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1

Effect of annealing on conductivity in XLPE mid-voltage cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study of the electrical conductivity of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) mid-voltage (MV) cable insulation is presented. Its main objective is to show the effect of annealing treatments on MV cables under actual service conditions. Complementary time domain (absorption\\/resorption currents) and frequency domain (dynamic electrical analysis) techniques are applied on different laboratory samples containing XLPE insulations: sections of XLPE insulated

F. Frutos; M. Acedo; M. Mudarra; J. Belana; J. Òrrit; J. A. Diego; J. C. Cañadas; J. Sellarès

2007-01-01

2

Space charge accumulation in power cable XLPE insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of space charge in the crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation of a power cable sample under dc stress was investigated. The sample was held at 82°C and atmospheric pressure, and at 82°C and 0.1 Pa, for periods up to several days. Such conditioning removed pre-existing space charge, When an external dc field was applied after conditioning at atmospheric pressure

F. N. Lim; R. J. Fleming; R. D. Naybour

1999-01-01

3

Development of 500-kV XLPE cables and accessories for long distance underground transmission line. Part 1: Insulation design of cables  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the results of a basic study for the development of 500-kV XLPE cables. The authors have established that the factors that decide the performance of today's XLPE cables are impurities in the insulator and protrusions on the semiconductive layer, and that the insulation performance of XLPE cables is determined by the size of these defects. In model tests of XLPE cables, the minimum insulation breakdown stress of cables was determined, to set the design values for 500-kV XLPE cable. As a result, it was found that it is possible to design cable having an insulation thickness of 25 mm.

Kubota, Takeo; Takahashi, Yoshihisa (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakuma, Susumu (Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)); Watanabe, Masaru (Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Kanaoka, Mamoru (Hitachi Cable Ltd. (Japan)); Yamanouchi, Hiroshi (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1994-10-01

4

A comparison between XLPE and EPR as insulating materials for HV cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of XLPE and EPR as materials candidate for insulation of high voltage power cables are investigated. Data obtained from laboratory tests performed on cable models aged under single thermal and electrical stresses, as well as under the combination of the two stresses, are considered. The drawing of electrical, thermal and multi-stress life lines provides a synthetic and exhaustive

G. Mazzanti; G. C. Montanari

1997-01-01

5

The Performance of Strippable and Bonded Screened Medium-Voltage XLPE-Insulated Cables Under Long-Term Accelerated Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

XLPE high-voltage underground cables are being extensively used in Arabian Gulf countries. Most of these cables are being manufactured locally. Although XLPE has excellent dielectric characteristics, extensive premature failures have been reported by the local power utilities. The main causes of such premature failures are related to manufacturing defects and insulation degradation mainly caused by water treeing phenomena. In this

A. Al-Arainy; Nazar H. Malik; Mohammed Iqbal Qureshi; Mohammed Nabih Al-Saati

2007-01-01

6

Effects of different ionic solutions on statistical length distribution of water trees in XLPE cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests are conducted to investigate the role of varying concentrations of different salt solutions on the water needle and vented water trees grown in insulation discs cut from transmission class XLPE cables. An increase in salt concentration displayed different effects on the average length of the needle grown trees which depended upon the salt solution used. Statistical length distributions of

M. I. Qureshi; N. H. Malik; A. A. Al-Arainy

2000-01-01

7

The Role of Cations in Water Tree Growth in Technical Grade XLPE Insulated Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

XLPE insulated cables were subjected to heat cycling in the presence of electric stress and aqueous ionic solutions composed of NaCl, Cu(NO3)2 and CuSO4. The results displayed a large water tree propensity index due to the sulphates. To evaluate contribution of cationic and anionic parts of salt compositions, trees were grown in solutions containing a fixed anion (SO --) but

N. H. Malik; M. I. Qureshi; A. Al-Arainy

2006-01-01

8

Influence of fibrous contaminants on dielectric property of XLPE insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fibrous contaminants on the electrical breakdown strength of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables and the breakdown mechanism resulting from fibrous contaminants are discussed. It has been found that natural cotton fibers decrease the dielectric strength of the XLPE insulation much more than synthetic fibers, which means that cotton fabrics should not be allowed into the jointing room,

K. Kaminaga; S. Iida; S. Fukunaga; K. Yatsuka; Y. Inoue

1992-01-01

9

Using the 'Universal Relaxation Law' to characterise water tree degradation in XLPE insulated cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to access the severity of degradation in a water tree affected cable, it is necessary to obtain a physical representation of t he insulation. This is especially the case when trying to determine the risk of failure of the cable, or the remaining life, which is dependant on the length of the longest water tree in the insulati

Andrew Thomas; Tapan K Saha

10

Chokoatsukyu CV cable no shuhasu kasoku ni yoru choki zetsuen seino no hyoka. (Evaluation of long-term insulation performances of EHV XLPE cable by a high frequency acceleration test).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extra high voltage class XLPE (cross-linked polythylene insulated) cables were put to high frequency acceleration test in order to examined if the long-term insulation quality of the eables might be affected by the growth of bow-tie trees in the interior ...

1989-01-01

11

Recycling of insulation of 600V XLPE cable using supercritical alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the technology to make silane cross-linked polyethylene (Si-XLPE) thermoplastic using supercritical alcohol for material recycling of Si-XLPE. The new continuous process was developed using extruder for the treatment of supercritical fluid for industrialization. We successfully obtained recycled PE at the rate of 20 kg\\/h. The gel fraction of recycled PE was 0%, and its mechanical properties were similar

S. Ashihara; T. Goto; T. Yamazaki; K. Tomimatsu; H. Ito

2008-01-01

12

Role of semiconducting compounds in the premature aging of XLPE cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clean, crosslinked polyethylene insulating material was sandwiched between two parallel layers of semiconducting shield compound in test cells which simulated extruded medium-voltage cables. Four commercial and four experimental semiconducting compounds were used. Cells were aged at 60 Hz, with a stress of 2.6 kV\\/mm (65 V\\/mil) or 3.4 kV\\/mm (85 V\\/mil), with one shielding layer exposed to air and

M. S. Mashikian; J. H. Groeger; S. Dale; E. Ildstad

1988-01-01

13

Microstructural characterization of XLPE electrical insulation in power cables: determination of void size distributions using TEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to progress in our understanding of the ageing mechanisms of high voltage cables submitted to electrical and thermal stresses, we present a quantitative study of voids, the defects which are considered to be partly responsible for cable failure. We propose a method based on large data sets of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of replicated samples allowing for the determination of void concentration distribution as a function of void size in the mesoscopic to microscopic range at any point in the cable insulation. A theory is also developed to calculate the effect of etching on the apparent size of the voids observed. We present the first results of this sort ever obtained on two industrial cables, one of which was aged in an AC field. Results clearly indicate that a much larger concentration of voids occur near the inner semiconductor compared to the bulk of the insulation, independently of ageing. An effect of ageing can also be seen near the inner semiconductor, resulting in an increase in the total void internal surface area and a slight shift of the concentration curve towards larger voids, with the peak moving from about 40 nm to about 50 nm.

Markey, L.; Stevens, G. C.

2003-10-01

14

Partial Discharge Pattern Recognition by Neuro-Fuzzy Networks inHeat-Shrinkable Joints and Terminations of XLPE Insulated Distribution Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An identification technique is described, based on a developed adaptive\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009fuzzy logic network, that enables the recognition of partial discharges\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009(PD) generated by different defects in heat-shrinkable joints and\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009terminations of XLPE insulated power distribution cables. It is shown\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009that different sources of PD can be identified on the basis of fuzzy\\u000a\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009\\u0009rules applied to a selection of parameters derived

C. Mazzetti; F. M. Frattale Mascioli; F. Baldini; M. Panella; R. Risica; R. Bartnikas

2006-01-01

15

Diagnostic testing of MV XLPE cables with low density of water trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, results from diagnostic measurements performed on service aged 12 and 24 kV (MV) XLPE cables equipped with strippable insulation screens are reported. The main purpose of this work has been to examine if condition assessment can be performed on such cables having typically low density of vented water trees. The actual condition of the cables was determined

Sverre Hvidsten; Jan Tore Benjaminsen

2002-01-01

16

Water treeing retardant XLPE insulation grade with improved electrical endurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the development and testing of a water-tree retardant (WTR) XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) insulation grade. The major points included are a description of a hypothesis relevant for the growth of water treeing, verification of the efficiency of the material from laboratory to full-scale compound manufacture, showing that it is possible to process the grade on conventional cable production

A. A. Farkas; Y. S. Lian

1988-01-01

17

A new dielectric response model for water tree degraded XLPE insulation - part a: model development with small sample verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water tree degradation in underground XLPE insulated cables is a growing, worldwide problem. This form of degradation is ultimately fatal for affected cables, and therefore the detection of damaging trees in power cable insulation is vital for distribution companies to avoid catastrophic failure. Dielectric response measurements, in both the time and frequency domains, can generate valuable information about the condition

Andrew J. Thomas; Tapan K. Saha

2008-01-01

18

Development of cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable for cryogenic operation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation structure for cryogenic high voltage cable is described. Models of the cryogenic cables rated 69 kV, 138 kV and 230 kV were made utilizing copper conductors and the insulation structure consisting of extruded XLPE insulation and semiconducting XLPE conductor and insulation shields. The cables were subjected to alternating voltage endurance tests, partial discharge

M. Sosnowski; G. Bahder; G. S. Jr. Eager

1985-01-01

19

Electron spin resonance spectral study of PVC and XLPE insulation materials and their life time analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron spin resonance (ESR) study is carried out to characterize thermal endurance of insulating materials used in power cable industry. The presented work provides ESR investigation and evaluation of widely used cable insulation materials, namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The results confirm the fact that PVC is rapidly degrades than XLPE. The study also indicates that colorants and cable's manufacturing processes enhance the thermal resistance of the PVC. It also verifies the powerfulness and the importance of the ESR-testing of insulation materials compared to other tests assumed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 216-procedure, e.g. weight loss (WL), electric strength (ES) or tensile strength (TS). The estimated thermal endurance parameters by ESR-method show that the other standard methods overestimate these parameters and produce less accurate thermal life time curves of cable insulation materials.

Morsy, M. A.; Shwehdi, M. H.

2006-03-01

20

Ionic impurities in crosslinked polyethylene cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion chromatography and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods for the quantification of ionic contaminants in XLPE cable insulation are reviewed. Cationic contaminants include sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminum, iron and silicon. Anionic impurities include chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Concentrations of these impurities vary widely, even within the same insulation. One source is discrete particles such as metal fragments or silica. In the

A. Garton; J. H. Groeger; J. L. Henry

1990-01-01

21

Study on detection for the defects of XLPE cable lines  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a report on the results of a basic study of testing methods to replace the dc after laying test that is presently most frequently used as an after laying test for XLPE cable lines. Chosen as the alternative waveforms for dc voltage were damped oscillating wave (OSW) and very-low-frequency wave (VLF) voltage. Experiments were conducted on the ability to detect various types of line defects under these voltages. It was found that these alternative waveforms are promising as after laying test voltage waveforms to replace dc and that greater defect detection ability can be achieved by combining them when conducting tests.

Uchida, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Kawashima, Takao [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Hideo; Sakuma, Susumu [Furukwa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hirotsu, Kenichi; Inoue, Hitoshi [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

1996-04-01

22

Compact Joint for 154kV Class XLPE and Oil-filled Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint of XLPE and Oil-filled cable is necessary and indispensable to meet the switch needs in replacing the oil-filled cable along with making of the underground power transmission system. However, because only connected space of the joint for the oil-filled cable is secured in narrow space of the existing manhole, the problem might be brought up to construction in the structure of the old model from the size and weight. Then, the compact joint that had reduced by about 80% of a structural size so far was developed by applying the high electric field technology according to making of EHV XLPE cable and the joint.

Gotoh, Shinichi; Tanaka, Hideo; Mituyama, Yasuichi; Niinobe, Hiroshi

23

Development of the new polymer insulating materials for HVDC cable  

SciTech Connect

This paper relates to the new polymer insulating material for HVDC cable. The properties of modified HDPE, selected from various polymer materials by evaluations of DC characteristics were examined in both sheet and cable samples. It was found that the modification, which introduced a small amount of polar group into HDPE, considerably enhanced DC breakdown strength to as high as 1.5--2.0 times those of XLPE. Another evaluation was given with TSC method regarding space charge which was considered as a factor contributing to the enhancement of DC characteristics. Under a poling voltage of up to 30 KV/mm, the modified HDPE exhibits particular behaviors, with its space charge decreasing as stress is increasing. In addition, the additives in HDPE have a large influence on space charge characteristics, thereby affecting the DC breakdown strength. The evaluation of cable insulated with optimum modified HDPE was conducted to determine the breakdown strength under various voltage applications. Compared with the XLPE cable, modified HDPE cable exhibited excellent characteristics under all kinds of voltage applications (DC. ImP. polarity reversal, and DC + Imp), particularly DC dielectric breakdown strength which was almost twice that of XLPE.

Yoshifuji, N. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Tokyo (JP)); Niwa, T.; Takahasi, T.; Miyata, H. (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (JP))

1992-07-01

24

The influence of a pretreatment on the loss behavior of watertree retardent XLPE insulation materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to determine the loss behavior of water tree retardent XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) insulating materials. The parameters are temperature, frequency, and field strength. At a field strength of 5 V\\/mm, the dissipation factor of WTR XLPE plates was determined in the temperature range from -10 up to 120°C, while the frequency varied from 50 Hz to 100

M. Beyer; M. Steingraber

1991-01-01

25

Insulation resistance of mineral-insulated cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The insulation characteristics of Al203, and Mg0 insulated cables are summarized. The insulation resistance of Mg0 insulated cables normally attains 5000 ohms/m at 1000 C, although values of up to 5000 ohms at 1000 C can be realised. The insulation resistance increases by a power of 10 per 100 K fall in temperature. The insulation resistance of Al203 insulated cables in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C is 10 billion to 100 billion ohms/m. The addition of BN increases insulation resistance over small boundaries, but results vary widely between cables. The insulation resistance of cables whose insulating material is filled with argon, helium or nitrogen at 25 bar is improved by half a power of 10 at 1000 C.

Gerlach, O.

1982-01-01

26

High temperature PD degradation characteristics in bulk and interfaces of insulating materials for power cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to check the possibility of raising the service temperature of installed power cables, PD degradation characteristics in materials for cable insulation and their interfaces were investigated at high temperatures (70-110°C). With increasing temperature, the tree inception voltage of XLPE bulk decreased below 90°C and increased above 90°C. The degradation at the interfaces was also investigated and the EPR

Atsushi Maruyama; Fumitaka Komori; Yasuo Suzuoki; Tatsuki Okamoto; Tatsuya Nagata

2000-01-01

27

Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations: Investigation of aged polymeric dielectric cable. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on the successful completion of the extensive research project DOE/ET/29303-1 February 1982 to develop a new method for the determination of threshold voltage in XLPE and EPR insulated cables, tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating voltage stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables that become wet when they operate in a moist environment. The present report covers the measurement of the threshold voltage, the a.c. breakdown voltage and the impulse breakdown voltage of XLPE cable after undergoing accelerated laboratory aging in water. Model and 15 kV XLPE cables were manufactured in commercial equipment using state-of-the-art semiconducting shields and XLPE insulation. The threshold voltage, a.c. voltage breakdown and impulse voltage breakdown of the model cables were determined before aging, after aging one week and after aging 26 weeks. The model cable, following 26 weeks aging, was dried by passing dry gas through the conductor interstices which removed moisture from the cable. The threshold voltage, the a.c. voltage breakdown and the impulse voltage breakdown of the XLPE model cable after drying was measured.

Eager, G.S. Jr.; Seman, G.W.; Fryszczyn, B.

1995-11-01

28

Electrical breakdown strength of 5 kV XLPE cable with imperfections under combined AC-DC voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data on electrical breakdown strength of 5 kV XLPE cable with imperfection under AC voltage, DC voltage and superimposed AC upon DC voltage (pulsate voltage). In the later case, the measurement was taken over a wide range of pulsate ratio, which is defined as p=Vac\\/Vdc. Comparison with the former measurement results for sound cables shows that the

S. Grzybowski; J. Fan

1996-01-01

29

Electrochemical-treeing (ECT) structures in high-voltage cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyeing and microscope techniques were used to study the influence on ECT conditions of the type of insulation and of the crosslinking technique. The ECT-structures produced under laboratory conditions resembled those found in cables after years of service. Results show that stressing field strength has an accelerating influence. Frequency, type of electrolyte and conductor material have no influence. The moisture content of the insulation and of the surroundings influence the growth of ECT-structures. The electrical breakdown strength of PE- and XLPE-Insulated model cables decreases with duration of water immersion and of electrical prestressing.

Henkel, H. J.; Mueller, N.; Kalkner, W.; Hans, H.; Sander, G.; Vanolshausen, R.; Vogel, U.

1983-05-01

30

Effect of dc testing on extruded cross-linked polyethylene insulated cables  

SciTech Connect

This project was initiated to investigate the effect of dc testing on extruded crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables. A series of experiments were conducted in the laboratory, where the samples were aged under accelerated conditions of 60 Hz, 150 v/mil, nominal 90[degree]C conductor temperature load cycled daily, with tap water in the conductor strands and outside of the sample. DC test voltages at the factory level (70 kV), at the field proof level (55 kV), and the maintenance level (40 kV) were employed. The effect of dc testing on unaged and aged cables was studied using ac breakdown strength measured periodically and time to failure as criteria for life. The test program also encompassed aged and new cables spliced together. The effect of dc on such systems was investigated. Application of dc factory, proof and maintenance testing did not affect the ac breakdown strength. DC acceptance (maintenance level of 40 kV for 15 minutes) testing of aged XLPE insulated cables reduces its remaining life. DC voltage testing at 40 kV of XLPE cable that failed during ac aging reduces its remaining life, when subjected further to ac voltage after splicing with a new cable section. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a probable existence of an inflection point in the aging time, beyond which cables subjected to multiple dc voltage applications during aging start to fail at an increased rate. DC testing of new cable at factory level (70 kV) does not cause any reduction in its service life. Water tree growth appears to increase upon dc testing. Recommendations are made to operating utility companies not to do dc acceptance (proof or maintenance) testing at 40 kV on XLPE insulated cables, failed once in service and then spliced. DC testing can be done at 55 kV in the field on a new cable prior to energizing when there is no aged cable spliced in the system.

Srinivas, N.N. (Detroit Edison Co., MI (United States)); Duffy, E.K.; Starrett, W. (Essex Cable Co., Lafayette, IN (United States))

1993-01-01

31

Space charge in XLPE power cable under dc electrical stress and heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the existence and accumulation of space charge in insulation can be harmful to polymer power cable. Although there is much research done on space charge distribution in various samples, there are still some important problems left unsolved, such as the mechanism of formation and elimination of space charge in dielectrics. Because of its superiority, the

Xinsheng Wang; Demin Tu; Y. Tanaka; T. Muronaka; T. Takada; C. Shinoda; T. Hashizumi

1995-01-01

32

Development of Harmonic-Noise Reduction Technology in Diagnostic Method using AC Loss Current for Water Treed XLPE Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.

Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru

33

Cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation: Electrically stimulated acoustic wave measurements  

SciTech Connect

This project was a short-term study that addressed the problem of volume charges within cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material. The focus was on the measurement of bulk volume charges and the merits of a new non-destructive experimental method, the Electrically Stimulated Acoustic Wave (ESAW) measurement technique, as applied to XLPE. The ESAW method uses a small applied pulse electrical stimulation to create a fuel force, associated with the charges in or on the sample, which then travels as an acoustic wave to the sample surface where it is detected and converted into a charge distribution profile. The study included reference measurements using the Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method. The samples were fabricated from real world cable insulation material. Volume charges were introduced into the samples by e-beam implantation and by voltage poling at elevated temperatures. Charge retention characteristics and ultrasound acoustic properties needed for the ESAW measurements were determined at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The ESAW method was non-destructive and provided reliable quantitative data on volume charges in XLPE samples over the range of thicknesses studied, 1 to 3mm. Repeated ESAW measurements enabled the continual tracking of charge motion in single samples. XLPE was found to exhibit complicated charge retention characteristics. Implanted charge decayed with a power-law dependence. Poling of the samples induced homocharges, recorded by both TSC and ESAW methods. They appear to have significantly longer retention times compared to implanted charges. Different XLPE material yielded different electrical response charge decay characteristics. The studies also clearly established that DC poling fields of only moderate intensity induce large charge densities. 7 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

Cooke, C.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1991-08-01

34

Development of Small Sized Separable High Voltage Cable Connector and Flexible XLPE Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As one of the measures to bring the construction cost of the underground electric power distribution system, which has recently been carried out in urban areas, a compact type of cable connector which was designed to be separable not like the conventional...

N. Imajyo M. Okazaki N. Hozumi K. Kawahara

1987-01-01

35

Relative permittivity detector for cable insulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new measurement technique of relative permittivity (εr) for cable insulators. The travelling wave and reflection wave theory are applied to generate low voltage pulse signal feeding cable lines that need to know εr of insulators. By measuring the interval of travelling wave, εr can be estimated for any types of cable lines. A prototype consists of

P. Kerdonfag; S. Potivejkul; S. Jamnian; V. Kinnares

2000-01-01

36

Electrical salt-fog performance of XLPE insulation with different levels of CaCO3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the electrical performance of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) in salt fog conditions. Specimens of XLPE having 0, 15 and 25% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) filler, a fixed concentration of 2% carbon black and an additional ultraviolet stabilizer were used. The leakage current and the current pulse counts were monitored as a function of time of exposure

H. Deng; R. Hackam

1996-01-01

37

Poly(Phosphazene) Wire and Cable Insulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program under Contract No. N00024-78-C-4644 is to prepare a fire resistant cable utilizing a single poly(aryloxyphosphazene) (firestone APN(trademark)) base material for both the wire insulation and the cable jacket. Formulations will...

T. C. Peterson

1979-01-01

38

Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables  

DOEpatents

This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

Harless, Charles E. (Metropolis, IL); Taylor, Ward G. (Vienna, IL)

1978-01-01

39

Propylene based systems for high voltage cable insulation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) remains the material of choice for extruded high voltage cables, possessing excellent thermo-mechanical and electrical properties. However, it is not easily recyclable posing questions as to its long term sustainability. Whilst both polyethylene and polypropylene are widely recycled and provide excellent dielectric properties, polypropylene has significantly better mechanical integrity at high temperatures than polyethylene. However, while isotactic polypropylene is too stiff at room temperature for incorporation into a cable system, previous studies by the authors have indicated that this limitation can be overcome by using a propylene-ethylene copolymer. Whilst these previous studies considered unrelated systems, the current study aims to quantify the usefulness of a series of related random propylene-ethylene co-polymers and assesses their potential for replacing XLPE.

Hosier, I. L.; Cozzarini, L.; Vaughan, A. S.; Swingler, S. G.

2009-08-01

40

Impregnation of solid dielectric cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory scale investigations, conducted to assess the feasibility of improving the dielectric characteristics of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables rated 138 kV and above, are discussed. Impregnation of slabs cut from 138 kV cables and of model cables with liquids increased the ac breakdown strength, presumably by filling the microvoids (and possibly in some cases acting as a boltage stabilizer) and preventing premature failure due to electrical discharge. The degree of improvement depends on the chemical nature of the impregnant. Vinyl toluene, styrene, styrene oxide, and vinyl pyrrolidone were found to increase the dielectric strength substantially and in some cases improve the VT curve. Optical and scanning electron microscopic examination supports the concept of void filling. An economic analysis including raw materials' costs and manufacturing costs suggests that the process of impregnation and polymerization costs somewhat less than lead sheathed, dry cured power cables.

Kiss, K. D.; Mangaraj, D.; Doepken, H. C., Jr.; Biskeborn, M. C.; Malawer, E.; McKean, A. L.; Tsuji, K.

1980-07-01

41

Nuclear qualification of PVC insulated cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cables insulated with eleven different PVC compounds representing fire-retardant, non-fire retardant, 60, 75 and 90°C temperature ratings were evaluated. The specimens were subjected to accelerated thermal, radiation, and sequential radiation and thermal exposure simulating 15, 20, 30 and 40 yr in-service environments in Ontario Power Generation Nuclear Plants. The radiation level was limited to 12 to 30 Mrad. Two sets

K. Anandakumaran; S. Barreca; N. Seidl; P. V. Castaldo

2001-01-01

42

46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power and lighting and associated equipment must be...

2012-10-01

43

Interpretation of MV power cables PD diagnostic data using statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes application of statistical analysis to several diagnostic parameters obtained during on-site measurements on MV power cables. The goal of this analysis is to estimate statistical borders values for different diagnostic parameters related to PD phenomena for cable insulation as well as different cable accessories like joint and termination. Data input introduced to analysis consist of mass, XLPE

P. Cichecki; E. Gulski; J. J. Smit; R. Jongen; F. Petzold

2008-01-01

44

49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables...Systems § 236.108 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance of wires and cables, except...

2009-10-01

45

Correlation between geometrical parameters of electrical tree and corresponding partial discharge parameters in XLPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the experiemental study on the correlation between the geometrical parameters of electrical tree and\\u000a corresponding partial discharge (PD) characteristic parameters in the course of eletrical tree aging within cross linked polyethylene\\u000a (XLPE) insulation. The electrical tree aging tests were performed on specimens removed from a section of 220 kV transmission\\u000a cable. The PD macroscopic characteristic parameters

Wang Hong-xin I; Cheng Shu-kang; Wen Xi-shan; Sun Xiong-fei; Chen Yun-ping

2004-01-01

46

Round-robin test on CIGRE water tree resistance evaluation methods for extruded cable insulation  

SciTech Connect

A round robin test program was initiated by the CIGRE TF 15-06-05 in 1986 to evaluate three methods, donoted as A, B and C, proposed by the Task Force to test the water-treeing propensity of extruded cable insulation. This report covers the second round, conducted at the University of Connecticut under EPRI sponsorship, to evaluate Method A and Method B. Method A is designed to test materials subjected to non-uniform electric fields, such as those arising at the tips of protrusions. Method B is designed to test materials exposed to uniform or quasi-uniform fields. The electrically stressed material samples are immersed in a salt solution and aged for prescribed periods of time at either room temperature (Method A) or at 70{degrees}C (Method B). They are, then, sliced, dyed in a methylene blue solution and examined under an optical microscope to determine the nature and extent of treeing. This report covers the testing of as standard crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and two different brands of tree-retarding XLPE obtained from European and US sources. Variations of the domestic samples were produced by extracting their ionic impurities with deionized water. The objective of the evaluation was to determine whether the CIGRE test methods could consistently distinguish between the various samples for their water-treeing propensity. The report describes, in detail, the test cells, the testing methods and the results obtained. It also describes the modifications made to the cell used in Method A to improve the consistency of its results. 4 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

Mashikian, M.S.; Wen, Y. (Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science)

1991-09-01

47

49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cables, and insulation are dry. Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground, and between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking, when wires or cables are installed...

2012-10-01

48

49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cables, and insulation are dry. Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground, and between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking, when wires or cables are installed...

2011-10-01

49

Life assessment of large power cables in fossil fuel generating stations  

SciTech Connect

As part of fossil generating station upgrades, the major components of the electrical station service system (i.e., the large power cables for the generator leads, transformer secondaries, and motor feeders) are evaluated for increased capacity, continued reliability, and additional service life. This paper discusses the cable aging mechanisms for fossil-power stations, including thermal aging of insulation, insulation voltage stress, corrosion of lead in lead-sheathed cables, long-term water absorption by insulation, and water treeing of insulation. Also presented are approaches to analyzing these aging mechanisms to assess the life of the cable. Cable design and installations that merit particular attention during a life assessment study include feeders using multiple conductors per phase, unjacketed lead-sheathed cable, unshielded 5 kV power cable installed in conduit, cables using butyl and SBR insulation systems, cable bus systems, and cross-linked-polyethylene (XLPE)-insulated cables in underground installations.

Petty, K.A. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))

1989-01-01

50

Development and tests of extruded polyethylene insulated superconducting cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

A superconducting power cable which has a similar structure to the conventional extruded polyethylene cable is proposed. The rated voltage and current are 20 kV and 2 kA, respectively. The design utilizes the excellent electrical properties of polyethylene at cryogenic temperatures and separate helium coolant from the electrical insulation. The outer superconductor layers for magnetic shielding are eliminated for the

M. Kosaki; M. Nagao; Y. Mizuno; K. Horii; N. Shimizu

1988-01-01

51

Life prediction of electrical cable equipment EPR insulating material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cables in nuclear power stations are submitted to thermal and radiation stresses in their operating conditions. A study of the respective influences of temperature and radiation affords an accurate appreciation of the degradation processes of the insulating cable materials (EPR : ethylene propylene rubber). However, to be completely comprehensive, the study takes into account of the effects of the combined

B. Pinel; F. Boutaud

1994-01-01

52

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables...and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made when wires...

2010-10-01

53

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables...and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made when wires...

2009-10-01

54

Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive review of the technical and scientific publications relating to crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. In this study a new methodology for the investigation of breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed which is based on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and a.c. voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. Extensive statistical testing of breakdown voltages was conducted using: impulses with front durations from approximately 1.5 to 1000 ..mu..s and times to half-values from 40 to 3000 ..mu..s; dual-polarity pulses consisting of d.c. voltage and standard impulse of opposite polarity; combined a.c. and d.c. voltages; and a.c. voltages at power and high frequencies. Based on the results of this testing, a model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 90/sup 0/C. Life expectancy characteristics for EPR insulated cables are approximated. A test procedure including requirements for full-reel factory voltage withstand and partial discharge testing of finished XLPE and EPR insulated cables is proposed. Cables that pass the proposed tests will exhibit a smaller rate of failure in service than cables tested in accordance with present practices.

Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.

1980-09-01

55

High voltage VLF testing of power cables  

SciTech Connect

This publication describes a laboratory test program conducted with the objective to develop a test that would replace the existing dc withstand test. The article describes the methodology used to establish the voltage duration and magnitude of VLF (0.1 Hz) high voltage field tests suitable for crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated power cable. The results show that the voltage breakdown of laboratory aged XLPE cable at 0.1 Hz is approximately equal to that at 60 Hz, that proof tests at 0.1 Hz is approximately equal to that at 60 Hz, that proof tests at 0.1 Hz cause very little damage to the cable, and that 0.1 Hz testing appears to be a satisfactory alternate to dc testing. Preliminary values are suggested for voltage magnitude and time duration of cable acceptance, maintenance and proof tests at 0.1 Hz for XLPE cable rated up to 35 kV. A program is underway to similarly evaluate samples of service-aged XLPE cable; as well as to demonstrate the use of the preliminary test values at typical utility installations.

Eager, G.S.; Katz, C.; Fryszczyn, B. [Cable Technology Labs., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Densley, J. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bernstein, B.S. [EPRI, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-04-01

56

An examination of the potential for nano-composites in the formulation of HV cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find an appropriate cable dielectric material, nanodielectrics consisting of silica particles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) have been formulated using melt-mixing. Various types of chemical modifications were provided to the surface of the nanoparticles in order to understand the mechanism of the particle-polymer interface and to tailor the properties of overall composites. The particulates and the composites formulated

Mihir Roy

2005-01-01

57

30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and cables; installation; insulation; support. 75.516-2 Section 75.516-2...and cables; installation; insulation; support. (a) All communication wires shall...buried, or otherwise protected against mechanical damage in a manner approved by the...

2013-07-01

58

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24

59

Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer simulations based on Monte Carlo (MC) method and the ModeCEB software were carried out in connection with electron beam (EB) radiation set-up for crosslinking of electric wire and cable insulation. The theoretical predictions for absorbed dose distribution in irradiated electric insulation induced by scanned EB were compared to the experimental results of irradiation that was carried out in the experimental set-up based on ILU 6 electron accelerator with electron energy 0.5-2.0 MeV.The computer simulation of the dose distributions in two-sided irradiation system by a scanned electron beam in multilayer circular objects was performed for various process parameters, namely electric wire and cable geometry (thickness of insulation layers and copper wire diameter), type of polymer insulation, electron energy, energy spread and geometry of electron beam, electric wire and cable layout in irradiation zone. The geometry of electron beam distribution in the irradiation zone was measured using CTA and PVC foil dosimeters for available electron energy range. The temperature rise of the irradiated electric wire and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated for different experimental conditions to optimize technological process parameters. The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental data of dose distribution evaluated by gel-fraction measurements. Such conformity indicates that ModeCEB computer simulation is reliable and sufficient for optimization absorbed dose distribution in the multi-layer circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beams.

Zimek, Zbigniew; Przybytniak, Gra?yna; Nowicki, Andrzej

2012-09-01

60

30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.818 Use of insulated cable handling equipment. (a) Energized high-voltage cables must not be handled except when...

2013-07-01

61

Effect of D. C. testing water tree deteriorated cable and a preliminary evaluation of V. L. F. as alternate  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that according to the experience of some power utilities, the application of industry recommended high voltage d.c. field tests on 5-35 kV extruded dielectric cables, containing water trees, sometimes causes further deterioration of the insulation. Tests conducted on laboratory aged 15 kV ethylene propylene rubber (EP) and 15 and 28 kV crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables indicate that d.c. proof tests in accordance with AEIC specifications an IEEE test guides without flashover do not appear to cause further deterioration. Depending on the degree of cable aging and the level of test voltage, when flashovers take place, damage may be inflicted to XLPE cables. No damage was observed on aged EP cable, at the same test levels. Because of the aforementioned power utility experience, some users have requested an alternate field proof test. Tests conducted on new XLPE and EP cables indicate that damage to the insulation structure can be detected using VLF (0.1 Hz) voltage at approximately one-third the d.c. voltage level. Field tests conducted on severely tree deteriorated 15 kV polyethylene (PE) cable using AEIC recommended d.c. voltage level of about five times operating voltage level caused cable failure; VLF voltage levels up to two times operating voltage did not. VLF voltage appears to be a suitable alternate to d.c. voltage for field proof testing.

Eager, G.S. Jr.; Fryszczyn, B.; Katz, C. (Cable Technology Lab., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (US)); ElBadaly, H.A.; Jean, A.R. (Consolidated Edison of New York, Inc., New York, NY (US))

1992-07-01

62

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...every ten years thereafter. (b) Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground, between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking. Insulation resistance tests shall be...

2012-10-01

63

49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...every ten years thereafter. (b) Insulation resistance tests shall be made between all conductors and ground, between conductors in each multiple conductor cable, and between conductors in trunking. Insulation resistance tests shall be...

2011-10-01

64

Effect of ethylene content on bowtie trees and wet electrical performance in filled EPR insulation materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insulation for extruded medium voltage power cables currently used world-wide are based on two broad categories of polymeric materials: crosslinkable elastomers, consisting of Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)*, and crosslinkable low density polyethylene, consisting of Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) or Tree Retardant Crosslinked Polyethylene (TRXLPE). These two broad categories have over 40 years of proven field performance. A considerable amount of

Amalendu Sarkar; Mark Easter; Ed Walcott; William Temple; J. T. Smith

2010-01-01

65

Hangoseishi zetsuen OF cable no kurikaeshi mage hiro tokusei. (Cyclic bending fatigue characteristics of laminated paper insulated OF cables).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large size laminated paper insulated oil filled power cable was experimentally studied in boundary performance on the thermo-mechanical stress. Both aluminum sheath and aluminum corrugated tube considerably coincided with each other in cyclic bend breakin...

1989-01-01

66

Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical oxidation leads to partial removal of highly contaminated soil, therefore chemical oxidation was investigated and optimized aiming at a subsequent bioremediation treatment. Chemical oxidation of cable oil was studied with liquid H(2)O(2) and solid CaO(2) as well as permanganate at pH 1.8, 3.0 and 7.5. Liquid H(2)O(2) most effectively removed cable oil at pH 7.5 (24%). At pH 7.5 poor oil removal of below 5% was observed with solid CaO(2) and permanganate within 2d contact time, whereas 18% and 29% was removed at pH 1.8, respectively. A prolonged contact time of 7d showed an increased oil removal for permanganate to 19%, such improvement was not observed for CaO(2). Liquid H(2)O(2) treatment at pH 7.5 was most effective with a low acid use and was best fit to a subsequent bioremediation treatment. To further optimize in situ chemical oxidation with subsequent bioremediation the effect of the addition of the iron catalyst and a stepwise liquid H(2)O(2) addition was performed. Optimization led to a maximum of 46% cable oil removal with 1469mM of H(2)O(2), and 6.98mM Fe(II) chelated with citric acid (H(2)O(2):FeSO(4)=210:1 (molmol(-1)). The optimum delivery method was a one step addition of the iron catalyst followed by step wise addition of H(2)O(2). PMID:21571353

Xu, Jinlan; Pancras, Tessa; Grotenhuis, Tim

2011-05-14

67

Studies on electrical cable insulation for nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

Two new polyethylene cable insulations have been formulated for nuclear applications, and have been tested under gamma radiation. Both insulations are based on low density polyethylene, one with PbO and the other with Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives. The test results show that the concept of using inorganic anti-oxidants to retard radiation initiated oxidation is viable, and PbO is more effective than Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} in slowing down radiation initiated oxidation (RIO). Also, radiation degradation data for polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride at 60{degrees}C have been generated, which will be used to understand radiation initiated oxidation process on these materials combined with the 25{degrees}C data that will be generated in the future. 14 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, B.S.; Soo, P.; MacKenzie, D.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Blackburn, P. [Beloit Junior-Senior High School, KS (USA)

1989-12-01

68

Assessment of the insulation degradation of cables used in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable insulating materials are usually, during their operational lifetime, exposed to a high number of various deteriorative enviromental effects resulting in their degradation. In the case of cables used in the nuclear power plant (NPP) hermetic zone these factors consist predominantly of long-term irradiation (at rather low dose rates, in the presence of oxygen) and enhanced temperature. Hence, all cables

B. Bartoníek; V. Hnát; V. Plaek

1999-01-01

69

Heat transfer in electrical insulation of LHC cables cooled with superfluid helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical insulation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cables constitutes a thermal barrier between the conductor and the superfluid helium bath. This can prevent removal of the heat dissipated in the cable by the current rise in the dipoles or by the beam losses. The main experimental results, obtained with stacks of insulated conductors representing a piece of the

C Meuris; B Baudouy; D Leroy; B Szeless

1999-01-01

70

Research of Measure System to Cable Insulation Parameters Based on Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for measuring cable insulation layer parameters and its principle are presented. In order to facilitate the research of testing and measuring cable insulation layer parameters, the system based on computer vision is designed using Visual C++. After the amplification coefficient of microscope is calibrated, image is captured by CCD camera. Then, for the sake of better detecting

Bao-ming Shan; Yan-hai Wang; Chun-ling Fan

2009-01-01

71

Development of polyethylene insulation diagnosis of high voltage cables in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the development of polyethylene insulation diagnosis of high voltage cables in France was first to check or to determine the origin of the damage after a dielectric breakdown and to confirm hypothesis such as an accidental water penetration in the insulation or an excess temperature rise in the cable. According to our experience gained in the operation,

R. Clavreul; F. Duchateau

1995-01-01

72

Research on insulation design method of a cold dielectric type superconducting cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important that study on cryogenic electrical insulation design to develop the cold dielectric (CD) type high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable because the cable is operated under the high-voltage environment in cryogenic temperature. Therefore, this paper describes a design method for the electrical insulation layer of the CD type HTS cable adopting the partial discharge (PD)-free design under ac stress, based on the experimental results such a partial discharge inception stress (PDIE) and V t characteristics, and an impulse breakdown strength of liquid nitrogen (LN2)/laminated polypropylene paper (LPP) composite insulation system in which the mini-model cable is immersed into pressurized LN2.

Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

2008-09-01

73

The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

Lee, Hansang; Yoon, Dong-Hee; Lee, Seung-Ryul; Yang, Byeong-Mo; Jang, Gilsoo

2013-01-01

74

Partial discharge activity in electrical insulation for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses electrical insulation characteristics of liquid nitrogen (LN2) \\/ polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system for the practical electrical insulation design of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Partial discharge (PD) inception, propagation and breakdown (BD) characteristics under ac voltage application were obtained and discussed at atmospheric and pressurized conditions. Experimental results were analyzed quantitatively and revealed that

H. Okubo; H. Kojima; F. Endo; K. Sahara; R. Yamaguchi; N. Hayakawa

2008-01-01

75

Electrochemical-Treeing (Ect) Structures in High-Voltage Cable Insulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyeing and microscope techniques were used to study the influence on ECT conditions of the type of insulation and of the crosslinking technique. The ECT-structures produced under laboratory conditions resembled those found in cables after years of service...

H. J. Henkel N. Mueller W. Kalkner H. Hans G. Sander

1983-01-01

76

Application of Optical Diagnosis to Aged Low-Voltage Cable Insulation in Nuclear Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel non-destructive optical diagnosis technique for low-voltage cable insulations used in nuclear power plants. The key features of this diagnosis are the use of two wavelengths to measure the change in reflective absorbance (?AR), the use of polarized light to measure crystallinity and the use of element volatilizing to measure fluorescence. Chemical kinetics is used to predict the lifetimes of the cable insulations. When cable insulations darken and harden by time degradation, the ?AR and depolarization parameters increase. This means that the cross-linking density in the cable insulations increases due to deterioration reactions. When the cross-linking density of insulation increases, its elasticity, corresponding to the material's life, increases. Similarly, as the crystallinity increases due to the change in the high-order structure of the insulating resin caused by irradiation, its elongation property decreases. The elongation property of insulation is one of the most important parameters that can be used to evaluate material lifetimes, because it relates to elasticity. The ?AR correlated with the elongation property, and the correlation coefficient of an accelerated experiment using model pieces was over 0.9. Thus, we concluded that this optical diagnosis should be applied to evaluate the degradation of cable insulations used in nuclear power plants.

Katagiri, Junichi; Takezawa, Yoshitaka; Shouji, Hiroshi

77

Evaluation of 230 kV HPFF pipe-type cable with wrinkled and creased insulating tapes  

SciTech Connect

Severe collapse wrinkles and circumferential creases were discovered in the cellulose paper insulating tapes of a newly installed IIPFF pipe-type cable during splicing and terminating. An evaluation program was developed to assess the electrical and mechanical integrity of the cable having wrinkled and creased insulating tapes. The test results indicated that the cable would perform satisfactorily in service.

Seman, G.W.; Katz, C. [Cable Technology Labs., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Pancholi, S.V. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-01-01

78

Evidence of strong correlation between space-charge buildup and breakdown in cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many processes have been considered over the years to explain the origin of breakdown in cable insulation. Such effects as space charge build-up, tree growth, charge injection, etc. have all been discussed. Various techniques are now available to measure, in a nondestructive way, space charge distributions in insulators. These techniques, for instance the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method, can be

Yewen Zhang; Jacques Lewiner; Claude Alquie; Nigel Hampton

1996-01-01

79

TSDC study of XLPE recrystallization effects in the melting range of temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical properties of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), employed in mid-voltage cable insulation are studied using thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. A complex heteropolar peak appears by TSDC between 50 and 110 °C, with a maximum at 105 °C. These measurements reveal that there is an optimal polarization temperature (Tpo) around 90 °C. For this polarization temperature, the measured discharge peak area is maximum. Although the presence of a Tpo is common in the study of relaxations by TSDC, in this case one would expect a monotonic decrease in the TSDC response with increasing polarization temperatures due to the decrease in the total crystalline fraction. In this paper, TSDC curves obtained under several conditions are interpreted in terms of recrystallization processes in XLPE during the polarization stage, if the sample is polarized in the melting temperature range. In this case, the recrystallization of a fraction of the material molten at this temperature promotes the formation of more stable and defect-free crystals. The presence of recrystallization processes is detected by DSC and confirmed by x-ray diffractometry. TSDC measurements have been performed with samples polarized at several temperatures (Tp) cooling from the melt or heating from room temperature. Also, TSDC results are obtained with previous annealing or with several cooling rates. These results allow us to infer that crystalline material grown from recrystallization processes that take place in the polarization stage attains a particularly stable polarization. Possible microscopical causes of this effect are discussed.

Diego, J. A.; Belana, J.; Òrrit, J.; Sellarès, J.; Mudarra, M.; Cañadas, J. C.

2006-05-01

80

A Sol-Gel Approach to the Insulation of Rutherford Cables  

SciTech Connect

Two wind-and-react compatible variants for the electrical insulation of Rutherford cables by a sol-gel route have been investigated. The first variant involves the direct application of a sol-gel coating of SnO2-ZrO2 to the surface of the strands in the cable, whereas the second is an indirect approach consisting of coating stainless steel tapes with MgO-ZrO2 that are to be wrapped around or co-wound with the cable. Following the application of the insulation by one of the two methods, the insulation electrical resistance and breakdown voltage were determined for samples consisting of two 7 inches long cables pressed together and vacuum impregnated with epoxy (CTD-101K). With a notable exception, the breakdown voltages on directly insulated cables were too low for practical purposes. Better results, with breakdown voltages ranging from 20 to almost 200 V, were obtained for insulator coatings applied to stainless steel tapes. An additional sintering at 700-800 deg. C for 6-12h of the coatings deposited on stainless steel was found to increase the breakdown voltage.

Buta, F. [Global Research and Development, Inc., Columbus, Ohio, 43210 (United States); LASM, MSE, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210 (United States); Hascicek, Y.S.; Arda, L.; Aslanoglu, Z.; Akin, Y. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310 (United States); Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W. [LASM, MSE, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210 (United States)

2004-06-28

81

ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES  

SciTech Connect

Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables.

GROVE,E.; LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; HSU,F.

2000-04-06

82

A sensitivity approach to the sizing of insulated power cables in low and medium voltage electrical power distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sizing of insulated power cables for use in electrical power distribution systems is based on definite engineering criteria. Cable or conductor size for a given current loading (ampacity) is the cross-sectional area or size of the current carrying portion of the cable, namely the conductor expressed in AWG (American Wire Gauge) or KCM (Kilocircular mils). The most commonly used

A. K. Hiranandani

1989-01-01

83

Heat transfer through Rutherford superconducting cable with novel pattern of polyimide electrical insulation in pressurized superfluid helium environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future LHC accelerator luminosity upgrade will increase a beam losses heat deposition in the superconducting magnet coils. Main barrier of the heat evacuation from the coils made of Rutherford type cables is a cable electrical insulation. The insulation is made of polyimide tapes wrapped around the cable in a special configuration. Presently used insulation wrapping schemes constitute very good electrical insulation with relatively low heat transport ability. Therefore a new insulation wrapping schemes with enhanced helium permeability and adequate dielectric properties have been developed at CERN. An experimental comparative study of heat transfer perpendicular to the Rutherford type cable, for an old and new insulation wrapping schemes have been accomplished at Wroclaw University of Technology. The tests have been performed in pressurized superfluid helium conditions, and at 60 MPa of the sample applied external pressure simulating the Lorentz forces. This paper presents the measurements methodology and gives experimental results.

Chorowski, Maciej; Polinski, Jaroslaw; Strychalski, Michal

2012-06-01

84

Microstructure Assessments for Determining Electric Cable Insulation Remaining Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern of electrical insulation aging covers the gamut of industry, military, government, and private arenas with an existing short-term focus on nuclear power plants, aircraft, electrical transmission and distributions systems, fossil power plants, and aging industrial facilities. Both the nuclear and aircraft industries have an immediate need for an acceptable electrical insulation monitoring technique. Ideally, this technique would be

D. A. Horvath; R. L. Steinman

85

Genetic algorithm for the optimization of rubber insulated high voltage power cables production lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of vulcanized EPM\\/EPDM mechanical properties must be a fundamental task for electric cables producers. Insulator mechanical properties depend on the vulcanization degree of the rubber, which is obtained by manufacturers by means of a number of different peroxides acting as reticulation inducers. The industrial production process consists in the extrusion coating of the conductor with elastomeric compounds, and

G. Milani; F. Milani

2008-01-01

86

A critical look at nuclear qualified electrical cable insulation ignition and damage thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of fire growth and fire-induced damage to electrical equipment in nuclear power plants requires knowledge of the ignition and damage thresholds for nuclear qualified electrical cable insulation. The present state of knowledge regarding these thresholds is based on a very limited amount of experimental data. In this paper it is shown that some of the industry-accepted ignition and

V. F. Nicolette; S. P. Nowlen

1989-01-01

87

Evaluation of ethylene-propylene rubber as electrical insulating material for a superconducting cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical and electrical properties of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) pieces were studied in comparison with polyethylene (PE) in the cryogenic temperature region to examine the possibility of its use as solid electrical insulating material in superconducting cables. The mechanical properties of EPR are preferable to those of PE mainly because of its low shrinkage. The electric strength and dielectric loss

Y. Mizuno; M. Nagao; M. Kosaki; N. Shimizu; K. Horii

1992-01-01

88

Safety considerations of aerial systems using insulated and covered wire and cable  

SciTech Connect

Insulated and covered wires and cables have been used in aerial applications for over fifty years. Their various constructions, characteristics, and applications are discussed in Design and Application of Aerial Systems Using Insulated and Covered Wire and Cable. Some have suggested that covered wires and cables should be used in general applications solely for the purpose of providing safety to operating personnel and the general public. This paper discusses factors leading to the conclusion that nonshielded, covered conductor should not be installed solely to assure personal safety. The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) treats covered conductors as bare conductors for purposes of clearances to personnel spaces; such a requirement is strongly supported by this paper.

Landinger, C.C.; McAuliffe, J.W. [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States); Clapp, A.L.; Dagenhart, J.B. [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States); Thue, W.A.

1997-04-01

89

An assessment of field aged 15 and 35kV ethylene propylene rubber insulated cables  

SciTech Connect

Data are provided from laboratory evaluations performed on ten 15kV and five 35kV ethylene-propylene copolymer rubber (EPR) feeder cables, made by one manufacturer and ranging in service age from 2 to 22 years. The evaluations consisted of visual examination of cable components, including the presence of water trees in the insulation and physical and electrical tests to establish changes which may have occurred in service. The data are used to establish an in-service rate of degradation for cables, up to 13 years in service, made with one type of EPR formulation. Based on an extrapolation of the breakdown voltage test results, it is expected that this type of cable will have a service life in excess or 30 years.

Katz, C. [Cable Technology Labs., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Walker, M. [Houston Lighting and Power Co., TX (United States)

1995-01-01

90

Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with silicon-grease in tracking failure test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging processing method was adopted to investigate the effect of silicon grease on tracking failure of the XLPEsilicon rubber interface by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization at the interface. Three interfaces were set up by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. One filled silicon grease and the other partly filled the grease. As comparison, the third one filled on grease. High voltage (AC 50 Hz) was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm. When the test voltage was raised to a certain value, discharge occurred and discharge light appeared and carbonization accumulated at the interface. The discharge light from discharge to the failure and the carbonization after the failure was recorded with a digital video recorder and then the images were analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that silicon grease at the interface weakens the transportation of charge and enhances the interfacial breakdown strength. However, interfacial discharge and tracking failure easily occur once discharge appears. Image processing method is helpful to understand the tracking failure process and mechanism of XLPE cable joint.

Gu, Liang; Liu, W.; Lei, S. L.; Wang, S. B.; Deng, Y. Y.

2011-04-01

91

Method of preventing fine cracks from occuring in rubber or plastic insulation of an insulated wire or cable exposed to electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of manufacturing an electric wire or cable having an improved rubber or plastic insulation layer which has the maximum wall thickness of beam penetration of 4mm or over and whose properties are improved by irradiation with an electron beam, wherein the wire or cable runs under the scanner of an electron beam accelerator while being rotated

K. Araki; M. Hagiwara; H. Ishitani; K. Komatsu; E. Saito; T. Sasaki

1980-01-01

92

Development of external cooling cryo-resistive cable systems. Part 2: Insulation characteristics on 66 kV rated cryo-resistive testing cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryo-resistive cable system was tested to demonstrate dielectric characteristics. Dielectric characteristics of 66kV cryo-resistive cable at the start of immersion cooling in the liquid nitrogen were 2.25 specific dielectric constant and 0.18 percent dielectric loss which was less than 0.4 percent , the aimed value. Electrostatic capacity and dielectric loss tangent of dielectric characteristics under the applied voltage did not depend on the voltage and the dielectric loss was less than 0.4 percent through the temperature range from -170 to -190C. These values fulfilled the specifications on 275kV class cryo-resistive cable design. The tested cable passed the cable test on 66kV oil-filled cable (ac 90kV, 10 min), but broken down at ac 110kV on the way to endurance testing voltage 130kV. The breakdown occurred due to the mechanical damage of cable insulator by bending and thermal contraction of the cable. It is necessary from these facts to develop flexible cable terminal and joint which can absorb the contraction to realize 275kV cryo-resistive cable. (19 figs, 7 tabs, 15 refs).

Ishihara, Kaoru; Akita, Shige; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ogata, Junichi; Nemoto, Minoru

1987-08-01

93

MgO insulated coaxial instrument cable development for FFTF in-vessel temperature and voltage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgO insulated nuclear instrument cable designed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility or breeder reactor in-vessel service environments were successfully tested to temperatures to 650°C. Breakdown Pulse Noise (BPN) thresholds in excess of 800 Vdc at 650°C were achieved on the bulk cable; cable resistivities at 650°C were 10 ft. The effect of 1000°C annealing was a minimal

A. I. Y. Chan; C. P. Cannon

1978-01-01

94

Prediction of [3- 14C]phenyldodecane biodegradation in cable insulating oil-spiked soil using selected extraction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the use of an aqueous hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPCD) shake extraction in predicting microbial mineralisation and total loss of [3-14C]phenyldodecane associated activity in soils spiked with cable insulating oil; phenyldodecane represents a major constituent of cable insulating oil. Direct comparisons were made between freshly spiked and aged soils, and following composting. Soil was spiked with [3-14C]phenyldodecane (10mg kg?1) and

Nadia M. Dew; Graeme I. Paton; Kirk T. Semple

2005-01-01

95

IFSMTF experiences and conclusions regarding the use of Kapton insulated, high-voltage cable in a vacuum/cryogenic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the experiences of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF), formerly called the Large Coil Test Facility, with regard to the use of Kapton insulated cable for high-voltage instrumentation within the IFSMTF vacuum vessel. Initial high-performance tests performed on the General Dynamics electrical system were disappointing and led to the philosophy and technology associated with the use of Kapton insulated cable.

Wilson, C. T., Jr.; Luton, J. N., Jr.; Shen, S. S.

1985-11-01

96

150 KV EPM cable connections between transformers and SF6 insulated switchgear for 5 substations in Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a particular application of 150 kV EPM cable to provide short connections within substations in Rome. The principal reasons for making this choice are explained, and the construction characteristics of cables and accessories used for connecting transformers to SF6 insulated switchgear are described. The results of calculations to evaluate the reliability of the connections are reported, together

P. Parvopassu; F. Solimando; L. M. Rolandin; E. Occhini

1977-01-01

97

Round-robin test on CIGRE water tree resistance evaluation methods for extruded cable insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A round robin test program was initiated by the CIGRE TF 15-06-05 in 1986 to evaluate three methods, donoted as A, B and C, proposed by the Task Force to test the water-treeing propensity of extruded cable insulation. This report covers the second round, conducted at the University of Connecticut under EPRI sponsorship, to evaluate Method A and Method B.

M. S. Mashikian; Y. Wen

1991-01-01

98

An examination of the potential for nano-composites in the formulation of HV cable insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to find an appropriate cable dielectric material, nanodielectrics consisting of silica particles in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) have been formulated using melt-mixing. Various types of chemical modifications were provided to the surface of the nanoparticles in order to understand the mechanism of the particle-polymer interface and to tailor the properties of overall composites. The particulates and the composites formulated have been characterized utilizing several techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and microscopy. These nanomaterials were examined for their electrical attributes, and substantial improvement in electrical voltage endurance was demonstrated. In addition significant improvements in electric strength were measured and other physical properties important to the processing and application of cable dielectrics were not sacrificed. It was established that the interfacial charge build-up that is a common feature of micro-filled material is absent in nanodielectrics, and there was also a reduction in over all permittivity of the nanocomposite below that of the base resin. To understand the mechanism involved in the improvement in the dielectric properties, the chemistry and physics of the particle-polymer interface was crucial. Therefore, some electrical characterizations of the composite materials were performed to find the trap-site separation, trap depth, mobility of the charge carriers, threshold field for internal charge accumulations etc. The chain scission mechanism proposed by Artbauer via free volume theory was extended to the interfacial defects in the composites; the size of such defects being significantly different for the nano- versus micro-composites. The defects resulted in a microcomposite with very low electric strength, and mitigation of the defects via chemical linkage between particle and polymer improved the overall dielectric strength of the nanocomposite. The field at which electron injection occurred was delayed by the surface-treatment provided to the nanoparticles. Particularly the improvement of electric strength for the nano-filled material with polar modifiers was found to be due to charge trapping. For the untreated nano-filled material the charge build-up is absent simply through the leakage via overlapping of conductive interfaces.

Roy, Mihir

99

Effects of voltage surges on solid-dielectric cable life  

SciTech Connect

Lightning and fault locating voltage impulses have long been thought to cause extruded underground distribution cables to fail prematurely in service. Unfortunately, the extent of this effect has never been adequately determined. The research conducted under this contract was aimed at finding the influence of simulated lightning impulses and fault locating impulses on various types of extruded underground distribution power cables aged in the laboratory. Fifteen kV cables with two insulation thickness were investigated. Insulation materials included crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), tree resistant crosslinked polyethylene (TRXLPE), tree resistant high molecular weight polyethylene (TRHMWPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR). The cables were aged up to 640 days in the laboratory using a slightly modified version of the standard AEIC accelerated water treeing test procedure. While they aged, selected cables were exposed to 40 kV, 70 kV and 120 kV rapid rise, simulated lightning impulses. Other cable samples were exposed to a fault locating impulse, and control samples were aged without the application of an impulse. The surge effect was assessed using two methods. First, the ac breakdown and impulse breakdown strength of control and impulsed samples was compared. Second, the number of impulsed cables which failed during the aging test were compared to the number of control failures. 13 refs., 76 figs.

Hartlein, R.A.; Harper, V.S. (Georgia Power Co., Forest Park, GA (USA). Research Center)

1990-09-01

100

Development of 500-KV AC Cable Employing Laminar Insulation of Other Than Conventional Cellulosic Paper. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of an investigation to develop a 500 kV ac laminar dielectric power cable and joint having insulation with lower losses than conventional cellulosic paper insulation are presented. Background information is presented on proposed low-loss synth...

G. Bahder G. S. Eager J. J. Walker A. F. Dima

1980-01-01

101

Long-term aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical cables  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were performed to assess the aging degradation and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical cables subjected to long-term aging exposures. Four different cable types were tested in both the U.S. and France: (1) U.S. 2 conductor with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (2) U.S. 3 conductor with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (3) French 3 conductor with EPR insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (4) French coaxial with polyethylene (PE) insulation and a PE jacket. The data represent up to 5 years of simultaneous aging where the cables were exposed to identical aging radiation doses at either 40{degrees}C or 70{degrees}C; however, the dose rate used for the aging irradiation was varied over a wide range (2-100 Gy/hr). Aging was followed by exposure to simulated French LOCA conditions. Several mechanical, electrical, and physical-chemical condition monitoring techniques were used to investigate the degradation behavior of the cables. All the cables, except for the French PE cable, performed acceptably during the aging and LOCA simulations. In general, cable degradation at a given dose was highest for the lowest dose rate, and the amount of degradation decreased as the dose rate was increased.

Nelson, C.F.; Gauthier, G.; Carlin, F. [and others

1996-10-01

102

DESIGN NOTE: Technical problems encountered with the laser induced pressure pulse method in studies of high voltage cable insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser induced pressure wave propagation method is often used to measure the space charge distribution in solid insulators. This method gives rise to many advantages, so it is widely used both in industrial and in research laboratories. However, it is necessary to take some precautions before treating induced signals in order to minimize calculation errors. Here, some quantitative information about the effects of approximations and the technical problems arising from this method used to study cable insulators are presented. Data from semiconductor/polyethylene samples have been obtained. Some recommendations defining an appropriate experimental protocol of space charge measurement in high voltage cable insulators are given.

Malec, David

2000-05-01

103

105{degree}C/140{degree}C rated EPR insulated power cables  

SciTech Connect

The excellent long-term operation and field performance of existing EPR cables under the current industry operating temperatures of 90 C normal and 130 C overload is well known. This paper describes a study for the implementation of a higher temperature rated EPR cable system including accessories up to a range of 105{degree} continuous service and 140{degree} emergency operation. The investigation has been carried out into the electrical, mechanical, and thermal behavior of the system as a function of temperature. Compatibility has been studied under higher temperature in relation between conductor filling compound and the semi-conducting stress control layer. The results indicate that insulation degradation does not occur under accelerated and elevated temperature testing, concluding that properly formulated and selected materials are both compatible and suitable for the higher temperature ratings.

Cinquemani, P.L.; Kuchta, F.L.; Rahman, M.M. [Pirelli Cable Corp., Lexington, SC (United States); Ruffinazzi, F.; Zaopo, A. [Pirelli Cable S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

1996-01-01

104

New silicon rubber cable insulation promises circuit integrity, in flaming environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide an improved alternative to fluoropolymers and other halogenated materials used for insulation of most plenum cables, a project was undertaken to develop silicone elastomers which would meet Steiner Tunnel test criteria. Equally important, the project aimed to retain the long recognized ability of silicone elastomers to form a nonconductive ash when burned. The new material resulting from this project provides improved flame retardancy and lower smoke density, without sacrificing the best flame environment properties of earlier silicone rubbers. It does not melt, flow or drip, and burns to form a ceramic that clings to the conductors. This nonconductive ceramic has enough strength to remain in place during and after burning, thus providing insulation between adjacent conductors to assure circuit integrity.

Cabey, M. A.

105

Long-life cable development: cable materials survey. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This survey was conducted in several European countries, Japan, and the United States to study the practices of extruded cable materials used in distribution cables and delineate present and future technological trends. Materials suppliers, compounders, cable manufacturers and one European electric utility company were contacted. In Europe, with minor exceptions, and in Japan, without exception, crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) was used exclusively and that ethylene propylene rubber was not adopted by utilities because of higher cost. In Europe and Japan, the failure rates of XLPE cable, which is invariably equipped with a polymeric jacket, are reported to be lower than in the USA. Taped shields, impurities, voids and construction defects were reported as the primary causes of high extruded cable failure rates. In all countries visited, the cleanliness of cable compounds has historically improved. To retard water treeing, different methods are utilized or are being contemplated. No revolutionary changes or totally new materials are being contemplated in the foreseeable future.

Mashikian, M.S.

1986-03-01

106

Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials  

SciTech Connect

In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive capabilities at the low dose rates appropriate to ambient nuclear power plant aging environments. The methodology was successfully applied to numerous important cable materials used in nuclear applications and the extrapolated predictions were verified by comparisons with long-term (7 to 12 year) results for similar or identical materials aged in nuclear environments. In this report, we test the methodology on three crosslinked polyolefin (CLPO) and two ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable insulation materials. The methodology applies to one of the CLPO materials and one of the EPR materials, allowing predictions to be made for these materials under low dose-rate, low temperature conditions. For the other materials, it is determined that, at low temperatures, a decrease in temperature at a constant radiation dose rate leads to an increase in the degradation rate for the mechanical properties. Since these results contradict the fundamental assumption underlying time-temperature-dose rate superposition, this methodology cannot be applied to such data. As indicated in the earlier reports, such anomalous results might be expected when attempting to model data taken across the crystalline melting region of semicrystalline materials. Nonetheless, the existing experimental evidence suggests that these CLPO and EPR materials have substantial aging endurance for typical reactor conditions. 28 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

1991-06-01

107

Comparative gamma radiation and temperature effects on SiOâ, MgO and AlâOâ insulated nuclear instrument cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative merits of SiOâ, MgO and AlâOâ as insulation for nuclear instrument cables are investigated. Insulation resistance, voltage breakdown phenomena, capacitance, dissipation factors, and spurious voltage and current signals have been investigated on nuclear instrument cables under the combined effects of gamma irradiation (10⁵ R\\/h) and temperature (to 450°C). The SiOâ, MgO and AlâOâ cables tested were all fabricated

1981-01-01

108

Electrical ageing of polyethylene power cables insulation subjected to an electric field in the presence of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the action of an electric field and in the presence of water, water trees develop inside power cables insulations. Regardless of their type, shape or dimension, water trees contribute to the worsening of electrical properties, especially lowering the inception voltages of partial discharges and electrical trees leading to breakdown (1). In this paper an experimental study regarding the variation

Mihai Plopeanu; Petru V. Notingher; Cristina Stancu; Sorin Grigorescu

2011-01-01

109

Analysis of the effects of load cycling and thermal transients on polymer-insulated HVAC cable life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, a procedure for power cable life estimation in the presence of load cycles, accounting also for thermal transients, is proposed. Such procedure is based on Miner's approach to life inference in the presence of time-varying stresses. Life fractions lost during each portion of a load cycle are calculated resorting to combined electrothermal life models holding for polymer-insulated

G. Mazzanti; Viale Risorgimento

2004-01-01

110

7 CFR 1755.890 - RUS specification for filled telephone cables with expanded insulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...9.3. (4) Cable impact test. All cables...of meeting the cable impact test specified in ANSI...coated aluminum/coated steel sheath (CACSP) design...Cable cold bend and cable impact tests; (vii) Water...diameter without binding. Steel arbor hole liners...

2009-01-01

111

Parameter determination for modeling system transients-Part II: Insulated cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

EMTP-type programs include dedicated support routines (cable constants) for calculating an electric representation of cable systems in terms of a series impedance matrix Z and a shunt admittance matrix Y, based on cable data defined by geometry and material properties. Z and Y are the basic input of the various cable models that are used in time-domain transient simulations. This

B. Gustavsen; J. A. Martinez; D. Durbak

2005-01-01

112

Optimization of cable terminations  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a study of various termination constructions for medium voltage cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables. A special device was used for electrical field measurements around the cable termination which made it possible to monitor how stress relief materials with different permittivity and placement of isolated or grounded embedded electrodes (EE) affected electrical stress grading. The results of measurements for each configuration were examined by mathematical modeling based on the finite element method (FEM). Finally, the selected constructions of cable termination have passed severe test conditions with load cycling.

Nikolajevic, S.V. [Electric Power Distribution Co., Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Pekaric-Nad, N.M. [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Dimitrijevic, R.M. [Cable Factory, Jagodina (Yugoslavia)

1997-04-01

113

Review and Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Research and Development Program for Solid Dielectric and Synthetic Laminar Cable Insulations, 1975-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Storage and Distribution, Electric Energy Systems Programs, among others, has been supporting research and development projects for solid dielectric and synthetic laminate cable insulation for high-voltage ac ...

S. P. Walldorf

1987-01-01

114

Experimental study of radiation-induced currents in copper and stainless steel core mineral-insulated cables in the BR2 research reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the radiation-induced electromotive force (RIEMF) effect on mineral-insulated cables has been performed in the framework of the development of magnetic diagnostics for ITER. In this study, six MgO insulated cables (with copper and stainless steel cores) were exposed to the combined neutron-gamma field of the BR2 reactor. The recorded currents between the inner conductors and the

L. Vermeeren

2005-01-01

115

Comparison of Currents Predicted by NASCAP/LEO Model Simulations with Elementary Langmuir-Type Bare Probe Models for an Insulated Cable Containing a Single Pinhole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of a defect in the insulation of a short biased section of cable in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment was examined. Such studies are of the utmost importance for large space power systems where great quantities of cabling will be depl...

J. T. Galofaro

1990-01-01

116

Conductive cable fibers with insulating surface prepared by coaxial electrospinning of multiwalled nanotubes and cellulose.  

PubMed

Core-sheath multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-cellulose fibers of diameters from several hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers were prepared by coaxial electrospinning from a nonvolatile, nonflammable ionic liquid (IL) solvent, 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][Ac]). MWNTs were dispersed in IL to form a gel solution. This gel core solution was electrospun surrounded by a sheath solution of cellulose dissolved in the same IL. Electrospun fibers were collected in a coagulation bath containing ethanol-water to remove the IL completely and dried to form core-sheath MWNT-cellulose fibers having a cable structure with a conductive core and insulating sheath. Enzymatic treatment of a portion of a mat of these fibers with cellulase selectively removed the cellulose sheath exposing the MWNT core for connection to an electrode. These MWNT-cellulose fiber mats demonstrated excellent conductivity because of a conductive pathway of bundled MWNTs. Fiber mat conductivity increased with increasing ratio of MWNT in the fibers with a maximum conductivity of 10.7 S/m obtained at 45 wt % MWNT loading. PMID:20690644

Miyauchi, Minoru; Miao, Jianjun; Simmons, Trevor J; Lee, Jong-Won; Doherty, Thomas V; Dordick, Jonathan S; Linhardt, Robert J

2010-09-13

117

7 CFR 1755.890 - RUS specification for filled telephone cables with expanded insulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...attachment to a support strand. (i) The conductors are solid copper, individually insulated...skin coating. (ii) The insulated conductors are twisted into pairs which are then...compound is applied to the stranded conductors completely covering the insulated...

2013-01-01

118

Advanced solution for on-site diagnosis of distribution power cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes important aspects of PD diagnostics of distribution power cables. PD parameter were discussed under consideration of attenuation and dispersive effects of cable characteristics. Field experiences with PD diagnosis on PILC and XLPE cables by energizing with Damped AC Voltage demonstrate relevant demands and the effective outcome for asset management decision support. The main difficulty is to evaluate

Frank Petzold; Edward Gulski; Paul P. Seitz; Ben Quak; Hubert Schlapp

2008-01-01

119

Coaxial Cable  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A coaxial cable consists of an outer conductor and an inner conductor separated by an insulating plastic filler. These two conductors usually carry equal currents in opposite directions. You may have seen this type of configuration on cable TV hookups as well as certain types of computer networks.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-01

120

Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive c...

K. T. Gillen R. L. Clough

1991-01-01

121

Advanced power cable technology  

SciTech Connect

This two volume reference combines the basic concepts of power cable technology with descriptions of actual and future designs and performances of power cables. Cable engineers, students and management personnel who are interested in electric power engineering and underground transmission will find the tables and equations that highlight these volumes helpful. Vol. I, BASIC CONCEPTS and TESTING and: Presents a basic introduction to electric energy and underground transmission. Cable design, structural materials such as conductors, insulating materials and protective coverings, and electrical breakdown characteristics are just some of the aspects covered. In addition, all types of testing methods are thoroughly reviewed. Vol. II, PRESENT and FUTURE: Structures, manufacturing processes, improvement of extruded cables, OF cables, POF cables, forced cooled cables, their splices and terminations, gas insulated cables, DC cables and cables for nuclear power stations are discussed. Cryogenic resistive, superconducting and other new types of cables are studied.

Tanaka, T.; Greenwood, A.

1983-01-01

122

Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive capabilities at the low dose rates appropriate to ambient nuclear power plant aging environments. The methodology was successfully applied to numerous important cable materials used in

K. T. Gillen; R. L. Clough

1991-01-01

123

Effects of processing conditions on the reliability of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Crystallization and morphology were investigated in cross-linked PE. /sup 13/C NMR was used to quantify the cross-links. Production of cable is being studied. Dielectric constant and loss of cross-linked PE are being measured. (DLC)

Phillips, P.J.

1981-03-01

124

Aging of extruded dielectric power cables: Theory  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to seek to develop a reliable aging model of extruded cables. From a review of existing theories and experimental data, it is deduced that the rate theory, modified to take into account some elements of the Zhurkov and Zeller theories, could describe the electrical aging of extruded cables. The proposed model relies on two physical parameters: [Delta]G[sup 0] and [lambda], the free energy and the width of the barrier controlling aging. The model predicts that at high fields there is a linear relation between electric field and the log of time-to-breakdown. In this regime, aging appears to be irreversible and it is possibly associated with changes in the nature of the insulation; this has to be verified. Below a given critical field, the breakdown field does not vary linearly with the log of time-to-breakdown. It was verified that the proposed model describes the published voltage endurance results for HMW-PE, XLPE and the EPR cables aged in air and water. The influence of air, water, temperature and polymer nature on the values of [Delta]G and [lambda][sub max] was briefly discussed. A critical field above which the time-to-breakdown increases exponentially with the applied electric field was observed insome cases. Morphology changes were also observed in laboratory samples electrically aged at fields higher than the critical field. In its present from, the model allows the determination of the value of the critical field from the low field limit of the exponential regime. Various materials can also be compared from the values of [Delta]G[sub 0] and [lambda][sub max] determined from high field endurance results.

Crine, J.P.; Dang, C.; Parpal, J.L. (Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada))

1992-12-01

125

Superconductor cable  

SciTech Connect

A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

Allais, Arnaud (Hannover, DE); Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

2009-12-15

126

Insulations and Jackets for Control and Power Cables in Thermal Reactor Nuclear Generating Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permanent change in the physical strengths, rate of oxidation, dielectric loss, and electrical stability in 40-psig (142??C) steam and dielectric strength are reported for 13 elastomer-based insulation-jacket combinations after irradiation up to 108 rad in air at 5 ??105 rad\\/h from a cobalt 60 source. Threshold of damage for each property, overall threshold of damage, and highest dose rate

Robert Blodgett; Robert Fisher

1969-01-01

127

Molds for cable dielectrics  

DOEpatents

Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1996-12-10

128

Flexible Gas-Insulated Cable for 230 kV, 345 kV and 500 kV  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 80-meter section of 345 kV flexible cable has been designed, manufactured, tested and installed at EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility for long-term testing. Complete dielectric tests have been carried out on other sections of this 390 mm cable which verify its 345 kV rating. Sections of 330 mm (230 kV) cable have also been manufactured and tested. The

D. B. Miller; E. M. Spencer; P. J. Kroon; P. C. Netzel

1984-01-01

129

Proceedings of Forty-Fifth IWCS; International Wire and Cable Symposium, 18 through 21 November 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Technical papers presented at the Symposium pertain to these areas: Fiber Optic Cables (Submarine Cable and PMD, and Aerial Cables); Copper Cables (Residential Broadband Networks); Materials (Insulation, Jacketing Flame Retardant); Fiber Optic Cables (Spl...

1996-01-01

130

Partial Discharge Performance of Lapped Plastic Insulation for Superconducting Power Transmission Cables and the Dielectric Strength of Supercritical Helium Gas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been working on a project to develop a superconducting power transmission cable since 1972. A flexible ac cable with Nb sub 3 Sn superconductor force-cooled by supercritical helium was the design selected. A lapped...

A. J. Pearmain M. Kosaki R. A. Thomas

1978-01-01

131

End moldings for cable dielectrics  

DOEpatents

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble- free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

Roose, L.D.

1993-12-31

132

Application of high-temperature superconductive cable lines as components of DC transmission systems for enhancing the reliability of megalopolis electric power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tendency of megalopolis power system development and load increasing results in the necessity of additional substations and power transmission lines building. Nowadays the problem of megalopolis land occupation for overhead transmission lines building is solved by the XLPE (AC cross-linked polyethylene) cable lines application with subsurface cabling. However, adding new transmission lines to power system can result in fault

A. Brilinskiy; O. Gook; A. Sevastianova; D. Sorokin; S. Smolovik

2011-01-01

133

Load Ratings of Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating and test data concerning the maximum safe loading of impregnated-paper-insulated lead-covered cable are presented. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. The occasional operation of cable at higher temperatures than are permitted by present temperature rules effects considerable economy. 2. During emergencies, temperatures of 5 to 35 degrees centigrade (depending on kind of cable) above

Herman Halperin

1939-01-01

134

Partial discharges in low-voltage cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method, utilizing partial discharges, is presented which has the potential for locating breaches in the insulation of in situ, low-voltage, multiconductor cables. The measurement technique is intended for use in situ on 600-V-class nuclear power plant cables, and so representative cable types were used in the experiments described: shielded cables, unshielded multiconductor cables, and unshielded single-conductor cables. It

J. P. Steiner; François D. Martzloff

1990-01-01

135

Semiannual report for the period April 1 to September 30, 1978 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project technical note No. 83  

SciTech Connect

Progress in the development, fabrication and testing of superconductors for HVAC power transmission systems is reported. Information is included on the materials evaluation of superconducting alloys, production of tapes from these alloys, principally Nb/sub 3/Sn cable insulation requirements and development, and the cryogenic equipment used in this research program. (LCL)

Not Available

1978-11-07

136

Program to Evaluate, Develop, and Test Poroplastic Materials as Improved Electrical Insulation for High Power Underground Cables. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a project to develop Poroplastic Film, an ultramicroporous material used as a low loss substitute for the cellulose paper tapes presently used in the manufacture of high pressure oil-filled cable. Structurally, Poroplastic is a st...

L. D. Nichols L. Gilson A. S. Obermayer

1977-01-01

137

Dynamic Temperature Measurement of Overheated Shuttle Car Trailing Cables in Underground Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research shows that present regulations may not limit cable temperatures to less than 90 degrees C. in reeled trailing cables. Reeled cables can become overheated due to poor heat transfer. This overheating can cause the cable insulation to soften ...

P. G. Kovalchik L. W. Scott T. H. Dubaniewicz F. T. Duda

2005-01-01

138

21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode cable is a device composed of strands of insulated electrical conductors laid together around a central core and intended for medical purposes to connect an electrode from a patient...

2013-04-01

139

Process of modifying a cable end  

DOEpatents

End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves. 5 figs.

Roose, L.D.

1995-08-01

140

Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

2010-12-30

141

Impurities in extruded cables: A proton-induced x-ray emission diagnostic study  

SciTech Connect

The impurity contents and distributions in electrical trees grown in various field-aged XLPE distribution cables were measured by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The objectives pursued in this preliminary study were the following. Determination of any possible correlation between electrical tree initiation and the nature of some specific impurities. Evaluation of micro-PIXE as a reliable analytical technique to measure impurities in localized defects, such as small trees. For that purpose we used the micro-PIXE facility of the Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire at University of Montreal where proton beams of {approx}20 microns can be focused on small samples. From the emitted x-rays, it is possible to determine the nature and content of most impurities (whose content is above {approx}1 ppM). Cable samples with electrical trees grown either from insulation shield or from water trees were analyzed. A few field-aged cable samples containing breakdown channels of various sizes were also analyzed. The aim here was to determine whether impurities could still be detected after breakdown. The observations made can be summarized as follows: the electrical trees studied were heavily contaminated by a wide variety of impurities; electrical trees contain the same impurities as the connecting water trees and the amounts are about the same in both types of trees; provided that the energy released during breakdown is not too high, that is as long as breakdown channels remain small; the minimum level of contamination leading to tree growth is difficult to ascertain; no clear correlation can be established between the nature of impurities and electrical tree initiation; it cannot be determined whether contamination leads to tree initiation or whether contamination follows tree growth; and micro-PIXE is well suited to study impurities in electrical (and water) trees. 20 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

Crine, J.P.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Houdayer, A. (Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada))

1990-06-01

142

Flammability of radiation cross-linked low density polyethylene as an insulating material for wire and cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various formulations of low-density polyethylene blended with ethylene vinyl acetate were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable applications. The prepared formulations were cross-linked by /?-rays to 50, 100, 150 and 200kGy in the presence of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). The effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties of these formulations were investigated. In addition, the influence of various combinations of aluminum trihydroxide and zinc borate as flame retardant fillers on the flammability was explored. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and average extent of burning were used to characterize the flammability of investigated formulations. An improved flame retardancy of low density polyethylene was achieved by various combinations of flame ratardant fillers and cross-linking by gamma radiation.

Basfar, A. A.

2002-03-01

143

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

DOEpatents

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

Cannon, Collins P. (Richland, WA); Brown, Donald P. (Richland, WA)

1979-01-01

144

LOCA testing of damaged cables  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of dielectric withstand voltage testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin cables, the results suggest that 8 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage levels necessary to detect when 8 mils of insulation remain are expected to be roughly 40 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. Although two Rockbestos silicone rubber cables failed during the accident test, the induced wall thickness did not seem to be the major cause of the failures. It appears likely that under less stressful thermal aging conditions, the cables would survive accident testing with as little as 4 mils or less of insulation remaining.

Vigil, R.A. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jacobus, M.J.; Nelson, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01

145

Nuclear power plant electrical cable damageability experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting confirmatory research in fire protection for nuclear power plants. As a part of this research, a program was developed to determine the damageability of electrical-cable insulation to thermal radiation in a loaded cable tray. The critical flux or threshold level at which cable damage occurs in

Lukens

1982-01-01

146

COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Chelsea Hubbard

2001-05-01

147

Test of two prototype high-temperature superconducting transmission cables  

SciTech Connect

Two 500-A class prototype high-temperature superconducting cables have been constructed by Southwire Company and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the first cable, no insulation was used to separate the individual HTS tapes. In the second cable, Kapton tape was used to insulate the HTS tapes between successive layers for the study of AC loss and current distribution. The cables were tested with both DC and AC currents in liquid nitrogen from 77 to 69 K. Both cables achieved DC critical current, I{sub c} greater than 500 A. A calorimetric technique that measures the cable temperature rise under ac currents was used to measure the ac loss of the cables. The un-insulated cable showed a cryoresistive behavior under the 60 Hz AC currents. The insulated cable started to show measurable loss at current where there was corresponding resistive loss.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S.; Kroeger, D.M.; Martin, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A.; Jones, E.C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Sinha, U.; Hughey, R.L. [Southwire Co., Carrollton, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

148

Cable Charge and Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductivity determinations of insulating materials, and therefore the determinations of the leakage resistance of a cable, condenser or similar structure, have always been more or less unsatisfactory, due to a phenomenon often called ``soaking in of the charges.'' In general, if a constant direct voltage is impressed upon a circuit, in the first moment large transient currents flow, representing the

Charles P. Steinmetz

1923-01-01

149

Life loss of insulated power cables: an integrative criterium to improve the ANSI\\/IEEE and the CENELEC\\/IEC method for overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between the ANSI\\/IEEE and the CENELEC\\/IEC approach to overload protection of electric cables has allowed a determination of which of the two methods is more restrictive depending on power cable size and overload duration. This paper introduces a methodology to calculate the life-loss of a power cable due to an overload current of given magnitude and duration. The

G. Parise; G. Rubino; M. Ricci

1996-01-01

150

Development of cold-shrinkable joints with carrier pipes for EHV cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

One piece, pre-molded joints have been used all over the world for extra high voltage (EHV) XLPE cables. For those premolded joints, ethylene-propylene rubber has mainly been applied for many years. We have succeeded in applying a new cold-shrink technology on those pre-molded joints by using silicone rubber which has lower elasticity and better mechanical properties, such as lower permanent

H. Suzuki; S. Kobayashi; T. Ono; D. Muto; S. Tanaka; H. Kurihara; H. Nomura

2000-01-01

151

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the

Collins P. Cannon; Donald P. Brown

1979-01-01

152

Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is disclosed. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed

C. P. Cannon; D. P. Brown

1979-01-01

153

Cable Compliance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the ...

J. Kerley W. Eklund R. Burkhardt P. Rossoni

1992-01-01

154

Accelerated electrical degradation of 15 kV EPR cable under dry and wet condition energized by switching impulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium voltage power cables are manufactured with various insulating materials. Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR) is one of the most common materials used in cable insulation among them. It is known that power cables in service are subjected to moisture due to wet environment which may reach the insulation and accelerate environmental aging of insulation. In the experiments set for this

S. Grzybowski; L. Cao; B. Pushpanathan

2009-01-01

155

Termination of Flat Conductor Cable to NASA/Msfc Plugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data, supplemented with artwork, are presented on the major steps involved with terminating flat conductor cable (FCC) to MSFC's FCC plugs. Cable and shield preparation steps include material cutting, insulation stripping, and plating of exposed conductor...

W. Angele

1972-01-01

156

Effects of irradiation dose rate and thermal aging on changes in the properties of elastomeric materials (EPR-CSPE) for cable insulation and sheathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate cable service life in PWR plants, a research program has been established and performed on EPR\\/CSPE (ethylene-propylene rubber\\/chlorosulfonated polyethylene) LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) cables based on a study of the dose and dose rate effects and the temperature. The authors present the results of accelerated tests and physicochemical studies (IR, mechanical properties, oxidation (EPR), and chlorine (CSPE)

Brigitte PINEL; V. Gueguen

1991-01-01

157

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) presents a brief description of cable television and explains some basic regulations pertaining to it. The history of cable regulation covers the initial jurisdiction, economic considerations of the regulation, court tests, and the holding of public hearings. The major provisions of new cable rules are…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

158

Water treeing characterization and tree retardant compound effects in XLPE power cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe experimentation done in establishing techniques for laboratory growth and analytical characterization of water trees. Techniques used include scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Measurements of electrical properties such as capacitance, dissipation factor, and leakage current were made, but no significant differences between the virgin, field

M. L. Miller; R. S. Gorur; L. E. Hendrickson; M. L. Dyer

1990-01-01

159

Development of 3-in-One High Temperature Superconducting Cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-in-One HTS cable has been developed. Its cable core is composed of a conductor and a shield wound with BSCCO wires and electrical insulation of the PPLP. The three cable cores are covered in thermal insulated stainless corrugated pipes. Recently, BSCCO wires were drastically innovated by virtue of a newly developed process named as Controlled Over-Pressure (CT-OP). As a new cable technology, a 350m thermal insulation pipe was tested for 7 months to find that a life of the vacuum property is more than 10 years. The HTS cable with tension members was designed for installation into an underground duct. In addition, a fault current of 23kA, 0.63sec, was applied to a sample cable with no damage on the BSCCO wires and the cable insulation. These technologies will be applied to Albany project in USA.

Masuda, Takato; Kato, Takeshi; Hirose, Masayuki; Sato, Kenichi

160

High conductance surge cable  

DOEpatents

An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

Murray, Matthew M. (Espanola, NM); Wilfong, Dennis H. (Brooksville, FL); Lomax, Ralph E. (Santa Fe, NM)

1998-01-01

161

Superconducting Cable Termination  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Tolbert, Jerry (Newnan, GA)

2005-08-30

162

Electrical insulation characteristics of paper-ice composite insulating system in liquid nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, research work for realizing the high-temperature superconducting cable has advanced, where the development of electrical insulating system at cryogenic temperatures is one of the major researches. A composite insulating system made of insulating paper-LN 2 has been studied as one of the electrical insulating systems on the high-temperature superconducting cable. In paper-LN2 composite insulating system, where the

M. Nagao; T. Nakanishi; Y. Kataoka; M. Kosaki; T. Shibata; S. Isojima

1999-01-01

163

Electrochemical Treeing in Cable. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of an investigation of electrochemical treeing in solid dielectric insulated cables performed between May, 1973 and March, 1977 for the Electric Power Research Institute. The purpose of the work was to establish the influence of vari...

N. Nagu inivas H. C. Deopken A. L. McKean M. C. Biskeborn

1978-01-01

164

Asset Management of Medium Voltage Cable Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the background to research currently underway associated with asset management (AM) of degraded cable\\u000a networks in North Queensland. In the paper the main failure mode of cables installed twenty years ago is identified as the\\u000a growth of water trees through the cable insulation. The costs of managing water tree degradation in a large distribution network\\u000a are considered

D Birtwhistle; R Gilbert; J Lyall; B Oyegoke; L Powell; T Saha

165

A New Principle of Cable Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of cable behavior on loadcycle tests led to the conclusion that instability of the insulation results from its deformation, leaving ionizable voids in the inner layers, where deterioration starts. This led to the conception of a cable in which the inner and outer layers of paper would have different moduli of elasticity, the outer papers having the higher modulus

Wm. A. Del Mar

1941-01-01

166

A Note on an Oxygen Index Test on Electric Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oxygen index test was conducted on thirteen different electric cable samples, to determine the limiting oxygen index (i.e., LOI) of each cable composite, its sheath and its insulated wire. A statistical comparative analysis for the data pairs has shown that the LOI of the cable composite correlated sig nificantly well with that of its sheath material whereas it hardly

Yuichi Nakagawa

1994-01-01

167

LOW-LOSS CABLE AND METHOD OF FABRICATION  

DOEpatents

A radiation-resistant coaxial electrical cable capable of carrying very small currents at high voltages with little leakage is described. The cable comprises an inner axial conductor separated from an outer coaxial tubular conductor by annular layer of fibrous silica insulation. The silica insulation is formed by leaching boron from spun horosilicate glass and then heat treating the silica at a high temperature.

McCarthy, R.L. et al.

1960-09-27

168

The effect of cable oil diffusion on the electrical conductivity of EPDM compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the effects of diffusing cable oil on the electrical behavior of elastomeric compounds based on EPDM, as used in semiconductive elements in accessories for application on paper-insulated lead-covered (PILC) cables. The behavior of volume resistivity is monitored as a function of the amount of cable oil diffused into the material. Resistivities up to the typical insulator range

R. Garcia-Ramirez; S. Sundhararajan

1996-01-01

169

Composition and growth of water trees in XLPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experimental results, a model describing the composition and the structure of water trees is derived. It is concluded that water trees are in fact salt trees, i.e., they consist of tracks of hydrophilic salt groups. These tracks most likely run through the amorphous phase of polyethylene. In water trees in cables, the salts are carboxylate salts

R. Ross; J. J. Smit

1992-01-01

170

Cable indenter aging monitor  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

1988-07-01

171

Ampacity test of 28 AWG ribbon cables  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of testing ribbon cables in order to determine the amount of current they can carry. In some experiments ribbon cables are used to power circuit boards and carry several amperes of current. These tests were required to establish safe operating current limits for electrical safety reviews. The basic principle behind these tests was to increase the amount of current passed through the ribbon cables until the insulation melted and the cable clearly became a fire hazard. As the current through the cable was increased the copper temperature was determined from the increased conductor resistance. The tests were done on two different types of ribbon cables. One was the flat 26 conductor 28AWG and the other was the twist and flat 26 conductor 28AWG ribbon cable, both of which are commonly used in the experiments. The flat cable was tested for current carrying capacity through three conductors and through a single conductor. The twist and flat cable was tested for current carrying capacity through a single conductor. It was found that the maximum single conductor ampacity for both cables is approximately 3A and the three conductor ampacity for the flat cable is about 10A. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Drennan, E.

1990-04-01

172

Cable Tester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA Tech Brief's provided Sonics Associates, Inc. with a method of saving many hours of testing time and money. James B. Cawthon, Sonics Vice-President, read about a device developed at Ames Research Center. Sonics adapted the device and produced an effective tester that uses a clocked shift register to apply a voltage to a cable under test. This is the active part of the Ames development, and the passive is a small box containing light emitting diodes (LEDs). When connected to the other end of the tested cable, the LEDs light in the same sequence as the generator. This procedure allows the technician to immediately identify a miswired cable.

1989-01-01

173

Determination of diffusion constants for peroxide by-products formed during the crosslinking of polyethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the preferred insulation material for cables rated from 1 kV to 500 kV is crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). After crosslinking the peroxide by-products are contained within the XLPE matrix. For all power cables there is a need to remove these by-products or to reduce their concentrations, especially for high voltage (HV) and extra high voltage (EHV) cables. One aspect to

A. Smedberg; A. B. Borealis; D. Wald

2008-01-01

174

Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging  

SciTech Connect

Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

1981-01-01

175

Electrical life threshold models for solid insulating materials subjected to electrical and multiple stresses. I. Investigation and comparison of life models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, life models, are collected valid for solid insulating materials subjected to electrical and multiple thermal-electrical stresses whose life lines show a tendency to reach an electrical threshold. Their fit is investigated with reference to several sets of data derived from accelerated life tests performed on different insulating materials (XLPE, composite Nomex-Mylar-Nomex, epoxy bisphenolic resin, polyimide). In particular,

Gian Carlo Montanari

1992-01-01

176

Self-contained cable systems offer advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pressure oil-filled (LPOF) cable systems, while seldom used in this country, have several advantages of interest to engineers. Less oil and insulating paper is required for low-pressure than for the more commonly used high-pressure systems because of the single core. The lower pessure offers safety features in the event of accidental oil loss. LPOF cables are used internationally because of

A. S. Morello; E. Occhini

1977-01-01

177

Superheated-Steam Test of Ethylene Propylene Rubber Cables Using a Simultaneous Aging and Accident Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging ...

P. R. Bennett S. D. St. Clair T. W. Gilmore

1986-01-01

178

Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

179

Insulating tape characteristics at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

From conference on electrical insulation and dielectric phenomena; ; Varennes Quebec, Canada (29 Oct 1973). Plastics selected for evaluation for ; insulation on the superconducting cable for power transmission were: addition ; polymers, polyolefins; addition polymers, fluorinated hydrocarbons; and ; condensation polymers. A demonstration model is under design for 69-kV system ; operation; the goal for the insulation is an

1973-01-01

180

Electric conducting cable insensitive to nuclear radiation  

SciTech Connect

Electrical conducting cable which is insensitive to nuclear radiation comprising at least one conductive core, at least one layer of an insulating substance surrounding said conductive core and at least one conductive sheath surrounding said insulating layer, wherein the diameter phi D of the sheath, the diameter phi B of the conductive core, the diameter of phi C of the insulating layer are linked by the equation: f1 representing the beta - radiation fraction from the core reaching the sheath, f2 representing the beta - radiation fraction from the sheath which reaches the core, the insulating substance being constituted by a mixture of at least two metal oxides.

Petitcolas, H.

1982-08-17

181

Accumulation of Moisture in a Plastic Sheathed Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information from the field has indicated the presence of water in some plastic insulated cables having alpeth sheath (single polyethylene jacket over aluminum tape). Although water trouble is generally due to simple causes such as holes in the sheath, the...

W. M. Hladik

1964-01-01

182

Superconducting Cable  

DOEpatents

In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

Hughey, Raburn L. (Franklin, GA); Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Reece, David S. (Carrollton, GA); Muller, Albert C. (Eidson, TN)

2005-03-08

183

Superconducting Cable  

DOEpatents

In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

Hughey, Raburn L. (Franklin, GA); Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Reece, David S. (Carrollton, GA); Muller, Albert C. (Eidson, TN)

2005-07-22

184

Superconductor cable  

DOEpatents

A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

Smith, Jr., Darrell F. (Huntington, WV); Lake, Bill L. (Ona, WV); Ballinger, Ronald G. (Andover, MA)

1988-01-01

185

Epoxy Resin-Orlon Cable Terminations for 33Kv Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of a termination for 33-kv operation has been described. This includes a wrapping of insulation comprising orlon tape impregnated with an epoxy resin formulation that extends over a portion of the metallic cable sheath, the oiled-paper, insulation, and a portion of the high-voltage connector. The prepared cable end is installed in a porcelain pothead which is almost completely filled

P. L. Betz; O. W. Lusby; J. J. Rueckert; J. F. Foley; M. B. Gordon

1959-01-01

186

Protection of Communication Cables in Plastic Sheaths from Lightning Strikes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From impulse generator tests on a cable 4 km in length (a one-quarter cable with polythene-insulated cores, an aluminum foil screen in the form of a two-layer winding of steel wires each 0.25 mm in diameter; enclosed in P.V.C. cover; outside diameter of c...

B. K. Goryunov S. A. Sokolov V. K. Orlov

1972-01-01

187

Life-assessment technique for nuclear power plant cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condition of polymer-based cable material can be best characterized by measuring elongation at break of its insulating materials. However, it is not often possible to take sufficiently large samples for measurement with the tensile testing machine. The problem has been conveniently solved by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry technique. From the tested cable, several microsamples are taken and the oxidation

B. Bartonícek; V. Hnát; V. Pla?ek

1998-01-01

188

Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our

K. T. Gillen; R. L. Clough

1990-01-01

189

Systematization of insulation design technology for various electric power apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with cross-apparatus comparisons of an insulation design of electric power apparatus. Focusing on a gas insulated switchgear (GIS), an oil-filled transformer, a cable, and a capacitor, we summarize the different and common features of their insulation design on the basis of not only referring literatures but also the authors' experiences. The insulation design process has three evaluation

Hiroshi Murase; Shigemitsu Okabe; Toshiya Kumai; Hidetoshi Takakura; Makoto Takahashi; Hitoshi Okubo

2006-01-01

190

Design, Development, Fabrication and Testing of High Temperature Flat Conductor Cable (Fcc).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips 9or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown th...

W. S. Rigling

1974-01-01

191

Wide-band modeling of cables based on the fractional order differential theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the wide-band modelling method of the cable and the analysis of the electromagnetic transients on the cable systems has significant practical meaning on the engineering problems, e.g. overvoltage protection, insulation coordination and electromagnetic interference, with the growing use of cable systems and the increasing levels of capacity in the power and communication systems. In the transient analysis of

Xin Liu; Xiang Cui; Lei Qi; Guishu Liang; Lizhi Yan

2011-01-01

192

Ceramic end seal design for high temperature high voltage nuclear instrumentation cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coaxial, hermetically sealed end structure is described for electrical instrumentation cables. A generally tubular ceramic body is hermetically sealed within a tubular sheath which is in turn sealed to the cable sheath. One end of the elongated tubular ceramic insulator is sealed to a metal end cap. The other end of the elongated tubular insulator has an end surface

J. D. Meiss; C. P. Cannon

1979-01-01

193

Ceramic end seal design for high temperature high voltage nuclear instrumentation cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coaxial, hermetically sealed end seal structure is described for electrical instrumentation cables. A generally tubular ceramic body is hermetically sealed within a tubular sheath which is in turn sealed to the cable sheath. One end of the elongated tubular ceramic insulator is sealed to a metal end cap. The other end of the elongated tubular insulator has an end

J. D. Meiss; C. P. Cannon

1977-01-01

194

High Voltage Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coaxial cable is for the transmission of high voltage direct current. The cable is for use with a charged particle accelerator. The cable structure includes a nonconducting core, a center conductor, two intermediate conductors, all separated by dielec...

C. A. Harris

1965-01-01

195

Effect of Crosslinking on the Structure, Properties and Failure Mechanisms of XLPE and Crosslinked Butyl Elastomer Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyblend systems consisting of crosslinkable polyethylene (XLPE) and the crosslinked butyl rubbers were studied. Two types of crosslinked butyl rubbers viz XL-20 (80% crosslinked) and XL-50 (50% crosslinked) were considered in order to find out the effect of crosslinking of the elastomer on the structure, properties and mode of failure of the blends. Properties are correlated with the crystallinity

Prithu Mukhopadhyay; C. K. Das

1991-01-01

196

An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools  

DOEpatents

A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2005-11-29

197

Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

Federal Register, 1972

1972-01-01

198

THE ACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ON CABLE RUBBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of direct ionizing radiation on different cable structures ; was studied as well as on insulation and rubber hoses subjected to irradiation in ; air, in vacuum, in water and at high temperatures. The insulation and hose were ; irradiated separately and in replicate with Co⁶° over a wide range of doses ; up to 500 Mrad, intensity

G. A. Blokh; V. L. Karpov; Yu. M. Malinskii; L. P. Olshanskii; M. S. Khlopplyankina

1961-01-01

199

Development of extruded dielectric underground transmission cables rated 138 kV, 230 kV, and 345 kV. Final report. Volume I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of investigations made to develop technology required to manufacture chemically crosslinked polyethylene-insulated power cables in the ac voltage range 138 to 345 kV and having insulation thicknesses approximately equal to oil impregnated paper insulated cables. After giving an account of the State of the Art at the initiation of the project, the conceptual design of the new

G. Bahder; L. A. Bopp; G. S. Eager; R. G. Lukac; G. A. Schmidt; D. A. Silver; C. Katz

1977-01-01

200

Development of a 100 m, 3-core 114 MVA HTSC cable system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have started a project to develop a 100 m 3-core 66 kV/1 kA/114 MVA high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable system to certify the manufacturing capability and the practicability of an HTSC cable system for use as actual power system equipment. The cable is designed based on the results of a 30 m, 3-core test cable. The cable is composed of a conductor and a shield wound with Ag-Mn sheathed Bi-2223 tapes, electrical insulation with polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with liquid nitrogen and thermal insulation with co-axial corrugated pipes. The three cores are housed in this thermally insulated pipe. The cable has been developed and laid at CRIEPIs test site and long-term tests have been under way since June.

Masuda, Takato; Ashibe, Yuuichi; Watanabe, Michihiko; Suzawa, Chizuru; Ohkura, Kengo; Hirose, Masayuki; Isojima, Shigeki; Honjo, Shoichi; Matsuo, Kimiyoshi; Mimura, Tomoo; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

2002-08-01

201

Development of extruded dielectric underground transmission cables rated 138 kV, 230 kV and 345 kV, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology to manufacture chemically crosslinked polyethylene insulated power cables in the ac voltage range of 138 kV to 345 kV having insulation thicknesses approximately equal to that of oil impregnated paper insulated cables is developed. The development of field molded splices and terminations for high voltage stress 138 kV cables are also incorporated. After reviewing the main equipment elements, incorporated

G. Bahder; L. A. Bopp; G. S. Eager; C. Katz; A. Knott; G. A. Schmidt

1982-01-01

202

Marine cable location system  

SciTech Connect

An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

Zachariadis, R.G.

1984-05-01

203

Cable load sensing device  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

Beus, Michael J. (Spokane, WA); McCoy, William G. (Spokane, WA)

1998-01-01

204

Study on the Fault Location Method for Power Cables using the Time-frequency Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulse radar method is one of fault location methods for power cables. It locates the breakdown point by measuring the delay time of the echo or the discharge signal coming from the breakdown point. The equipment for the pulse radar method is more compact compared with the Murray loop bridge, and its operation is more simple because sensitive adjustments of proportion are not needed. However the signal propagating through the cable is distorted depending on the distance and frequency, leading to a poor accuracy for the location. In this report, signal processing in the time-frequency domain is proposed to solve this problem. The pulse waveforms received at two different terminals of the cable were extracted by a window function, and subsequently Fourier transformed in order to calculate the phase difference at an appropriate frequency. A special care was taken for un-wrapping the folded phase spectrum. The phase difference was interpreted as the time lag at an identical frequency. The technique was applied to the fault location for a full size XLPE cable line.

Kobayashi, Shin'ichi; Morimoto, Nozomi; Miyajima, Kazuhisa; Hozumi, Naohiro

205

Cable-Guiderail Tension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cable guiderail with insufficient tension may deflect excessively on impact, allowing vehicles to contact fixed objects behind the barrier. The study investigated causes of tension loss in cable guiderail and formulated corrective measures.

W. D. Kenyon

1985-01-01

206

Serpentine Buoyant Cable Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to an improved buoyant cable antenna system. The system includes a buoyant cable transmission line segment and an antenna segment formed from a flexible memory structure comprised of at least one segment of coiled compression...

E. M. Gerhard

2006-01-01

207

DOE-sponsored cable aging research at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Cables have been identified as critical components requiring detailed technical evaluation for extending the lifetime of Light Water Reactors beyond 40 years. This paper highlights some of the DOE-sponsored cable aging studies currently underway at Sandia. These studies are focused on two important issues: the validity of the often-used Arrhenius thermal aging prediction method and methods for predicting lifetimes in combined thermal-radiation environments. Accelerated thermal aging results are presented for three cable jacket and insulation materials, which indicate that hardening of the outside surface has an Arrhenius temperature dependence and correlates well with reductions in ultimate tensile elongation. This suggests that the indentor approach is a promising NDE technique for cable jacket and unjacketed insulation materials installed in thermally-dominated regions of nuclear power plants.

Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.; Celina, M.; Wise, J.; Malone, G.M.

1995-12-01

208

Development of bypass cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bypass cables and auxiliary equipment used in the temporary transmission method, and the recently developed strain-resistant bypass cable and related equipment are discussed. The bypass cable used in this new method has a built-in polyaramide resistor for additional strain resistance, providing greatly improved performance. The development and spread of the bypass cable method has enabled work-related power shutoffs to be

T. Kato; S. Kuroiwa; K. Tokumaru; T. Hasegawa

1991-01-01

209

Vertex Detector Cable Considerations  

SciTech Connect

Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

2009-02-01

210

British Commonwealth Ocean Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planning for the first transatlantic telephone cable (1955-56) two systems were considered, the two-cable, flexible repeater, 36-circuit system developed by A. T. & T. and the single cable, rigid repeater, 60-circuit system developed by the British Post Office, primarily for shallow water. The American system, which more readily overcame the problems associated with laying repeaters in armored cable at

R. Halsey

1964-01-01

211

Optical fiber submarine cable  

SciTech Connect

An optical fiber submarine cable, which is provided with at least one coated optical fiber, a power supplying, pressure resisting layer of a pipe-like configuration, a tension resisting wire layer formed of a conductive material of relatively low conductivity and disposed in close contact with the power supplying, pressure resisting layer of the pipe-like configuration, and an insulator layer disposed around the tension resisting wire layer. The power supplying, pressure resisting layer is formed as at least one inner layer and an outer layer. The inner layer is formed as a single layer or composite layers by forming a tape-like good conductor material into a pipe-like configuration with its joint made a mere butt, or by assembling together a plurality of pressure resisting material segments equally divided in the circumference direction for at least one layer of the inner layer and having housed the above-mentioned at least one coated optical fiber in an optical fiber housing space defined centrally of the inner layer. The outer layer is formed by winding a metal tape on the inner layer.

Nakai, T.; Ejiri, Y.; Furusawa, K.; Niiro, Y.; Nunokawa, M.; Sato, M.

1984-12-25

212

Cable Fairing Attachment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses systems and methods for automatically applying fairings to a cable as the cable is deployed from a winch. Each fairing has two halves, with each half having a recess, or groove, to accommodate the cable. Like halves are c...

A. A. Ruffa

2010-01-01

213

Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

Baer, Walter S.; And Others

214

Mechanically improved rectangular cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most electrical cables for superconducting magnets are made from round strands twisted into a hollow spiral and compacted into a two layer rectangular cross-section (called Rutherford cable). It is used to make compact electrical coils when a stranded conductor is required. A significant improvement has been conceived and improved cable has been fabricated. The improvement avoids the effect in the

A. R. Borden; R. C. Wolgast

1983-01-01

215

Cable Brake and Lock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cable brake and lock device to control the release of a mooring cable comprises a spring-biased piston abutting an elastic brake element, with the cable passing through both. An initial, preselected force is applied by the spring to the piston and the b...

H. P. Feldman

1976-01-01

216

Magnetic AC loss characteristics of 2G roebel cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roebel cable has been successfully manufactured using second generation (2G) YBCO wire. Roebel shaped strands of width 2 mm and a transposition length of 90 mm were cut from 40 mm wide tape supplied by American Superconductor Corporation. The tape has a weakly ferromagnetic Ni-5at\\\\%W alloy substrate. Eleven insulated strands were assembled to form the cable. This paper reports results

Lalitha Seetha Lakshmi; Kailash Prasad Thakur; Mike P. Staines; Rodney Alan Badcock; Nicholas J. Long

2009-01-01

217

Epoxy Resin-Orlon Cable Terminations for 4Kv Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of a termination for 4-kv operation on PILC cable has been described. It is based on a hand applied insulation and weather seal of epoxy-resin-impregnated orlon tape which covers the cable end from the lead sheath to the high-voltage connector. Filler materials may be added to the basic resin. Savings have been effected through the elimination of the porcelain

J. J. Rueckert; O. W. Lusby; P. L. Betz

1959-01-01

218

A device for precision dimensional measurement of superconducting cable  

SciTech Connect

A need for continuous sampling of the dimensions of superconducting cable has lead to the development of a machine for that purpose. This device measures average thickness, width, and keystone angle for a wide variety of cable sizes while under the mechanical loading anticipated in the final coil structure. Linear dimensions can be measured to {plus minus}0.0001 in. and angle to {plus minus}0. 01{degree}. Cable can be measured with and without insulation. Loading is variable up to 25 ksi. This device has applications in epoxy free coil winding where the cable dimensions must be well understood before coil winding in order to predict the size of the finished coil package. As a diagnostic device, it has application in the cable making process to help understand causes for subtle inconsistencies in cable dimensions. A possible quality control application exists. Current cable quality control requires destructive techniques with very small samplings, usually two samples for 5000 ft of cable. We have evaluated device performance by repeated measurements of lengths of SSC cable. 7 figs.

Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.; Bossert, R.; Fisk, E.; Mantsch, P.; Riley, R.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schmidt, E.E. Jr.

1986-05-19

219

Transient analysis of a crossbonded cable system underneath a bridge  

SciTech Connect

Transients on a crossbonded cable installed underneath a bridge, which is connected with overhead lines, are analyzed using the EMTP. Calculated results of the sheath voltages on a system composed only of a cable show that the maximum overvoltages on the cable installed underneath the bridge, which is a kind of an overhead cable, are higher by bout 2.5 times than those on an ordinary underground cable. The iron frameworks of the bridge, which is simulated as parallel overhead conductors to the cable, cause an effect of reducing the overvoltages by about 20% to 50% due to mutual coupling. When overhead lines are connected to the cable system at the both terminals, the sheath overvoltages are reduced to about 20% of those in the case of the cable system alone. But, the effect of the iron frameworks on reducing the overvoltages becomes less pronounced. From the observation in the paper, it has been made clear that a special attention should be paid to the insulation coordination of a crossbonded cable installed to a bridge.

Itoh, Y. (Fujikura Cable Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Nagaoka, N.; Ametani, A. (Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan))

1990-04-01

220

Aerodynamic stability of cable-supported bridges using CFRP cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain understanding of the applicability of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) cable in cable-supported bridges, based\\u000a on the Runyang Bridge and Jinsha Bridge, a suspension bridge using CFRP cables and a cable-stayed bridge using CFRP stay cables\\u000a are designed, in which the cable’s cross-sectional area is determined by the principle of equivalent axial stiffness. Numerical\\u000a investigations on the aerodynamic

Xin-jun Zhang; Lei-dong Ying

2007-01-01

221

Testing of Flat Conductor Cable to Underwriters Laboratory Standards UL719 and UL83.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted ...

R. W. Loggins R. H. Herndon

1974-01-01

222

Partial Discharge Measurement as Diagnostic Tool for Power Cable Systems. Literature Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insulation of cable and accessories may be defected or deteriorated in installation (laying) and in use. After laying tests with diagnostic measurements should detect faults and defects caused by transports and installation. Successful measurements give f...

B. Oyegoke P. Hyvoenen M. Aro

2001-01-01

223

Use of Plain Copper Conductors in Lieu of Tinned-Copper for Internal Cables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In line with most Telephone Operating Administrations, Telecom Australia has specified and used tinned-copper conductors, with PVC insulation and sheathing, for most internal cabling within telephone exchanges and subscribers' buildings. Following some re...

B. T. De Boer K. G. Mottram

1983-01-01

224

Magnet cable manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

Royet, J.

1990-10-01

225

High voltage instrument cables for 650°C in-vessel breeder reactor service  

Microsoft Academic Search

MgO insulated nuclear instrument cables have been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and breeder reactor in-vessel environments. Prototype cables have been successfully fabricated and tested: voltage Breakdown Pulse Noise (BPN) thresholds in excess of 800 Vdc and cable resistivities in excess of 10⁸ ..cap omega.. .ft were achieved at temperatures to 650°C. Factors demonstrated to

1979-01-01

226

Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200

W. S. Rigling

1974-01-01

227

Long-term performance of poly(vinyl chloride) cables, Part 2: Migration of plasticizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable samples with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) insulations were aged in air at temperatures between 80 and 155°C. The concentrations of the plasticizer (di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP) in the insulations of the aged cables were determined by extraction of samples in tetrahydrofuran followed by analysis of the extract by liquid chromatography. The plasticizer concentration data for different ageing times were analysed by

M. Ekelund; B. Azhdar; M. S. Hedenqvist; U. W. Gedde

2008-01-01

228

Inference of PD pulse propagation in polymeric cables through computer simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to determine travel time, attenuation and frequency characteristics of partial discharge signals travelling along a power cable. The method is based on the Advanced Transient Program. Laboratory tests performed on 13 kV EPR insulated cable are used to validate simulation results. The model developed here will be used in forthcoming papers to assess partial discharge

A. Cavallini; G. C. Montanari; S. Chandrasekar

2007-01-01

229

Outages Investigation and Characterization of Saudi Electrical Cables using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saudi electric Company (SEC), and Petrochemical industries in Saudi Arabia and other plants provide the utilizing location and testing, and also some of the raw insulation materials for cable industries. Major petrochemical producers are striving to improve the quality of the plastic raw materials. On the other hand, cable industry has also made noticeable progress in the production of distribution

M. H. Shwehdi; M. A. Gondal

2008-01-01

230

Ground Investigation of Sustained Arc Phenomena in Power Cables on ADEOS-II Satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the power loss due to the sustained arc between primary satellite power cables. If the multi layer insulation (MLI) film on a satellite is electrically floating, energetic electrons in space will charge this film. We carried out an internal pressure measurement of MLI and ESD test on cable with cracks and wrapped with this film. When the negative

Satoshi Hosoda; Jeongho Kim; Mengu Cho; Kazuhiro Toyoda; Shirou Kawakita; Masahiro Kusawake; Masato Takahashi; Hironori Maejima

2006-01-01

231

Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

R. W. Loggins; R. H. Herndon

1974-01-01

232

MV cable termination failure assessment in the context of increased use of power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the performance of cable termination used in the context of increased use of power electronics is studied. The experimental work analyses the cable termination degradation process when exposed to steep front non-sinusoidal voltage waveforms. The Partial Discharge (PD) measurements are carried out before and after the accelerated aging experiment to study the insulation degradation under high frequency

Utkarsh Patel; Shesha H. Jayaram; Ayman El-Hag; Ravi Seetahpathy

2011-01-01

233

A high voltage cables terminator for partial discharge and dielectric loss measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a design of the cable connector used in partial discharge and dielectric loss tests. The body of the connector is constructed using the acrylic tube and PVC, and the oil is used as an insulating medium. In order to implement the connector, partial discharges and the dielectric loss (tan ?) of a cable are tested according to

C. Boonseng; P. Apiratikul; K. Nakaviwat

2002-01-01

234

Effect of aging on EPR cable electrical performance during LOCA simulations. [Ethylene propylene rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

When exposed to a LOCA environment, some ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials experience substantial moisture absorption and dimensional changes. These phenomena may contribute to mechanical damage of the cable insulation resulting in electrical degradation. Recent experiments illustrate that the extent of moisture absorption and dimensional changes during an accident simulation are dependent on the EPR product, the accelerated age,

Bustard

1984-01-01

235

49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on pole line shall be securely tied in on insulator properly fastened to crossarm or bracket supported by pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or...

2012-10-01

236

49 CFR 236.71 - Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Cables § 236.71 Signal wires on pole line and aerial cable. Signal wire on pole line shall be securely tied in on insulator properly fastened to crossarm or bracket supported by pole or other support. Signal wire shall not interfere with, or...

2011-10-01

237

Etude parametrique des proprietes dielectriques de l'isolation polyethylene de cables miniatures en fonction du vieillissement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several problems exist in underground distribution networks. The growth of water trees within the groundwall insulation of extruded cables is one of the problems suspected to be the end of life criteria of a cable. A device developed at the Institut de recherche d'HydroQuebec (IREQ) attempts to assess the health of the cable insulation. It is a time domain spectrometer (TDS). The measurements with this unit are influenced by a multitude of parameters. In addition, the aging by water trees is difficult to reproduce in a laboratory due to the very large test objects. Thus, smaller cables with insulation similar to those of the distribution network are more convenient. These miniature cables make it possible to better control each parameter but also to conduct accelerated aging tests. This research report consists of a parametric study of the dielectric properties of the insulation of miniature cables as a function of aging. The conclusions of this study provide insight into some mechanisms of cable aging and they characterize the influence of test parameters on the results from the TDS measurements. The evolution of dielectric properties as a function of aging was measured in several ways. First, the cables are characterized by measurements of dielectric losses then, the performance of insulation is evaluated with the breakdown voltage of the cable. These voltage breakdowns were plotted using the commonly used Weibull distribution. Finally, the length of water trees was measured to determine if a link exists between the length of the trees and of the voltage breakdown. Three types of laboratory aging tests were preformed on the cables: an aging in water with an alternating voltage applied to the cables, an aging in air with an alternating voltage applied to the cables and finally conditioning in water only. The purpose of this conditioning is to separate the influence of water alone from the process of aging by water trees. Keywords: Insulation, dielectric, water trees, voltage breakdown, Weibull.

Bernier, Simon

238

Aging assessment of cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (â¼100°C) and radiation (â¼0.10 kGy\\/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (â¼6

Jacobus

1992-01-01

239

Cabling Installation & Maintenance Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers articles and information about cabling solutions and components for fiber and copper communications, voice, data, and video systems. Cable installation and repair issues cover coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic, zipcord, wireless, and network management. Instructional videos covering timely topics of importance to workers and decisionmakers in the data telecommunications industry are provided. Cable contractors and suppliers worldwide are also listed.

2009-10-15

240

Cable indenter aging monitor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the investigation reported here is to develop a device suitable for in-situ, non-destructive monitoring of the remaining useful life of electrical cables. In any application where cable has a long installed life and is subject to replacement when it degrades beyond an acceptable level it is useful to have a device that can monitor degradation without having to remove specimens of installed cables or damaging them in the process of making measurements. The device under development involves the probing of the exposed elastomeric element of a cable and measuring the compressive, mechanical response of the material. This report covers two distinct aspects of the continuing investigation. The first is the laboratory experimentation conducted to determine the test apparatus and the test parameters that yield the greatest sensitivity to age, the least data scatter and reasonable independence from cable construction features. These test conditions were applied in a series of studies of four sample cable types, to establish the correlation between thermal aging and measured modulus, and combined thermal and radiation aging and measured modulus. The second aspect of the investigation covered by this report is the development of a portable engineering model of a cable indenter instrument suitable for convenient, in-situ tests of cables installed in active plants. The design concept is described, illustrating the major components of the Portable Cable Indenter. 5 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.; Carfagno, S.P.

1991-06-01

241

Aging assessment of cables  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

Jacobus, M.J.

1992-01-01

242

Aging assessment of cables  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

Jacobus, M.J.

1992-04-01

243

The combination of electro-thermal stress, load cycling and thermal transients and its effects on the life of high voltage ac cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a procedure for life estimation of high voltage AC cables in real operating conditions, i.e. subjected to voltage and load cycles, so that electrothermal stress is the dominant aging factor of cable insulation. As possible alternatives for representing the effects of the electrothermal aging of insulation, three life models wellknown in literature are considered, namely the Zurkov,

G. Mazzanti

2009-01-01

244

Comparative evaluation by laboratory aging of 15 and 35 kV extruded dielectric cables  

SciTech Connect

Utility engineers encounter a significant problem in discerning the accuracy of claims made of superior cable quality and in identifying cables which will provide reliable performance over their anticipated life. The authors in two independent investigations of 15 and 35 kV cables have compared the performance of a number of cables made with different compounds, by different manufacturers. They show that judging cables by their unaged voltage breakdown characteristics alone can be very misleading; that in the long run, dry cured cables, aged in moist environments, rapidly lose their original dielectric strength advantage; that certain ethylene propylene rubber formulations degrade as fast as crosslinked polyethylene; that the best overall results during aging are obtained with tree resistant polyethylene insulated cables and that from a voltage breakdown point of view water tree length is more influential than number of water trees.

Katz, C.; Dyndul, J. (Cable Technology Labs., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Walker, M. (Houston Lighting and Power Co., TX (USA))

1990-04-01

245

Experimental results of a 30 m, 3-core HTSC cable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable is expected to transport large electric power with a compact size because of its high critical current density. We have been developing a 3-core 66 kV class HTSC cable, which is applied to the ?150 mm duct, and is composed of a conductor and a shield wound with Ag-Mn sheathed Bi-2223 tapes, electrical insulation with polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with liquid nitrogen and thermal insulation with co-axial corrugated pipes. A 30 m, 3-core cable system has been constructed to verify the 3-core performance after its production, laying and cooling. The cable had good performance to mechanical stress in the factory process. The critical current of the cable was more than 2.4 kA at 77 K. The AC loss of the conductor part was 0.5 W/m/phase at 1 kA rms, which agreed well with the calculated value of the spiral pitch adjustment technique. A 130 kV rms AC was successfully applied without any change in tan? and capacitance. As a next step, a 100 m HTSC cable has been designed and developed based on these experimental results.

Masuda, Takato; Kato, Takeshi; Yumura, Hiroyasu; Hirose, Masayuki; Isojima, Shigeki; Honjo, Shoichi; Matsuo, Kimiyoshi; Mimura, Tomoo; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

2002-08-01

246

Improvement in fire safety features of electrical conductors and cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ever increasing awareness and need for wire and cable materials that exhibit improved fire safety. The traditional characteristics of insulation resistance, water resistance, oil resistance, sunlight resistance, abrasion resistance, crush resistance, deformation resistance and fire resistance are not sufficient for all occasions. The improvements not only involve delayed ignition, limited propagation and lower smoke and toxic gas emissions

L. B. McClung; S. Ramachandran

1995-01-01

247

Ice accretion on different aluminum cable steel reinforced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice accretion on high voltage power lines is a severe problem for power network and it can cause insulator flashover, wire breakage and tower falling down. In the present work, hydrophobic aluminum cable steel reinforced was prepared with a simple chemical etching and modified with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) coating. Only partial area of the hydrophobic sample was covered by some

Fochi Wang; Yuzhen Lv; Qing Zhang; Zhou You; Chengrong Li

2010-01-01

248

Basic study of the aging process in solid-dielectric cables. Third annual report  

SciTech Connect

Objectives are to develop a physical understanding of aging and failure in extruded cable insulations, and to develop accelerated tests for predicting the service life of such cables. Task 3 designed to verify aging models postulated during Task 2, is now in progress. The experimental approach consists of testing extruded model cables under accelerated, or overstress, conditions, supplemented by intensive characterization of the stressed insulation materials. Most of the effort during this reporting period was directed towared attaining the goals of Task 3 of the project. In brief, one goal is to determine the time rate of degradation as a function of stress and time.

Not Available

1982-02-01

249

Proton microprobe analysis of water trees in underground high voltage cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro-PIXE technique was employed to analyze water trees in the polymeric insulation of some field-aged underground high voltage cables from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. X-ray spectra of water trees, the inner and outer semiconductive compound layers of the cable samples, and the insulation matrix were acquired. Simultaneously, two-dimensional elemental distribution profiles across the water trees were also obtained. The results show how knowledge of the elemental constituents of water trees on a microscopic scale can be useful in attempts to understand premature degradation of underground power cables.

Ahmed, M.; Garwan, M. A.; Al-Ohali, M. A.; Hamouz, Z.; Soufi, K.; Minqin, R.; Rajta, I.; Watt, F.

2003-09-01

250

Cable, Cities, and Copyrights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Communications Commission has enacted final rules for cable television systems in the 100 largest television markets, restricting cable service to a greater degree than previously proposed. Most systems will be limited to importing only two distant television signals. Furthermore, they are required to \\

Bridger M. Mitchell; Robert H. Smiley

1974-01-01

251

Stabilization of towed cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the stabilization problem for towed cables. The dynamics of the cables are described by nonlinear partial differential equations. The dynamics of the depth controllers are given by ordinary differential equations. Based on measurements at the depth controllers, exponential stable control laws are proposed. The stability analysis of the closed loop system is based on Lyapunov

Tu Duc Nguyen; Olav Egeland

2004-01-01

252

Cryogenic Cable Dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for cable designs capable of transmitting larger blocks of power, consideration has been given to replacing oil in the oil\\/paper cable with liquified gases. This paper reports the evaluation of liquid hydrogen as the substitute for oil. The system is not operated at the superconducting region but at higher temperatures. Not only cellulosic paper but synthetic papers

K. N. Mathes

1969-01-01

253

Cable: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable television communications are an advance in technology which promises profound changes in the way people live and communicate with each other. However, to take advantage of the opportunities that the cable provides requires thoughtful evaluation and careful policy making. This booklet is designed to provide an introduction to the potential…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

254

Telecommunications: Coaxial Cables  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation, this website provides a plethora of information on coaxial cables including what an RG rating is, what a code is, and how each type of cable is used. This interactive slideshow goes into greater detail about an RG-8, 10Base5 cable and an RG-58, 10Base2 cable. There are helpful animations and clear descriptions covering the basics of coaxial cables. To wrap it all up, there are review questions to test the learnerâÂÂs knowledge on what they were just presented. All in all, it is a great resource for students (or for teachers to present to their students) who are learning the nuts and bolts of telecommunications.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-10-08

255

Verification tests of a 66 kV HTSC cable system for practical use (first cooling tests)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. have been jointly developing elementary technologies for an high temperature superconducting (HTSC) cable system, such as conductor wound with HTSC wires, thermal insulation pipes, terminations and so on. Verification tests of a 100 m HTSC cable system integrating these elementary technologies have been conducted in collaboration with Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) to verify its long term electric and cryogenic properties. The cable conductor is composed of four layers of Bi-2223 wires wound spirally around a former. Polypropylene laminated paper impregnated with liquid nitrogen is adopted as cable insulation for its properties of high insulation strength and low dielectric loss. HTSC wires are also wound around the electrical insulation to form an electrical and magnetic shield. To reduce heat invasion from ambient temperature part, multi-layer insulation is wound between the co-axial stainless corrugated pipes where high vacuum is maintained. The cable was partially installed into a /? 150 mm duct and formed in a U-shape. Each end has a splitter box and three terminations. The cable and the terminations are cooled using two separate sets of a pressurized and sub-cooled liquid nitrogen cooling system. The cable has been developed and laid at CRIEPI's test site and long-term tests have been under way since June, 2001. This paper presents the design of the cable and some results of the first cooling tests.

Masuda, T.; Kato, T.; Yumura, H.; Watanabe, M.; Ashibe, Y.; Ohkura, K.; Suzawa, C.; Hirose, M.; Isojima, S.; Matsuo, K.; Honjo, S.; Mimura, T.; Kuramochi, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Okamoto, T.

2002-10-01

256

Cable-to-air terminations: The cable system's second weakest link  

SciTech Connect

Transmission terminations available today are very reliable, but they need to be. In the field, they are continually exposed to pollution and extremes of ambient temperature. In many cases, they are in the rifle sights of vandals. In contrast, cable joints - often cited as the weakest links from an electrical viewpoint - are generally protected from physical damage underground and many of the short cable systems being installed in the US today can be built without joints. All cable systems need terminations - mostly to air-insulated equipment. At 69 through 138 kV, there is intense competition among manufacturers to supply terminations for solid-dielectric cable that are low in cost, reliable, and require a minimum of skill to install. Some utilities are looking also for terminations that fit a range of cable sizes; terminations that do not contain liquid that can leak out; and terminations that are shatter-proof. All of these improvements are available in the US up to 69 kV. For higher voltages, they are on the horizon, if not already in use, overseas. 16 figs.

Reason, J.

1994-12-01

257

Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s.

Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N.; Shiohara, Y.

2008-09-01

258

Workspace analysis of cable-suspended robots with elastic cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a kinematics and workspace analysis of cable-suspended manipulators with elastic cable. The mechanics of extensible cable with a deflection to its self-weight are studied. The problem of evaluating the workspace is approached by using a modified formulation for a deformable cable. The proposed algorithm for testing whether a given configuration lies within the reachable workspace is applied.

M. H. Korayem; M. Bamdad; M. Saadat

2007-01-01

259

INSULATED BUS PIPE (IBP) FOR POWER UTILITY APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In voluntary compliance of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, power utility substations feeding critical loads must be upgraded to include measures to secure against terrorist attacks. Outdoor, air insulated electrical substations use exposed bus bars and cables to connect from transformers and bus ties to switchgear equipment. A length of chain thrown over an air insulated sub-station fence could

R. Worth; Moni Islam; C. Smith

2006-01-01

260

Spectral evaluation of irregularity of superconducting coaxial cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional superconducting coaxial cables are considered, with Teflon-4D insulation between the inner conductor made of niobium wire and the outer conductor made of monolithic lead tubing. Irregularity of such cables is not structural but produced in the manufacturing process. It has been found to consist of a random component and quasi-periodic strongly correlated deviations of geometric dimensions, particularly the diameter, over the cable length. This compound irregularity has been evaluated on two specimens of such a cable, by spectral analysis of the wave impedance as function of the cable length. Profilograms of the diameter variation over the cable length were supplemented with space frequency spectra, following a Fourier transformation of the wave impedance, namely the frequency spectrum of the transform modulus squared (phase relations not being relevant here) and of the reflection coefficient. Reflectometer readings and echograms were processed by the method of the instantaneous mean. An inverse transformation has yielded the profile of wave impedance over the cable length.

Galperovich, D. Y.; Laptev, A. A.; Podshivalov, A. Y.

1985-01-01

261

Testing of a Vacuum Insulated Flexible Line with Flowing Liquid Nitrogen during the Loss of Insulating Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long length vacuum insulated lines are used to carry flowing liquid nitrogen in several high temperature superconducting cable projects. An important, but rare, failure scenario is the abrupt or catastrophic loss of the thermal insulating vacuum producing a rapid increase in heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen stream. In this experimental investigation, a vacuum superinsulated 3 inch by 5 inch

Jonathan A Demko; Robert C Duckworth; M. Roden; M. Gouge

2008-01-01

262

TESTING OF A VACUUM INSULATED FLEXIBLE LINE WITH FLOWING LIQUID NITROGEN DURING THE LOSS OF INSULATING VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long length vacuum insulated lines are used to carry flowing liquid nitrogen in several high temperature superconducting cable projects. An important, but rare, failure scenario is the abrupt or catastrophic loss of the thermal insulating vacuum producing a rapid increase in heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen stream. In this experimental investigation, a vacuum superinsulated 3 inch by 5 inch

J. A. Demko; R. C. Duckworth; M. Roden; M. Gouge

2008-01-01

263

Bringing Cable into the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable TV may be an educationally and fiscally sound way to inspire active learning. Creative TV applications help teachers address potentially disabling social and emotional factors. The Cable in the Classroom program offers over 80,000 eligible schools free cable connections, free basic monthly cable service, and copyright clearances for off-air…

Blubaugh, Donelle

1999-01-01

264

Flexible Multi-Level Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A flexible cable comprises a cable body of a silicone material and circuits in the flexible cable body. In one embodiment the flexible cable body comprises a multiple number of individual layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane). In one embodiment silicone materi...

J. C. Davidson J. K. Hamilton M. N. Maghribi P. A. Krulevitch

2004-01-01

265

Correction coil cable  

DOEpatents

A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

Wang, S.T.

1994-11-01

266

Cryogenic insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midwesco Enterprise, Inc, has developed an improved insulator for use with LNG pipelines that practically satisfies the theoretical promise of a satisfactory insulator, is relatively inexpensive, does not require periodic reevacuation (as does vacuum-type insulation), and offers a coefficient of thermal expension sufficiently low to prevent cracking at the cold face next to the line (unlike polyurethane foam). This new

Hallwood

1974-01-01

267

Shape memory alloy cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional structural cables (or wire ropes) are composed of steel wires helically wound into strands, which, in turn, are wound around a core. Cables made from shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are a new structural element with promising properties for a broad range of new applications. Among the many potential advantages of this form are increased bending flexibility for spooling/packaging, better fatigue performance, energy absorption and damping, reduced thermal lag, redundancy, and signicant design flexibility. Currently there are no known studies of SMA cables in the literature, so exploratory thermo-mechanical experiments were performed on two commercially available cable designs as part of an ongoing research program to systematically characterize their thermomechanical behavior and demonstrate their potential utility as adaptive or resilient tension elements.

Reedlunn, Benjamin; Shaw, John A.

2008-05-01

268

The Discrete Hanging Cable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.|

Peters, James V.

2004-01-01

269

Trawl Cable Corrosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature of trawl cable corrosion on Oregon coastal trawlers was analyzed to evaluate the feasibility of corrosion control. The analysis leads to a detailed discussion of possible future experiments designed to accurately determine the amount and type o...

R. D. Malloch E. R. Kolbe

1978-01-01

270

Infiniband Based Cable Comparison  

SciTech Connect

As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), currently available Infiniband implementations such as standard CX4/IB4x style copper cables severely constrain system design (10m maximum length for DDR copper cables, thermal management due to poor airflow, etc.). This paper will examine some of the options available and compare performance with the newly released Intel Connects Cables. In addition, we will take a glance at Intel's dual-core and quad-core systems to see if core counts have noticeable effect on expected IO patterns.

Minich, Makia [ORNL

2007-07-01

271

Aircraft Cable Parameter Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experimental and analytical results obtained from a study of the transmission line properties of multiconductor cables commonly found on aircraft. A method for the complete characterization of multiconductor transmission lines in inh...

H. M. Fowles L. D. Scott A. K. Agrawal K. M. Lee

1977-01-01

272

Dynamics of Cable Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a summary of the accomplishment of the research program on the dynamics of wire ropes and cable systems. The master plan of research is discussed along with a complete list of the publications resulting from the investigation.

M. J. Casarella

1975-01-01

273

Flat Conductor Cable Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways i...

W. Angele

1972-01-01

274

Infiniband Based Cable Comparison.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), curren...

M. Minich

2007-01-01

275

Cable interconnections for solar cell modules  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a photovoltaic solar cell device having a rear wall and a conductive terminal strip protruding from the rear wall and having a hole therein, a member made of an insulating material secured to the rear wall, the member having an aperture and being positioned so that the hole in the terminal strip extends across the aperture, and a nut capturing the strip to the member so as to provide an electrical connection with the strip, the nut having a threaded hole accessible through the aperture to receive a threaded hole accessible through the aperture to receive a threaded fastener for securing the strip to an electrical cable.

Tronstrom, E.; Norbedo, A.J.

1992-05-05

276

Marine seismic cable connector  

SciTech Connect

A hermaphroditic connector-half for coupling together adjacent streamer-cable sections consisting of an outer plastic shell that can be slid over a stress plate that carries a plurality of multicontact connector plugs. For maintenance purposes, the outer shell can be removed so that free access may be had to the contacts of the connector plugs and to the multiple conductors in the streamer cable.

Williams, S. D.

1985-07-02

277

Correction coil cable  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to the field of the manufacture of electrical coil windings, and more particularly to a unique cable assembly for use in winding coils having small wires and a large number of winding turns. The predominant current usage of the correction coil cable of the present invention is as the winding wire for correction coils in the superconducting super collider and in similar devices which might be developed in the future.

Wang, Sou-Tien

1991-04-09

278

Ground Investigation of Sustained Arc Phenomena in Power Cables on ADEOS-II Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the power loss due to the sustained arc between primary satellite power cables. If the multi layer insulation (MLI) film on a satellite is electrically floating, energetic electrons in space will charge this film. We carried out an internal pressure measurement of MLI and ESD test on cable with cracks and wrapped with this film. When the negative voltage on the MLI exceeded -1kV, a trigger arc discharge occurred between the MLI and the cables. Subsequently, a secondary arc discharge occurred between the cables themselves. In the specific condition, this secondary arc caused sustained arc which burned out the cables. The heat caused by arc tracking between the hot and return cables made them burn out. If this phenomenon had occurred in space, the satellite would have suffered great damage.

Hosoda, Satoshi; Kim, Jeongho; Cho, Mengu; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kawakita, Shirou; Kusawake, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masato; Maejima, Hironori

279

Evaluation of critical nuclear power plant electrical cable response to severe thermal fire conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal fire conditions are a safety concern for operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has promoted the use of risk-informed and performance-based methods for fire protection which resulted in a need to develop realistic methods to quantify the risk of fire to NPP safety. Recent electrical cable testing has been conducted to provide empirical data on the failure modes and likelihood of fire-induced damage. This thesis evaluated numerous aspects of the data. Circuit characteristics affecting fire-induced electrical cable failure modes have been evaluated. In addition, thermal failure temperatures corresponding to cable functional failures have been evaluated to develop realistic single point thermal failure thresholds and probability distributions for specific cable insulation types. Finally, the data was used to evaluate the prediction capabilities of a one-dimension conductive heat transfer model used to predict cable failure.

Taylor, Gabriel James

280

Synergistic Effect of TNPP and Carbon Black in Weathered XLPE Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon black is one of the most widely used and most effective ultraviolet (UV) light stabilizers for plastics applications.\\u000a Several important segments of the plastics industry rely on carbon black for UV stabilization of weather-resistant products,\\u000a including telecommunications, power cable jacketing, and plastic pipes. In this research work a combination of Trisnonylphospate\\u000a (TNPP) antioxidant and different size carbon black were

Al-Robaidi Amin

2009-01-01

281

Density measurements as a condition monitoring approach for following the aging of nuclear power plant cable materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring changes in material density has been suggested as a potentially useful condition monitoring (CM) method for following the aging of cable jacket and insulation materials in nuclear power plants. In this study, we compare density measurements and ultimate tensile elongation results versus aging time for most of the important generic types of commercial nuclear power plant cable materials. Aging

K. T. Gillen; M. Celina; R. L. Clough

1999-01-01

282

Far-infrared laser scanner for high-voltage-cable inspection  

SciTech Connect

A far-infrared (FIR) laser scanner was fabricated and used to simulate the on-line inspection of solid-dielectric insulation of high-voltage cables employed in underground electric distribution systems. A high-speed optical scanner was built to produce a 360/sup 0/ rotation of a FIR laser beam around the cable at a maximum angular speed of 9000 rpm. A stationary ellipsoidal mirror, which is concentric with the extruded cable, focuses the beam to a spot size of approximately 3 mm inside the cable insulation. In the absence of insulation defects, the beam will pass through the insulation tangentially to the conductor shield without scattering. When defects appear, the beam will be scattered into an angular cone that will be collected by another ellipsoid. The scattered signals, after passing through a high-speed rotating optical tracker, are detected by a liquid-helium-cooled gallium-doped germanium photoconductor. The amplitude and waveform of the scattered signal are analyzed and correlated to the size and type of defects. The smallest detectable defect size in a 25-kV 1/0 cross-linked polyethylene cable is about 50 ..mu..m (2 mils). It has been demonstrated that this instrument is able to detect voids, contaminants, and protrusions as well as defects on the surface of the insulation.

Cheo, P.K.

1982-10-01

283

Ampacity of cables in single open-top cable trays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical thermal mode that can predict the operating temperatures for cables when there is load diversity in single, horizontal, open-top cable trays is presented. The model accommodates two different loading scenarios - one in which the heat load is distributed evenly across the cable tray cross-section and a second one which concentrates the heavily loaded cables along the center-line

B. L. Harshe; W. Z. Black

1994-01-01

284

Correction coil cable  

DOEpatents

A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

Wang, Sou-Tien (Danville, CA)

1994-11-01

285

Transatlantic Cable Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new addition to Canada's digital collections chronicles the role played in worldwide communications by the Nova Scotian town of Canso and the nearby community of Hazel Hill as home to one end of the transatlantic cable linking Britain and North America. The site explores the history of telegraphy, the cable's social and economic impact on the community, and some famous messages sent and received. It also examines the science of telegraphy, the construction of the cable, and some key inventions. In addition, users will find here some photos, several videos, a glossary, and a FAQ. While by no means the most extensive online history exhibit, this site should appeal to anyone interested in the history of communications or history of science.

286

Low Loss Buoyant Coaxial Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low loss buoyant coaxial cable has its buoyant material placed between its conductors to allow for maximum cable cross section for electrical transmission. In addition, the strength members are placed radially inward of the center conductor to reduce we...

K. F. Hafner

1982-01-01

287

Electrical Cable Molded Seal Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an electrical cable molded seal assembly for sealing an electrical cable penetration through a bulkhead. The assembly includes a housing, follower, clamp plate, retaining disc, conductor rods and a molded seal assembly. The elect...

K. J. Miner R. D. Gorman

1980-01-01

288

Development of a 69kV high-pressure gas-filled pipe-type cable system for an Arctic environment  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure gas-filled (HPGF) pipe-type cable system rated 69kV has been developed for operation at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, which is at the North Slope above the Arctic Circle. A minimum ground ambient of -10/sup 0/C is applicable to the major portion of the circuit which is buried. The cables installed in pipes across a 46 m (150 foot) long bridge, the terminal riser cables and the cable terminals experience a minimum air ambient of -48/sup 0/C. The cable design for each of these ambient temperatures required special consideration with regard to the insulation structure and impregnant to be employed for the paper insulation. This paper describes the investigation of materials, cable models and prototype cables to achieve the physical and electrical properties required for the application. For the buried cable, a polybutene impregnant having a viscosity lower than normally employed for HPGF cable was used. For the cables exposed to the lower ambient air temperature, a phenylmethyl polysiloxane silicone fluid was selected as the impregnant. A transition joint between the polybutene and silicone impregnated cables was developed. Standard gas-filled terminals were modified for service at the low ambient air temperature. The successful completion of this R and D project has provided a rugged, reliable high voltage cable system suitable for transmitting power in an arctic environment.

Silver, D.A.; Seman, G.W.; Buckweitz, M.D.; Walker, J.J.

1986-01-01

289

Wiring and Cabling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module introduces students to wiring and cabling principles, including transmission lines, computer network and wireless systems, and troubleshooting. The Knowledge Probes allow students to answer open-ended questions covering the content of the module, and the Learning Resources present activities, laboratories, and games to further solidify the material. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for vocational electronics educators as a ready-made classroom introduction to wiring and cabling.

2008-12-08

290

Use of plain copper conductors in lieu of tinned-copper for internal cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In line with most Telephone Operating Administrations, Telecom Australia has specified and used tinned-copper conductors, with PVC insulation and sheathing, for most internal cabling within telephone exchanges and subscribers' buildings. Following some reported problems associated with solderability, an investigation showed that the current production tinned conductors in Australia were inadequately specified; however, the excellent performance of plain copper prompted a more detailed investigation which revealed that plain copper conductors (i.e., no tinning) were suitable for all current applications of internal cable. The study covered soldering, wire wrapping, and insulation displacement terminations. As a result of this work, Telecom Australia has adopted plain copper as the standard for internal cables. This decision has resulted in both an improved performance in comparison with the previous tinned conductors (particularly in relation to solderability) and a substantial cable cost reduction.

Deboer, R. T.; Mottram, K. G.

291

Long length HTS cable with integrated FCL property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past years have shown the growth of bottlenecks in electric power grids, among other reasons caused by the increasing demand of energy in the form of electricity and by the large-scaled integration of renewable sources. As solving of these challenges by means of traditional solutions appears to be more and more problematic, the need for new technology solutions has become apparent. The HTS cable technology demonstrates a great potential in solving of grid congestion issues. In addition to their large power transport capacity and low losses, modern-generation HTS cables also have an integrated fault-current limiting (FCL) property. Applications of such cables in power grids will help to solve fault-current issues when connecting new generators, and dispersed and large-scale renewable sources. As HTS cables, used in current projects, are limited to hundreds of meters in length, they have still not been used for energy transport over long distances. The Dutch DSO Alliander, together with Ultera, is working on the development of a 6 km FCL HTS cable for installation in the Alliander's HV grid. In order to get the low-loss benefits of the HTS technology, a cooling system with a high efficiency is needed. The FCL HTS cable will be cooled by one cooling station at each end of the cable, using a liquid nitrogen coolant. Alliander and Ultera have established and work to achieve technical performance targets believed to be required to realise a 6 km long, 50 kV retrofit system with a power rating of 250 MVA with cooling stations only at the two ends of the cable system. These targets aim to reduce the superconductor's AC loss at a nominal current, reduce the heat leak of the thermally insulating envelope, increase the voltage rating and reduce the friction coefficient of the coolant flow.

Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi

2010-06-01

292

USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.  

SciTech Connect

Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

2001-03-29

293

Instrumented Fiber Optic Tow Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated fiber-optic tow cable is described having both optical fibers and armor wires located outside the cable core to avoid high strain on the optical fibers when the cables is under stress during deployment. The optical fibers have integral tempe...

A. A. Ruffa T. R. Stottlemyer P. E. Seaman

2001-01-01

294

Cable Guide for Powered Winch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to a cable guide for a powered winch in a military vehicle. The improvement consists of a cable guide that includes three rollers having concave edge surfaces guidably engaged with segmental surface areas of the cable. One of the ro...

R. R. Smith

1980-01-01

295

An Ultraminiature Plated Coaxial Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall diameter of this cable is only .01 inches. Its outer conductor consists of a solid film of deposited copper .001 inches in thickness. The cable can be made in long, continuous lengths. The cable utilizes no threads for flexibility enhancement....

R. L. Komack

1968-01-01

296

LHC cable production in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply of the dipole outer layer and the quadrupole superconducting cable (cable 2) is one of the major contributions by Japanese firms to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. In April 2003, after 57 months since the contract agreement, the production of cable 2 was successfully completed at the Japanese firm in charge, the Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (FEC). The

Shin-ichiro Meguro

2004-01-01

297

High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

Farrell, Roger, A.

2010-02-28

298

Ceramic end seal design for high temperature high voltage nuclear instrumentation cables  

DOEpatents

A coaxial, hermetically sealed end structure is described for electrical instrumentation cables. A generally tubular ceramic body is hermetically sealed within a tubular sheath which is in turn sealed to the cable sheath. One end of the elongated tubular ceramic insulator is sealed to a metal end cap. The other end of the elongated tubular insulator has an end surface which is shaped concave relative to a central conductor which extends out of this end surface. When the end seal is hermetically sealed to an instrumentation cable device and the central conductor is maintained at a high positive potential relative to the tubular metal sheath, the electric field between the central conductor and the outer sheath tends to collect electrons from the concave end surface of the insulator. This minimizes breakdown pulse noise generation when instrumentation potentials are applied to the central conductor.

Meiss, James D. (Berkeley, CA); Cannon, Collins P. (Kennewick, VA)

1979-01-01

299

Ultra-wide-band PD diagnostics of power cable terminations in service  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade the PD probing in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) range has successfully been proven for on-site PD diagnostics of GIS cable terminations in service. Therefore it was decided to apply this non-conventional method also for condition assessment of the insulation integrity of outdoor cable terminations. In order to evaluate the minimum detectable PD level the paper deals

Eberhard Lemke; Thomas Strehl; Sacha Markalous; Werner Weissenberg

2008-01-01

300

Effect of aging on EPR cable electrical performance during LOCA simulations. [Ethylene propylene rubber  

SciTech Connect

When exposed to a LOCA environment, some ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials experience substantial moisture absorption and dimensional changes. These phenomena may contribute to mechanical damage of the cable insulation resulting in electrical degradation. Recent experiments illustrate that the extent of moisture absorption and dimensional changes during an accident simulation are dependent on the EPR product, the accelerated age, and the aging technique employed to achieve that age. Results for several commercial EPR materials are summarized.

Bustard, L.D.

1984-01-01

301

Electrical characteristics of high-Tc superconducting mini-model cable under mechanical stresses in liquid nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop 22.9 kV class high-Tc superconducting (HTS) cable in Korea, we have been studying electrical insulation properties of dielectric paper, such as breakdown voltage, partial discharge, which is one of the HTS cable structure elements. However, the research on the mechanical stress of dielectric paper compared to breakdown properties of dielectric paper is insufficient. A cracking and variation of the electrical insulation due to mechanical stresses during cooling and bending of HTS cables in cryogenic temperature is a serious problem. Thus, we investigated tensile stress and breakdown stress of dielectric paper under mechanical stress. Moreover, we manufactured mini-model cables investigated breakdown stress under bending stress to design a cable drum for conveyance. In the AC, impulse and partial discharge properties, all test results showed a similar tendency, and the suitable bending radius ratio R/r was decided to be more than 25.

Kim, H. J.; Kwag, D. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.

2005-01-01

302

Partial Discharge Inception Characteristics and V-t Characteristics of Sheath Material of Cables for High Voltage Inverter Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverter drive systems, surge voltage between cable shield and ground (generally 0V in AC drive systems) caused from inverter switching is induced if cable length is longer and dv/dt of the inverter output voltage is much higher. This surge voltage isn't observed under AC drives. This unexpected surge voltage may cause partial discharge at cable sheaths and finally breakdown if the surge voltage exceeds partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) of the sheaths. Therefore insulating characteristics of cable sheaths under inverter surge should be understood for optimal design of inverter-motor systems. This report states about insulating characteristics of the cable sheath, especially PDIV and V-t characteristics under AC and high dv/dt pulse voltage.

Wada, Kotaro; Tsuji, Kosei; Muto, Hirotaka; Mizoguchi, Shoji

303

Cable Television Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable television for the State of New York is discussed in detail with relation to: (1) the regents of the University of the State of New York, (2) legislation, (3) planning and proposals for franchises, (4) the Federal Communications Commission, (5) access rules, (6) a list of companies and those serving schools, and (7) federal/state/local…

New York State Education Dept. , Albany. Bureau of Mass Communications.

304

Schools and Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

305

Urban Cable Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of demographic, social, municipal and commercial characteristics of Washington, D.C., indicate that a sophisticated three-stage cable television (CATV) system could be economically viable. The first stage would provide one-way CATV service offering 30 video channels and local program origination at a monthly fee of $3.50. The second…

Mason, William F.; And Others

306

The Fractional Cable Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we derived a fractional Nernst-Planck equation for electrodiusion of ions in neurons for the case of anomalous subdiusion. This equation was subsequently simplied by assuming small ionic concentration gradients and diering material properties for the neuron and the surrounding membrane. The resulting linear fractional cable equation was shown to involve two fractional temporal derivatives. In this letter we give

T. A. M. Langlands; B. I. Henry

307

Coaxial Cable Equalizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This device is used to equalize the amplitude and phase response of a coaxial cable over an octave band of frequencies in the VHF-UHF range. Attenuation in this range is caused by skin depth losses in the conductors giving an amplitude response (in dB) an...

D. Buhl

1967-01-01

308

Educational Telecommunications. Cable Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Michigan Department of Education sponsored a conference which brought educational administrators and cable television (CATV) entrepreneurs together for a common exploration of their respective concerns in order that they might develop a working relationship leading to the effective utilization of CATV by educators. Major topics dealt with: 1)…

Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

309

Modification of dependence of DC insulation resistivity of low density polyethylene (LDPE) on temperature and electric field using inorganic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the reasons which has hampered the use of polyethylene (PE) as an insulating material for HVDC cables is the inherent dependence of its dc insulation resistivity \\\\?sub\\\\?\\/sub on temperature T and electric field E. The objectives of the present work are: (i) to investigate the possibility of modifying the dependence of the insulation resistivity \\\\?sub\\\\?\\/sub of LDPE on

M. Salah Khalil; Joseph A. Jervase

2002-01-01

310

Radiation effects on power cables for nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

A large number of power and control cables, insulated with organic/polymeric materials, are installed quite near the reactor in nuclear power plants. The reliability of electrical equipment, receiving power through these cables, is critically important for the design and safety of the power stations. The radiation intensity inside the containment varies significantly from one location to another. The extent of material degradation is associated with the local radiation intensity. The cables used in the nuclear environment require several unique properties, the most obvious of these being radiation resistance, fire resistance, and the ability to withstand the loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant as specified in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 383. In this study, four specific electrical power cable samples insulated with polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, ethylene propylene rubber, and silicone rubber were chosen to investigate the effect of radiation in reactor environments on the electrical properties of the samples. Voltage breakdown tests and dielectric loss factor (tan {delta}) and conductor resistance measurements were carried out on each sample before and after irradiating them to near lifetime doses at ambient temperatures in atmospheric conditions.

Arora, R.; Munshi, P.; Badshah, M.G.Q.

1988-01-01

311

Disposable telemetry cable deployment system  

DOEpatents

A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

Holcomb, David Joseph (Sandia Park, NM)

2000-01-01

312

AN EVALUATION OF CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CABLES  

SciTech Connect

Aging of systems and components in nuclear power plants is a well known occurrence that must be managed to ensure the continued safe operation of these plants. Much of the degradation due to aging is controlled through periodic maintenance and/or component replacement. However, there are components that do not receive periodic maintenance or monitoring once they are installed; electric cables are such a component. To provide a means of monitoring the condition of electric cables, research is ongoing to evaluate promising condition monitoring (CM) techniques that can be used in situ to monitor cable condition and predict remaining life. While several techniques are promising, each has limitations that must be considered in its application. This paper discusses the theory behind several of the promising cable CM techniques being studied, along with their effectiveness for monitoring aging degradation in typical cable insulation materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Successes and limitations of each technique are also presented.

LOFARO,R.J.; GROVE,E.; SOO,P.

2000-07-23

313

San Francisco Cable Car Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Celebrated in American film, song, and popular legend, the San Francisco cable car gets its full due on this well honed site devoted to the history and operation of this cherished form of transportation. Beginning with a virtual tour of the Cable Car Museum, the site contains a full roster of current San Francisco cable cars and a detailed explanation of how a cable car works. Probably the strongest aspect of the site is the sheer amount of visual material available here, including over 150 photos that relate the history of the cable car system and continue on to the present day. Recent additions to the site include a collection of historic cable car transfers and information about a new book on cable cars in San Francisco.

2002-01-01

314

The development of a Roebel cable based 1 MVA HTS transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent experimental results in a continuing program to develop a 1 MVA demonstration transformer that employs HTS Roebel cable for the high current windings. The electrical design parameters of the transformer are presented, including the configuration of the specially developed Roebel cable. This paper discusses estimation of the cable Ic from measured Ic(B) data for samples of the strands, AC loss minimization using flux diverters, proving the suitability of the polyimide insulation scheme to withstand the effects of a high voltage impulse and modelling and experimental verification of the fault current limiting behaviour expected from the HTS conductor.

Staines, Michael; Glasson, Neil; Pannu, Mohinder; Thakur, Kailash P.; Badcock, Rod; Allpress, Nathan; D'Souza, Premal; Talantsev, Evgueni

2012-01-01

315

Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the space charge distribution in power cable materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of high-voltage cables with synthetic insulation is highly dependent on the appearance of a space charge under AC or DC stress. The presence of this charge plays a very important role in aging and polymer breakdown phenomena. For submarine power cables, the pressure P for the immersion depth of the cables is now considered. We then study the effect this has on the space charge distribution, as a function of the amplitude of the stressed applied, DC voltage, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Preliminary results obtained with cross-linked polyethylene are given.

Garros, B.; Santana, J.

1993-06-01

316

FLASH program cable plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will describe the nature of the activity which surrounds the development of the 'Fly-by-Light' Cable Plant in the FLASH Program in conjunction with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. We will describe the characteristics of the Technology and the activities which we are engaged in to provide a robust, environmentally stable system. The environmental constraints which have been modelled and analyzed to

Patricia P. Wiener; Tav Rotondale; David S. Kalenak

1995-01-01

317

Silicone injection restores failing submarine cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the prospect of replacing nearly 10 miles of aging undersea cables, Orcas Power & Light Co (Opalco) elected instead to inject silicone into as many of the cables as possible. Silicone injection has been used extensively on underground residential distribution (URD) and feeder cables, but only two underwater cables had previously been injected: a feeder cable for Florida

Tilstra

1995-01-01

318

Tapping the television cable.  

PubMed

Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice. PMID:9375105

Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

1996-01-01

319

CableLabs: Current Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site highlights projects being conducted by CableLabs, "a non-profit research and development consortium that is dedicated to pursuing new cable telecommunications technologies." Most of these projects are creating specifications that will improve quality and ensure interoperability of cable systems. Focuses of research include cable modems, interactive services, broadband applications, and more. Each project's home page has extensive documentation on the intended goals and access to all specifications. Some presentations are also given that give a basic overview of the project.

2000-01-01

320

Transient overvoltages on cable sheaths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient overvoltage on the sheaths of high voltage cables with single point sheath earthing or cross bonding of the cable sheaths involve danger for the cable and the joints. The investigations of transient overvoltages in the case of a switching operation on a 110 kV single core oil filled cable with single sided sheath earthing are reported. A comparison between measured transient voltage variations and those calculated with the help of a traveling wave analyzer program shows very good agreement. The investigations showed that with single point sheath earthing, the unearthed sheath end ought to be protected against overvoltages.

Dabringhaus, H. G.

1983-08-01

321

Ultrasonic Welding of Wires and Cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the automobile industry, ultrasonic metal welding is an established method. At the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (WKK) at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, systematic investigations of the weldability of Al-wires and flat flexible copper cables were carried out. In the case of Al-wires, joints with cross-sectional area of up to 80 mm2 and tensile shear load of about 3500 N were finally realized. Furthermore, methods to reduce unintentional adherence between the sonotrode coupling face and the Al-wires were developed. To realize FFC joints, ultrasonic spot welding systems and ultrasonic torsion welding systems were used. A central purpose of these investigations is the development of a system to enable welding through the insulation of the FFC without weakening the base material.

Heinz, Stefan; Wagner, Guntram; Eifler, Dietmar

2012-03-01

322

Aging of polymeric and composite insulating materials. Aspects of interfacial performance in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging of polymeric and composite materials is reviewed mainly from the standpoint of their interfacial performance. Insulating materials can be divided into simple polymers and composites. Polymers for power cables, transformers, insulators and rotating machines consist of thermoplastics such as PE, PET and PPS, elastomers such as silicone, EPR and EPDM, and thermosets such as epoxy. Composites for GIS, rotating

T. Tanaka

2002-01-01

323

14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365 Aeronautics...Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate...

2013-01-01

324

Method of determining cable-current load  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is investigated how cable structure and methods of cabling influence the operational current. An investigation is conducted\\u000a using ANSYS software. The temperature fields of cables that operate in rated mode are determined.

A. G. Shcherbinin; N. M. Trufanova; V. G. Savchenko

2010-01-01

325

52. View of sitdown cable car, cable way, and stream ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. View of sit-down cable car, cable way, and stream gaging station, looking southeast. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

326

51. View of sitdown cable car and cable way for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. View of sit-down cable car and cable way for stream gaging, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

327

5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

328

4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM NORTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. TOPS OF BUNKER PERISCOPE AND FLAGPOLE ON ROOF OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

329

Universal cable head for a multiconductor logging cable  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a universal cable head. It comprises: an armored logging cable having up to seven electrical conductors therein and incorporating a woven wire rope, and a surrounding armor wrap; stress relieving stinger means on the cable; an encircling housing to transfer axial loads from the cable to the housing; an internal transverse bulkhead within the housing adjacent to an internal cavity therein; electrical feedthrus for connection of conductors in the logging cable; exposed mating connectors electrically connected to the feedthrus; the housing extending past and encircling the mating connectors; and a rotatable, shoulder limited sleeve on the exterior of the housing having threading means thereon for connecting with a mating female connector.

Ip, M.

1989-10-17

330

Coaxial cable cutter  

DOEpatents

A cutting device is provided which is useful in trimming the jackets from semi-rigid coaxial cables and wire having a cutting bit and support attached to movable jaws. A thumbpiece is provided to actuate the opening of the jaws for receiving the able to be trimmed, and a spring member is provided to actuate the closing of the jaws when thumbpiece is released. The cutting device utilizes one moving part during the cutting operation by using a rolling cut action. The nature of the jaws allows the cutting device to work in space having clearances less than .160 inches. 3 figs.

Hall, L.C.; Hedges, R.S.

1988-08-23

331

Tests of insulation systems for Nb3Sn wind and react coils  

SciTech Connect

Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.; /Fermilab

2007-07-01

332

Tests of Insulation Systems for Nb3SN Wind and React Coils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb3Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb3Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500 V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.

Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A.

2008-03-01

333

Far-Infrared Laser Scanner for High-Voltage-Cable Inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A far-infrared (FIR) laser scanner was fabricated and used to simulate the on-line inspection of solid-dielectric insulation of high-voltage cables employed in underground electric distribution systems. A high-speed optical scanner was built to produce a ...

P. K. Cheo

1982-01-01

334

Principles of a new arc-tracking test of cables and wires for spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed comparison and review of the available methods for testing the arcing failure characteristics of wire insulation materials has been made, and their applicability to the testing of spacecraft wires has been assessed. The available test methods fall into two general classifications, namely, wet and dry tests. These were developed mainly for the testing of aircraft cable for which

D. Konig; F. R. Frontzek; F. Dricot; H. J. Reher; M. Judd

1992-01-01

335

Use of plain copper conductors in lieu of tinned-copper for internal cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In line with most Telephone Operating Administrations, Telecom Australia has specified and used tinned-copper conductors, with PVC insulation and sheathing, for most internal cabling within telephone exchanges and subscribers' buildings. Following some reported problems associated with solderability, an investigation showed that the current production tinned conductors in Australia were inadequately specified; however, the excellent performance of plain copper prompted a

R. T. Deboer; K. G. Mottram

1983-01-01

336

49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire on a pole line shall be securely attached to an insulator that is properly fastened to a cross arm or bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire shall not interfere with,...

2012-10-01

337

49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire on a pole line shall be securely attached to an insulator that is properly fastened to a cross arm or bracket supported by a pole or other support. Wire shall not interfere with,...

2011-10-01

338

Method for improving performance of highly stressed electrical insulating structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing the electrical field from the internal volume of high-voltage structures; e.g., bushings, connectors, capacitors, and cables. The electrical field is removed from inherently weak regions of the interconnect, such as between the center conductor and the solid dielectric, and places it in the primary insulation. This is accomplished by providing a conductive surface on the inside surface of the

Michael J. Wilson; David A. Goerz

2002-01-01

339

Apparatus for improving performance of electrical insulating structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removing the electrical field from the internal volume of high-voltage structures; e.g., bushings, connectors, capacitors, and cables. The electrical field is removed from inherently weak regions of the interconnect, such as between the center conductor and the solid dielectric, and places it in the primary insulation. This is accomplished by providing a conductive surface on the inside surface of the

Michael J. Wilson; David A. Goerz

2002-01-01

340

Partial discharge degradation at insulating polymer-polymer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate partial discharge (PD) degradation in composite insulating systems such as a prefabricated cable joint (PJ), we proposed an electrode system to simulate PD degradation at a solid-solid interface. It was observed that the tree at the EPR-epoxy resin interface tended to propagate into the epoxy resin bulk, even though the breakdown strength of epoxy resin was

E. Kobayashi; F. Komori; Y. Suzuoki

1998-01-01

341

NUCLEAR PULSE EFFECTS IN CABLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equivalent circuit for a piece of cable is developed, and the ; differential equations of this circuit are solved under the conditions of a ; transient burst of nuclear radiation and under various ranges of cable bias ; voltage. Graphs of representative cases are presented and compared to ; experimental results. A method of solving for the transient change

K. Ikrath; R. Constantine

1962-01-01

342

Single Loose Tube Cable Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single loose buffer tube cable designs consist of a single tube placed in the center and parallel to tension elements and external sheathing. By comparison, traditional low fiber count loose buffer tube cable designs generally consist of one fiber per tub...

Y. Simons K. Morita J. De Angeles J. Owen

1986-01-01

343

Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

344

Modeling Towed Cable System Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for modeling the dynamics of towed cable systems is described. The cable system is assumed to be a multiple branched system with towed bodies. These bodies may be spheres or more general vehicles having a single plane of symmetry. The motion of t...

J. W. Kamman T. C. Nguyen

1990-01-01

345

Cable Television and Public Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most promising applications of cable television (CATV) is municipal surveillance of public areas for protection against crime, fire detection, control of air pollution, and traffic. Thus far, however, the CATV industry has made minimal efforts to realize the potential of CATV for community protection--the use of cable for public safety…

Cranberg, Gilbert

346

Electrical-insulating-materials deterioration. January 1970-July 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the changes in insulating properties of materials due to aging, contaminants, water, ozone, weathering, flashover, and general decomposition. Insulation applications range from use in high voltage cables to winding insulation of transformers and motors. Testing methods and standards are included along with test results and analyses. (Contains 270 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-08-01

347

Correlation between mechanical and electrical properties for assessing the degradation of ethylene propylene rubber cables used in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation among the indenter modulus, the elongation-at-break, and the breakdown-voltage strength for the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables subjected to long-term thermal aging and high-temperature water submerging conditions were investigated in this work. The mechanical and electrical limits of EPR insulation material were evaluated by using an indenter modulus, with non-destructive advantage, to monitor the cable condition and to

Y. T. Hsu; K. S. Chang-Liao; T. K. Wang; C. T. Kuo

2007-01-01

348

Evaluation of pipe-type cable joint restraint systems  

SciTech Connect

the purpose of this project was to evaluate two systems for restraining the movement of 345kV high-pressure oil-filled (HPOF) cable joints during load cycling. Problems with joints and adjacent cables due to thermomechanical bending (TMB) experienced by the Consolidated Edison Company of New York and Public Service Electric Gas Company of New Jersey are reviewed. Some approaches to reducing or preventing TMB induced damage to HPOF pipe type cable joints are discussed. The design and operation of a special test apparatus for simulating TMB effects under laboratory conditions is described. One of the two joint restraint systems evaluated under this project was developed by PSE G and employed wedging devices, which could be retrofitted into existing installations, that limited the longitudinal movement of the joints during load cycling. The other system developed by Pirelli Cable Corporation applied the restraining force to the cylindrical portion of the hand applied joint insulation by means of support spiders and steel rods attached to the reducer faces. The test results show that the PSE G restraint system can effectively limit joint longitudinal movement while causing a minimal amount of mechanical disturbance to the joint stress cones. The test results obtained with the PCC system are inconclusive and indicate that further refinement and testing are required to demonstrate the effectiveness of this promising joint restraint system.

Silver, D.A.; Seman, G.W. (Pirelli Cable Corp., Lexington, SC (USA))

1990-03-01

349

Mechanical Separation of Metallic Copper from Polymer-Insulated Copper Wire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to recycling of polymer-insulated copper wire to remove copper from the wire without any contamination. A rolling machine and a blender were used to separate and recover the copper wires from a polymer coated cable. In the experiment using a rolling machine, the recovery of copper was improved by an increase in the number of rolling times and by lowering the cable temperature. All of the copper was recovered from a cable of 115 K in temperature. In the other experiment using a blender, the weight of the recovery of copper was increased by shortening the cable length and by increasing the rotary speed of the blender and the treating time. All the copper in a cut cable of 3mm long was recovered from a cable.

Yokoyama, Seiji; Takeuchi, Sakae; Hisyamudin Bin Muhd Nor, Nik

2011-01-01

350

Mechanical Separation of Metallic Copper from Polymer-Insulated Copper Wire  

SciTech Connect

It is very important to recycling of polymer-insulated copper wire to remove copper from the wire without any contamination. A rolling machine and a blender were used to separate and recover the copper wires from a polymer coated cable. In the experiment using a rolling machine, the recovery of copper was improved by an increase in the number of rolling times and by lowering the cable temperature. All of the copper was recovered from a cable of 115 K in temperature. In the other experiment using a blender, the weight of the recovery of copper was increased by shortening the cable length and by increasing the rotary speed of the blender and the treating time. All the copper in a cut cable of 3mm long was recovered from a cable.

Yokoyama, Seiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, (1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8105, JAPAN) (Japan); Takeuchi, Sakae [Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8105 (Japan); Hisyamudin Bin Muhd Nor, Nik [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Now, Graduate School of Toyohashi University of Technology) (Malaysia)

2011-01-17

351

CORED RUTHERFORD CABLES FOR THE GSI FAST RAMPING SYNCHROTRON.  

SciTech Connect

The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 200T-m and 100T.m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of s c loss and field distortion. This paper discusses the 200T.m ring, which will use Cos0 magnets based on the RHIC dipole design. We discuss the reasons for choosing Rutherford cable with a resistive core and report loss measurements carried out on cable samples. These measurements are compared with theoretical calculations using measured values of inter-strand resistance. Reasonably good agreement is found, but there are indications of non-uniformity in the adjacent resistance R,. Using these measured parameters, losses and temperature rise are calculated for a RHIC dipole in the operating cycle of the accelerator. A novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling is described.

WILSON,M.N.; GHOSH,A.K.; TEN HAKEN,B.; HASSENZAHL,W.V.; KAUGERTS,J.; MORITZ,G.; MUEHLE,C.; DEN OUDEN,A.; SOIKA,R.; WANDERER,P.; WESSEL,W.A.J.

2002-08-04

352

Current distribution and re-distribution in HTS cables made from 2nd generation tapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current redistribution in carpet-stack cables made from 2nd generation HTS tapes is investigated. In the carpet stack geometry tapes are stacked with their broad faces parallel to each other to build up a cable. Current redistribution in HTS cables is complex because the built-in insulation layer in each tape prevents effective current transfer between tapes. A method of shunting the tapes using periodically distributed superconducting bridges is investigated to improve current transfer, avoiding the need to solder the cable together. We calculate the mutual inductance between different tapes in a cable, and the effective resistance/transconductance for representative cable configurations. The effective time constants for current transfer and current redistribution are then calculated under different assumptions. We show that periodic shunting of the tapes using distributed superconducting bridges is an attractive method to achieve uniform current distribution in a HTS cable. The solution is flexible, and the performance of the system can be optimized by changing the width of shunt and/or the distance between shunts.

Bromberg, L.; Takayasu, M.; Michael, Philip; Minervini, J. V.; Dietz, Anthony

2012-06-01

353

Cable Television, Market Power and Regulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goals of this dissertation are to provide an empirical examination of the impact of competing technologies on cable television firms and to document existing pricing behavior in the cable and pay programming industry. The introduction provides a brief overview of the cable television industry, including the impact of cable on federal policy…

Thorpe, Kenneth E.

354

Impact of Cable Television on Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the impact of an evolving cable television technology on educational practice. The possible performance levels of a broad-band cable system, the quality of televised instruction, and the demands televised instruction would place on cable capacity are outlined. Social factors affecting individual preference and institutional resistance to cable education are considered.

K. Rose; R. Gutmann

1975-01-01

355

Self-Healing Cable Apparatus and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer ...

B. Esser D. R. Huston

2006-01-01

356

Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

Yin, Robert K.

357

Cable Television and the Freedom of Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1973, cable television operators primarily carried broadcast signals that could not be received adequately over the air. That year, a Cabinet-level committee recommended that regulation of cable fundamentally change when the cable industry penetrated fifty percent of U.S. homes. Instead of selecting any of their program services, the cable operators would be treated as pure carriers, leaving others to

Daniel Brenner

1988-01-01

358

Cable Television for Librarians. Coming Issues in Cable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author discusses various problems related to the increased use of cable and introduces the complexity of the issues involved. (Other conference materials are LI 503071-503073 and 503075 through 503084.) (SJ)|

Smith, Ralph Lee

1973-01-01

359

Factory-molded cable joints  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, splicing underground transmission cable has been a delicate and time-consuming process. Now, pretested, factory-molded joints for 69-kV to 138 K-V solid-dielectric cables can be assembled quickly on site to yield connections that are as reliable as the cable itself. To produce mechanically and electrically sound splice components, however, it was necessary to extend the design criteria and manufacturing processes (including rubber compounding technology, rubber rheology, and injection molding) beyond the existing state of the art. The Electric Power Research Institute sponsored the research and development. 2 figures.

Tracy, S.; Garcia, F.

1985-06-01

360

Fiber Optic Cable Flammability Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tight buffered fiber optic cables were made using a number of different materials and subjected to flame testing. The results show that different materials and combinations of materials do not perform equally. The best flame resistance was obtained when t...

D. R. Maack J. B. Masterson W. M. Kachmar

1986-01-01

361

Pulse Distortion in Coaxial Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and discussion which considers the limitations of conductivity-induced distortion in coaxial cable is presented. The theory is then applied to several pulse shapes including rectangular, Gaussian, and raised cosine. These results are presented gr...

A. Q. Howard

1977-01-01

362

Social Services and Cable TV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on seven projects that include experiments designed to deliver social and administrative services on interactive cable television. It attempts to: (1) Summarize and compare the seven studies; and (2) place the studies in the context of...

P. Kay S. Gerendasy

1976-01-01

363

Far-infrared laser inspection system for cable  

SciTech Connect

A laser scanner prototype has been developed for production line inspection of voids and contaminants in cross-linked polyethylene insulation which is extruded over the conductor employed in the underground electric power distribution network. This prototype consists of a far-infrared laser operating at a laser wavelength of 118.8 {mu}m, a high-speed (0 to 9000 rpm) optical scanner, and an electronic controller and signal processor. This laser/cable inspection system is fully automated and has been successfully laboratory tested. 7 refs., 21 figs.

Cheo, P.K.; Farina, J.D.; Rubino, R.A. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA))

1989-11-01

364

Marine streamer cable recovery system  

SciTech Connect

Selected sections of a seismic streamer cable are provided with an acoustically-triggered compressed gas supply. The acoustic triggering devices associated with each compressed gas supply may be individually addressed by a coded signal. In the event that the streamer cable is severed, the gas supplies of the severed sections of the streamer are used to inflate the jackets of those severed sections so that they will float to the water surface for salvage.

Thigpen, B. B.

1985-09-10

365

EMC behaviour of cable screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As distributed electronic systems become more complex, the Electromagnetic,Compatibility (EMC) behaviour ,of cables becomes,more ,significant. In order to offer ,protection from electromagnetic interference (EMI) many,communication,cables are shielded, with only a small fraction of the total current induced on the,shield migrating through it. In order to describe this screening performance, the shielding effectiveness, and\\/or transfer impedance is required, both are

Alyse. r. coates; Alexandros Gavrilakis; Mohammed M. Al-asadi; Alistair. p. duffy; Kenneth G. Hodge; Arthur J. Willis

366

47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76...Delivered Out-of-Band for Digital Cable Televisionâ (incorporated by reference, see...Transport System Standard for Cable Televisionâ (incorporated by reference, see...

2012-10-01

367

47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76...Delivered Out-of-Band for Digital Cable Televisionâ (incorporated by reference, see...Transport System Standard for Cable Televisionâ (incorporated by reference, see...

2011-10-01

368

Lightweight Insulated Footwear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compound formulations having good low temperature flexibility were developed for the outsole, upper and outer skin of the lightweight insulated boot. The proper insulation thickness for the entire boot was determined from foot insulation test data to prod...

R. A. Mazzeo

1971-01-01

369

The development of ShortWatch, a novel overtemperature or mechanical damage sensing technology for wires or cables. Final report  

SciTech Connect

'ShortWatch' is a patented technology which for the first time offers electrical wire/cable products providing real-time, 'in-situ' (1) condition monitoring that warns of insulation damage before an electrical fault occurs, (2) assessment of the ability to perform in a Design Basis event, (3) distributed sensor warning of overtemperature, and (4) insulation leakage measurement capability providing arc sensing and a reliable tool for wire age prediction.

Watkins, Ken; Morris, Jack; Wong, C.P.; Luo, Shijian

2001-09-07

370

Lead thrombi associated with externalized cables on Riata ICD leads: a case series.  

PubMed

St. Jude Riata family ICD leads are subject to an FDA class I recall due to insulation failure, cable extrusions, and a high rate of electrical failures. We present multiple cases of large intravascular thrombus formation adherent to externalized conductor cables on Riata leads. Our observations highlight a previously unknown risk of large or calcified thrombus formation involving externalized conductors. We suggest that these leads should be screened for thrombi prior to potential lead extraction to determine the safest approach. Serial echocardiography may help detect progressive thrombus formation. The role of systemic anticoagulation for prevention or treatment of these thrombi remains unclear. PMID:23577693

Goyal, Sandeep K; Ellis, Christopher R; Rottman, Jeffery N; Whalen, S Patrick

2013-04-11

371

Development of an Innovative Insulation for Nb3Sn Wind and React Coils  

SciTech Connect

At the present time, Nb3Sn is the best superconductor candidate for the realization of high field magnets (>10-11 teslas). However its implementation remains delicate because of the great brittleness of material after the heat treatment necessary to form the Nb3Sn compounds. The conventional insulation for Nb3Sn wind and react coils requires performing, after the heat treatment, a vacuum resin impregnation, which adds to the cost and raises failure risk. We propose a one-step innovating ceramic insulation deposited directly on the un-reacted conducting cable. The conducting cable is wound according to conventional techniques and, after the heat treatment necessary to the form the Nb3Sn, we obtain a coil having a mechanical cohesion, while maintaining a proper conductor positioning and a suitable electric insulation. We will have studied the electric properties of superconducting cable isolated at the room temperature and at 4.2 K.

Puigsegur, A. [CEA Saclay, DSM - DAPNIA - SACM, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes (CNRS UMR 5635), 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier, F-34293 (France); Rondeaux, F.; Samoogabalan, K. [CEA Saclay, DSM - DAPNIA - SACM, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 (France); Prouzet, E. [Institut Europeen des Membranes (CNRS UMR 5635), 1919 Route de Mende, Montpellier, F-34293 (France)

2004-06-28

372

Common insulating properties in insulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulating materials exist in a variety of different forms, including gas, liquid, solid, and vacuum, and different forms of insulating materials have significantly different dielectric strengths and insulating properties. Power transmission\\/substation facilities for UHV AC and 500 kV DC power transmission and 500 kV underground power transmission facilities have been designed and constructed by taking advantage of the insulating properties

Shigemitsu Okabe; Naoki Hayakawa; Hiroshi Murase; Hiroyuki Hama; Hitoshi Okubo

2006-01-01

373

The RHIC transfer line cable database  

SciTech Connect

A cable database was created to facilitate and document installation of cables and wiring in the RHIC project, as well as to provide a data source to track possible wiring and signal problems. The eight tables of this relational database, currently implemented in Sybase, contain information ranging from cable routing to attenuation of individual wires. This database was created in a hierarchical scheme under the assumption that cables contain wires -- each instance of a cable has one to many wires associated with it. This scheme allows entry of information pertinent to individual wires while only requiring single entries for each cable. Relationships to other RHIC databases are also discussed.

Scholl, E.H.; Satogata, T.

1995-05-01

374

Testing procedures for electric insulating materials. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations from conference proceedings concerning methods and procedures for testing electrical insulation materials for flashover voltage, aging, deterioration, moisture effects, water treeing, dielectric strength, thermal and fire resistance, leakage current, and chemical resistance. Insulation includes polymers, glass, ceramics, treated paper, gas and air barriers, and enamel and epoxies used in electrical windings. Applications include power cables, machine windings, transformers, and insulators. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01

375

Testing procedures for electric insulating materials. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations from conference proceedings concerning methods and procedures for testing electrical insulation materials for flashover voltage, aging, deterioration, moisture effects, water treeing, dielectric strength, thermal and fire resistance, leakage current, and chemical resistance. Insulation includes polymers, glass, ceramics, treated paper, gas and air barriers, and enamel and epoxies used in electrical windings. Applications include power cables, machine windings, transformers, and insulators. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-04-01

376

AC losses of the 5 m BSCCO cables with shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to research the AC loss characteristics of a multi-layered conductor and a shield in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable, we prepared two short cable samples, which are the same as the 22.9 kV/50 MVA HTS-cable installed at Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corporation, and attached voltage-leads to both the conductor and the shield. To investigate the effect of transport period on their AC losses, we also applied current with the same magnitude and opposite direction to the conductor and the shield from a few cycles to several minutes.The tests show that the AC loss measured from the lead attached to the shield (shield-lead) is constant regardless of transport period. But the measured loss from the lead attached to the conductor (conductor-lead) is greatly dependent on transport period. It seems to be caused by difficulty in heat transfer to the surrounding coolant due to thick insulator around the conductor. As transport period becomes longer, the conductor’s temperature rises and thus the AC loss measured from the conductor-lead increases. In addition, the measured loss from the conductor-lead is 1.5 times larger than that from the shield-lead, particularly for the transport period of a few cycles.

Ryu, K.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Hwang, S. D.; Song, H. J.

2010-11-01

377

CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).  

SciTech Connect

The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

GHOSH,A.

2004-03-22

378

Fabrication of Nb3Sn Shell-Type Coils with Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation  

SciTech Connect

Insulation is one of the critical components for high-field Nb3Sn magnets that follow wind-and-react approach. The insulation material has to withstand high bending stresses while winding the coil and high heat-treatment temperatures under pressure during coil reaction. At Fermilab we have developed a procedure and tested successfully the dry ceramic insulation tape with inorganic liquid binder to wind and cure the coils. Recently we have extended this to a pre-preg ceramic insulation tape, which would minimize and control the amount of binder in the coil. Several coils with various insulation patterns have been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper discusses the fabrication issues of the coils with different types of cable insulation including the pre-preg ceramic insulation.

Chichili, D.R.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Zlobin, A.V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, 60510 (United States); Codell, D.; Fabian, P.; Tupper, M. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, 80026 (United States)

2004-06-28

379

Active self-healing wire insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical, optical and hydraulic conductors are vital components of most modern engineered systems. Damage to wiring and other conductors can degrade system performance, require expensive maintenance, and may cause catastrophic failures. This paper describes some efforts at developing active methods for self-healing wiring and conductor insulation. The concept is that there may be situations where it is beneficial to use self-healing cabling. One-part and two-part self-healing systems are fabricated and tested. Localized toughening in the face of localized damage has been realized in bench top experiments.

Esser, B.; Huston, D.; Spencer, G.; Burns, D.; Kahn, E.

2005-05-01

380

Probabilistic models to estimate fire-induced cable damage at nuclear power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though numerous PRAs have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk, there are some specific areas of knowledge related to this issue, such as the prediction of fire-induced damage to electrical cables and circuits, and their potential effects in the safety of the nuclear power plant, that still constitute a practical enigma, particularly for the lack of approaches/models to perform consistent and objective assessments. This report contains a discussion of three different models to estimate fire-induced cable damage likelihood given a specified fire profile: the kinetic, the heat transfer and the IR "K Factor" model. These models not only are based on statistical analysis of data available in the open literature, but to the greatest extent possible they use physics based principles to describe the underlying mechanism of failures that take place among the electrical cables upon heating due to external fires. The characterization of cable damage, and consequently the loss of functionality of electrical cables in fire is a complex phenomenon that depends on a variety of intrinsic factors such as cable materials and dimensions, and extrinsic factors such as electrical and mechanical loads on the cables, heat flux severity, and exposure time. Some of these factors are difficult to estimate even in a well-characterized fire, not only for the variability related to the unknown material composition and physical arrangements, but also for the lack of objective frameworks and theoretical models to study the behavior of polymeric wire cable insulation under dynamic external thermal insults. The results of this research will (1) help to develop a consistent framework to predict fire-induced cable failure modes likelihood, and (2) develop some guidance to evaluate and/or reduce the risk associated with these failure modes in existing and new power plant facilities. Among the models evaluated, the physics-based heat transfer model takes into account the properties and characteristics of the cables and cable materials, and the characteristics of the thermal insult. This model can be used to estimate the probability of cable damage under different thermal conditions.

Valbuena, Genebelin R.

381

Umbilical cable recovery load analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

2013-06-01

382

The Social Effects of Cable Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extent to which new socially significant services develop on cable in the longer term will depend on a number of factors, four of which are federal regulatory policy, interconnection of cable systems, social experimentation, and technological developm...

L. L. Johnson

1975-01-01

383

Aluminum Foil Shield Effectiveness for Electronic Cables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Historically, shielding of electronic cables has been expressed in terms of shield coverage. The numeric value used to delineate shield coverage corresponded to the actual area of the conductors covered by the cable shield. Generally, the larger the perce...

M. R. Lombardo

1983-01-01

384

47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of...

2011-10-01

385

47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of...

2011-10-01

386

47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...telecommunications signals. (2) Metallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of...

2011-10-01

387

Calcium silicate insulation structure  

DOEpatents

An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01

388

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOEpatents

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

Alger, T.W.

1994-09-06

389

Probabilistic simulation of cable performance and water based protection in cable tunnel fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear power plants contain a significant amount of fire load in form of electrical cables. The performance of the cables is interesting both from the fire development and system failure viewpoints. In this work, cable tunnel fires are studied using numerical simulations, focusing on the fire spreading along power cables and the efficiency of the water suppression in preventing the

Anna Matala; Simo Hostikka

390

Prestress Losses in the Stabilizing Cables of a Composite SaddleShaped Cable Roof  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a square composite saddle-shaped cable roof 30 × 30 m in the plan, which is formed by two orthogonal cable groups joined with a compliant support contour. The kinematic invariability of the roof is achieved by prestressing the cable net. From the viewpoint of material consumption, the cable roof has rational geometrical characteristics. A hybrid composite

D. Serdjuks; K. Rocens; L. Pakrastinsh

2003-01-01

391

Dynamics of the orbital cable system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical role of the cable in the proposed Orbital Cable System (OCS), consisting of a large powered vehicle in a 200-250-km orbit attached by a cable to a small probe in a 100-150-km orbit, is investigated analytically, and OCS deployment algorithms are developed. The dynamic effects of a realistic cable with mass, air drag, and elasticity are taken into

V. V. Beletskii; E. M. Levin

1983-01-01

392

Cable Television for Librarians. Interactive Cable System (TICCIT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes a broadening of the scope of current cable television content planning to include a wide new range of services which would have high potential social impact: interactive television services. (Other conference materials are LI 503071-503080 and LI 503082 through LI 503084.) (3 references) (Author)|

Stetten, Kenneth

1973-01-01

393

Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

W. M. Denny

2003-01-01

394

30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cable and is designed to travel at speeds exceeding 2.5 miles per hour, shall have a mechanically, hydraulically, or electrically...through a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed 6 miles per hour. (g) Diameters of cable reel drums and...

2013-07-01

395

Power plant practices to ensure cable operability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design, installation, qualification, maintenance, and testing of nuclear power plant cables with regard to continued operability. The report was initiated after questions arose concerning inadvertent abuse of cables during installation at two nuclear power plants. The extent of the damage was not clear and there was a concern as to whether cables, if damaged, would be

G. J. Toman; L. P. Gradin

1992-01-01

396

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) hardened cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy from a Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP) couples into a system via the interconnecting cables. Calculations of the current induced on the sheath of a horizontal cable above a ground plane are discussed. These currents on the exterior of the sheath then excite the interior of the cable via the surface transfer impedance (Z sub T). The objective of reducing

W. C. Wells; Y. Shiau

1976-01-01

397

Picosecond cable calibrator: Beam Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Picosecond Cable Calibrator is an instrument which accurately measures the electrical length (delay) of coaxial cables with a resolution of one picosecond. Other major features of the calibrator are: high accuracy, wide dynamic range; low cost; measurement simplicity; small size; single-ended cable access; and memory-stored substract. This paper provides a detailed description of performance characteristics; operating instructions; theory of

D. S. Donnelly

1987-01-01

398

Your Personal Genie in the Cable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

Schlafly, Hubert J.

399

FM fault location on short power cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed for determining the fault distance on electrically short power cables using swept-frequency FM techniques. The method is based upon the observation that the envelope of the composite (transmitted plus reflected) signal at the sending end of the cable has the same pattern as the magnitude of the input impedance function of the cable over the range

K. Udomkiat

1974-01-01

400

Using Cable Television for Library Data Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses information gained from a test of cable data circuits on a Geac bibliographic control system at the Wayne Oakland Library Federation (WOLF) (Michigan). Highlights include an introduction to cable, hardware profile, the WOLF experience, and key questions that will affect the future use of cable for data transmission. (EJS)|

Whitaker, Douglas A.

1985-01-01

401

BSCCO-2212 Wire and Cable Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BSCCO-2212 round wires and cables are being studied for possible use in very high field magnets ( 25 T) within the multi-Lab Very High Field Superconducting Magnet Collabo- ration (VHFSMC). Billets produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology were used to make Rutherford-type cables of various geometries. The effect of the cable parameters was measured on the extracted strand performance and deformation.

E. Barzi; V. Lombardo; D. Turrioni; F. J. Baca; T. G. Holesinger

2011-01-01

402

Mayors' Action Report on Cable Television.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of the Sloan Commission report on cable TV, new pressures for the growth of cable TV in American cities have been generated. A comprehensive set of regulations was promulgated by the FCC in March 1972, promising to open up new markets in cable...

J. J. Gunther

1973-01-01

403

UV Induced Insulator Flashover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulators are critical components in high-energy, pulsed power systems. It is known that the vacuum surface of the insulator will flashover when illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation depending on the insulator material, insulator cone angle, applied voltage and insulator short-history. A testbed comprised of an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm, ~2 MW\\/cm2, 30 ns FWHM,), a vacuum chamber (low 1.0E-6

J. B. Javedani; T. L. Houck; B. T. Kelly; D. A. Lahowe; M. D. Shirk; D. A. Goerz

2008-01-01

404

Development of Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation for Superconducting Magnets  

SciTech Connect

A new pre-impregnated (pre-preg) ceramic-based electrical insulation system capable of surviving high superconductor reaction temperatures has been developed for use in superconducting magnets. The use of Nb3Sn superconductors holds great promise for increased magnet performance for high energy physics, fusion, and other applications. A robust, cost-effective manufacturing process is critical to the successful implementation of these coils. Due to its embrittlement after the high temperature reaction cycle, Nb3Sn cable is usually insulated and wound into the coil prior to heat treatment. An earlier ceramic-based insulation system, applied using wet-winding or vacuum impregnation, has been successfully used in the 'wind and react' fabrication process. Use of the new pre-preg system will further simplify the manufacturing process while improving control over the insulation properties. Pre-preg insulation offers several advantages including improved dimensional control of the insulation, controllable and uniform fiber to matrix ratio, and certainty that the insulation does not infiltrate the superconductor. This paper describes the pre-preg development process, processing properties, as well as insulation performance data at cryogenic temperatures.

Codell, D.E.; Fabian, P.E. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, 80026 (United States)

2004-06-28

405

Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Oil Filled Cable Joint with Extremely Degraded tan ? Oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of oil filled (OF) cable has been used for a long time for 66?500kV extra high voltage cable. Sometimes we can see extremely degraded tan? oil (several tens % of tan?, for example) in joint box etc. The calculation results of tan? on a simple combination model of paper/oil show that, tan? of oil impregnated paper with such a high tan? oil is extremely high and it must result in a thermal breakdown. However such an event has not taken place up to the present in actually operated transmission line. This fact suggests that some suppression mechanism of tan? has acted in the degraded tan? oil impregnated paper insulation. Therefore we investigated the tan? characteristics of oil impregnated paper with extremely high tan? oil in detail. In addition, based on the investigation results, we developed a simulation method of heat generation by dielectric loss in OF cable joint (which has degraded tan? oil).

Ide, Kenichi; Nakade, Masahiko; Takahashi, Tohru; Nakajima, Takenori

406

Fire related hazards of cables: The Canadian position development of fire resistant inside wiring cable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Electrical Code and the National Building Code in Canada recognize only two designations in regards to fire resistance of cables; cables for use in combustible (residential) buildings and cables for use in non-combustible buildings. The Test standard for cables for non-combustible buildings resembles IEEE-383. However, it is more severe; particularly for small nonarmoured cables such as Inside Wiring

M. D. Hartley; R. E. Jaques

1986-01-01

407

Analysis of the Combined Effects of Load Cycling, Thermal Transients, and Electrothermal Stress on Life Expectancy of High-Voltage AC Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a procedure is presented for the life estimation of high-voltage cables subjected to electrothermal stress due to applied voltage and load cycles. Thermal transients that affect cable insulation as a consequence of cyclic current variations are modeled by means of the well-known CIGRE two-loop thermal network analog. The effect of the relevant cyclically varying electrothermal stress is

Giovanni Mazzanti

2007-01-01

408

The study on stress-cone based on HTS cable terminal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research aims at improving the performance of 35 kV class stress-cone for HTS cable terminal. Firstly, the equivalent circuit model of a stress-cone is constructed for simulation. The relation between the sag voltage of each layer can be characterized by structural and material parameters, such as the stress-cone's plate length, plate radius, insulating material thickness and dielectric constant. Secondly, the simulation based on ANSYS is developed for analyzing the electric field of stress cone of HTS cable terminal, by altering the length of step and insulation material parameter of stress cone, we get the voltage of each plate layer, horizontal electric field and vertical electric field, and the influence of stress-cone parameter on stress cone electric field is analyzed.

Wu, C. Y.; Fang, J.; Huang, X. H.; Lu, W. J.; Li, D.; Guo, L. J.

2013-01-01

409

Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment  

SciTech Connect

The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

1986-06-01

410

EMP Coupling Through Cable Shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in electromagnetic coupling between the interior and exterior of coaxial cables is described. Both tubular shields and shields with apertures are discussed with reference to the physical coupling mechanisms and their mathematical representations in terms of transmission-line models.

Kendali Casey; Edward Vance

1978-01-01

411

Social Services and Cable TV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1974, seven $100,000 grants were awarded for the design of experiments to deliver social and administrative services on interactive cable television. A subsequent study attempted to summarize and compare the seven studies and to place them in the context of the field's significant literature and current use. This report summarizes the results…

Kay, Peg; Gerendasy, Stanley

412

Epoxy-Resin Cable Terminations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general function of end fittings, also referred to as terminations is to allow the attachment of wire to a system in a manner that approaches 100 percent of the strength of the cable. This report addresses investigations made into the use of 'epoxy-re...

P. B. Keller

1989-01-01

413

Selecting a Cable System Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

414

Portable cable spooler for wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a portable, field-powered cable spooler for oil wells comprising a supporting skid comprising a rectangular framework constructed of structural steel members joined in rectangular form and including laterally extending support members at each end extending beyond the sides of said skid with end portions adapted to be secured by lifting appartus for transporting the same,

1980-01-01

415

Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

416

Fiber Optic Cable Furcation Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost rugged sealed fiber optic cable furcation unit is provided. The furcation unit has an outer heat shrink tube which encloses a protective tube. Within the protective tube, a spacer/fiber guide is located along with a sealant material. When insta...

G. D. Brown

1997-01-01

417

Fiber Optic Cable Furcation Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost rugged sealed fiber optic cable furcation unit is provided. The furcation unit has an outer heat shrink tube which encloses a protective tube. Within the protective tube, a spacer/fiber guide is located along with a sealant material. When insta...

G. D. Brown

1999-01-01

418

Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

419

Semiactive Damping of Cables with Sag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Vibrations in support cables can be caused by wind, rain, or other forces acting on the attached structure. This can result in premature failure of the cable or its connections, thereby reducing the cable's useful lifetime. This research paper, from the University of Southern California civil engineering department, extends the previous work of the authors on smart vibration damping techniques. Through accurate modeling of the cable and including the properties of "sag, inclination, and axial flexibility," a series of equations are derived that govern the motion of the cable. These are then used to show the effectiveness of semiactive dampers in reducing vibration.

Christenson, R. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Spencer, B. F.

420

Development of modular cable mesh deployable antenna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes a concept and key technologies for the modular mesh deployable antenna. The antenna reflector composed of independently manufactured and tested modules is presented. Each module consists of a mesh surface, a cable network, and a deployable truss structure. The cable network comprises three kinds of cables, surface, tie, and back cables. Adjustment of tie cable lengths improves the surface accuracy. Synchronous deployment truss structures are considered as a supporting structure. Their design method, BBM's (Bread Board Model) and deployment analysis are also explained.

Meguro, Akira; Mitsugi, Jin; Andou, Kazuhide

1993-03-01

421

Transport characteristics of the 100 m KEPCO HTS cable system for balanced three-phase currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since a 100 m, 22.9 kV/50 MVA high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable system was installed at the Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO) in 2005, a long-term test has been performed. In this paper, the transport characteristics of the KEPCO HTS cable system were examined by the electrical and calorimetric methods. To analyze the shield current in this system, an equivalent circuit model for the KEPCO HTS cable was suggested, and the calculated shield current compared with the measured one.The results show that the electrically measured total loss, which includes the AC and ohmic losses, corresponds well with the loss measured from the calorimetric method. The measured AC loss of the HTS cable is proportional to the 2.5th power of transport current, and four times larger than the conductor loss calculated from the monoblock model. This is because the conductor’s geometry in the HTS cable is not identical to a cylindrical superconductor in the monoblock model, its temperature rises due to a thick insulator, and the shield loss is included in the measured AC loss. In addition, the measured AC resistance of the current-lead is constant regardless of transport current, particularly in the low current region. Finally, the shield current calculated from our equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the measured one.

Li, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. H.; Choi, B. J.; Ryu, K.; Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

2010-11-01

422

Changes In Isomeric Composition of Lab Cable Oil Associated With A Range of Terminal Electron Acceptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are used as insulating oils in underground elec- tricity transmission cables. Following accidental damage to the cables or a failure of the cable system, oil may leak into the surrounding soil. The cable is normally repaired quickly and the majority of the oil is recovered, but access to soil containing residual contamination may be hampered by proximity to other buried services, so minimally invasive techniques for remediation are sought. Laboratory experiments have been de- signed to investigate LAB degradation under anaerobic conditions, as these may exist in the field. Preliminary results indicate, for the first time, that microbial growth can occur with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor and LAB as the sole carbon source. LAB degradation was not evident under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic condi- tions. GC-MS data show that the isomeric composition of oil degraded under nitrate- reducing conditions is altered in a way that differs significantly from oil that has been degraded by aerobic microorganisms. Ongoing work, aimed at confirming these find- ings, includes repetition of the flask culture experiments, greater replication and the inclusion of an internal GC standard to allow the degradation to be fully quantified. Cable-oil degrading microorganisms will be isolated and identified, and the pathways of degradation delineated.

Johnson, S. J.; Christofi, N.; Barry, D. A.

423

Study on Winding Cable and its Corona of High Voltage Motor using FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now the distribution cables are often used as armature winding in high voltage motor. The effect of cable semi-conductive layer dielectric performance on electric field distribution was studied by finite-element method (FEM). Then the probability of corona discharge in the winding cables was analyzed. The computed results indicate the maximum electric field intensity in the cable increases and electric field intensity in the internal semi-conductive layer reduces with the increase of the internal semi-conductive layer dielectric constant. In other words, rather large value of the internal semi-conductive layer dielectric constant will cause the electric field distortion in the insulation layer. On the other hand, lesser dielectric constant value will cause the electric field concentration in the internal semi-conductive layers and then may bring tree discharge. The results also indicate that the electric field intensity and potential in the external semi-conductive layer sharply reduce with the decrease of the external semi-conductive layer resistivity, which provides theoretic foundation for reducing the corona discharge on the high-voltage cable surface. Meanwhile, the research indicates near the outlet of stator slot and bad grounding spot the corona discharge will first occur.

Chengyan, Ren; Ping, Yan; Jue, Wang; Shichang, Zhang

424

Transient thermal analysis of a tri-axial HTS cable on fault current condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) tri-axial cable, which consists of three concentric phases, was developed as a potential commercial solution for next generation distribution power network. In our previous research, we simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable by solving the heat equation using one-dimension difference method. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer after a fault. However for a long cable system, when middle phase in concentric structure is rated under an over current, accumulated heat from middle phase might continually warm up the liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow by heat transfer even the over current has been stopped. In this research, we improve the numerically calculation which includes the consideration of flowing liquid nitrogen and the heat transfer in both radius and longitudinal directions. A long tri-axial cable system thermal stability is discussed based on the calculation results.

Hu, N.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Song, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

2013-11-01

425

Method for Bonding Insulator to Insulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for making an airtight seal between a pair of insulator elements, such as glass plates, without destroying any fine structure etched in the insulator elements. A thin metal film is deposited on one of the elements to be sealed and then placed in ...

H. Wohltjen J. F. Giuliani

1982-01-01

426

Disordered Floquet topological insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of an external periodic field some materials become Floquet topological insulators. Introducing disorder into these systems may alter their electronic properties, which may critically affect their applications. We investigate the effects of disorder on Floquet topological insulators using a Green's function formalism. We find that in the presence of disorder, the transport properties of Floquet topological insulators differ from those of standard topological insulators. We further investigate the robustness of the topological phase to disorder.

Baruch, Shirit; Pereg-Barnea, Tami

2013-03-01

427

Performance of a technical and economical feasibility study of an HVDC compressed gas insulated transmission line. [600 kV  

SciTech Connect

Progress in evaluating the technical feasibility of SF/sub 6/-insulated cables and circuit breakers for HVDC systems is reported. During this reporting period a new test setup was completed. An assembly jig was designed and fabricated. Model cable up to 20-ft length can be assembled complete outside the test tank. Components to extend the test tank to accommodate a 20-ft model cable have been obtained. A report was drafted on the effect of material selection as well as processing into insulators on the long-term dielectric performance of the insulator. The vertical leaf expansion joint design was improved by replacing the Alcuplate copper-to-aluminum transition piece with nickel plating on the aluminum parts. The joint was fatigue tested with condition which simulate almost 2 1/2 cycles of temperature excursions each day for the 40 year design life of the line. Electrical tests of the joint are in progress.

LaBarge, R.L.

1980-12-15

428

High current pulse transmission cable  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

Parsons, W.M.

1990-09-28

429

Fiber optic cable flammability performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tight buffered fiber optic cables were made using a number of different materials and subjected to flame testing. The results show that different materials and combinations of materials do not perform equally. The best flame resistance was obtained when the outer jacket was a very flame resistant material. It was also found that the contribution of a burning tight buffer material did not significantly affect the results of the tests until the flame resistance of the outer jacket material dropped.

Maack, David R.; Kachmar, Wayne M.; Masterson, Joseph B.

1986-11-01

430

Insulated waterproof drainage material  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insulative waterproof drainage material is described comprising: a sheet of rigid material having hills and valleys therein to define a core having opposed surfaces; permeable fabric material attached to one of the opposed surfaces; and a layer of thermally insulative material on the other of the opposed surfaces. The insulative material has first surface covering the hills and valleys

Tarko

1988-01-01

431

Vacuum insulator coating development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

1997-01-01

432

Thermal insulating coatings. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). NewSearch  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and applications of thermal insulating coatings. Topics include ceramic, infrared reflective, and low permeability coatings. Applications of thermal barrier and reflective coatings to pipes, cables, turbines, automobile glass, windows, concrete, brick, and metals are presented. Performance evaluations of thermal coatings are included. (Contains a minimum of 205 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-11-01

433

Thermal insulating coatings. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties and applications of thermal insulating coatings. Topics include ceramic, infrared reflective, and low permeability coatings. Applications of thermal barrier and reflective coatings to pipes, cables, turbines, automobile glass, windows, concrete, brick, and metals are presented. Performance evaluations of thermal coatings are included. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-11-01

434

Influence of the Insulator Space Charge on the Dynamic Response of Self-Powered Flux Detectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of self-powered flux detectors and coaxial mineral insulated cables have been irradiated in a Gammacell irradiator to study their dynamic response. The response of these devices is not perfectly prompt. The delayed response is attributed to the f...

C. J. Allan A. A. Visentin C. D. Hobbs R. Beaulieu A. Sguigna

1980-01-01

435

Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of the program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at

M. J. Jacobus; G. L. Zigler; L. D. Bustard

1988-01-01

436

Profile: Uses and values for news on cable television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable subscribers who are regular users of television news indicated that broadcast stations were the dominant source of news across all dayparts. Cable news dependent subscribers were more likely than broadcast news dependent subscribers to use cable news on a regular basis and tune to cable in a national crisis. They were younger, compared cable news more favorably to broadcast

Thomas F. Baldwin; Marianne Barrett; Benjamin Bates

1992-01-01

437

Studies in the Statics and Dynamics of Simple Cable Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation is made of the static and dynamic response of simple cable systems to applied load. Both the single, suspended cable and the counterstressed double cable system (the cable truss) are treated. The geometry of the simple cable systems is su...

H. M. Irvine

1974-01-01

438

Thin cable system for ROV and AUV in JAMSTEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROVs with thin cable system have been developed in JAMSTEC. The thin cable system is very convenient for AUVs, therefore it has been applied for the AUVs that have been developed in JAMSTEC. Conventional ROV systems need the thick cable to supply electric power from mother ship to under-sea vehicle. In the thin cable system, a thick cable is

T. Murashima; T. Aoki; S. Tsukioka; T. Hyakudome; H. Yoshida; H. Nakajoh; S. Ishibashi; R. Sasamoto

2003-01-01

439

An industrial cabling machine for the SSC  

SciTech Connect

The SSC project will need the manufacturing of some 25,000 kilometers of keystoned flat cable. The technical specifications of the various cables to be produced are the result of five years of research and development work at LBL. An experimental cable machine was built and run in the laboratory; many improvements were implemented and tested. Semi-industrial production of the various cables was performed, and the resulting cables were used and tested in the one-meter model magnets and 17.5 meter dipole prototypes. From these experiments an industrial cabler specification was generated and used for an international RFQ. The winner of the contract is Dour Metal, a Belgium company that built the first industrial prototype which is now in a production line at New England Electric Wire Company. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of the machine and give the first industrial production results of superconducting keystoned cable for the SSC project. 4 refs.

Royet, J.; Armer, R.; Hannaford, R.; Scanlan, R.

1989-02-01

440

Looking to the Cable Age: Cable Must Have First Amendment Protection to Thrive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the implications of federal legislation and local government encroachment on cable systems, and advocates that cable television be given the editorial and journalistic discretion given to newspapers. (RBF)|

Wheeler, Thomas E.

1981-01-01

441

Testing procedures for electric-insulating materials. March 1985-May 1989 (Citations from the EI Engineering Meetings data base). Report for March 1985-May 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations from conference proceedings concerning methods and procedures for testing electrical-insulation materials for flashover voltage, aging, deterioration, moisture effects, water treeing, dielectric strength, thermal and fire resistance, leakage current, and chemical resistance. Insulation includes polymers, glass, ceramics, treated paper, gas and air barriers, and enamel and epoxies used in electrical windings. Applications include power cables, machine windings, transformers, and insulators. (Contains 140 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-06-01

442

INNOVATIVE MONITORING INSTRUMENTS ON ALL CABLES OF CABLE-STAYED BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the cable tensions of a cable-stayed bridge, conventionally piezoelectric sensors or force- balanced sensors are applied to measure the vibration signal spectrum of cables. Connected to a signal analyzer (such as a PC) through electrical wires in parallel, those sensors are tied-up to the cable-tendon to be measured. However, with limited sensors and signal channels, the measurements of

Zheng-Kuan Lee; Yung-Bin Lin; Kuo-Chen Chang; Chien-Chou Chen

443

Updating pipe insulation  

SciTech Connect

Every plant engineer knows that proper insulation saves energy. The right insulation also increases plant yields and capacity without capital expansion. Field experience has shown that proper insulation, a combination of the right material, thickness, and jacketing helps maintain optimum temperatures throughout a process. The result is processes that safely run hotter and faster, and produce more acceptable product. In hydrocarbon processing, for example, insulating fuel, lubricant, and petrochemical lines helps ensure more premium-grade product. In power generation, better insulation means more saleable electricity per ton of fuel. In chemical processing, properly insulating process heat lines for reactor vessels and turbines means consistent product and less scrap. The same holds true for pulp and paper processing (especially at the pulping end), textile manufacturing, and food processing. This paper briefly explains a 5-step program to help a plant engineer determine the plant's pipe insulation requirements.

Rickards, D. (CertainTeed Corp., Valley Forge, PA (United States))

1993-03-04

444

Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)|

Beckes, Isaac K.

1972-01-01

445

Multiconcentric coaxial cable pulse forming device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiconcentric coaxial cable uses three or more concentric cables to supply power to a high voltage laser with reduced waveform degradation otherwise produced by stray capacitance and inductance. Each pair of concentric conductors is in itself a coaxial line and the radius of each conductor is selected such that the characteristic impedances of the two lines it forms with the adjacent conductors are equal. Each line is charged with a polarity opposite to the adjacent lines. Polarity inverting switches are connected across the lines charged to the polarity opposite to the desired output polarity at the end of the cable opposite from the load connection. The load is connected to the outermost cable conductor of the cable. When the switches are closed the polarity of the cable sections to which they are connected reverse and the sum of the voltages on all the cable sections is applied to the self-breaking gap causing it to close and connect the load. The sum of the impedances of the cable sections is designed to be equal to the load impedance and therefore the energy from the cable to the load is matched.

Oloughlin, James P.

1986-08-01

446

Improvement in fire safety features of electrical conductors and cables  

SciTech Connect

There is ever increasing awareness and need for wire and cable materials that exhibit improved fire safety. The traditional characteristics of insulation resistance, water resistance, oil resistance, sunlight resistance, abrasion resistance, crush resistance, deformation resistance and fire resistance are not sufficient for all occasions. The improvements not only involve delayed ignition, limited propagation and lower smoke and toxic gas emissions to protect people, but also lower corrosivity to protect sensitive electronic equipment. Materials compounding technology has significantly advanced to make this possible. New non-halogen, limited smoke, low corrosivity, low toxicity materials for low voltage power, control, signal, instrumentation and data as well as medium voltage power applications are covered in this paper.

McClung, L.B. [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States); Ramachandran, S. [Union Carbide Corp., Somerset, NJ (United States)

1995-01-01

447

On the Cable; The Television of Abundance. Report of the Sloan Commission on Cable Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Sloan Commission report on cable television surveys the history and technology of cable television and suggests the prospects and possibilities the medium offers to the American public. The possible impact of cable television on over-the-air television is projected, and the possible shape of entertainment, news and opinion, public services,…

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, NY.

448

30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables and...Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric cables and...this level for the duration of the flame test. The two outermost rods...

2009-07-01

449

30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables and...Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of electric cables and...this level for the duration of the flame test. The two outermost rods...

2010-07-01

450

IEEE 1202 flame testing of cables for use in cable tray  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new IEEE 1202, IEEE Standard for Flame Testing of Cables for Use in Cable Tray in Industrial and Commercial Occupancies, is described. This flame test standard will: (1) contribute to harmonization of Canadian and US standards, most likely becoming a North American standard and eventually replacing the current UL and CSA tray cable flame tests; (2) provide more flame

J. M. Daly

1991-01-01

451

Concept for the intrinsic dielectric strength of electrical insulation materials  

SciTech Connect

A concept is described for a possible definition of the intrinsic dielectric strength of insulating materials, which can be considered as a fundamental material property similar to other material properties, such as Young's modulus, index of refraction, and expansion coefficients. The events leading to the recognition of this property are reported, and the property is defined. This intrinsic dielectric strength concept should facilitate interpretation of results from accelerated and/or natural aging programs intended to predict electrical insulation service life of encapsulants in photovoltaic modules. As a practical application, this new concept enabled a possible explanation of the cause of failures in buried high-voltage cables with polyethylene insulation, and a possible explanation of the causes of electrical trees in polyethylene; these also are described.

Cuddihy, E.F.

1985-04-15

452

47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of...

2011-10-01

453

47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards....

2011-10-01

454

47 CFR 76.403 - Cable television system reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television system reports. 76.403 Section...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Forms and Reports § 76.403 Cable television system reports. The operator of...

2012-10-01

455

47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular...

2011-10-01

456

47 CFR 76.612 - Cable television frequency separation standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television frequency separation standards. 76...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.612 Cable television frequency separation standards....

2012-10-01

457

47 CFR 76.614 - Cable television system regular monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable television system regular monitoring. 76.614...SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.614 Cable television system regular...

2012-10-01

458

7 CFR 3201.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Chain and cable lubricants. 3201.43 Section 3201...3201.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition...77 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying...qualifying biobased chain and cable lubricants. By that date,...

2013-01-01

459

30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and...miners contacting the cables and to protect the high-voltage cables from...

2013-07-01

460

30 CFR 18.36 - Cables between machine components.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cables between machine components. 18.36 Section 18.36 ...Design Requirements § 18.36 Cables between machine components. (a) Cables between machine components shall have: (1)...

2013-07-01

461

30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing cables. (a) Guarding. (1) The high-voltage cable must be guarded in the following locations: (i) From the power center cable coupler for a distance of 10...

2010-07-01

462

7 CFR 2902.43 - Chain and cable lubricants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chain and cable lubricants. 2902.43 Section 2902...2902.43 Chain and cable lubricants. (a) Definition...may also prevent rust and corrosion in these applications. ...qualifying biobased chain and cable lubricants. By that date,...

2010-01-01

463

Fiber-Optic Undersea Tow Cable Optical and Environmental Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests of two fiber-optic cables revealed that fibers for communication purposes can be incorporated into two cables with very little excess loss during manufacture. Further development in cable design and fiber buffers is required to eliminate excess loss...

W. H. Putnam

1976-01-01

464

Breakout Cables for Short Haul Fiber Optic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A breakout cable construction has been designed consisting of individually strengthened and jacketed optical channels which facilitate use of single channel optical connectors. This cable design eliminates the need for a patch panel, breakout box or cable...

F. T. McDuffee

1983-01-01

465

Vibration analysis of cable-driven parallel manipulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cable-driven parallel manipulator is a manipulator whose end-effector is driven by a number of parallel cables instead of\\u000a rigid links. Since cables always have more flexibility than rigid links, a cable manipulator bears a concern of possible vibration.\\u000a Thus, investigation of vibration of cable manipulators caused by cable flexibility is important for applications requiring\\u000a high system stiffness or bandwidth.

Xiumin Diao; Ou Ma

2009-01-01

466

EMP coupling to coaxial shielded cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the effects induced within shielded cables by a high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP), represented as a plane wave, is presented. The cable is regarded as a multiconductor line in which the EMP sources are impressed on the shield. An efficient matrix procedure permits simultaneous calculation of transient voltages and currents at any point on each conductor.

M. D'Amore; M. Feliziani

1988-01-01

467

Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

468

Cable TV; Protecting Its Future in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New developments on the technical aspects of cable television, coupled with the proposed Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations governing the medium and the possibility of Congressional action in the field have set the stage for 1971 to become a pivotal year for cable television in education. The number of channels that can…

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC.

469

Cable Television: A Guide to Federal Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal laws and regulations that presently apply to cable television are comprehensively discussed in this lengthy report. The report has been designed as a guide and reference book for state and local officials, cable operators, and citizen groups. It presents a complete discussion of the 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Report…

Rivkin, Steven R.

470

Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) hardened cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a system is exposed to a Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse (NEMP), the cables which are used to connect the components act as antennas and couple NEMP energy into the system. The purpose of the program is to develop shields for a 26-pair communications cable which will significantly reduce the NEMP pickup. Because of the technical approach employed, however, many results

W. C. Wells

1975-01-01

471

A Drum for Multilayered Coiling of Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a drum for multilayered coiling of cable made in the form of a cylinder with a helical groove and flanges. It is distinguished by the fact that, for the purpose of prevention of squeezing of the cable during transfer from one layer to...

L. G. Blokhin M. G. Lopatkin I. A. Toropov

1974-01-01

472

Community Cable Television--Hungarian Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper argues that, although community cable television is one of the most dynamic (although experimental) elements of the Hungarian media structure, it is well on its way toward institutionalization. It is suggested that whether community cable television is able to retain the spontaneity, innovativeness, and elasticity of its early days may…

Szekfu, Andras

473

Cable TV; Protecting Its Future in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|New developments on the technical aspects of cable television, coupled with the proposed Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations governing the medium and the possibility of Congressional action in the field have set the stage for 1971 to become a pivotal year for cable television in education. The number of channels that can…

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC.

474

Crossed Wires; Cable Television in New Jersey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable television (CATV) in New Jersey has been almost nonexistent: Because of the state's proximity to the major cities of New York and Philadelphia, there has been a scarcity of New Jersey-oriented news and public affairs programing. Cable television access, it is suggested, could fill this information gap in New Jersey if the state government…

Center for Analysis of Public Issues, Princeton, NJ.

475

Designing cable harness assemblies in virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable harness assemblies are amongst the most costly items in any electro-mechanical product. The domain is not widely recognised as an area for academic research. Internationally, some efforts have been made to automate or semi-automate the choice of cable harness path through the use of artificial intelligence (AI) via CAD systems, but with little success. Common themes voiced are that

F. M Ng; J. M Ritchie; J. E. L Simmons; R. G Dewar

2000-01-01

476

Aerodynamics modeling of towed-cable dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of a cable\\/drogue system being towed by an orbiting aircraft has been investigated as a part of an LTWA project for the Naval Air Systems Command. We present here a status report on the tasks performed under Phase 1. We have accomplished the following tasks under Phase 1: A literature survey on the towed-cable motion problem has been

S. W. Kang; V. R. Latorre

1991-01-01

477

Cable in the Classroom: Free and Easy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cable in the Classroom (CIC) is a nonprofit service of the cable television industry, offering commercial-free programming with extended copyright clearance for educational use. This article discusses participating networks and program availability; using video in the classroom; curriculum guides and support materials; and other services offered…

Glantz, Shelley

1998-01-01

478

An ACLU Guide to Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proceeding from the hypothesis that cable television (CATV) is one of the most significant developments in modern America, this booklet examines the medium itself and then devotes special attention to the capacity of CATV to serve the First Amendment interest in diversity of expression. The opening section deals with the size and growth of cable

Powledge, Fred

479

Revisiting Cable TV in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of cable television focuses on its use in the classroom. Topics include the learning environment; design, preparation, and delivery of instruction; teacher-learner interactions; examples of cable television use in the classroom; program development; equipment infrastructure; costs; and current trends and federal legislation. (LRW)|

Holmes, Glen A.; Wenrich, John

1997-01-01

480

Cable Television in the Classroom. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using cable television in the classroom allows teachers to include the latest news and current events in class discussions. However, many educational practitioners are uninformed about the concept and lack the knowledge to implement the technology in the classroom. This digest describes how cable television can be integrated into elementary and…

Holmes, Glen A.; Branch, Robert C.

481

Evaluation of Barrier Cable Impact Pad Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Air Force uses an aircraft arresting system on many of their runways for emergency stopping of aircraft. It consists of a 1- or 1-1/4-inch steel cable stretched across the runway connected to a braking mechanism. When aircraft tires impact the cabl...

T. B. Husbands D. L. Bea

1989-01-01

482

Evaluation of Barrier Cable Impact Pad Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Air Force uses an aircraft arresting system on many of their runways for emergency stopping of aircraft. It consists of a 1- or 1-1/4-inch steel cable stretched across the runway connected to a braking mechanism. When aircraft tires impact the cabl...

T. B. Husbands D. L. Bean

1988-01-01

483

Cable Television and the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how cooperation between cable television systems and community colleges can improve local programing and aid the college in reaching a greater number of students. Presents results of a survey analyzing New York State community college participation in the local origination of cable programs. (JP)

Carson, C. Herbert

1979-01-01

484

The Social Effects of Cable Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable television illustrates the problems that can arise in exploiting a promising new technology to meet social needs. Cable operators' marketing procedures have emphasized improvement of the quality of reception from local broadcasting stations, increased programming choice by introduction of distant signals, and introduction of special pay…

Johnson, Leland L.

485

Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

Warthman, Forrest

486

An Elastic Electrically-Conductive Strain Cable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cable includes bundles of plastic-impregnated nylon fibers acting both as strain members and strain accumulators. An inner core bundle is wound with an electrical conductor that stretches with the fibers when the cable is tensioned. The winding pitch ...

F. H. Fisher V. C. Anderson

1977-01-01

487

Fractional Cable Models for Spiny Neuronal Dendrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable equations with fractional order temporal operators are introduced to model electrotonic prop- erties of spiny neuronal dendrites. These equations are derived from Nernst-Planck equations with fra- ctional order operators to model the anomalous subdiffusion that arises from trapping properties of dendritic spines. The fractional cable models predict that postsynaptic potentials propagating along den- drites with larger spine densities can

B. I. Henry; T. A. M. Langlands; S. L. Wearne

2008-01-01

488

Fractional Cable Models for Spiny Neuronal Dendrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cable equations with fractional order temporal operators are introduced to model electrotonic properties of spiny neuronal dendrites. These equations are derived from Nernst-Planck equations with fractional order operators to model the anomalous subdiffusion that arises from trapping properties of dendritic spines. The fractional cable models predict that postsynaptic potentials propagating along dendrites with larger spine densities can arrive at the

B. I. Henry; T. A. M. Langlands; S. L. Wearne

2008-01-01

489

Field test technology relationships to cable quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most controversial issues in the field of cable technology involves trying to determine the status of used cable. There is no consensus within the industry or even among the so-called “experts” as to how this decision should be made. This paper identifies methods and limitations of techniques used by different organizations. These range from recommended practices to

M. O. Durham; D. H. Neuroth; K. Ashenayi; T. Wallace

1995-01-01

490

The Selling of Cable Television 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

491

A New HTS Cable Project in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new HTS cable project supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has just started in Japan. Target of this project is to operate a 66 kV, 200 MVA HTS cable in a real grid in order to demonstrate its reliability and stable operation. Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)

Takato Masuda; Hiroyasu Yumura; M. Ohya; T. Kikuta; M. Hirose; S. Honjo; T. Mimura; Y. Kito; K. Yamamoto; M. Ikeuchi; R. Ohno

2009-01-01

492

Qualification Procedure for Fiber Optic Cable Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper details the results of an extensive testing program on various fiber cable types in order to fully qualify such cables for use in outside plant environmental extremes. Core structure alternatives, such as loose tube, or slotted core are compare...

G. McKay W. Cousineau B. Braham J. Rowe

1986-01-01

493

Detect corrosion under insulation  

SciTech Connect

Technology is available to quickly and reliably detect corrosion under insulation (CUI) of piping systems without disturbing the insulation. This technology has permitted many refineries and petrochemical facilities to successfully detect this problem in an expedient and cost-effective manner. CUI is difficult to find because of the insulation cover that masks the corrosion problem until it is too late. It is expensive to remove the insulation, particularly if asbestos is involved. There is a number of methods to inspect for corrosion under insulation. The main ones are profile radiography, ultrasonic spot readings and insulation removal. The other method now available is real-time X-ray. Real-time X-ray has proven to be a safe, fast and effective pipe inspection method.

Twomey, M. [Conam Inspection Inc., Signal Hill, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

494

Metal-insulator transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal-insulator transitions are accompanied by huge resistivity changes, even over tens of orders of magnitude, and are widely observed in condensed-matter systems. This article presents the observations and current understanding of the metal-insulator transition with a pedagogical introduction to the subject. Especially important are the transitions driven by correlation effects associated with the electron-electron interaction. The insulating phase caused by

Masatoshi Imada; Atsushi Fujimori; Yoshinori Tokura

1998-01-01

495

Measuring Wall Insulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the only way for homeowners to learn about the effectiveness of their home insulation is to hire an energy auditor. This difficulty deters homeowners from taking action to improve energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device to measure wall insulation by measuring the temperature difference between the wall surface and the interior air. This device is effective in diagnosing cases of low insulation.

Parks, Beth; Kurkel, Kevin; Zranchev, Amanda; Brown, Clayton

2011-03-01

496

An Internal Coaxil Cable Seal System  

DOEpatents

The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable more specifically an internal seal system placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including flexible rigid rings and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable. The current invention is adapted to seal the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. During oil and gas exploration, a drill string can see a range of pressures and temperatures thus resulting in multiple combinations of temperature and pressure and increasing the difficulty of creating a robust seal for all combinations. The seal system can be used in a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-23

497

Vertical cable surveys deliver additional seismic data  

SciTech Connect

Texaco and a Norwegian seismic firm have patented a new system for deploying hydrophones on vertical cables for offshore surveys. The system was used in Texaco North Sea UK Ltd.`s Strathspey field during the summer. The new technique was introduced in the article, ``Peaceful use for war technology,`` published in Texaco UK`s Agenda monthly news magazine, October 1995. That article is summarized here. Using technology developed by the US Navy for antisubmarine warfare, the vertical-cable survey relies on hydrophones attached at regular intervals vertically along cables secured to the ocean floor and held taut by a buoy. The shooting vessel fires the airguns in a pattern over a large area on the surface, over and around the cables. The cables are then moved to a new location and the process is repeated, up to six times in the Strathspey application described here.

NONE

1995-12-01

498

Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

1991-11-01

499

Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

1993-10-01

500

Trace cable, locate faults with one instrument  

SciTech Connect

One of the problems with cable-tracing instruments that use radio-frequency (RF) signals is that they tend to radiate to nontarget conductors belonging to other utilities, such as telecommunications, gas, and cable TV. False readings generated by these RF units put repair crews at risk of locating the wrong lines, marking them, digging them up and so damaging another company's facilities. Crews at Florida Power Light Co (FP L) now are using a microprocessor-controlled transmitter that energizes the target cable at about 7776 Hz. This tracing frequency energizes only the secondary cable, even when nontarget conductors are nearby. An above-ground receiver detects this signal and guides the operator along the cable path. The instrument, known as the SFL-2000, is sold by AVO International, Blue Bell, Pa. 3 figs.

Arias, A. (Florida Power Light Company, Juno Beach, FL (United States))

1994-12-01