cables. EIRC`s Director Matthew Mashikian said, {open_quotes}Extending the life of power cables with a better jacket is worth millions to utility companies and their customers.{close_quotes} EIRC has a patent pending on a method of using chemical scavengers to reduce the presence of ions in groundwater that can penetrate a power cable`s jacket and invade the insulation.

NONE

1995-05-01

208

Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

Colozza, Anthony

2010-01-01

209

Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of cable described as four inches of TV cable, fabric wrapped, which had been exposed to the atmosphere for an unknown period of time, was subjected to extensive chemical analyses for the various components. The fabric was tested using attenuated total reflectance, chloroform extract, aqueous extraction, pyrolysis infrared, and reflectance spectroscopy. The wire insulation was tested using pyrolysis infrared, pyrolysis gas chromatography, differential thermal analysis, attenuated total reflectance subsurface, and tensile tests. Corrosion was also observed in parts of certain wires.

Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

1972-01-01

210

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

211

Tools for applying lead tape to flat conductor cabling for chemical stripping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two tools facilitate chemical stripping of insulation on flat conductor cabling. A tape pressing tool and a taping fixture apply adhesive lead tape with the proper amount of pressure to protect the remaining insulation from the chemical stripping solution.

Angele, W.

1969-01-01

212

30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...portable (trailing) cable furnishes electric power. (6) Have nominal outside...workmanlike manner to insure good electrical conductivity, insulation, and mechanical...

2012-07-01

213

Flat-conductor cable has rotary and linear flexibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes capabilities and limitations of flat-conductor cable /FCC/ relative to flexure in bending, folding, rotating, and extending, it also compares FCC mechanical and endurance characteristics with round-wire cable, and compares qualities of various types of insulation for FCC. Several configurations exemplify FCC flexibility.

Carden, J. R.

1971-01-01

214

Termination of flat conductor cable to NASA/MSFC plugs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data, supplemented with artwork, are presented on the major steps involved with terminating flat conductor cable (FCC) to MSFC's FCC plugs. Cable and shield preparation steps include material cutting, insulation stripping, and plating of exposed conductors. Methods and equipment required to terminate FCC to each of four MSFC plugs are described.

Angele, W.

1972-01-01

215

Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our

K. T. Gillen; R. L. Clough

1990-01-01

216

Development of flame retardant, low aggressivity cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a fire retardant, low aggressivity cable may, depending upon the severity of application, require four components based on polymer insulation, fire barrier tape, bedding and sheath. A number of high performance polymers have been evaluated as insulation materials, whilst STC have developed a range of bedding and sheathing materials, both thermoplastic and crosslinkable, to meet the exacting requirements of industrial and military users.

Bury, J. R.; Cranfield, B. A.

217

Lightning vulnerability of fiber-optic cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

One reason to use optical fibers to transmit data is for isolation from unintended electrical energy. Using fiber optics in an application where the fiber cable\\/system penetrates the aperture of a grounded enclosure serves two purposes: first, it allows for control signals to be transmitted where they are required, and second, the insulating properties of the fiber system help to

Leonard E. Martinez; Michele Caldwell

2008-01-01

218

An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools  

DOEpatents

A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2005-11-29

219

Process for making RF shielded cable connector assemblies and the products formed thereby  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for making RF shielded cable connector assemblies and the resulting structures is described. The process basically consists of potting wires of a shielded cable between the cable shield and a connector housing to fill in, support, regidize, and insulate the individual wires contained in the cable. The formed potting is coated with an electrically conductive material so as to form an entirely encompassing adhering conductive path between the cable shield and the metallic connector housing. A protective jacket is thereby formed over the conductive coating between the cable shield and the connector housing.

Fisher, A.; Clatterbuck, C. H. (inventors)

1973-01-01

220

Universal Cable Brackets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

Vanvalkenburgh, C.

1985-01-01

221

Cable-Twisting Machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

Kurnett, S.

1982-01-01

222

Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

2008-01-01

223

Thermal insulation  

SciTech Connect

The presentation includes a discussion on the use of insulation and a review of information concerning insulation. Insulation technical conference and the Materials Research Program sponsored by eleven institutions are mentioned. Thermal performance of mineral fiber batts, the design density for loose-fill insulations, and insulated recessed light fixtures are discussed. Brief discussions are included on cellulosic and urea formaldehyde insulation and loading insulation by retrofit. An extensive reference list (28 citations) is presented. (MCW)

McElroy, D.L.

1980-01-01

224

Cable, Terminal Block, Cable Connector Bulletin 1492 Pre-wired cables  

E-print Network

1 of 2 Cable, Terminal Block, Cable Connector Bulletin 1492 Pre-wired cables The pre-wired cables have a removable terminal block or wiring arm at the PLC end of the cable and a cable connector on the other end to connect to the IFM. All of the pre-wired cables use a #22 AWG wire and are 100% tested

Allen, Gale

225

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2012-10-01

226

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2013-10-01

227

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2011-10-01

228

49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Wires and Cables § 236.74 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire....

2010-10-01

229

Strengthening future electricity grid of the Netherlands by integration of HTS transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electricity grid of the Netherlands is changing. There is a call of society to use more underground cables, less overhead lines (OHL) and to reduce magnetic emissions. At the same time, parts of the future transmission grid need strengthening depending on the electricity demand in the coming decades [1]. Novel high temperature superconductor (HTS) AC transmission cables can play a role in strengthening the grid. The advantages as compared to alternatives, are: economic, underground, higher power capacity, lower losses, reduced magnetic field emissions in (existing) OHL, compact: less occupation of land and less permits needed, a possibility to keep 380 kV voltage level in the grid for as long as needed. The main obstacles are: the relatively high price of HTS tapes and insufficient maturity of the HTS cable technology. In the paper we focus on a 34 km long connection in the transmission grid (to be strengthened in three of the four of TenneT scenarios [1]), present the network study results, derive the requirements for corresponding HTS transmission cable system and compare HTS system to the alternatives (OHLs and XLPE cables).

Zuijderduin, Roy; Chevtchenko, Oleg; Smit, Johan; Aanhaanen, Gert; Ross, Rob

2014-05-01

230

Cable load sensing device  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

Beus, Michael J. (Spokane, WA); McCoy, William G. (Spokane, WA)

1998-01-01

231

Cable load sensing device  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable no-load condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

Beus, M.J.; McCoy, W.G.

1996-12-31

232

Improved Cable Grip Reduces Wear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved cable grip reduces wear due to sliding friction between cable and gripping surfaces. Drive wheels are grooved with a helical pattern that meshes with the lay of cable, analogous to a worm gear. Cable is gripped between drive wheels and guide rollers, and cable pull is exerted on the grip when drive wheels are slowed by hydraulic clutches. Cable grip may be applicable to cable-operated systems, such as ore trams in mines, overhead cable cars and ski lifts.

Peyran, R. J.

1982-01-01

233

Serpentine Buoyant Cable Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to an improved buoyant cable antenna system. The system includes a buoyant cable transmission line segment and an antenna segment formed from a flexible memory structure comprised of at least one segment of coiled compression...

E. M. Gerhard

2006-01-01

234

High Temperature Superconducting Cable  

E-print Network

· Summary #12;4 SPI Project Goals & Objectives: · SPI-1: 30-m Installation, Carrollton, GA ­The cable system of the Carrollton, GA demonstration · Length would be on the order of 10 times the Carrollton, GA demonstration next to present cable at Southwire complex, Carrollton, GA. ­ Model cable testing of 34.5 kV class

235

Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

Baer, Walter S.; And Others

236

Colleges and Cable Franchising.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

Glenn, Neal D.

237

Cables and fire hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

1986-01-01

238

Experimental results of a 30 m, 3-core HTSC cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable is expected to transport large electric power with a compact size because of its high critical current density. We have been developing a 3-core 66 kV class HTSC cable, which is applied to the ?150 mm duct, and is composed of a conductor and a shield wound with Ag–Mn sheathed Bi-2223 tapes, electrical insulation

Takato Masuda; Takeshi Kato; Hiroyasu Yumura; Masayuki Hirose; Shigeki Isojima; Shoichi Honjo; Kimiyoshi Matsuo; Tomoo Mimura; Yoshihisa Takahashi

2002-01-01

239

Semiflex cable wires airborne microwave systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SiO2 semiflexible cable is made of a solid-copper center conductor, a high-purity low-density silicon dioxide ceramic dielectric, and an outer sheath of stainless-steel tubing over a thin copper inner lining. The high-temperature properties of the ceramic insulation make possible the full annealing of the outer sheath in the final processing step. This annealing step is responsible for the flexibility

Martin Winkler; Tim Gochenour; Gary Turner

1991-01-01

240

Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent.

Vigil, R.A. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jacobus, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-04-01

241

Fiber Optic Cables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâÂÂs, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-28

242

Initial increased wear debris of XLPE-Al 2 O 3 bearing in total hip arthroplasties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Aseptic implant loosening caused by wear debris is a common reason for early implant failure after total hip replacement (THR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We prospectively studied 96 patients (110 hips), 48 men and 48 women (mean age 46.8 years, mean body mass index 26.1) who\\u000a had undergone cementless THR (titanium stem, press-fit cup, Al2O3 ball, XLPE liner) at a mean of 17.4 months

Marcus Jäger; Michael Behringer; Christoph Zilkens; Travis Matheney; Rüdiger Krauspe

2010-01-01

243

Magnet cable manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

Royet, J.

1990-10-01

244

Study on the Fault Location Method for Power Cables using the Time-frequency Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulse radar method is one of fault location methods for power cables. It locates the breakdown point by measuring the delay time of the echo or the discharge signal coming from the breakdown point. The equipment for the pulse radar method is more compact compared with the Murray loop bridge, and its operation is more simple because sensitive adjustments of proportion are not needed. However the signal propagating through the cable is distorted depending on the distance and frequency, leading to a poor accuracy for the location. In this report, signal processing in the time-frequency domain is proposed to solve this problem. The pulse waveforms received at two different terminals of the cable were extracted by a window function, and subsequently Fourier transformed in order to calculate the phase difference at an appropriate frequency. A special care was taken for un-wrapping the folded phase spectrum. The phase difference was interpreted as the time lag at an identical frequency. The technique was applied to the fault location for a full size XLPE cable line.

Kobayashi, Shin'ichi; Morimoto, Nozomi; Miyajima, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Naohiro

245

Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200

W. S. Rigling

1974-01-01

246

Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200 C.

Rigling, W. S.

1974-01-01

247

Cost-effective on-line partial discharge of measurements for cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-line partial discharge (PD) measurements are an efficient method for detecting certain insulation defects of cables. These include defects in cable joints and terminations, and defects due to mechanical impact. Noninvasive, efficient, and widely applicable, portable on-line PD measurement techniques are strongly favored by the electricity industry. Three on-site PD measurements for cables are described in this article to illustrate

Yafei Zhou; Yang Qin; P. Chappell

2006-01-01

248

High voltage instrument cables for 650°C in-vessel breeder reactor service  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgO insulated nuclear instrument cables have been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and breeder reactor in-vessel environments. Prototype cables have been successfully fabricated and tested: voltage Breakdown Pulse Noise (BPN) thresholds in excess of 800 Vdc and cable resistivities in excess of 10⁸ ..cap omega.. .ft were achieved at temperatures to 650°C. Factors demonstrated to

1979-01-01

249

Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

1974-01-01

250

Cable Tester Box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

Lee, Jason H.

2011-01-01

251

Cable Measuring Engine Operation Procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Cable Measuring Engine (CME) is a tool which measures and records the cable dimensions in a nondestructive fashion. It is used in-line with the superconductor cable as it is being made. The CME is intended to be used as a standard method of measuring cable by the various manufacturers involved in the cable process.

Authors, Various

1997-07-11

252

Evaluation of flammability for cable-like polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new test method is developed for the flammability of insulated electric cables as well as polymers formed in the cables. The rate of downward flame spread along the polymer surface is measured by a technique in which the flame is stopped at a particular position by winding up the cable at the same speed as the flame spreading rate, with external preheating by an electric furnace having oxidative gas flow. The polymer burns continuously without change of flame condition and the rate is obtained from the winding speed of the cable. A flame spread equation relates the flame spreading rate (V) of the cable-like polymer to O concentration (Yo) and the atmosphere, the preheating temperature, and the pyrolysis temperature for polymer burning. Plotting log V vs. log Yo for experimental results allows evaluation of the flammability of polymers, with discrimination between the effects of O concentration, heating temperature, and specimen shape. Results with various types of PVC electrical cable indicated the validity of the method. Application of the method to the cables in groups showed a flame retardation behavior different from the case of a single cable, in a atmosphere of high O concentration.

Mikado, Tuneo; Akita, Kazuo

1988-01-01

253

Topological Insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap\\u000alike an ordinary insulator, but have protected conducting states on their edge\\u000aor surface. The 2D topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator,\\u000awhich is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A 3D topological\\u000ainsulator supports novel spin polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface.

M. Z. Hasan; C. L. Kane

2010-01-01

254

Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13  

SciTech Connect

The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early warning of aging and degradation. Examples of such key indicators include changes in chemical structure, mechanical modulus, and dielectric permittivity. While some of these indicators are the basis of currently used technologies, there is a need to increase the volume of cable that may be inspected with a single measurement, and if possible, to develop techniques for in-situ inspection (i.e., while the cable is in operation). This is the focus of the present report.

Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

2013-09-27

255

The cable effect in shock-wave metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial hypothesis is that the solid insulator is polarized by the shock wave, thus filling the gap between the wire and the sheath in a coaxial cable or between the two wires in a two-wire line. This means that the shock-wave front arriving in the dielectric will transfer charge, with the result that there is a potential difference between

I. I. Efremova; V. A. Ogorodnikov; S. Yu. Pinchuk; E. Z. Novitskii

1981-01-01

256

Proton microprobe analysis of water trees in underground high voltage cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro-PIXE technique was employed to analyze water trees in the polymeric insulation of some field-aged underground high voltage cables from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. X-ray spectra of water trees, the inner and outer semiconductive compound layers of the cable samples, and the insulation matrix were acquired. Simultaneously, two-dimensional elemental distribution profiles across the water trees were also obtained. The results show how knowledge of the elemental constituents of water trees on a microscopic scale can be useful in attempts to understand premature degradation of underground power cables.

Ahmed, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Al-Ohali, M. A.; Hamouz, Z.; Soufi, K.; Minqin, R.; Rajta, I.; Watt, F.

2003-09-01

257

Knot at the Cable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knot at the Cable ties together non-governmental organizations, public libraries and the Internet. Located in a public library (branch of Helsinki City Library) at the Cable Factory cultural centre in Helsinki, it offers access to WorldWideWeb and telnet access for library visitors and acts as a WWW publishing outlet.

258

Cable Television Interconnection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State and local governments have not been involved in the complexities of cable television interconnection issues in the past despite opportunities. Without their intervention, the result may well be a lack of concern for local public services. However, the entertainment and communications industries will interconnect cable systems without the…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

259

Multistrand superconductor cable  

DOEpatents

Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

Borden, Albert R. (El Cerrito, CA)

1985-01-01

260

Technology of Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technology of cable television (CATV) is one area in which local community officials need to develop knowledge so that their decisions about the structure of CATV within the community will be informed. Thus, this paper is designed to familiarize local decision makers with the technological aspects of cable communications, to isolate specific…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

261

Cable in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable in the Classroom (CIC) is the cable industry's education foundation and has been active in the fields of media and information literacy for more than fifteen years. This article explains media literacy and its connection to information literacy, details CIC's work in these areas, and describes related resources available on CIC's Web site (http:\\/\\/www.ciconline.org). Finally, the article examines digital

Frank Gallagher; Kat Stewart

2011-01-01

262

The Great Transatlantic Cable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the modern era of instantaneous communication, it is perhaps difficult to imagine a world only 130 years ago where sending messages and other items to Europe was a rather time-consuming affair. Transatlantic communications were vastly improved when Cyrus Field, a New York paper manufacturer, completed construction of a 2,000-mile-long cable beneath the Atlantic in 1866. This delightful website is designed to complement the American Experience documentary on the construction of the cable, and will be of great interest to those with a penchant for the history of technology. Visitors can learn about the laborious process involved with the construction of the cable, take part in an online poll, and learn about the science behind the transatlantic cable. Additional materials include a detailed timeline of related events, additional interviews with experts in the field, and a selection of cable-related humor from the period.

263

Telecommunications: Coaxial Cables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation, this website provides a plethora of information on coaxial cables including what an RG rating is, what a code is, and how each type of cable is used. This interactive slideshow goes into greater detail about an RG-8, 10Base5 cable and an RG-58, 10Base2 cable. There are helpful animations and clear descriptions covering the basics of coaxial cables. To wrap it all up, there are review questions to test the learnerâÂÂs knowledge on what they were just presented. All in all, it is a great resource for students (or for teachers to present to their students) who are learning the nuts and bolts of telecommunications.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-10-08

264

Multistrand superconductor cable  

DOEpatents

Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easil

Borden, A.R.

1984-03-08

265

Testing of a Vacuum Insulated Flexible Line with Flowing Liquid Nitrogen during the Loss of Insulating Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long length vacuum insulated lines are used to carry flowing liquid nitrogen in several high temperature superconducting cable projects. An important, but rare, failure scenario is the abrupt or catastrophic loss of the thermal insulating vacuum producing a rapid increase in heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen stream. In this experimental investigation, a vacuum superinsulated 3 inch by 5 inch

Jonathan A Demko; Robert C Duckworth; M. Roden; M. Gouge

2008-01-01

266

TESTING OF A VACUUM INSULATED FLEXIBLE LINE WITH FLOWING LIQUID NITROGEN DURING THE LOSS OF INSULATING VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long length vacuum insulated lines are used to carry flowing liquid nitrogen in several high temperature superconducting cable projects. An important, but rare, failure scenario is the abrupt or catastrophic loss of the thermal insulating vacuum producing a rapid increase in heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen stream. In this experimental investigation, a vacuum superinsulated 3 inch by 5 inch

J. A. Demko; R. C. Duckworth; M. Roden; M. Gouge

2008-01-01

267

Verification tests of a 66 kV HTSC cable system for practical use (first cooling tests)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. have been jointly developing elementary technologies for an high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable system, such as conductor wound with HTSC wires, thermal insulation pipes, terminations and so on. Verification tests of a 100 m HTSC cable system integrating these elementary technologies have been conducted in collaboration with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) to verify its long term electric and cryogenic properties. The cable conductor is composed of four layers of Bi-2223 wires wound spirally around a former. Polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with liquid nitrogen is adopted as cable insulation for its properties of high insulation strength and low dielectric loss. HTSC wires are also wound around the electrical insulation to form an electrical and magnetic shield. To reduce heat invasion from ambient temperature part, multi-layer insulation is wound between the co-axial stainless corrugated pipes where high vacuum is maintained. The cable was partially installed into a ? 150 mm duct and formed in a U-shape. Each end has a splitter box and three terminations. The cable and the terminations are cooled using two separate sets of a pressurized and sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cooling system. The cable has been developed and laid at CRIEPI's test site and long-term tests have been under way since June, 2001. This paper presents the design of the cable and some results of the first cooling tests.

Masuda, T.; Kato, T.; Yumura, H.; Watanabe, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Ohkura, K.; Suzawa, C.; Hirose, M.; Isojima, S.; Matsuo, K.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kuramochi, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Okamoto, T.

2002-10-01

268

Cable and Line Inspection Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

269

Cable and line inspection mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

270

Cable-to-air terminations: The cable system's second weakest link  

SciTech Connect

Transmission terminations available today are very reliable, but they need to be. In the field, they are continually exposed to pollution and extremes of ambient temperature. In many cases, they are in the rifle sights of vandals. In contrast, cable joints - often cited as the weakest links from an electrical viewpoint - are generally protected from physical damage underground and many of the short cable systems being installed in the US today can be built without joints. All cable systems need terminations - mostly to air-insulated equipment. At 69 through 138 kV, there is intense competition among manufacturers to supply terminations for solid-dielectric cable that are low in cost, reliable, and require a minimum of skill to install. Some utilities are looking also for terminations that fit a range of cable sizes; terminations that do not contain liquid that can leak out; and terminations that are shatter-proof. All of these improvements are available in the US up to 69 kV. For higher voltages, they are on the horizon, if not already in use, overseas. 16 figs.

Reason, J.

1994-12-01

271

Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

2008-09-01

272

Spectral evaluation of irregularity of superconducting coaxial cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional superconducting coaxial cables are considered, with Teflon-4D insulation between the inner conductor made of niobium wire and the outer conductor made of monolithic lead tubing. Irregularity of such cables is not structural but produced in the manufacturing process. It has been found to consist of a random component and quasi-periodic strongly correlated deviations of geometric dimensions, particularly the diameter, over the cable length. This compound irregularity has been evaluated on two specimens of such a cable, by spectral analysis of the wave impedance as function of the cable length. Profilograms of the diameter variation over the cable length were supplemented with space frequency spectra, following a Fourier transformation of the wave impedance, namely the frequency spectrum of the transform modulus squared (phase relations not being relevant here) and of the reflection coefficient. Reflectometer readings and echograms were processed by the method of the instantaneous mean. An inverse transformation has yielded the profile of wave impedance over the cable length.

Galperovich, D. Y.; Laptev, A. A.; Podshivalov, A. Y.

1985-01-01

273

Electrical Model of Balanced AC HTS Power Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future electricity grid will be more sustainable and it will have more power transmission and distribution capability with more electrical power added from decentralized sources on distribution level and from wind parks and other large sources on transmission level. More interconnections and more underground transmission and distribution will be put up. Use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables provides solutions to many of the future grid problems caused by these trends. In this paper we present an electrical model of a balanced 6 km-long three phase triaxial HTS power cable for the Dutch project being developed by a consortium of Alliander, Ultera™ and TUD. The cable currents in all three phases are balanced by selecting proper twist pitches and insulation thickness. The paper focuses on determining inductances, capacitances and AC losses of the balanced cable. Using the developed model, we also determine the voltage drop as function of the cable length, the neutral current and the effect of the imbalanced capacitances on the current distribution of the Dutch distribution cable. The model is validated and it can be used for accurate simulation of the electrical behaviour of triaxial HTS cables in electrical grids.

Zuijderduin, R.; Chevtchenko, O.; Smit, J. J.; Willén, D.; Melnik, I.; Geschiere, A.

274

Correction coil cable  

DOEpatents

A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

Wang, S.T.

1994-11-01

275

Cellulose Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

1980-01-01

276

Electrical evaluation of the AC losses in a BSCCO cable with an HTS shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In general, a high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable has a conductor and a shield encircling it. This structure causes electrical evaluation of AC loss in the HTS cable to be very difficult. Thus it is not clear yet. Using two voltage leads attached to the conductor and shield, respectively, we evaluated not only their AC loss but also the cable’s total loss. To experimentally elucidate our electrical evaluation presented in this work, first we measured the total loss of the 100 m/22.9 kV BSCCO cable by calorimetry, especially around 77 K. Besides the same 5 m cable sample as above, another cable model with a thin insulator was also tested electrically, and they were compared with two numerical models: a non-twisted polygon model and a twisted cylinder model. The results show that, according to the insulator thickness between a conductor and a shield, their magnetic interaction becomes very different. For the 100 and 5 m cables, their normalized total AC losses measured from calorimetry and electrical evaluation correspond well to each other, regardless of operating temperatures. Moreover, the numerical analysis shows that the total AC losses measured for the 5 m sample and cable model fit with the numerically calculated ones. Besides, the conductor’s AC losses measured for both the cables agree well with the numerical ones, regardless of their insulator thickness. This is because a conductor in an actual cable is inside a shield, and so does not receive any effect of the shield’s magnetic field. These experimental and theoretical results support the view that our electrical evaluation for the total and conductor losses is reliable. However, unlike the results for the total and conductor losses, the shield’s experimental loss is not in good agreement with any of the theoretical ones from either the non-twisted polygon model or the twisted cylinder model.

Ryu, K.; Li, Z. Y.; Hwang, S. D.

2014-02-01

277

Flat conductor cable survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.

1973-01-01

278

The Discrete Hanging Cable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

Peters, James V.

2004-01-01

279

Semiconductor Bridge Cable Test  

SciTech Connect

The semiconductor bridge (SCB) is an electroexplosive device used to initiate detonators. A C cable is commonly used to connect the SCB to a firing set. A series of tests were performed to identify smaller, lighter cables for firing single and multiple SCBs. This report provides a description of these tests and their results. It was demonstrated that lower threshold voltages and faster firing times can be achieved by increasing the wire size, which reduces ohmic losses. The RF 100 appears to be a reasonable substitute for C cable when firing single SCBs. This would reduce the cable volume by 68% and the weight by 67% while increasing the threshold voltage by only 22%. In general, RG 58 outperforms twisted pair when firing multiple SCBs in parallel. The RG 58's superior performance is attributed to its larger conductor size.

KING, TONY L.

2002-01-01

280

Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which holds it in position. The leads of the nichrome wire are attached to screw terminals that connect them to power leads. A bayonet plug mounted at the bottom of the rectangular block connects the power leads to a relay circuit. A thin aluminum shell encloses the entire structure, leaving access points to attach to the bayonet plug and to feed a cable into the cylinder. The access holes for the deployment cable are a smaller diameter than the nichrome coil to prevent the cable from coming in direct contact with the nichrome when loaded. It uses the same general method of severing a cable with a heated wire as was used previously, but implements it in such a way that it is more reliable and less prone to failure. It creates a mechanism to create repeatability that was nonexistent in the previous method.

Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

2010-01-01

281

Marine seismic cable connector  

SciTech Connect

A hermaphroditic connector-half for coupling together adjacent streamer-cable sections consisting of an outer plastic shell that can be slid over a stress plate that carries a plurality of multicontact connector plugs. For maintenance purposes, the outer shell can be removed so that free access may be had to the contacts of the connector plugs and to the multiple conductors in the streamer cable.

Williams, S. D.

1985-07-02

282

Sizing of cables in randomly-filled trays with consideration for load diversity  

SciTech Connect

Method for demonstrating increased ampacity of cables in trays with loading diversity. Ampacity tables for sizing cables in randomly-filled cable trays are provided in NEMA WC 51-1986 based on a model developed by J. Stolpe which ensures that the maximum cable temperature does not exceed the insulation rating (typically 90 C) under worst-case conditions. The Stolpe model intentionally disregards the reduced heating effect of deenergized or lightly-loaded cables to ensure that all possible hot spot conditions are enveloped. In recent years other methods have been proposed to credit loading diversity in order to justify increased ampacity. However, since they involve certain assumptions about the heat distribution within the cable mass, these methods may fail to identify individual overloaded conductors. This paper describes a simple method which considers the performance of individual conductors while providing a means of increasing ampacity as a result of loading diversity.

Leake, H.C. [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)] [Arizona Public Service Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1997-01-01

283

Evaluation of critical nuclear power plant electrical cable response to severe thermal fire conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal fire conditions are a safety concern for operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has promoted the use of risk-informed and performance-based methods for fire protection which resulted in a need to develop realistic methods to quantify the risk of fire to NPP safety. Recent electrical cable testing has been conducted to provide empirical data on the failure modes and likelihood of fire-induced damage. This thesis evaluated numerous aspects of the data. Circuit characteristics affecting fire-induced electrical cable failure modes have been evaluated. In addition, thermal failure temperatures corresponding to cable functional failures have been evaluated to develop realistic single point thermal failure thresholds and probability distributions for specific cable insulation types. Finally, the data was used to evaluate the prediction capabilities of a one-dimension conductive heat transfer model used to predict cable failure.

Taylor, Gabriel James

284

Frequency dependence of magnetic ac loss in a Roebel cable made of YBCO on a Ni–W substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the frequency dependent contributions to the magnetic ac loss in a 10 strand Roebel cable with 2 mm wide non-insulated strands and a transposition length of 90 mm. This cable is made from 40 mm wide YBCO coated conductor tape manufactured by AMSC and stabilized by electroplating 25 µm thick copper on either side prior to the

L S Lakshmi; M P Staines; R A Badcock; N J Long; M Majoros; E W Collings; M D Sumption

2010-01-01

285

Frequency dependence of magnetic ac loss in a Roebel cable made of YBCO on a Ni-W substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the frequency dependent contributions to the magnetic ac loss in a 10 strand Roebel cable with 2 mm wide non-insulated strands and a transposition length of 90 mm. This cable is made from 40 mm wide YBCO coated conductor tape manufactured by AMSC and stabilized by electroplating 25 µm thick copper on either side prior to the

L. S. Lakshmi; M. P. Staines; R. A. Badcock; N. J. Long; M. Majoros; E. W. Collings; M. D. Sumption

2010-01-01

286

Density measurements as a condition monitoring approach for following the aging of nuclear power plant cable materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring changes in material density has been suggested as a potentially useful condition monitoring (CM) method for following the aging of cable jacket and insulation materials in nuclear power plants. In this study, we compare density measurements and ultimate tensile elongation results versus aging time for most of the important generic types of commercial nuclear power plant cable materials. Aging

K. T. Gillen; M. Celina; R. L. Clough

1999-01-01

287

Verification tests of a 66 kV HTSC cable system for practical use (first cooling tests)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. have been jointly developing elementary technologies for an high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable system, such as conductor wound with HTSC wires, thermal insulation pipes, terminations and so on. Verification tests of a 100 m HTSC cable system integrating these elementary technologies have been conducted in collaboration with Central Research Institute of

T. Masuda; T. Kato; H. Yumura; M. Watanabe; Y. Ashibe; K. Ohkura; C. Suzawa; M. Hirose; S. Isojima; K. Matsuo; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; T. Kuramochi; Y. Takahashi; H. Suzuki; T. Okamoto

2002-01-01

288

Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6 kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6 kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants. The cables are shielded and have three leads with cross-linked insulation. The shield

Petar I. Vukelja; Radomir M. Naumov; Goran V. Drobnjak; Jovan D. MrviC

1996-01-01

289

Semiactive Damping of Cables with Sag 1 SEMIACTIVE DAMPING OF CABLES WITH SAG  

E-print Network

-0767, USA ABSTRACT Cables, such as are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, guy wires that are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges and other cable structures. These cables are subject

Spencer Jr., B.F.

290

Flat-Sag Cables with Semiactive Damping 1 FLAT-SAG CABLES WITH SEMIACTIVE DAMPING  

E-print Network

-0767, USA ABSTRACT Cables, such as are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, guy wires that are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges and other cable structures. These cables are subject

Johnson, Erik A.

291

Worldwide underground transmission cable practices  

SciTech Connect

Underground transmission cables are a vital part of any power transmission system which means that the selection of a particular cable must be based upon many considerations ranging from the cost of losses to environmental concerns. The focus of this paper is on the design, selection, and testing of transmission cables within specific geographic regions. Design considerations on a regional basis includes temperature constraints, voltage and voltage stress limits, capacity and ampacity, backfill requirements, cooling and bonding. The material presented in this paper covers land based transmission cables only. Submarine cables, URD or UD cables are not included.

Orton, H.E. [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)] [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Samm, R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-04-01

292

Cable-Dispensing Cart  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

Bredberg, Alan S.

2003-01-01

293

An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools  

DOEpatents

A seal for a coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal seal for a coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transformer. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive core of the coaxial cable. The electrically insulating material also doubles as a seal to safegaurd against penetration of fluid, thus protecting against shorting out of the electrical connection. The seal is a multi-component seal, which is pre-compressed to a desired pressure rating. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string. The internal coaxial cable connector and its attendant seal can be used in a plurality of downhole tools, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2005-09-20

294

Automotive Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a Space Act Agreement between Boeing North America and BSR Products, Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are now used to insulate race cars. BSR has created special TPS blanket insulation kits for use on autos that take part in NASCAR events, and other race cars through its nationwide catalog distribution system. Temperatures inside a race car's cockpit can soar to a sweltering 140 to 160 degrees, with the extreme heat coming through the engine firewall, transmission tunnel, and floor. It is common for NASCAR drivers to endure blisters and burns due to the excessive heat. Tests on a car insulated with the TPS material showed a temperature drop of some 50 degrees in the driver's cockpit. BSR-TPS Products, Inc. now manufactures insulation kits for distribution to race car teams around the world.

1997-01-01

295

Correction coil cable  

DOEpatents

A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

Wang, Sou-Tien (Danville, CA)

1994-11-01

296

Thermal Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercially known as Solimide, Temptronics, Inc.'s thermal insulation has application in such vehicles as aircraft, spacecraft and surface transportation systems (i.e. rapid transit cars, trains, buses, and ships) as acoustical treatment for door, wall, and ceiling panels, as a means of reducing vibrations, and as thermal insulation (also useful in industrial equipment). Product originated from research conducted by Johnson Space Center on advanced flame-resistant materials for minimizing fire hazard in the Shuttle and other flight vehicles.

1984-01-01

297

Wide-span cable structures  

E-print Network

In recent years, the application of cable structures in buildings has gained huge popularities. Although cable technology has been established since the 1950s, there is suddenly a surge in the number of its building ...

Santoso, Katherina, 1980-

2004-01-01

298

Electrical-cable design guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Formulas and tables are provided to aid designers in determining electrical cable jacket sizes, number of wires per lay pattern, filler material requirements, jacket wall thickness, and overall cable diameters.

Phelps, G. A.

1976-01-01

299

Coaxial cable cutter  

DOEpatents

A cutting device is provided which is useful in trimming the jackets from semi-rigid coaxial cables and wire having a cutting bit and support attached to movable jaws. A thumbpiece is provided to actuate the opening of the jaws for receiving the cable to be trimmed, and a spring member is provided to actuate the closing of the jaws when thumbpiece is released. The cutting device utilizes one moving part during the cutting operation by using a rolling cut action. The nature of the jaws allows the cutting device to work in space having clearances less than 0.160 inches.

Hall, Leslie C. (Grandview, MO); Hedges, Robert S. (Belton, MO)

1990-04-10

300

Cabling design for phased arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ribbon-cabling system used for the AEGIS phased array which provides minimum cable bulk, complete EMI shielding, rugged mechanical design, repeatable electrical characteristics, and ease of assembly and maintenance is described. The ribbon cables are 0.040-inch thick, and in widths up to 2 1/2 inches. Their terminations are molded connectors that can be grouped in a three-tier arrangement, with cable branching accomplished by a matrix-welding technique.

Kruger, I. D.; Turkiewicz, L.

1972-01-01

301

Cables and connectors: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technological compilation on devices and techniques for various types of electrical cables and connections is presented. Data are reported under three sections: flat conductor cable technology, newly developed electrical connectors, and miscellaneous articles and information on cables and connector techniques.

1974-01-01

302

Power superconducting power transmission cable  

DOEpatents

The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

2003-01-01

303

Waltz Mill testing of 345-kV PPP cable  

SciTech Connect

A 345-kV PPP-insulated cable was subjected to a two-year accelerated life test program at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility. Testing started in November 1985 and was successfully completed in September 1988. The program included conductor temperatures ranging from 85{degrees}C to 105{degrees}C and line-to-line voltages from 362 kV to 474 kV. Cyclic testing was performed during 17 of the 24 months. Dissipation factor measurements were made throughout the program. The measurements indicated no deterioration of the cable or splices as a consequence of the high temperatures and voltages applied to them in this test program. 2 refs., 24 figs.

Burghardt, R.R. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Ruffs Dale, PA (United States))

1991-09-01

304

Study of the viscoelastic behavior of cold-shrinkable joints for MV cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology to joint medium voltage cables has been introduced in recent years: cold-shrinkable joints are gradually replacing premolded slip-on and heat-shrink type products. One of the key concerns on the functioning of such products is about the ability to shrink onto the cable insulation after long periods of storage time. The viscoelastic properties of the materials used in

J. Cardinaels; P. Heuillet; P. Meyer

1999-01-01

305

Physical properties of single water trees extracted from field aged cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term degradation phenomenon called water treeing is still of concern in polymeric insulated medium voltage cables. To get a better understanding of this ageing effect we investigated the physical properties of single water trees extracted from field aged cables. We will present measurements of the permittivity, the water content and the I-V-characteristics of single vented trees. The real part

F. Stucki; J. Rhyner

1994-01-01

306

Flat conductor cable handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handbook includes discussion of FCC advantages, status of FCC regarding military specifications, hardware availability, and existing applications, descriptions and data on available cable, connectors, fasteners and hardware, design techniques and applications, wiring, manufacturing and installation techniques - and inspection and test procedures.

Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

1971-01-01

307

Flat conductor cable applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

Angele, W.

1972-01-01

308

Fiber Optic Submarine Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine communication cables have one of the longest history in the field of technics. During the last 20 years their importance showed a drastic decay in favour of satellites. Presently their future looks bright again as they contain now optical fibers instead of coaxial pairs.

Oestreich, Ulrich H. P.

1990-01-01

309

Buoyant Cable Antenna System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A buoyant cable system and method is provided with a flexible towed platform that may be deployed into the water from a submerged submarine. The flexible towed platform has a memory that returns to a selected shape after deployment. A presently preferred ...

E. M. Gerhard

2006-01-01

310

Privacy for Cable Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cable television's potential for providing new and attractive types of services will best be realized if the public can be assured of privacy of information transmitted specifically to their terminals and of the right to view any channel without information being gathered as to which channel is being watched at any particular time. It appears that…

Eldridge, Frank R.

311

Videotex and Cable TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of 10 in a series on videotex, this promotional brochure discusses the enhancement of cable service systems that use videotex and teletext technologies. It explains the advantages of Canada's approach to videotex, which uses the standard called NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax), otherwise known in Canada as Telidon.…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

312

Cable in Mass 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current (1972) status of cable television (CATV) in Massachusetts is reviewed in this guide. The tone of the guide is oriented toward more citizen participation and public access to CATV operations throughout the state. The legal and technical CATV considerations are briefly discussed. Short illustrated chapters on the possibilities of local…

Founders Annex Public Service Project, Inc., Dedham, MA.

313

Educational Telecommunications. Cable Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Michigan Department of Education sponsored a conference which brought educational administrators and cable television (CATV) entrepreneurs together for a common exploration of their respective concerns in order that they might develop a working relationship leading to the effective utilization of CATV by educators. Major topics dealt with: 1)…

Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

314

Cable Television for Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In September 1972, a federally-funded 3-day institute was held, under the auspices of the Drexel University Graduate School of Library Science, to acquaint librarians from local State and Regional public libraries with current developments in the cable television field as they affect library planning and activities. The program utilized several…

Kenney, Brigitte L., Ed.

1973-01-01

315

Schools and Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

316

Multilayer flat electrical cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

Silverman, P. G.

1973-01-01

317

Pulse Cable for TESLA Modulators Hans-Jrg Eckoldt  

E-print Network

for the inner and outer conductor. The shield is chosen as 16 mm² aluminum or copper foil. As insulator XPE to 120 kV. The electrical power during the pulse is typically 15 MW and can be up to 16.8 MW. The pulse fields gives the general design of the cable which is triaxial as shown in Fig. 1. The inner conductor

318

Suppression of slot discharges in a cable wound generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed mathematical study to calculate the distribution of the voltages and currents developed on the semiconducting layer of the cable having many points of contact with the stator slot wall and an insulating\\/semiconducting fixation hose. The calculations are verified experimentally on the world's first high-voltage turbo Powerformer installed in Eskilstuna, Sweden, and rated at 136 kV

Marguerite Touma-Holmberg; Stig Hjarne

2003-01-01

319

Disposable telemetry cable deployment system  

DOEpatents

A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

Holcomb, David Joseph (Sandia Park, NM)

2000-01-01

320

Flat conductor cable commercialization project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

1977-01-01

321

Progress of 275 kV-3 kA YBCO HTS cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 275 kV-3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. AC loss reduction of a two-layer HTS conductor was undertaken by removing the edges of YBCO tapes with low critical current density. The HTS conductor using these tapes was fabricated, and low loss of 0.235 W/m at 3 kA rms was achieved. The 275 kV-3 kA cable was designed, and the 2 m model cables were fabricated. This cable had 325 mm 2 copper stranded former inside the HTS conductor and a 310 mm 2 copper shield layer on the HTS shield layer for over-current protection. These cables withstood an over-current of 63.0 kA for 0.6 s, which is the worst situation for 275 kV systems. The partial discharge (PD) and V- t characteristics of a liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system have been integrated into the design of the insulation for the 275 kV cable. The results revealed that the PD inception stress (PDIE) did not depend on the insulation thickness, and that lifetime indices of V- t characteristics at PD inception were as high as about 80-100.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Wang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Saito, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

2011-11-01

322

Radiation Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

1995-01-01

323

Are Kondo insulators simply insulators?  

SciTech Connect

Since the discovery of the anomalous normal state properties of the high-T{sub c} oxides, there has been a lively debate concerning the applicability of conventional Fermi liquid theory to strongly interacting metals. A question arising naturally in this context is whether strongly interacting insulators exhibit properties at odds with ordinary band theory. Of course, Mott insulators, which in the absence of strong Coulomb interactions would be metals, represent the most dramatic breakdown of band theory. However, among strongly interacting insulators which one believes are band insulators, there have until recently been no indications that many-body effects yield observable consequences beyond those which band parameter renormalization might account for. The large number of recent theoretical papers on this renormalization for f-band materials, as well as the long struggle to achieve quantitative understanding of the band gap in as basic a semiconductor as Si, attest to the importance and difficulty of calculating renormalized band parameters for insulators. Also, the experience with Si clearly shows that the renormalization can depend on the quantity being measured. In a recent review, the authors placed the newly discovered Ce-based Kondo insulators, as well as older anomalous semiconductors such as SmB{sub 6} and FeSi, in the context of renormalized band theory. The conclusion was that in large measure, this theory represents an adequate starting point for understanding strongly correlated insulators. The goal here is not to repeat what was said before, but to focus on those aspects of charge and spin fluctuations which the band picture cannot obviously accomodate.

Aeppli, G.; DiTusa, J.F. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Fisk, Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

324

San Francisco Cable Car Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Celebrated in American film, song, and popular legend, the San Francisco cable car gets its full due on this well honed site devoted to the history and operation of this cherished form of transportation. Beginning with a virtual tour of the Cable Car Museum, the site contains a full roster of current San Francisco cable cars and a detailed explanation of how a cable car works. Probably the strongest aspect of the site is the sheer amount of visual material available here, including over 150 photos that relate the history of the cable car system and continue on to the present day. Recent additions to the site include a collection of historic cable car transfers and information about a new book on cable cars in San Francisco.

2002-01-01

325

Accelerated aging of extruded dielectric power cables. Part 1; Control and monitoring methodology  

SciTech Connect

In accelerated cable life testing of power cables, cable samples are usually subjected to elevated voltages and temperatures in the presence of water in order to promote aging of the insulation and premature failures through the treeing mechanism. Failure to accurately control and monitor these accelerating facts can have adverse effects on test results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, a new and improved accelerated cable life test is described. Through the use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), very precise and consistent control of the accelerated aging process has been achieved. A computer has been utilized to make continuous real-time data acquisition and storage to key operating parameters possible. This precise control of monitoring methodology has permitted the study of the synergistic effects of voltage and temperature on the accelerated aging of full-sized cables in the laboratory.

Walton, M.S.; Smith, J.T. III (Reynolds/CPI Technical Center, Scottsville, TX (US)); Thue, W.A. (EPRI Consultant, Stuart, FL (US))

1992-04-01

326

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type wires/cable cables per wire total/cm*2 1 cable/m from -to  

E-print Network

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type wires/cable cables per wire total/cm*2 1 cable/m from - to Slow Control 1 VDS Multi-wire shielded 40 2 0,25 mm**2 50 COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type wires/cable cables per wire

327

Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.  

PubMed

This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

2013-01-01

328

Safe extraction of Riata looped extruding filler cables.  

PubMed

The Riata 1590 lead model contains both electrically active cables (AC) and filler cables (FC) that run in pairs within lumens along the lead body. FC are yet to be described as lead components that may be externalized from either external abrasion or inside-out abrasion seen in the recalled St. Jude leads. Externalization of FC would not be expected to develop any electrical abnormality during routine ICD and lead evaluations. FC are fixed at their ends only with a silicone adhesive compared to mechanical crimps for AC. This glue bond can break allowing a progressive migration of the filler cable to extrude out the insulation breach forming profound loops of cables. We identify the 10 recalled Riata models that contain the electrically inactive FC that will need closer scrutiny by X-ray imaging techniques. Extraction of ICD leads with externalized cables may be difficult, with the presence of extruded loops of FC compounding procedural complexity. We describe a technique that reduced extruded loops of FC and allowed safe extraction of the lead. PMID:23837462

Rubenstein, Donald S; Weston, Lawrence T; Kneller, James; Wright, Christopher; Yin, Hang

2013-08-01

329

Insulation Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apex Mills Corporation's superinsulators are used by makers of cold weather apparel, parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. Their attraction in such applications is that radiant barrier insulation offers excellent warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.

1987-01-01

330

Radiation Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation insulation technology from Apollo and subsequent spacecraft was used to develop superinsulators, used by makers of cold weather apparel, to make parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. The radiant barrier technology offers warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.

1987-01-01

331

Cable coupling lightning transient qualification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated lightning strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.

Cook, M.

1989-01-01

332

High-Frequency Modeling of the Long-Cable-Fed Induction Motor Drive System Using TLM Approach for Predicting Overvoltage Transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction motor drive systems fed with cables are widely used in many industrial applications. Accurate prediction of motor terminal overvoltage, caused by impedance mismatch between the long cable and the motor, plays an important role for motor dielectric insulation and optimal design of dv\\/dt filters. In this paper, a novel modeling methodology for the investigation of long-cable-fed induction motor drive

Liwei Wang; Carl Ngai-Man Ho; Francisco Canales; Juri Jatskevich

2010-01-01

333

These cables have been ordered by DESY: System Cable # of wires # of cables length (m) delivery Connectors # of connectors delivery Preparation of cable  

E-print Network

These cables have been ordered by DESY: System Cable # of wires # of cables length (m) delivery Connectors # of connectors delivery Preparation of cable high pt high voltage 1 145 à 40 m 6000 6000 SHV 26000 SHV-connectors 1200 1200 pbe electronic CAB04.XLS(Cables) Page 1 printed :08.07.1998 #12;high

334

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

335

Cable Bundle Wire Derating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

1998-01-01

336

Pellet detector investigation  

SciTech Connect

The presence of voids and contaminants in the extruded polyethylene insulation of distribution cable can cause premature cable failure. A recent EPRI investigation sought to use an experimental far-infrared laser (FIRL) to identify impurities in cable insulation manufactured from specially inspected pellets. 15 kV XLPE cables were made from three lots of insulation material which had been scanned 0%, 2% and 100% by a pellet inspection device. The cables were then examined with the FIRL (Far Infrared Laser Instrument for Cable Inspection). The 0% inspected cable had more defect indications on the FIRL, appeared dirtier and had the roughest surface of three cables. However, AC breakdown tests on unaged and aged (30 and 90 days) cables failed to reveal any statistically significant differences between cables made with the three lots of material. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Jones, R.P.; Starrett, W.A. (BICC Cables Corp., Indianapolis, IN (United States))

1991-10-01

337

Rotating Connection for Electrical Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cable reel provides electrical connections between fixed structure and rotating one. Reel carries power and signal lines while allowing rotating structure to turn up to 360 degrees with respect to fixed structure. Reel replaces sliprings. Can be used to electrically connect arm of robot with body. Reel releases cable to rotating part as it turns and takes up cable as rotating part comes back to its starting position, without tangling, twisting, or kinking.

Manges, D. R.

1986-01-01

338

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2012-07-01

339

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2013-07-01

340

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2010-07-01

341

30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be insulated adequately where they pass through...doors and stoppings, and where they cross other power wires and cables. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be guarded...

2011-07-01

342

Optimization of electron beam crosslinking for cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationship between electron beam parameters (energy, energy spread, and electron beam distribution in irradiation zone), electrical cable geometry (thickness of polymer layers and metal wire diameter), construction (jacked, insulation) and dose distribution represented by the Dmax/Dmin coefficients were investigated. The simulations were performed using ModeCEB computer program (Lazurik et al., 2011) and then compared with the experimental data. It was demonstrated that computer simulations based on the ModeCEB program are sufficient for modeling absorbed dose distribution in the multi-layers circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beam. The calculations revealed (1) significant inhomogeneous circumferential dose distribution in polymeric sub-layers (2) relatively low influence of electron beam energy spectrum on homogeneity of irradiation and (3) high influence of beam divergence on the circumferential dose distribution.

Zimek, Z.; Przybytniak, G.; Nowicki, A.; Mirkowski, K.; Roman, K.

2014-01-01

343

Tests of Insulation Systems for Nb3SN Wind and React Coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb3Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500 V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.

2008-03-01

344

Tests of insulation systems for Nb3Sn wind and react coils  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01

345

Cut-through tester accurately measures insulation failure rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cut-through tester electronically measures the rate of failure of various wire and cable insulating materials both as to time and the amount of applied pressure. The force /weight/ acting on the penetrator can be applied through a near infinite range.

Baker, E. U.

1967-01-01

346

Insulating spacer for double insulated glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved insulating spacer to reduce the heat transfer between the two panes of glass of double insulated glass comprises an extruded or roll-formed metal spacer together with plastic insulating elements which thermally isolate the metal spacer from the panes of glass while permitting conventional application of the sealant to provide reliable bonding. In one embodiment the plastic insulator comprises

1977-01-01

347

Conceptual design of 275 kV class high-Tc superconducting cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to be next generation transmission line because of the compact, lightweight, large capacity, and low loss features. Especially, since the YBa 2Cu 3O x (YBCO) tape has a high critical current, high magnetic-field property, low AC loss, and low cost, using YBCO tapes for a HTS cable seems to be one of the most promising ways to make the HTS cable attractive. Therefore, YBCO HTS cables have been studied extensively in Japan, the United States, Korea, and many other countries. We now believe that 275 kV class HTS cables will be used for future large capacity lines based on the needs of Japanese transmission networks for bulk transmission power in overhead transmission lines or gas insulated transmission lines (GIL). We started to develop the 275 kV class HTS cable for the new energy and industrial technology development organization (NEDO) project at 2008, and we have studied the applicability and the environmental and economic advantages of the 275 kV cable. This paper will introduce advantages and a conceptual design of the 275 kV HTS cable.

Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Fujiwara, N.; Ichikawa, H.

2010-11-01

348

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from -to  

E-print Network

cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from - to HIGH PT 12 Temperature 40 wire 3 dia 13 5,1 ? MagnetITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from - to HIGH PT 1 Chambers HV Coax HV 128 dia 3,0 36 47 m Magnet

349

The influence of defects on the short-term breakdown characteristics and long-term dc performance of LDPE insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extruded polyethylene is used as the bulk insulation for ac HV cables because of its high electric resistivity and breakdown strength. Although the material at present has limited use in dc power cables, it is used extensively in submarine optical communication cable systems. This paper reports on the study of the short-term characteristics and long-term performance of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)

G. Chen; A. E. Davies

2000-01-01

350

30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled...machine, that receives electrical energy through a portable cable and is designed to travel...circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle...

2010-07-01

351

Overhead tray for cable test system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of overhead slotted tray, series of compatible adapter cables, and automatic test set which consists of control console and cable-switching console. System reduces hookup time and also reduces cost of fabricating and storing test cables.

Saltz, K. T.

1976-01-01

352

47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...The cost of drop and block wires served by underground cable shall be included in...

2013-10-01

353

21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of...Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables.” This device is exempt from the...

2011-04-01

354

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category...cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2013-10-01

355

21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of...Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables.” This device is exempt from the...

2013-04-01

356

21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.  

...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of...Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables.” This device is exempt from the...

2014-04-01

357

47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...The cost of drop and block wires served by underground cable shall be included in...

2012-10-01

358

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category...cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2011-10-01

359

47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...The cost of drop and block wires served by underground cable shall be included in...

2010-10-01

360

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category...cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2012-10-01

361

21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of...Performance Standard for Electrode Lead Wires and Patient Cables.” This device is exempt from the...

2012-04-01

362

47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...The cost of drop and block wires served by underground cable shall be included in...

2011-10-01

363

51. View of sitdown cable car and cable way for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of sit-down cable car and cable way for stream gaging, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

364

52. View of sitdown cable car, cable way, and stream ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View of sit-down cable car, cable way, and stream gaging station, looking southeast. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

365

A New Novel Differential Protection Scheme for a High-Voltage, Cable-Wound Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel differential protection of powerformer, a type of high-voltage graded insulated cable wound generator. The false differential current associated with the distributed capacitance of powerformer stator windings is analyzed. Based on the investigation results, the winding capacitance can be equivalently arranged on the terminal and neutral of the generator respectively in a reasonable partition. And the

Q. Tian; X. Lin

2006-01-01

366

Winding capacitance dividing scheme for a high-voltage cable-wound generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method which can equivalently arrange the capacitance distribution along with the winding of the generator on the terminal and neutral respectively in a reasonable partition, particularly for a type of high-voltage graded insulated cable-wound generator, powerformer. This method can be used to compensate the capacitive current wholly to improve the reliability of the differential protection. It

Q. Tian; X. Lin

2010-01-01

367

Principles of a new arc-tracking test of cables and wires for spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed comparison and review of the available methods for testing the arcing failure characteristics of wire insulation materials has been made, and their applicability to the testing of spacecraft wires has been assessed. The available test methods fall into two general classifications, namely, wet and dry tests. These were developed mainly for the testing of aircraft cable for which

D. Konig; F. R. Frontzek; F. Dricot; H. J. Reher; M. Judd

1992-01-01

368

Cable Television: Uses in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first volume of a two-part study of the role of cable television in education; its purposes are to discuss the implications of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruling that all cable systems in the top 100 markets must reserve one channel for educational purposes and to stimulate the interests of educators by making them…

Carpenter, Polly

369

Plowing Cables Under the Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal cause of submarine telephone cable failures has been fishing activities on the continental shelf, particularly in the Western Atlantic area. The Bell System has conducted extensive investigation of methods of burying these cables in the affected area to eliminate this hazard. This has culminated in the development of a unique underwater plow which was used successfully in July

C. Duncan

1969-01-01

370

The Uses of Cable Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only by having an appreciation of how cable systems can be used, the attendant costs and limitations, can local authorities rationally evaluate its impact on the community. This report is intended to provide an introduction to the range of uses and communications services now possible with cable systems. The first part of the report includes a…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

371

Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

372

INDUCTIVE CABLE BREAKOUT RECOVERY HANDLE  

E-print Network

5 METERS 1" SAS INDUCTIVE CABLE BREAKOUT RADAR REFLECTOR PA-003 RECOVERY HANDLE SBE 37 TC ATLAS SSC ALL SHACKLES BELOW THIS LINE WELDED 325 METERS END OF WIRE 10 METERS SBE 51 TC 25 METERS SBE 37 TC/4" SAS 1 1/4" SAS CABLE BRACKET 2 LINKS 1" CHAIN DOUBLE NUT AND TORQUE ALL LOAD CELL NUTS TO 120# 1 METER

373

Mechanical Separation of Metallic Copper from Polymer-Insulated Copper Wire  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to recycling of polymer-insulated copper wire to remove copper from the wire without any contamination. A rolling machine and a blender were used to separate and recover the copper wires from a polymer coated cable. In the experiment using a rolling machine, the recovery of copper was improved by an increase in the number of rolling times and by lowering the cable temperature. All of the copper was recovered from a cable of 115 K in temperature. In the other experiment using a blender, the weight of the recovery of copper was increased by shortening the cable length and by increasing the rotary speed of the blender and the treating time. All the copper in a cut cable of 3mm long was recovered from a cable.

Yokoyama, Seiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, (1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8105, JAPAN) (Japan); Takeuchi, Sakae [Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8105 (Japan); Hisyamudin Bin Muhd Nor, Nik [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Now, Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology) (Malaysia)

2011-01-17

374

Photonic-powered cable assembly  

DOEpatents

A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

2013-01-22

375

Complete book of insulating  

SciTech Connect

Insulating makes significant energy conservation possible at relatively modest cost for most householders. Chapters presented are: Making Your Home into an Island; Understanding Heat Flow in Buildings; Weatherstripping and Caulking; Properties of Insulating Materials; Retrofitting Insulation; Installing Insulation in New Buildings; Coping with Other Energy Losers; and Laws, Government Programs, and Codes Affecting Insulation.

Albright, R.; Gay, L.; Stiles, J.; Worman, E.C.; Worman, N.P.; Zak, D.

1980-01-01

376

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from -to  

E-print Network

13 Multi-wire IEEE comm 2 dia 18.0 mm Floor 2, r 1, ra 3-5 ---> row 4, ra 5-6 Cables from floor 1ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from - to VDS Optical fiber cables 1 Multi-4-fi ana.det. 160 dia 5.2 mm

377

Robotic platform for monitoring underground cable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate, real-time information about the aging status of the power distribution cable network can save the power industry millions of dollars lost due to line failures and premature replacement of cables. Hence, a novel, semi-autonomous robotic sensor platform has been developed for monitoring underground, power distribution cable systems. A segmented, legged modular configuration allows the robot to traverse cables with

B. Jiang; P. Stuart; M. Raymond; D. Villa; A. V. Mamishev

2002-01-01

378

Cable Modem Technology Implementation: Challenges and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes cable modem technology (i.e., an external device that facilitates high-speed access to the Internet via the same network configuration employed for cable television). Examples of cable field trials carried out in collaboration with educational user communities are presented, and cable technical capabilities, advantages, and constraints…

Littman, Marlyn Kemper

1998-01-01

379

Impact of Cable Television on Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the impact of an evolving cable television technology on educational practice. The possible performance levels of a broad-band cable system, the quality of televised instruction, and the demands televised instruction would place on cable capacity are outlined. Social factors affecting individual preference and institutional resistance to cable education are considered.

K. Rose; R. Gutmann

1975-01-01

380

Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

Yin, Robert K.

381

Cables and connectors: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation is presented that reflects the uses, adaptation, and maintenance plus service, that are innovations derived from problem solutions in the space R and D programs, both in house and by NASA and AEC contractors. Data cover: (1) technology revelant to the employment of flat conductor cables and their adaptation to and within conventional systems, (2) connectors and various adaptations, and (3) maintenance and service technology, and shop hints useful in the installation and care of cables and connectors.

1974-01-01

382

Effects of shields on cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft wiring subjected to rapidly changing electromagnetic fields was considered. The ways in which shielded cables reduce surge voltages were studied along with the ways in which common practice regarding the use of shields may be at variance with the use required for the control of lightning effects. Courses in which this apparent conflict of use may be resolved were suggested. Noise currents flowing on shields of cables related to the noise signals coupled onto signal conductors were also investigated.

1977-01-01

383

GAP FILLING CERAMIC INSULATING PUTTY FOR HIGH FIELD MAGNETS  

SciTech Connect

Gaps between the A15 superconducting cable and its supports can sometimes occur requiring expensive rework of the support or filling with a non-optimal material. Recently, a new ceramic putty has been developed that can fill these gaps to fully support the superconducting cable. This ceramic material can withstand the extreme temperature differences between the high temperature heat treatment and the cryogenic operation. Significant performance improvements have been made that will enable the insulating putty to be used in some accelerator magnet systems. Processing methods will be discussed as well as strength and thermal data.

Rice, J. A.; Rice, H. M. [MultiPhase Composites, LLC Longmont, CO, 80501 (United States)

2008-03-03

384

Electrical/mechanical evaluation of high voltage dielectrics for OTEC riser cables  

SciTech Connect

The unique design and test requirements for the cable dielectrics selected for evaluation for use in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plants are described. Specifically, the methodology of developing the test procedure is defined. The basic cable dielectrics selected for evaluation include taped/oil-impregnated insulation, and extruded solid cross-linked polyethylene insulation. These cables are designed to transmit 100 MW at 138 kV, and will be subjected to installation and operating conditions that are unprecedented for any power cable system. These conditions include ocean depths of 4000 to 5000 feet, long vertical suspension, and the motions and forces imparted by the plant and ocean. The developmental test program is designed primarily to determine the weak link in the components of the candidate cable with regard to the ability to successfully withstand the unusual OTEC conditions over a 10 to 30 year lifetime. Two basic areas of concern are the mechanical fatigue of metallic sheaths and strength members, and the electrical/mechanical ''fatigue'' of the dielectric and shielding components. The constraints and problems in such testing are addressed, and the engineering solutions are described. Finally, the scheduled plan for completion of the entire development test plan is defined.

Traut, R. T.; Kurt, J. P.; DiPietro, F. M.; Roberts, K. P.

1980-01-01

385

Properties of cryogenic insulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

High vacuum, cold gases and liquids, and solids are the principal insulating materials for superconducting apparatus. All these insulants have been claimed to show fairly good intrinsic dielectric performance under laboratory conditions where small scale experiments in the short term range are typical. However, the insulants must be integrated into large scaled insulating systems which must withstand any particular stressing

J. Gerhold

1998-01-01

386

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

387

Development of an Innovative Insulation for Nb3Sn Wind and React Coils  

SciTech Connect

At the present time, Nb3Sn is the best superconductor candidate for the realization of high field magnets (>10-11 teslas). However its implementation remains delicate because of the great brittleness of material after the heat treatment necessary to form the Nb3Sn compounds. The conventional insulation for Nb3Sn wind and react coils requires performing, after the heat treatment, a vacuum resin impregnation, which adds to the cost and raises failure risk. We propose a one-step innovating ceramic insulation deposited directly on the un-reacted conducting cable. The conducting cable is wound according to conventional techniques and, after the heat treatment necessary to the form the Nb3Sn, we obtain a coil having a mechanical cohesion, while maintaining a proper conductor positioning and a suitable electric insulation. We will have studied the electric properties of superconducting cable isolated at the room temperature and at 4.2 K.

Puigsegur, A. [CEA Saclay, DSM - DAPNIA - SACM, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes (CNRS UMR 5635), 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier, F-34293 (France); Rondeaux, F.; Samoogabalan, K. [CEA Saclay, DSM - DAPNIA - SACM, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Prouzet, E. [Institut Europeen des Membranes (CNRS UMR 5635), 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier, F-34293 (France)

2004-06-28

388

The development of ShortWatch, a novel overtemperature or mechanical damage sensing technology for wires or cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

'ShortWatch' is a patented technology which for the first time offers electrical wire/cable products providing real-time, 'in-situ' (1) condition monitoring that warns of insulation damage before an electrical fault occurs, (2) assessment of the ability to perform in a Design Basis event, (3) distributed sensor warning of overtemperature, and (4) insulation leakage measurement capability providing arc sensing and a reliable tool for wire age prediction.

Watkins, Ken; Morris, Jack; Wong, C.P.; Luo, Shijian

2001-09-07

389

Fabrication of Nb3Sn Shell-Type Coils with Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insulation is one of the critical components for high-field Nb3Sn magnets that follow wind-and-react approach. The insulation material has to withstand high bending stresses while winding the coil and high heat-treatment temperatures under pressure during coil reaction. At Fermilab we have developed a procedure and tested successfully the dry ceramic insulation tape with inorganic liquid binder to wind and cure the coils. Recently we have extended this to a pre-preg ceramic insulation tape, which would minimize and control the amount of binder in the coil. Several coils with various insulation patterns have been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper discusses the fabrication issues of the coils with different types of cable insulation including the pre-preg ceramic insulation.

Chichili, D. R.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Zlobin, A. V.; Codell, D.; Fabian, P.; Tupper, M.

2004-06-01

390

Fabrication of Nb3Sn Shell-Type Coils with Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation  

SciTech Connect

Insulation is one of the critical components for high-field Nb3Sn magnets that follow wind-and-react approach. The insulation material has to withstand high bending stresses while winding the coil and high heat-treatment temperatures under pressure during coil reaction. At Fermilab we have developed a procedure and tested successfully the dry ceramic insulation tape with inorganic liquid binder to wind and cure the coils. Recently we have extended this to a pre-preg ceramic insulation tape, which would minimize and control the amount of binder in the coil. Several coils with various insulation patterns have been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper discusses the fabrication issues of the coils with different types of cable insulation including the pre-preg ceramic insulation.

Chichili, D.R.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Zlobin, A.V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States); Codell, D.; Fabian, P.; Tupper, M. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, 80026 (United States)

2004-06-28

391

Lead thrombi associated with externalized cables on Riata ICD leads: a case series.  

PubMed

St. Jude Riata family ICD leads are subject to an FDA class I recall due to insulation failure, cable extrusions, and a high rate of electrical failures. We present multiple cases of large intravascular thrombus formation adherent to externalized conductor cables on Riata leads. Our observations highlight a previously unknown risk of large or calcified thrombus formation involving externalized conductors. We suggest that these leads should be screened for thrombi prior to potential lead extraction to determine the safest approach. Serial echocardiography may help detect progressive thrombus formation. The role of systemic anticoagulation for prevention or treatment of these thrombi remains unclear. PMID:23577693

Goyal, Sandeep K; Ellis, Christopher R; Rottman, Jeffery N; Whalen, S Patrick

2013-09-01

392

Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

1973-01-01

393

The RHIC transfer line cable database  

SciTech Connect

A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed.

Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

1995-05-01

394

Development of Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation for Superconducting Magnets  

SciTech Connect

A new pre-impregnated (pre-preg) ceramic-based electrical insulation system capable of surviving high superconductor reaction temperatures has been developed for use in superconducting magnets. The use of Nb3Sn superconductors holds great promise for increased magnet performance for high energy physics, fusion, and other applications. A robust, cost-effective manufacturing process is critical to the successful implementation of these coils. Due to its embrittlement after the high temperature reaction cycle, Nb3Sn cable is usually insulated and wound into the coil prior to heat treatment. An earlier ceramic-based insulation system, applied using wet-winding or vacuum impregnation, has been successfully used in the 'wind and react' fabrication process. Use of the new pre-preg system will further simplify the manufacturing process while improving control over the insulation properties. Pre-preg insulation offers several advantages including improved dimensional control of the insulation, controllable and uniform fiber to matrix ratio, and certainty that the insulation does not infiltrate the superconductor. This paper describes the pre-preg development process, processing properties, as well as insulation performance data at cryogenic temperatures.

Codell, D.E.; Fabian, P.E. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, 80026 (United States)

2004-06-28

395

Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

2014-05-01

396

Rotatable electric cable connecting system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cable reel assembly is described which is particularly adapted for, but not limited to, a system for providing electrical connection of power and data signals between an orbiter vehicle, such as a space shuttle, and a recovered satellite. The assembly is comprised of two mutually opposing ring type structures having 180 deg relative rotation with one of the structures being held in fixed position while the other structure is rotatable. Motor controlled berthing latches and umbilical cable connectors for the satellite are located on the rim of the rotatable ring structure. The electrical cable assembly is fed in two sections from the orbiter vehicle into the outer rim portion of the fixed ring structure where they are directed inwardly and attached to two concentrically coiled metal bands whose respective ends are secured to inner and outer post members of circular sets of guide pins located on opposing circular plate members, one rotatable and one fixed. The cable sections are fed out as three output cable sections through openings in the central portion of the circular plate of the rotatable ring structure where they are directed to the latches and connectors located on its rim.

Manges, D. R. (inventor)

1985-01-01

397

Charge-Dissipative Electrical Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical cables that dissipate spurious static electric charges, in addition to performing their main functions of conducting signals, have been developed. These cables are intended for use in trapped-ion or ionizing-radiation environments, in which electric charges tend to accumulate within, and on the surfaces of, dielectric layers of cables. If the charging rate exceeds the dissipation rate, charges can accumulate in excessive amounts, giving rise to high-current discharges that can damage electronic circuitry and/or systems connected to it. The basic idea of design and operation of charge-dissipative electrical cables is to drain spurious charges to ground by use of lossy (slightly electrically conductive) dielectric layers, possibly in conjunction with drain wires and/or drain shields (see figure). In typical cases, the drain wires and/or drain shields could be electrically grounded via the connector assemblies at the ends of the cables, in any of the conventional techniques for grounding signal conductors and signal shields. In some cases, signal shields could double as drain shields.

Kolasinski, John R.; Wollack, Edward J.

2004-01-01

398

Transport AC loss characteristics of a nine strand YBCO Roebel cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport AC loss in a short length of 9/2 YBCO Roebel cable (nine 2 mm wide strands) is measured. The AC loss data are compared with those in a 5/2 YBCO Roebel cable (five 2 mm wide strands) as well as that in a single strand. All the strands composing the cables and the single strand are insulated and cut from the same stock material. The validity of the measurement method was reconfirmed by results at a range of frequencies. At a wide range of It/Ic, the normalized AC losses in the Roebel cable were around 6.2-6.7 times of those in the single strand. This is less than the nine times predicted for a tight bundle of nine conductors. The normalized transport AC losses in the 5/2 Roebel cable are much smaller than those in the 9/2 Roebel. This should be due to larger superposition of magnetic field in the 9/2 Roebel. The Ic of the 9/2 and 5/2 Roebel cables is determined by serial connection of the strands. This eliminates the effect where differing resistances in the current terminations cause uneven current sharing between strands when the strands are connected in parallel.

Jiang, Zhenan; Badcock, R. A.; Long, N. J.; Staines, Mike; Thakur, K. P.; Lakshmi, L. S.; Wright, A.; Hamilton, K.; Sidorov, G. N.; Buckley, R. G.; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Caplin, A. D.

2010-02-01

399

Arc Testing of a Mockup Cable in a Simulated Space Radiation Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mockup cable was irradiated with electrons of 25-100 keV energy in a vacuum chamber. The m'ockup cable consisted of insulated wires on a kapton substrate, overlaid with a metallized teonex shield. Voltages induced on the wires and shield by the electron beam during irradiation were monitored, and voltage changes were used, along with video, to detect arcs due to the charge built-up in the cable. The cable was also cooled with liquid nitrogen to very low temperatures, to simulate cables kept in the dark for long periods of time. Arcing was common at fluences typical of long space missions. Occasionally an arc would occur some time after the electron beam was turned off. The conductivity of the wires and shield was monitored as a function of temperature, and behaved as expected, with lower conductivities at lower temperatures. Arcs from the wires and shield to ground and from the wires to the shield were measured. Sympathetic arcs were also seen, wherein an arc from the shield to ground or from the wires to ground was followed in a short period of time by another arc of a different type. Implications of these results for real cables on long space missions will be discussed, and recommendations given for arc mitigation.

Ferguson, D. C.; Schneider, T. A.; Vaughn, J. A.

2007-01-01

400

30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75...Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223, Dec....

2012-07-01

401

30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75...Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223, Dec....

2013-07-01

402

30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75...Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223, Dec....

2010-07-01

403

30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75...Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223, Dec....

2011-07-01

404

30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.  

...2014-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75...Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. [57 FR 61223, Dec....

2014-07-01

405

Evaluation of Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing. Part B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing Report was written in response to an action issued by the Ares Project Control Board (PCB). The action for the Ares I Avionics & Software Chief Engineer and the Avionics Integration and Vehicle Systems Test Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Manager in the Vehicle Integration Office was to develop a set of guidelines for electrical cable harnesses. Research showed that post-installation tests have been done since the Apollo era. For Ares I-X, the requirement for post-installation testing was removed to make it consistent with the avionics processes used on the Atlas V expendable launch vehicle. Further research for the report involved surveying government and private sector launch vehicle developers, military and commercial aircraft, spacecraft developers, and harness vendors. Responses indicated crewed launch vehicles and military aircraft perform post-installation tests. Key findings in the report were as follows: Test requirements identify damage, human-rated vehicles should be tested despite the identification of statistically few failures, data does not support the claim that post-installation testing damages the harness insulation system, and proper planning can reduce overhead associated with testing. The primary recommendation of the report is for the Ares projects to retain the practice of post-fabrication and post-installation cable harness testing.

King, M. S.; Iannello, C. J.

2011-01-01

406

Umbilical cable recovery load analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

2013-06-01

407

Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

1967-01-01

408

Probabilistic models to estimate fire-induced cable damage at nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though numerous PRAs have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk, there are some specific areas of knowledge related to this issue, such as the prediction of fire-induced damage to electrical cables and circuits, and their potential effects in the safety of the nuclear power plant, that still constitute a practical enigma, particularly for the lack of approaches/models to perform consistent and objective assessments. This report contains a discussion of three different models to estimate fire-induced cable damage likelihood given a specified fire profile: the kinetic, the heat transfer and the IR "K Factor" model. These models not only are based on statistical analysis of data available in the open literature, but to the greatest extent possible they use physics based principles to describe the underlying mechanism of failures that take place among the electrical cables upon heating due to external fires. The characterization of cable damage, and consequently the loss of functionality of electrical cables in fire is a complex phenomenon that depends on a variety of intrinsic factors such as cable materials and dimensions, and extrinsic factors such as electrical and mechanical loads on the cables, heat flux severity, and exposure time. Some of these factors are difficult to estimate even in a well-characterized fire, not only for the variability related to the unknown material composition and physical arrangements, but also for the lack of objective frameworks and theoretical models to study the behavior of polymeric wire cable insulation under dynamic external thermal insults. The results of this research will (1) help to develop a consistent framework to predict fire-induced cable failure modes likelihood, and (2) develop some guidance to evaluate and/or reduce the risk associated with these failure modes in existing and new power plant facilities. Among the models evaluated, the physics-based heat transfer model takes into account the properties and characteristics of the cables and cable materials, and the characteristics of the thermal insult. This model can be used to estimate the probability of cable damage under different thermal conditions.

Valbuena, Genebelin R.

409

Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable  

ScienceCinema

Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

Russell, Alan

2014-06-04

410

Manufacture of flat-conductor cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses cable design and fabrication of both unshielded and shielded FCC. Discussion includes numerous cable configurations and fabrication processes, such as laminating, etching, extruding, and weaving. Bibliography lists additional references.

Angele, W.

1976-01-01

411

Folding tools for flat conductor cable harnesses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vise grip pliers have detachable metal gripping plates which are changed to accommodate cables from 1 to 3 in. wide and to form any desired fold angle. A second tool squeezes cable along crease to complete the fold.

Loggins, R.

1971-01-01

412

Design optimization of cable-stayed bridges  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to achieve a basic understanding of cable-stayed systems. Issues to be treated are the diachronic evolution of cable-stayed bridges, including the advantages, the limitations and the basic design ...

Bessas, Georgios

2006-01-01

413

Online Cable Tester and Rerouter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

2012-01-01

414

Performance Evaluation of K-DEMO Cable-in-conduit Conductors Using the Florida Electro-Mechanical Cable Model  

SciTech Connect

The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for design of the Toroidal Field (TF) insert coil, which will allow validation of the performance of significant lengths of the conductors to be used in the full scale TF coils in relevant conditions of field, current density and mechanical strain. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) will build the TF insert which will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test facility at JAEA, Naka, Japan. Three dimensional mathematical model of TF Insert was created based on the initial design geometry data, and included the following features: orthotropic material properties of superconductor material and insulation; external magnetic field from CSMC, temperature dependent properties of the materials; pre-compression and plastic deformation in lap joint. Major geometrical characteristics of the design were preserved including cable jacket and insulation shape, mandrel outline, and support clamps and spacers. The model is capable of performing coupled structural, thermal, and electromagnetic analysis using ANSYS. Numerical simulations were performed for room temperature conditions; cool down to 4K, and the operating regime with 68kA current at 11.8 Tesla background field. Numerical simulations led to the final design of the coil producing the required strain levels on the cable, while simultaneously satisfying the ITER magnet structural design criteria.

Zhai, Yuhu

2013-07-16

415

Validation of a real-time cable deployment control system for slack cable laying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validation of a real-time control system for the deployment of submarine communication cables presented. The control system allows the user accurately control cable bottom slack and position the cable along a pre-planned route. The system was successfully used to lay an underwater acoustic tracking range for the US Navy. A total of eight, 40 mile long cables, each having

J. M. Andres; S. R. Jefferies; G. Gillenwaters

1993-01-01

416

Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable  

SciTech Connect

The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

W.M.Denny

2003-01-02

417

Dynamic monitoring of stay cables by enhanced cable equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical vibration test of tensioned cables, tension forces are mostly estimated from theory of a vibrating string with the first natural frequency. To obtain slightly better estimations, formulas based on an axially loaded beam can be employed. However, uncertainty on both flexural rigidity and effective length of the vibrating cable raise difficulty in reliably determining the possible range of the tension value. From the previous work of the authors, an alternative approach for the calculation of tension forces without the need of rigidity data had been proposed, in which frequencies of high modes are instead required in recovering accurate results. This paper extends the previous work to also consider the discrepancy between the design length and effective length so as to further improve the results. Feasibility of the proposed methodology with enhanced equations was verified by actual cable forces measured in an extradosed bridge. Current study aims to apply the proposed approach to the dynamic monitoring of the in-situ stay cables so as to improve the traditional assessment results without increasing the testing costs.

Yu, Chih-Peng; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Chia-Chi

2014-03-01

418

FOA Lecture 4: Fiber Optic Cables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the 4th lecture on fiber optics by Jim Hayes, president of the Fiber Optic Association. This lecture covers fiber optic cables. Cables are used to protect the fibers in the installation environment, outdoors or indoors. In this lecture, Hayes covers the requirements of cables for various applications and the types of cables typically used. Running time for the lecture is 10:15. Flash is required to view the video.

Hayes, Jim

2013-07-05

419

NEMA wire and cable standards development programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

Baird, Robert W.

1994-01-01

420

Bandwidth scheduling for multi-channel packet cable telephony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable networks have evolved from offering broadcast services to providing high rate two-way data services. In the next step, cable operators intend to use voice over IP (VoIP) to provide cable telephony services. In a cable network the users are connected to the headend through a cable modem. The headend is responsible for allocating upstream bandwidth to the various cable

Nir Naaman; Raphael Rom

2002-01-01

421

The Submarine Optical Cable of the Submarcom S 280 System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submarine optical telecommunication cables must satisfy a large number of specific items. To comply with specifications, CDL has developed a cable structure based on high-performance optical fibers placed with slack in the grooves of a plastic rod put in the center of a very strong cable. The deep-sea cable is the basic structure for armored cables or land cables. Armor

J. Trezeguet; P. Ollion; P. Franco; J. Thiennot

1984-01-01

422

Measuring insulation thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated eddy-current meter measures thickness of thermal insulation on metal substrates with specially designed adapters; for example, thickness of fiberglass parts for boats or automobiles. Technique is particlarly useful for sprayed-on insulation.

Munn, D. M.

1979-01-01

423

Your Personal Genie in the Cable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

Schlafly, Hubert J.

424

Cable: Report to the President, 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive, new national policy for cable communications is recommended by the Cabinet Committee on Cable Communications. The goal of the policy is to achieve the orderly integration of cable with other existing communications media so that information may flow freely, protected from both private and governmental barriers. The first two…

Office of Telecommunications Policy, Washington, DC.

425

Cable design for optical submarine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transoceanic communication systems using coaxial cables with repeaters have been in use since the 1950's and there is now a very extensive international network. All major manufacturers of such systems are now developing optical cables and repeaters which will provide increased capacity at lower cost. This paper describes some of the aspects of the design requirements of cables suitable for

Peter Worthington

1984-01-01

426

Cable Design for Optical Submarine Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transoceanic communication systems using coaxial cables with repeaters have been in use since the 1950's and there is now a very extensive international network. All major manufacturers of such systems are now developing optical cables and repeaters which will provide increased capacity at lower cost. This paper describes some of the aspects of the design requirements of cables suitable for

P. Worthington

1984-01-01

427

Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

Amador, Jose J.

1995-01-01

428

Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

League of California Cities, Sacramento.

429

The Cable Book. Community Television for Massachusetts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is especially designed to inform and aid community organizations in understanding cable television and planning for the future. With the exception of the chapter on Massachusetts cable legislation, most of the book should be useful to community organizations anywhere. At the beginning, the history and experience of cable television in…

Achtenberg, Ben

430

Development of RE123 Superconducting Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected as a large capacity cable with lower transmission loss. Numerous HTS cable demonstration projects using Bi-2223 superconducting wires are being promoted around the world for practical utility usage. RE-123 coated conductors, which are still at the research and development stage, will also be applied to several demonstration projects in coming years in addition

Masayoshi Ohya; Y. Ashibe; M. Watanabe; T. Minamino; H. Yumura; T. Masuda; T. Kato

2009-01-01

431

47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and block wires served by such cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2010-10-01

432

GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

noted, connect the indicated wire to flag 'C'. The Cable Installation Schedule indicates the terminalENGDOC# GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES SLAC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT ID-236-801-36-RX2 Release granted specific permission of Stanford University. #12;3/14/2013 2 GENERAL CABLE PLANT NOTES ELECTRICAL

Wechsler, Risa H.

433

47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and block wires served by such cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2011-10-01

434

Darwin Magazine Puzzle The Transatlantic Cable  

E-print Network

contains 20 electrical wires. Unfortunately the cheap cable manu- facturers gave all 20 wires the sameDarwin Magazine Puzzle The Transatlantic Cable by Groucho March 14, 2008 A transatlantic cable colour. You have the job of figuring out which wire is which, that is, creating a consistent labelling

MacKay, David J.C.

435

47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and block wires served by such cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2013-10-01

436

Reducing Magnetic Fields Around Power Cables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four power conductors arranged symmetrically about fifth grounded conductor. Four current-carrying wires arranged symmetrically around central grounded wire that nominally carries no current. In comparison with other cable configurations, this one results in smaller magnetic fields around cable. Technique for use when size of wires in cable makes twisting impractical.

Sargent, Noel B.; Gitelman, Florida; Pongracz-Bartha, Edward; Spalding, John

1993-01-01

437

47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and block wires served by such cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2012-10-01

438

Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable after residence on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 12 astronauts brought the Surveyor III television camera back from the moon in November 1969. Chemical analyses of a portion of television cable revealed changes in the glass fabric sleeve and in the wire insulation as a result of exposure to the lunar environment. Loss of volatile constituents from the glass fabric and a discoloration of the glass occurred. The Teflon layer on the wire showed a slight discoloration and possibly a slight change in its infrared spectrum. Both the polyimide layer and the Teflon layer of the wire insulation showed changes in tensile strength and elongation.

Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

1972-01-01

439

Waltz Mill testing of 765-kV paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) cable  

SciTech Connect

A 765-kV PPP-insulated cable was subjected to a 27-month accelerated life test program at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility. Testing started in August 1981 and was successfully completed in January 1985. The program included conductor temperatures ranging from 85{degree}C to 105{degree}C and line-to-line voltages from 800 kV to 1050 kV. Cyclic testing was performed during 20 of the 27 months. Dissipation factor measurements were made throughout the program. The measurements indicated no deterioration of the cable or splices as a consequence of the high temperatures and voltages applied to them in this test program.

Burghardt, R.R. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Ruffs Dale, PA (United States))

1992-06-01

440

Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Oil Filled Cable Joint with Extremely Degraded tan ? Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of oil filled (OF) cable has been used for a long time for 66?500kV extra high voltage cable. Sometimes we can see extremely degraded tan? oil (several tens % of tan?, for example) in joint box etc. The calculation results of tan? on a simple combination model of paper/oil show that, tan? of oil impregnated paper with such a high tan? oil is extremely high and it must result in a thermal breakdown. However such an event has not taken place up to the present in actually operated transmission line. This fact suggests that some suppression mechanism of tan? has acted in the degraded tan? oil impregnated paper insulation. Therefore we investigated the tan? characteristics of oil impregnated paper with extremely high tan? oil in detail. In addition, based on the investigation results, we developed a simulation method of heat generation by dielectric loss in OF cable joint (which has degraded tan? oil).

Ide, Kenichi; Nakade, Masahiko; Takahashi, Tohru; Nakajima, Takenori

441

Analysis of the Combined Effects of Load Cycling, Thermal Transients, and Electrothermal Stress on Life Expectancy of High-Voltage AC Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a procedure is presented for the life estimation of high-voltage cables subjected to electrothermal stress due to applied voltage and load cycles. Thermal transients that affect cable insulation as a consequence of cyclic current variations are modeled by means of the well-known CIGRE two-loop thermal network analog. The effect of the relevant cyclically varying electrothermal stress is

Giovanni Mazzanti

2007-01-01

442

Thermal insulating mat  

SciTech Connect

In order to fabricate and emplace a thermal insulating mat at favorable cost and in order to provide the mat with good thermal insulation properties at a favorable cost, the thermal insulating mat comprises films having sealed chambers which are filled with a filler gas, the thermal conduction coefficient of which is smaller than that of air.

May, M. G.

1985-08-06

443

Topological Insulators & Superconductors  

E-print Network

Topological Insulators & Superconductors New Frontiers in Low-Dimensional Systems Program 3-5 November 2010 Jadwin Hall, Fourth Floor, Room 407 Topological Insulators and Superconductors have quickly insulators but have holographic edge or surface states which are robust to disorder and impurities

444

SOUND INSULATION ISSUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview of three topics related to sound insulation in buildings. The first project included laboratory and field measurements of sound insulation against aircraft noise. As well as various technical papers, the project produced software to help in the design of adequate sound insulation. In a second project, re-analysis of survey results allowed the development of a

John S. Bradley

445

Digital Transmission over Submarine Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using submarine cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is

W. Litchman

1965-01-01

446

Regulatory Developments in Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes major rule making actions since 1972, current rules and regulations, and guidelines for citizen participation in FCC (Federal Communications Commission) processes related to cable television regulation. A large portion of the report pertains to current rules and regulations in the areas of certificate of compliance,…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

447

SHOPPING GENIE Ethernet cables must  

E-print Network

- figuration will deter- mine length of cable needed. The UR bookstore and University IT Com- puter Sales have. Don't bring them. OCTOPUS-STYLE LAMPS These and other upwardly facing bowl lamps are prohibited. Cell phones are widely used on campus. Students have the option of contracting with University

Cantlon, Jessica F.

448

Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

449

Selecting a Cable System Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

450

Library Clout in Local Cable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the role of the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, in the development of a Community Access Channel through a local cable television (CATV) franchise. The services offered on the channel, the resources required, and the potential of the channel as a community communications resource are outlined. (JL)

Smith, Don R.

1981-01-01

451

Semiactive Damping of Cables with Sag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vibrations in support cables can be caused by wind, rain, or other forces acting on the attached structure. This can result in premature failure of the cable or its connections, thereby reducing the cable's useful lifetime. This research paper, from the University of Southern California civil engineering department, extends the previous work of the authors on smart vibration damping techniques. Through accurate modeling of the cable and including the properties of "sag, inclination, and axial flexibility," a series of equations are derived that govern the motion of the cable. These are then used to show the effectiveness of semiactive dampers in reducing vibration.

Christenson, R. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Spencer, B. F.

2005-12-13

452

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from -to  

E-print Network

ITEM COMPONENT CABLE CABLE Nr. CROSS-SECT CROSS-SECT LENGTH DESTINATION REMARKS Type Purpose cables per cable total/cm*2 1 cable/m from - to ECAL 1 Coax Signal 5956 dia 2.85 484 40 m ECAL --> Hut Chain.Pl. to e-hut Chain #4 7 10wire fl. C-W serv 372 25 mm*2 93 7 ECAL --> distrib.board mid/out at platf 8 tw

453

Testing flat-conductor cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes characteristics of type of FCC which consists of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with self-extinguishing polyester adhesive.

Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

1976-01-01

454

Insulated solar storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the theoretical and experimental investigation of an insulated parallelepiped, outdoor solar, water-filled storage tank of size 1 m {times} 0.5 m {times} 0.3 m, that is made from galvanized iron. The absorption coefficient of the insulating material has been determined. The effects of plastic covers and insulation thickness on the water temperature and the energy gained or lost by water are investigated. Moreover, the effects of insulation thickness on the temperature profiles of the insulating material are discussed. The results show that the absorption coefficient decreases as the insulation thickness increases. Also, it is found that the glass wool insulation of 2.5 cm thickness has the best results compared with the other thicknesses (5 cm, 7.5 cm, and 10 cm) as far as the water temperature and the energy gained by water are concerned.

Eldighidy, S.M. (Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman))

1991-01-01

455

Cryogenic Insulation Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

1999-01-01

456

Thermal insulating coatings. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and applications of thermal insulating coatings. Topics include ceramic, infrared reflective, and low permeability coatings. Applications of thermal barrier and reflective coatings to pipes, cables, turbines, automobile glass, windows, concrete, brick, and metals are presented. Performance evaluations of thermal coatings are included. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

457

Changes In Isomeric Composition of Lab Cable Oil Associated With A Range of Terminal Electron Acceptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are used as insulating oils in underground elec- tricity transmission cables. Following accidental damage to the cables or a failure of the cable system, oil may leak into the surrounding soil. The cable is normally repaired quickly and the majority of the oil is recovered, but access to soil containing residual contamination may be hampered by proximity to other buried services, so minimally invasive techniques for remediation are sought. Laboratory experiments have been de- signed to investigate LAB degradation under anaerobic conditions, as these may exist in the field. Preliminary results indicate, for the first time, that microbial growth can occur with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor and LAB as the sole carbon source. LAB degradation was not evident under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic condi- tions. GC-MS data show that the isomeric composition of oil degraded under nitrate- reducing conditions is altered in a way that differs significantly from oil that has been degraded by aerobic microorganisms. Ongoing work, aimed at confirming these find- ings, includes repetition of the flask culture experiments, greater replication and the inclusion of an internal GC standard to allow the degradation to be fully quantified. Cable-oil degrading microorganisms will be isolated and identified, and the pathways of degradation delineated.

Johnson, S. J.; Christofi, N.; Barry, D. A.

458

Test plan and report for Space Shuttle launch environment testing of Bergen cable technology safety cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bergen Cable Technology (BCT) has introduced a new product they refer to as 'safety cable'. This product is intended as a replacement for lockwire when installed per Aerospace Standard (AS) 4536 (included in Appendix D of this document). Installation of safety cable is reportedly faster and more uniform than lockwire. NASA/GSFC proposes to use this safety cable in Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) applications on upcoming Shuttle missions. To assure that BCT safety cable will provide positive locking of fasteners equivalent to lockwire, the SSPP will conduct vibration and pull tests of the safety cable.

Ralph, John

1992-01-01

459

New Life For The Cable Cars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-Arnes' major recommendations involved ways of extending cable life in the interests of safety and economy. Other recommendations included redesign of the cablegripping device, substitution of modern braking mechanisms, improvements in cable pulleys and other components, and new inspection and repair procedures. Ames followed up by designing and installing new equipment to lengthen cable life, which averages only about two months. These cables-four of them for four different car routes--are endless belts, like ski lift cables, running from the downtown car barn to the end of each line. When a cable is installed, the loop is closed by splicing the ends together in a 72-footlong splice. The splice is the weakest part of the cable and a source of problems. When the car operator applies his grip while over a splice, the resulting friction sometimes causes the splice to "unbraid" and fail; this means shutting down the line until the splice can be repaired. Even when unbraiding does not occur, gripping a splice shortens cable life by friction wear. Worn cables are a safety hazard and must be replaced, which is expensive at $1.60 a foot for 10,000 to 20,000 feet of cable.

1979-01-01

460

High current pulse transmission cable  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

Parsons, W.M.

1990-09-28

461

Concept for the intrinsic dielectric strength of electrical insulation materials  

SciTech Connect

A concept is described for a possible definition of the intrinsic dielectric strength of insulating materials, which can be considered as a fundamental material property similar to other material properties, such as Young's modulus, index of refraction, and expansion coefficients. The events leading to the recognition of this property are reported, and the property is defined. This intrinsic dielectric strength concept should facilitate interpretation of results from accelerated and/or natural aging programs intended to predict electrical insulation service life of encapsulants in photovoltaic modules. As a practical application, this new concept enabled a possible explanation of the cause of failures in buried high-voltage cables with polyethylene insulation, and a possible explanation of the causes of electrical trees in polyethylene; these also are described.

Cuddihy, E.F.

1985-04-15

462

Simple holographic insulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple holographic model of an insulator. Unlike most previous holographic insulators, the zero temperature infrared geometry is completely nonsingular. Both the low temperature DC conductivity and the optical conductivity at zero temperature satisfy power laws with the same exponent, given by the scaling dimension of an operator in the IR. Changing a parameter in the model converts it from an insulator to a conductor with a standard Drude peak.

Mefford, Eric; Horowitz, Gary T.

2014-10-01

463

Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

1999-01-01

464

Thin cable system for ROV and AUV in JAMSTEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROVs with thin cable system have been developed in JAMSTEC. The thin cable system is very convenient for AUVs, therefore it has been applied for the AUVs that have been developed in JAMSTEC. Conventional ROV systems need the thick cable to supply electric power from mother ship to under-sea vehicle. In the thin cable system, a thick cable is

T. Murashima; T. Aoki; S. Tsukioka; T. Hyakudome; H. Yoshida; H. Nakajoh; S. Ishibashi; R. Sasamoto

2003-01-01

465

Generic cabling with restrictions based on ant colony algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generic cabling is the key component and one of the basic foundations of intelligent buildings. According to the analysis of the theory and operation flow in generic cabling, generic cabling is a multiplex cable wiring problem and we have evolved the known conditions and the index constraints affecting generic cabling. A mathematical model was built based on ant the colony

Yunlong Wang; Guiming Luo

2010-01-01

466

An industrial cabling machine for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs.

Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

1989-02-01

467

Loose-fill insulations  

SciTech Connect

Whether you are increasing the insulation levels in your current home or selecting insulation for a new home, choosing the right insulation material can be challenging. Fibrous loose-fill insulations such as cellulose, fiberglass, and rock wool are options you may wish to consider. This publication will introduce you to these materials--what they are, how they are applied, how they compare with each other, and other considerations regarding their use--so that you can decide whether loose fills are right for your home.

NONE

1995-05-01

468

Topological crystalline insulator nanostructures.  

PubMed

Topological crystalline insulators are topological insulators whose surface states are protected by the crystalline symmetry, instead of the time reversal symmetry. Similar to the first generation of three-dimensional topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3, topological crystalline insulators also possess surface states with exotic electronic properties such as spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. Experimentally verified topological crystalline insulators to date are SnTe, Pb1-xSnxSe, and Pb1-xSnxTe. Because topological protection comes from the crystal symmetry, magnetic impurities or in-plane magnetic fields are not expected to open a gap in the surface states in topological crystalline insulators. Additionally, because they have a cubic structure instead of a layered structure, branched structures or strong coupling with other materials for large proximity effects are possible, which are difficult with layered Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. Thus, additional fundamental phenomena inaccessible in three-dimensional topological insulators can be pursued. In this review, topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanostructures will be discussed. For comparison, experimental results based on SnTe thin films will be covered. Surface state properties of topological crystalline insulators will be discussed briefly. PMID:25350386

Shen, Jie; Cha, Judy J

2014-11-01

469

Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

Kourtides, Demetrius A. (inventor); Pitts, William C. (inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (inventor)

1991-01-01

470

47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76...iii) ANSI/SCTE 54 2003 (formerly DVS 241): “Digital Video Service Multiplex and Transport System Standard for Cable...

2010-10-01

471

A UNIQUE CABLING MACHINE DESIGNED TO PRODUCE RUTHERFORD TYPE SUPERCONDUCTING CABLE FOR THE SSC PROJECT  

E-print Network

twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirementsof superconducting wire led to cable within the dimensionalcable capability 5 planetary ratios in each direction equal path length for each strand constant wire

Jacques, Grisel

2011-01-01

472

Outdoor high voltage polymeric insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite polymeric insulators are increasingly being accepted by the traditionally cautious electric utilities worldwide. They currently represent about 70% of installed new high voltage insulators in North America. The tremendous growth in the applications of non-ceramic insulators is due to their advantages over the traditional ceramic and glass insulators. However, because polymeric insulators are relatively new the expected lifetime is

R. Hackam

1998-01-01

473

Whale Entanglements With Submarine Telecommunication Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1955-1966, 16 instances of whale entanglement with submarine telegraphic cables were reported in the scientific literature. Here we present new information, derived from global cable fault databases, that reveals an absence of whale entanglements since 1959. This cessation coincided with the transition from telegraphic to coaxial telecommunication cables followed by the change to fiber-optic systems in the 1980s. We

Matthew Peter Wood; Lionel Carter

2008-01-01

474

Coaxial cable Bragg grating assisted microwave coupler.  

PubMed

This paper reports a microwave coupler based on two parallel coaxial cable Bragg gratings fabricated by drilling U-grooves across the cables at periodic distance along the cable direction. Electromagnetic field couplings between two cables were observed at discrete frequencies through both near and far ends detections. The coupling frequency and strength can be precisely controlled by varying the grating period and length. The coupling bandwidth may also be controlled through specific grating design. The device physics was also described through transfer matrix which matched well with the experimental results. PMID:24517794

Huang, Jie; Wei, Tao; Fan, Jun; Xiao, Hai

2014-01-01

475

Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)

Beckes, Isaac K.

1972-01-01

476

On the Cable; The Television of Abundance. Report of the Sloan Commission on Cable Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Commission report on cable television surveys the history and technology of cable television and suggests the prospects and possibilities the medium offers to the American public. The possible impact of cable television on over-the-air television is projected, and the possible shape of entertainment, news and opinion, public services,…

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, NY.

477

Nuclear power plant cable materials : review of qualification and currently available aging data for margin assessments in cable performance.  

SciTech Connect

A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostlyinert' aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section - a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on original qualification testing data alone. The non-availability of conclusive predictions for the aging conditions of 40-year-old cables implies that the same levels of uncertainty will remain for any re-qualification or extended operation of these cables. The highly variable aging behavior of the range of materials employed also implies that simple, standardized aging tests are not sufficient to provide the required aging data and performance predictions for all materials. It is recommended that focused studies be conducted that would yield the material aging parameters needed to predict aging behaviors under low dose, low temperature plant equivalent conditions and that appropriately aged specimens be prepared that would mimic oxidatively-aged 40- to 60- year-old materials for confirmatory LOCA performance testing. This study concludes that it is not sufficient to expose materials to rapid, high radiation and high temperature levels with subsequent LOCA qualification testing in order to predictively quantify safety margins of existing infrastructure with regard to LOCA performance. We need to better understand how cable jacketing and insulation materials have degraded over decades of power plant operation and how this aging history relates to service life prediction and the performance of existing equipment to withstand a LOCA situation.

Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Lindgren, Eric Richard

2013-05-01

478

Vacuum thermal insulation panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum thermal insulation panel comprises a pair of laminated plastic and aluminum sheets together with a plastic edge strip sealed to the edges of the sheets so as to define an evacuable volume in which a glass fiber mat is disposed. The insulation panel of the present invention takes advantage of the light-weight, low cost and low thermal conductivity

J. R. Young; R. M. Schreck

1984-01-01

479

Insulators and Conductors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of conducting or insulating electricity. Learners test different everyday materials to determine if the materials are conductors or insulators of electricity. Learners work in teams to test their predictions about each material and then compare results and discuss findings.

Ieee

2014-05-22

480

Thermal Capacitance Perfect Insulator  

E-print Network

Thermal Capacitance C1 Perfect Insulator Thermal Resistance R1 R3 R2 C2 q Watts q - Temperature qa q2 q1 qb 1. Consider the thermal system shown below. a) Find an equivalent electrical circuit. b) Write out the necessary equations to solve for and .q q1 2 2. A small room is perfectly insulated

Hagan, Martin

481

Transformer insulation life assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents novel techniques for life assessment of the insulation of the generator stepup units in power plants. Load and ambient temperatures are two important factors that influence the life of insulation in transformers. Hourly load and ambient temperatures obtained through condition monitoring are used to assess the operating profile of the equipment. Modeling techniques for estimating load factors

Kshira T. Muthanna; Abhinanda Sarkar; Kaushik Das; Kurt Waldner

2006-01-01

482

47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76.612... § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards. All cable...television systems which operate in the frequency bands 108-137 and 225-400...

2012-10-01

483

47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76.612... § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards. All cable...television systems which operate in the frequency bands 108-137 and 225-400...

2013-10-01

484

46 CFR 111.60-19 - Cable splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable splices. 111.60-19 ...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...Methods § 111.60-19 Cable splices. (a) A cable must not be spliced in a...

2010-10-01

485

46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering a box or...

2010-10-01

486

46 CFR 111.60-3 - Cable application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Cable application. 111.60-3...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL...Methods § 111.60-3 Cable application. (a)(1) Cable constructed according to...

2010-10-01

487

30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions...permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be...Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity and...

2010-07-01

488

47 CFR 32.6426 - Intrabuilding network cable expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable expense. 32.6426 Section...Accounts § 32.6426 Intrabuilding network cable expense. (a) This account...expenses associated with intrabuilding network cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

2012-10-01

489

47 CFR 32.6426 - Intrabuilding network cable expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable expense. 32.6426 Section...Accounts § 32.6426 Intrabuilding network cable expense. (a) This account...expenses associated with intrabuilding network cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

2013-10-01

490

47 CFR 32.6426 - Intrabuilding network cable expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable expense. 32.6426 Section...Accounts § 32.6426 Intrabuilding network cable expense. (a) This account...expenses associated with intrabuilding network cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

2011-10-01

491

47 CFR 32.6426 - Intrabuilding network cable expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable expense. 32.6426 Section...Accounts § 32.6426 Intrabuilding network cable expense. (a) This account...expenses associated with intrabuilding network cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

2010-10-01

492

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2012-07-01

493

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2011-07-01

494

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2013-07-01

495

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

...2014-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2014-07-01

496

30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75...Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions...requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant...

2010-07-01

497

30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36 Section 18.36 ...Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine components shall have: (1)...

2012-07-01

498

30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36 Section 18.36 ...Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine components shall have: (1)...

2013-07-01

499

30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36 Section 18.36 ...Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine components shall have: (1)...

2011-07-01

500

47 CFR 32.2426 - Intrabuilding network cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall include the original cost of cables and wires located on the company's...of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material...privileges for the construction of cable and wire facilities shall be included...

2011-10-01