Sample records for xlpe cable insulation

  1. Thermoluminescence in XLPE cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski

    1996-01-01

    Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) has been employed in underground transmission and distribution cables because of its excellent electrical and mechanical properties, such as low permittivity and dielectric loss, high degree of toughness, and good flexibility. An underground power cable operates at temperatures above ambient and the polymeric insulation is usually crosslinked to provide mechanical strength to withstand the high temperatures. Chemical

  2. Influence of defects on insulating properties of XLPE cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Katsuta; A. Toya; S. Katakai; M. Kanaoka; Y. Sekii

    1991-01-01

    The influence of defects on the insulating properties of XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) cables was studied using XLPE cables containing artificial defects. It was confirmed that the AC breakdown strength of the cables decreases with the increase of void size, while the existence of voids does not have any effect on impulse breakdown strength. The contaminants and the protrusions decrease both

  3. Electrical stress enhancement of contaminants in XLPE insulation used for power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan-Ove Bostrom; Eric Marsden; R. N. Hampton; U. Nilsson; H. Lennartsson

    2003-01-01

    The use of XLPE as the insulation for power cables has grown steadily since it first introduction more than 30 years ago. Today XLPE is rapidly becoming the preferred insulation system for even the highest transmission voltages. This preference is due to the high reliability, low dielectric losses, and low environmental impact that can be achieved with XLPE. The positive

  4. Effect of temperature rise and water contamination on leakage current in underwater used XLPE insulated power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taher D. Eish; F. M. H. Youssef; S. S. El-Dessouky

    1988-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into the effect of insulation temperature rise on the leakage current in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated underwater power cables under alternating (50 Hz) and direct voltage stresses are presented. The effect of the surrounding water contamination and the size of XLPE cable as well as the applied voltage on leakage current are investigated. The results

  5. On-site diagnostic tests on medium voltage, XLPE-insulated power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Abou Dakka; Alexander Bulinski; Soli Bamji

    2008-01-01

    The dc depolarization current measurement technique was used to test 20 medium voltage, underground XLPE-insulated cables in the local utility power distribution network between January and March 2006 and then in March 2007. The cables varied in length (30 m to ~1600 m), voltage rating (9 to 28 kV), and age (4 to 36 years). Unlike a typical depolarization current

  6. Dielectric spectroscopy of XLPE cable insulation: comparison between time-domain and frequency-domain methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Fourmigue; J.-L. Parpal; J.-N. Seguin

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation measurements were conducted on XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) insulation samples extracted at different radial positions from laboratory-aged (24 kV\\/mm) cables in order to determine if they were an appropriate diagnostic for detecting change in the dielectric properties of cable insulation aged under high electric stress. Time-domain and frequency-domain spectroscopy measurements were performed on the same samples in order to

  7. Effect of tree channel conductivity on electrical tree shape and breakdown in XLPE cable insulation samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangrong Chen; Yang Xu; Xiaolong Cao; S. J. Dodd; L. A. Dissado

    2011-01-01

    The results of an investigation into electrical tree growth in XLPE cable insulation using an embedded needle electrode are reported for a range of voltages from 9 kV rms to 27 kV rms. The partial discharge (PD) activity and tree structures were measured simultaneously throughout the tree growth and the trees were recorded from initiation up to and including the

  8. Size determination of contaminants in HV XLPE cable insulation with holographic technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhao; A. Hu; D. Tu; Z. Liu; L. Liu; W. Teng

    1988-01-01

    A Fraunhofer far-field holographic technique has been used to develop a method which allows the size of particles of contaminants in an HV XLPE (high-voltage cross-linked polyethylene) cable insulating layer to be determined without cutting it into thin slices. The cable samples can be as thick as 4.0 cm when a resolution of 50 ?m is achieved. The accuracy of

  9. Long-term characteristics of XLPE insulated cable installed in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teruo Kaneko; Hironobu Ohno; Takeshi Goto; Shoshi Katakai; H. Muto

    1994-01-01

    The long-term voltage characteristics (V-t characteristics) have been evaluated for XLPE cables having 6-mm insulation thickness that were energized while immersed and the causes of cable breakdown have been elucidated by means of residual breakdown tests conducted by the pre-interruption method. The life index n was found to increase with decreases in the intensity of the applied field. Among causes

  10. Investigations of Electrical Trees in XLPE Cable Insulation Samples Using PC Based On-Line Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Al-Arainy; M. I. Qureshi; N. H. Malik

    2006-01-01

    Using PC-based on-line monitoring system, extensive measurements were performed in insulation blocks cut from the XLPE insulation of 36, 69 and 132 kV rated cables produced in Saudi Arabia. A needle-plane electrode system was used with a needle radius of 10 mum. The role of 'applied stress step-time duration' and associated time resolved initiation and growth of different types of

  11. Severe degradation of the conductor screen of service and laboratory aged medium voltage XLPE insulated cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sverre Hvidsten; Stine Kvande; Arve Ryen; Per Bjørn Larsen

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show the strong correlation between corrosion of the metallic aluminum conductor and the formation of interconnected cracks \\/ voids in the conductor screen, creating initiation sites for vented water trees in service aged medium voltage XLPE cables. The results show that porous structures in the conductor screen previously reported for laboratory aged

  12. Impurities in XLPE cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pelissou

    1990-01-01

    Impurity analysis by neutron activation was performed on several unaged and field-aged distribution cables differing in origin and manufacturing process (steam and dry curing). The results show principally that impurities found in the insulation can be attributed primarily to unclean semiconductive shields and to the manufacturing process. Aging has less impact. Dry curing leads to higher impurity diffusion in the

  13. Using the 'Universal Relaxation Law' to characterise water tree degradation in XLPE insulated cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Thomas; Tapan K Saha

    In order to access the severity of degradation in a water tree affected cable, it is necessary to obtain a physical representation of t he insulation. This is especially the case when trying to determine the risk of failure of the cable, or the remaining life, which is dependant on the length of the longest water tree in the insulati

  14. Development of extruded and molded straight joint for ultra high-voltage XLPE cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shimomura; K. Ando; K. Asahi; K. Sugiyama

    1986-01-01

    In Japan, 154-kV crosslinked polyethylene-insulated cables (XLPE) are already in use for long-distance tranmission lines, but 275-kV XLPE cables are used only for short-distance lines (without joints) on the premises of power-generation plants and substations. 275-kV XLPE cable is expected to be used for long-distance transmission lines in the near future because of its overall cost advantage. To respond to

  15. Performance of supersmooth, extra clean semiconductive shields in XLPE insulated power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    Supersmooth (SS), extra-clean semiconductor shields have been demonstrated to be markedly improved in extruded surface smoothness and to contain a minimal level of ionic impurities. In well-accepted accelerated cable aging tests for wet locations, where the SS extra-clean semiconductives are used as conductor shields, substantial improvements in cable performance have been demonstrated. Additional studies have shown that the SS extra-clean

  16. Oxidative stability and compensation effect in laboratory-aged XLPE cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Montanari; A. Motori; A. Bulinski; S. Bamji; J. Densley

    1992-01-01

    Oxidative induction time (OIT) measurements performed on cable models subjected to a wide range of aging conditions have been used to investigate the nature of the compensation effect. The compensation effect involves an interdependence, usually linear, between parameters of the equations describing reaction kinetics. The authors focus on the results of OIT measurements performed in two laboratories on a large

  17. Electrical treeing caused by rapid DC-voltage grounding of XLPE cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mildrid Selsjord; Erling Ildstad

    2006-01-01

    This report presents results from an experimental investigation using Rogowski shaped test objects with needle implants, either fully insulated or in contact with one of the electrodes. In both cases abrupt grounding caused electric breakdown to be initiated at a voltage much lower than the short term breakdown voltage. Reduced breakdown strength occurred due to increased DC pre-stress level, number

  18. Development of 500kV XLPE cables and accessories for long distance underground transmission line. Part 3: Electrical properties of 500kV cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Fukawa; Takayuki Kawai; Yoshinori Okano; Susumu Sakuma; Shinya Asai; Mamoru Kanaoka; Hiroshi Yamanouchi

    1996-01-01

    500-kV XLPE-insulated cable with an insulation thickness of 27 mm has been developed for long-distance transmission lines. Basic studies on 500-kV XLPE cable have shown that contaminants in the insulation may be the factor determining electrical performance. This hypothesis is justified by the good correlation obtained between statistical estimations of the size of the largest contaminant in the insulation and

  19. QUALITY CONTROL OF HVDC EXTRUDED CABLES: ELECTRICAL TREEING IN XLPE UNDER DIFFERENT VOLTAGE STRESSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mauseth; E. Ildstad; M. Ytterstad; R. Hegerberg; B. Sanden; M. Jeroense; J. E. Skog

    The main purpose of this work has been to study initiation and growth of electrical trees in XLPE insulation subjected to different types of electrical stress. The insight gained can be used to evaluate proposed test methods for quality assurance of long lengths of polymer insulated power cables. Experiments were performed examining electrical treeing from the tip of needles embedded

  20. Development of 500-kV XLPE cables and accessories for long distance underground transmission line. Part 3: Electrical properties of 500-kV cables

    SciTech Connect

    Fukawa, Masami [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)] [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan); Kawai, Takayuki [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)] [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Okano, Yoshinori [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Sakuma, Susumu [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asai, Shinya [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kanaoka, Mamoru [Hitachi Cable Ltd. (Japan)] [Hitachi Cable Ltd. (Japan); Yamanouchi, Hiroshi [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    500-kV XLPE-insulated cable with an insulation thickness of 27 mm has been developed for long-distance transmission lines. Basic studies on 500-kV XLPE cable have shown that contaminants in the insulation may be the factor determining electrical performance. This hypothesis is justified by the good correlation obtained between statistical estimations of the size of the largest contaminant in the insulation and the electrical characteristics of full-sized cables. Voltage-withstand and long-term tests have confirmed the design values for minimum breakdown stress, for AC and impulse voltage, and for the degradation coefficients.

  1. Development of 500kV XLPE cables and accessories for long distance underground transmission line. III. Electrical properties of 500kV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fukawa; T. Kawai; Y. Okano; S. Sakuma; S. Asai; M. Kanaoka; H. Yamanouchi

    2002-01-01

    500-kV XLPE-insulated cable with an insulation thickness of 27 mm has been developed for long-distance transmission lines. Basic studies on 500-kV XLPE cable have shown that contaminants in the insulation may be the factor determining electrical performance. This hypothesis is justified by the good correlation obtained between statistical estimations of the size of the largest contaminant in the insulation and

  2. High frequency characterisation of water-treed XLPE cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Papazyan; R. Eriksson

    2003-01-01

    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) has been used for localisation of transmission line discontinuities in various applications. One of the challenges when applying TDR is to obtain knowledge of the high frequency characteristics of both the degraded and the undegraded sections of the cable. The wave propagation characteristics of water-treed XLPE cables are investigated in this study. The parameters are extracted

  3. Ionic impurities in crosslinked polyethylene cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Garton; J. H. Groeger; J. L. Henry

    1990-01-01

    Ion chromatography and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods for the quantification of ionic contaminants in XLPE cable insulation are reviewed. Cationic contaminants include sodium, potassium, calcium, aluminum, iron and silicon. Anionic impurities include chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Concentrations of these impurities vary widely, even within the same insulation. One source is discrete particles such as metal fragments or silica. In the

  4. Migration of impurities from cable shields and tree initiation in XLPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Belhadfa; A. Houdayer; P. Hinrichsen; G. Kajrys; J.-P. Crine; R. Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    The authors present laboratory results obtained with plaques of cable-grade XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene) pressed on plaques made of commercial shield compound. The samples were kept at various temperatures in air and in water for several weeks. The local impurity contents were measured at various distances from the shield-insulation interface by micro-PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission). The correlation between the impurity

  5. Simulation of the dynamic charge carrier injection and motion in technical XLPE insulation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gottlich; D. Meurer

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simulation of dynamic carrier injection and motion in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation systems is presented. In a first study the influence of a cylindrical 50-?m conducting impurity on the surface of the conducting layer is investigated. For the simulation of the dynamic space charge formation and motion in the high-voltage cable under investigation the influence of

  6. EAM insulation for medium-volt power cable applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Camillo

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, medium-volt (MV) power cable producers had two choices for insulation. These broad categories are cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene-propylene rubber (EP), and include all of their variations, such as tree-resistant XLPE (TRXLPE), ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR), ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM), etc. Over the last several years, technology has developed that has allowed polymer producers to offer a new category of material for

  7. Lifetime assessment by intermittent inspection under the mixture Weibull power law model with application to XLPE cables.

    PubMed

    Hirose, H

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes a new treatment for electrical insulation degradation. Some types of insulation which have been used under various circumstances are considered to degrade at various rates in accordance with their stress circumstances. The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables inspected by major Japanese electric companies clearly indicate such phenomena. By assuming that the inspected specimen is sampled from one of the clustered groups, a mixed degradation model can be constructed. Since the degradation of the insulation under common circumstances is considered to follow a Weibull distribution, a mixture model and a Weibull power law can be combined. This is called The mixture Weibull power law model. By using the maximum likelihood estimation for the newly proposed model to Japanese 22 and 33 kV insulation class cables, they are clustered into a certain number of groups by using the AIC and the generalized likelihood ratio test method. The reliability of the cables at specified years are assessed. PMID:9384621

  8. Development of a method of partial discharge detection in extra-high voltage cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Katsuta; A. Toya; K. Muraoka; T. Endoh; Y. Sekii; C. Ikeda

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deterioration in the insulation performance of extra-high voltage XLPE cables is believed to be attributable to the deterioration caused by partial discharges. In the authors study, after using an XLPE cable to investigate the behavior of partial discharges under various adverse conditions, we succeeded in developing a highly sensitive new method of measuring partial discharge in

  9. Detection of Voids and Contaminants in Polyethylene Insulated Cable Utilizing a Fir Laser Beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Cheo; R. Luther; J. W. Porter

    1983-01-01

    A prototype cable inspection instrument for the detection of defects in PE and XLPE insulation is described. The operating principle involves the Miescattering of laser illumination at submillimeter wavelengths that match the size range of defects of interest. This instrument is capable of detecting defects as small as 50 ..mu.. inside the insulation, and providing a realtime cable inspection with

  10. Detection of Voids and Contaminants in Polyethylene Insulated Cable Utilizing a Fir Laser Beam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Cheo; R. Luther; J. W. Porter

    1983-01-01

    A prototype cable inspection instrument for the detection of defects in PE and XLPE insulation is described. The operating principle involves the Miescattering of laser illumination at submillimeter wave- lengths that match the size range of defects of interest. This instrument is capable of detecting defects as small as 50 vm inside the insulation, and providing a realtime cable inspection

  11. Holographic sizing of contaminants in HV XLPE cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHao hong; Tu Demin; Hu Zhuguo; Liu Ziyu; Liu Lupin; Teng Weijun

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed to size the particles of contaminants in insulation of HV crosslinked polyethylene cable by using a Fraunhofer far-field in-line holographic technique with no need to cut the insulation into thin slices. The maximum thickness of the sample is 4.0 cm, when a resolution of 50 ?m is obtained. The accuracy of measurement is ~10% for particles

  12. Electroluminescence due to impulse voltage in cable-grade XLPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; K. Tohyama; A. T. Bulinski

    1999-01-01

    Underground power cables in service are inadvertently subjected to impulses generated by lightning and switching surges that are superimposed on the ac voltage at which they operate. HV transients caused by lightning and switching operations not only radiate large electromagnetic fields but also impose additional stresses on the insulation and could initiate deterioration which can continue under normal operating conditions.

  13. Laboratory results from dielectric spectroscopy of field aged XLPE cables with respect to water trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Pedersen; Howard Sedding; Mark Fenger; Joachim Holboell; Mogens Henriksen

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of frequency domain dielectric spectroscopy for the detection of water trees in XLPE cables. During the research, dielectric spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on cable samples with and without water trees while it was attempted to preserve many of the uncertainties present in the field. The experiments support the applicability of a high

  14. Development of the new polymer insulating materials for HVDC cable

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshifuji, N. (The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., Tokyo (JP)); Niwa, T.; Takahasi, T.; Miyata, H. (Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (JP))

    1992-07-01

    This paper relates to the new polymer insulating material for HVDC cable. The properties of modified HDPE, selected from various polymer materials by evaluations of DC characteristics were examined in both sheet and cable samples. It was found that the modification, which introduced a small amount of polar group into HDPE, considerably enhanced DC breakdown strength to as high as 1.5--2.0 times those of XLPE. Another evaluation was given with TSC method regarding space charge which was considered as a factor contributing to the enhancement of DC characteristics. Under a poling voltage of up to 30 KV/mm, the modified HDPE exhibits particular behaviors, with its space charge decreasing as stress is increasing. In addition, the additives in HDPE have a large influence on space charge characteristics, thereby affecting the DC breakdown strength. The evaluation of cable insulated with optimum modified HDPE was conducted to determine the breakdown strength under various voltage applications. Compared with the XLPE cable, modified HDPE cable exhibited excellent characteristics under all kinds of voltage applications (DC. ImP. polarity reversal, and DC + Imp), particularly DC dielectric breakdown strength which was almost twice that of XLPE.

  15. Pattern recognition of partial discharge in XLPE cables using a neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Suzuki; T. Endoh

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study of pattern recognition of partial discharge (PD) in a crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) cable by using a neural network (NN) system is described. The NN system was a three-layer artificial neural network system with feedforward connections, and its learning method was a backpropagation algorithm incorporating an external teacher signal. Input information for the NN was a combination of

  16. Accelerated life tests on a new water tree retardant insulation for power cables

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, H. [AT Plastics Inc., Brampton, Ontario (Canada)] [AT Plastics Inc., Brampton, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation in which 15 kV rated cables insulated with a new water tree retardant cross-linked polyethylene (TR XLPE) were subjected to accelerated aging tests under a controlled voltage stress and thermal load cycle conditions. Cables insulated with conventional XLPE and a commercially available TR XLPE were used as reference test populations to affirm the test methodology. Under the chosen conditions, cable life of the new TR XLPE as calculated using Weibull and log normal statistical distributions, was more than twice that for the reference TRXLPE. Extensive diagnostic measurements (water content, dissipation factor, water tree analysis) were performed on failed cable samples to bring out the differences between the three insulations. Electron micrographic investigations revealed the size and distribution of micro voids in the new TR XLPE to be smaller supporting its extended life under these tests. The experimental details of the accelerated life tests are also documented in a clear manner facilitating any archival of the data for future analysis and comparison.

  17. Development of 66kV XLPE submarine cable using optical fiber as a mechanical-damage-detection-sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Toshio; Miyahara, Tsutomu [Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd., Okayama (Japan)] [Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd., Okayama (Japan); Takehana, Hajime; Tateno, Fuminori [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Submarine cables are exposed to great risk of serious mechanical damage by ship anchors or equipment used for fishing. Detection of such damage in a submarine cable is a very useful technology for improving the reliability of a submarine cable transmission line. A mechanical-damage-detection-sensor using optical fiber was developed. A prototype 66kV XLPE submarine cable incorporating the sensor was manufactured for trial, and the ability of a sensor was confirmed by compression test. Actual 66kV XLPE submarine cable incorporating the sensor was manufactured for trial, and the ability of a sensor was confirmed by compression test. Actual 66kV XLPE submarine cable with the sensor was manufactured and installed as an operating transmission line in Japan.

  18. Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations: Investigation of aged polymeric dielectric cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, G.S. Jr.; Seman, G.W.; Fryszczyn, B.

    1995-11-01

    Based on the successful completion of the extensive research project DOE/ET/29303-1 February 1982 to develop a new method for the determination of threshold voltage in XLPE and EPR insulated cables, tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating voltage stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables that become wet when they operate in a moist environment. The present report covers the measurement of the threshold voltage, the a.c. breakdown voltage and the impulse breakdown voltage of XLPE cable after undergoing accelerated laboratory aging in water. Model and 15 kV XLPE cables were manufactured in commercial equipment using state-of-the-art semiconducting shields and XLPE insulation. The threshold voltage, a.c. voltage breakdown and impulse voltage breakdown of the model cables were determined before aging, after aging one week and after aging 26 weeks. The model cable, following 26 weeks aging, was dried by passing dry gas through the conductor interstices which removed moisture from the cable. The threshold voltage, the a.c. voltage breakdown and the impulse voltage breakdown of the XLPE model cable after drying was measured.

  19. Flexible Ceramic-Insulated Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Cable withstands heat, radiation, and oxidation. Ceramic beads electrically insulate copper conductor from sheath of copper tape. Also suitable for furnaces, nuclear reactors, and robots operating in hot, radioactive environments.

  20. Application of a sealed tube test to the study of degraded insulation resulting from thermal aging of cables with PVC jacket

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Exrin; B. Bernstein

    1988-01-01

    The cause of dark amber spots formed in XLPE insulation of thermally aged power distribution cables with PVC (polyvinyl chloride) jacket was studied. Heating tests in sealed glass tubes showed that the spots are due to hydrogen chloride (HCl) evolved by PVC acting at localized sites of transition metals in the insulation. Small slices of insulation were used with controlled

  1. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  2. Electrical conduction of a XLPE nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Jun; Sim, Jae-Yong; Lim, Kee-Joe; Nam, Jin-Ho; Park, Wan-Gi

    2014-07-01

    The resistivity, breakdown strength, and formation of space charges are very important factors for insulation design of HVDC cable. It is known that a nano-sized metal-oxide inorganic filler reduces the formation of space charges in the polymer nanocomposite. Electrical conduction of cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE) nanocomposite insulating material is investigated in this paper. The conduction currents of two kinds of XLPE nanocomposites and XLPE without nano-filler were measured at temperature of 303 ~ 363 K under the applied electric fields of 10 ~ 50 kV/mm. The current of the nanocomposite specimen is smaller than that of XLPE specimen without nano-filler. The conduction mechanism may be explained in terms of Schottky emission and multi-core model.

  3. Investigation of high frequency signal propagation characteristics on HV XLPE cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. O. T. R. Blackburn; B. T. Phung; M. Vakilian; M. S. Naderi; H. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The insulation lifetime of power cables is determined by several factors. One of the more important of these is the occurrence of partial discharge (PD) at the dielectric. The ability to detect and locate a PD source is limited by attenuation of the high frequency PD pulses as they propagate through the cable. Therefore it is necessary to understand the

  4. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  5. Application of oxidation induction time and compensation effect to the diagnosis of HV polymeric cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Montanari; A. Motori; A. T. Bulinski; S. S. Bamji; J. Densley

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative stability tests were performed on field and laboratory-aged crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and polypropylene (PP) insulations using differential scanning calorimetry. Flat films and miniature cables aged in the laboratory were subjected to a wide range of aging conditions that included thermal, electrical and a combination of thermal-electrical aging, in dry and wet environments. The results were analyzed

  6. Water contamination in a cross-linked polyethylene cable joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Rittmann; S. V. Heyer

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of splice failures on a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cable is performed with particular interest in the effects of contaminants and the adsorption of water on surface track resistance of the splice pencil. Many cable users do not give sufficient consideration to the hygroscopic nature of XLPE surfaces when developing splicing procedures. This paper examines some of the

  7. 6.6kV XLPE submarine cable with optical fiber sensors to detect anchor damage and defacement of wire armor

    SciTech Connect

    Tayama, Hirohumi; Fukuda, Osamu; Yamamoto, Kenichi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Inoue, Yosimasa; Koike, Yohji [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. and Fujikura Ltd. have developed a 6.6kV XLPE submarine cable with optical fiber sensors to detect anchor damage and defacement of wire armor. The cable was installed between Kata and Tomogashima island in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The ability to detect cable damage was confirmed by compression test, curved tensile test using CIGRE-recommended method, and loop tests. Also, in this power cable, the distributed optical fiber sensor was built-in to measure cable temperature. This report shows the results of these tests and the outline of the cable installation.

  8. Space charge in HVDC cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Morshuis; Marc Jeroense

    2002-01-01

    High voltage cables that are used for DC transmission are subjected to a range of operating conditions. The resulting distribution of the electric field inside the cable is highly dependent on, for instance loading of the cable and polarity reversals. This is because the conductivity of the insulation is dependent both on the temperature and on the electric field. An

  9. Quality control of extruded HVDC cables: Low frequency endurance testing of model cables with contaminations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Mauseth; Erling Ildstad; Mildrid Selsjord; Rolf Hegerberg

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory experiments preformed in order to evaluate different methods for quality assurance of polymeric insulated HVDC cables. Samples of model cables were prepared, equipped with 1.5 mm thick XLPE insulation, containing insulating and conductive spherically shaped particle inclusions with diameters of 250, 140 or 80 ?m, distributed at the inner semi-conductor interface. The results indicates

  10. Electroluminescence and space charge distribution in XLPE subjected to ac fields at various frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Fujita; S. S. Bamji; M. Abou-Dakka; A. T. Bulinski

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) has been extensively used as an insulating material in underground distribution and transmission class high voltage cables. During service, diagnostic techniques are often employed to determine the operating condition of the insulation. Some techniques use frequencies much lower than the power frequency because the required high voltage power supplies are much smaller and it is assumed that

  11. Installation of 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Y.; Kuroshima, T.; Takeuchi, M. [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan)] [Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Co. (Japan); Sanpei, T.; Suzuki, S.; Ishikura, S.; Inoue, H.; Uematsu, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    The manufacturing and the installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe for the Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway were completed in 1993. It was the Japanese longest 66kV XLPE power-optical fiber composite submarine cable and the first application of optical fiber composite submarine water pipe composed of two hollow galvanized steel armor wires inserted with optical fiber to monitor and control of construction sites. This paper describes the application and development of the hollow steel armor wire with optical fiber ribbon and the features of construction and installation of the optical fiber composite submarine cable and water pipe.

  12. Risk Assessment of XLPE Power Cables Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-jia Huan; Gang Wang; Hai-feng Li; Zhi-bin Sun

    2010-01-01

    With the large-scale application of power cables in the urban power grid, the performance of power cables has a direct effect on the reliability of supply. Therefore, the risk assessment of power cables, which is an important act to improve power supply reliability and reduce economic loss, is vigorously carried out in power enterprises. The risk of power cables is

  13. Development of radiation resistant electrical cable insulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, B. S.; Soo, P.; Mackenzie, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Two new polyethylene cable insulations have been formulated for nuclear applications and have been tested under gamma radiation. Both insulations are based on low density polyethylene, one with PbO and the other with Sb2O3 as additives. The test results show that the concept of using inorganic antioxidants to retard radiation initiated oxidation (RIO) is viable. PbO is more effective than Sb2O3 in minimizing RIO.

  14. Far-infrared inspection of cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Cheo

    1978-01-01

    The results of an effort to study the feasibility of real-time, in-process detection of voids and contaminants in polyethylene insulation of power cables are delineated. The detection technique involves the application of far-infrared laser scattering from defects imbedded in the insulation. The effort included the demonstration of noncontacting, nondestructive, real-time detection of voids, and contaminants in: (1) thin slabs of

  15. 46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable insulation tests. 111.60-21 Section 111...and Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power...equipment must be checked for proper insulation resistance to ground and between...

  16. 46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable insulation tests. 111.60-21 Section 111...and Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power...equipment must be checked for proper insulation resistance to ground and between...

  17. 46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable insulation tests. 111.60-21 Section 111...and Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power...equipment must be checked for proper insulation resistance to ground and between...

  18. 46 CFR 111.60-21 - Cable insulation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable insulation tests. 111.60-21 Section 111...and Methods § 111.60-21 Cable insulation tests. All cable for electric power...equipment must be checked for proper insulation resistance to ground and between...

  19. Development of the new polymer insulating materials for HVDC cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoshifuji; T. Niwa; T. Takahashi; H. Miyata

    2002-01-01

    The properties of modified HDPE, selected from various polymer materials by evaluations of DC characteristics, were examined in both sheet and cable samples. It was found that the modification, which introduced a small amount of polar group into HDPE, considerably enhanced DC breakdown strength to as high as 1.5-2.0 times those of XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene). Under a poling voltage of

  20. Laser characterization of cable insulation: Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Cunningham; P. K. Cheo

    1988-01-01

    An instrument capable of detecting voids and contaminants in the insulation of extruded polyethylene has been previously developed. This instrument utilizes a far-infrared laser (FIRL) system operating at 119 microns. If a void or contaminant is present, the FIRL beam is scattered. This scattered beam is then detected and signals the presence of an imperfection in the cable. The current

  1. Electric fields in HVDC paper-insulated cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. P. Jeroense; P. H. F. Morshuis

    2002-01-01

    HVDC cables start playing a more and more important role in interconnecting national grids. This paper deals with the calculation of electric fields in HVDC cables. The calculation of fields in an HVDC cable is far more complex than the equivalent case in HV ac cables. This is due to the fact that the conductivity of the cable insulation is

  2. Degradation mechanism at XLPE\\/semicon interface subjected to high electrical stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski; R. J. Densley; M. Matsuki

    1991-01-01

    In HV devices such as power cables, electrical stress enhancement can occur at the interface of semiconducting shields (semicon) and polymeric insulation. In this study, points of electrical stress enhancement are simulated by embedding semicon protrusions into the polymer. XLPE with two different concentrations of crosslinking byproducts and impregnated with various gases has been used. It it shown that, prior

  3. Influence of oxidation on water tree initiation and growth in XLPE cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Bulinski; S. S. Bamji; R. J. Densley; J.-P. Crine; B. Noirhomme; B. S. Bernstein

    1989-01-01

    The authors have undertaken a detailed Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study of more than 250 water trees from more than twenty field-aged cables supplied by different utilities in the US and Canada. Most of these cables, removed from service after six to fifteen years, contained large water trees. The results give an ambiguous picture of the role of oxidation on

  4. Influence of contaminants on partial discharge characteristics for model XLPE transmission cable joints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Nadolny; J. M. Braun; R. J. Densley

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the influence on partial discharge (PD) characteristics of contaminants at the EPR-epoxy interfaces of transmission-class cable joints. The contaminants used included paper fibers and metallic whiskers which could inadvertently be present at the joint interfaces. The contaminants considered increase the local electric field at the interface, leading to PD activity and breakdown. This paper presents the results

  5. The relationship between electro-chemical-tree ageing and charge relaxations behaviour of XLPE power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Evers; H.-G. Kranz

    1988-01-01

    During the degradation of organic insulation, deterioration products are formed by oxidation, resulting in a change of the space-charge behavior. The initiation and growth of electrochemical treeing (ECT) implies a more complex decomposition by the simultaneous presence of water, electrical field, and a disturbed polymer. The chain of disintegration forms a greater amount of polymer radicals, hydroxyls, and many molecules

  6. Gas-Insulated Transmission Cable with Semi-Prefabricated Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mizukami; H. Sato; N. Andot

    1979-01-01

    A new gas-insulated transmission cable was developed aiming at higher insulation reliability and simple installation technique. The main features of the cable are a semi- prefabricated unit filled with SF6 gas, protection layers against contaminants and a stranded conductor laid in the units. Through a series of factory and field tests, it was verified that the electrical, mechanical and thermal

  7. Development History of HVDC Extruded Cable with Nanocomposite Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinao Murata; Mamoru Kanaoka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the outline of the development history of HVDC cable with nanocomposite material is introduced. Nano-sized MgO-filler added into XLPE, which had been developed for HVDC cable insulation, was not investigated from the view point of nanocomposite material until 2001. Since then, nano-scale observation of the dispersion state of nano-sized MgO-filler in HVDC cable insulation has been carried

  8. Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high-voltage insulations. Progress report No. 1, September 1, 1980May 30, 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sosnowski; C. Katz

    1981-01-01

    Based on the successful completion of an extensive research project to develop a new method for the determination of threshold voltages in XLPE and EPR insulated cables, tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating electric stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables having contaminants in the insulation. The present report covers the preliminary use of a range of sizes

  9. A general review of polymeric insulation for use in HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey L. Hanley; Robert P. Burford; Robert J. Fleming; Kenneth W. Barber

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a review article of the properties of XLPE and an examination of the origins of space charge and how it is measured. The space charge in the insulation and the conduction current can affect the electric stress distribution in the insulation. The effect of morphology on the electrical properties of polyethylene is discussed in detail.

  10. 30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. 75.516-2 Section...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. (a) All communication...and trolley feeder wires. Additional insulation shall be provided for...

  11. 30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. 75.516-2 Section...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. (a) All communication...and trolley feeder wires. Additional insulation shall be provided for...

  12. 30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. 75.516-2 Section...Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support. (a) All communication...and trolley feeder wires. Additional insulation shall be provided for...

  13. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinlan Xu; Tessa Pancras; Tim Grotenhuis

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical oxidation leads to partial removal of highly contaminated soil, therefore chemical oxidation was investigated and optimized aiming at

  14. Development of the new polymer insulating materials for HVDC cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoshifuji; T. Niwa; T. Takahasi; H. Miyata

    1992-01-01

    This paper relates to the new polymer insulating material for HVDC cable. The properties of modified HDPE, selected from various polymer materials by evaluations of DC characteristics were examined in both sheet and cable samples. It was found that the modification, which introduced a small amount of polar group into HDPE, considerably enhanced DC breakdown strength to as high as

  15. Space charge evolution in XLPE and EPR under high uniform electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Abou-Dakka; A. Bulinski; S. Bamji

    1998-01-01

    Evolution of a space charge with time of electric field application is investigated in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) subjected to uniform AC and DC fields of ~60 kV\\/mm. To simulate the insulation of polymeric high voltage cables the specimens were equipped with semicon electrodes. In order to minimize the effect of the amount of space charge

  16. The effects of voltage waveform factors on cable life estimation using measured distorted voltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Mazzanti; Gaetano Passarelli; Angela Russo; Paola Verde

    2006-01-01

    This work investigates expected life reduction of power cables under harmonic pollution, by processing the results of voltage harmonics measurements. Life estimates come from a life model developed by the authors in former studies, used here in its complete form, with all voltage waveform factors, i.e. peak, shape and rms factor. The application regards MV XLPE-insulated cables. The whole day

  17. Simultaneous measurement of Electroluminescence and dissipation current in cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tohyama; S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski

    2003-01-01

    Polymeric materials are widely used in high voltage devices such as capacitors, cables and transformers. Electroluminescence (EL), the emission of light in insulating materials subjected to high electric stress, is known to occur much before partial discharge inception. EL emission has been linked to the presence of space charge in the polymeric insulation. At high ac fields, charge injection from

  18. Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahder, G.; Sosnowski, M.; Katz, C.

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical and scientific publications relating to crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. A new methodology for the investigation of breakdown voltages of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed which is based on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and a.c. voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. A model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 900 C.

  19. Effect of Power Cable Insulator for Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Kenji; Seki, Kouichi; Arai, Toshihiko

    This paper describes calculation method of equivalent relative dielectric constant ?s of VVF cable. For Power line communication (PLC), VVF cables in homes are used as 2M to 30MHz high frequency transmission media. As they are not designed and installed for such transmission media, there are many branches and impedance mismatch points that cause PLC signal reflections and standing waves. In order to estimate such standing wave generation and estimate undesirable PLC signal radio wave leakage, the length of cable and relative dielectric constant ?s is important. However the insulator of VVF cable is thin and not symmetric, it is not easy to calculate ?s mathematically. In this paper, equivalent ?s is calculated numerically using PC soft EXCEL by dividing the electromagnetic field lines and analyzing the effect of insulator for each field line. The calculation result of VVF cable considering the limited insulator area around the conductors shows that the equivalent ?s is about 13% less and transmission speed is 7% faster than the insulator is full space around the cable.

  20. 30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated...

  1. 30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and cables shall be insulated...

  4. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires, shall be insulated adequately and fully...

  5. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power wires and cables, except trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires, shall be insulated adequately and fully...

  6. Dielectric insulation characteristics of liquid-nitrogen-impregnated laminated paper-insulated cable

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Ishihara, K.; Akita, S. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that the electric characteristics and insulation design strength of a liquid-nitrogen-impregnated synthetic insulation was considered. It found to detect the impregnation of liquid nitrogen by measuring the electrostatic capacitance of the cable [epsilon] [center dot] tan [delta] an index of the dielectric loss, was 0.31% for cellulose paper and 0.18% for semisynthetic paper, PPLP and OPPL. It is found that the decline of the thickness dependence of the breakdown strength of the liquid-nitrogen-impregnated insulating cable is steeper than that of the OF cables. It is possible to design the insulation strength of the 66 kV cable to 10 kV/mm.

  7. Far-infrared inspection of cable insulation. Interim report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheo

    1978-01-01

    The results of an effort to study the feasibility of real-time, in-process detection of voids and contaminants in polyethylene insulation of power cables are delineated. The detection technique involves the application of far-infrared laser scattering from defects imbedded in the insulation. The effort included the demonstration of noncontacting, nondestructive, real-time detection of voids and contaminants in: (1) thin slabs of

  8. Basic study of transient breakdown voltage in solid dielectric cables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A comprehensive review of publications relating to cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated cables revealed that there is very little known with respect to the life expectancy, the final factory voltage test background and the mechanism of voltage breakdown of these cables. In this study a new methodology was developed which depends on the investigation of breakdown voltages at various voltage transients such as unipolarity pulses and dual-polarity pulses, and ac voltage at power and high frequency. Also, a new approach to statistical testing was developed which allows one to establish a correlation among the breakdown voltages obtained with various voltage transients. Finally, a method for the determination of threshold voltage (true partial discharge inception voltage) regardless of the magnitude of apparent charge was developed. Extensive statistical testing of breakdown voltages was conducted using: impulses with front durations from approximately 1.5 to 1000 ..mu..s and times to half-values from 40 to 3000 ..mu..s; dual-polarity pulses consisting of dc voltage and standard impulse of opposite polarity; combined ac and dc voltages; and ac voltages at power and high frequencies. Based on the results of this testing, a model of breakdown and electrical aging of XLPE and EPR insulated cables was developed as well as life expectancy characteristics for high voltage stress XLPE insulated cables operated in a dry environment at room temperature and at 90/sup 0/C. Life expectancy characteristics for EPR insulated cables are approximated. A test procedure including requirements for full-reel factory voltage withstand and partial discharge testing of finished XLPE and EPR insulated cables is proposed. Cables that pass the proposed tests will exhibit a smaller rate of failure in service than cables tested in accordance with present practices.

  9. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  10. 49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Tests; All Systems § 236.108 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance of wires and...

  11. 49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Tests; All Systems § 236.108 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance of wires and...

  12. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made...

  13. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made...

  14. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made...

  15. 49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Tests; All Systems § 236.108 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance of wires and...

  16. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance tests shall be made...

  17. 49 CFR 236.108 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking...Tests; All Systems § 236.108 Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. (a) Insulation resistance of wires and...

  18. Measurement of organic and inorganic ions in cable insulation and shields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gilbert; J.-P. Crine; B. Noirhomme; S. Pelissou

    1989-01-01

    It was demonstrated that HPIC (high-performance ion chromatography) can detect inorganic and organic ions in PE (polyethylene) and XLPE (cross-linked PE) insulation and shields in concentrations as low as ~10 ?g\\/L in the extraction solutions. This analytical technique requires liquid extraction of the ions prior to their content evaluation. The limitations of the extraction technique used are discussed. The detected

  19. 30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517-1 Section...517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and...or after March 30, 1970, shall have insulation with a dielectric strength at least...

  20. 30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517-1 Section...517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and...or after March 30, 1970, shall have insulation with a dielectric strength at least...

  1. 30 CFR 75.517-1 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517-1 Section...517-1 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. Power wires and...or after March 30, 1970, shall have insulation with a dielectric strength at least...

  2. 30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...shearer cables need to be trained. When cables need to be trained, high-voltage insulated gloves, mitts, hooks, tongs, slings, aprons, or other personal protective equipment capable of providing protection against shock hazard must be used to...

  3. 30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...shearer cables need to be trained. When cables need to be trained, high-voltage insulated gloves, mitts, hooks, tongs, slings, aprons, or other personal protective equipment capable of providing protection against shock hazard must be used to...

  4. 30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...shearer cables need to be trained. When cables need to be trained, high-voltage insulated gloves, mitts, hooks, tongs, slings, aprons, or other personal protective equipment capable of providing protection against shock hazard must be used to...

  5. 30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...shearer cables need to be trained. When cables need to be trained, high-voltage insulated gloves, mitts, hooks, tongs, slings, aprons, or other personal protective equipment capable of providing protection against shock hazard must be used to...

  6. 30 CFR 75.818 - Use of insulated cable handling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...shearer cables need to be trained. When cables need to be trained, high-voltage insulated gloves, mitts, hooks, tongs, slings, aprons, or other personal protective equipment capable of providing protection against shock hazard must be used to...

  7. Measurement of the harmonic distortion of the insulation loss current as a diagnostic tool for high voltage cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Bulinski; E. So; S. S. Bamji

    2000-01-01

    The 60 Hz insulation loss current measurements in high voltage cable insulation containing water trees are described. To isolate the small insulation loss current from the significantly larger, quadrature (capacitive) current, a current-comparator-based high voltage capacitance bridge was used. It is shown that water trees introduce higher harmonics into the insulation loss current waveform and that the harmonic distortion of

  8. Crossing quantities: How to compare electrical strength performances of insulation compounds for power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marzinotto; G. Mazzanti; C. Mazzetti

    2009-01-01

    An innovative theory—derived from the “enlargement law”—about how to compare the breakdown performances of power cable insulation compounds is illustrated and applied herein. This theory enables the selection between two different compounds candidate for the insulation of power cables via dielectric strength tests performed on cable models. In particular, compound performances are investigated vs. cable length looking for the so-called

  9. A study on thickness effect of HTS cable for insulation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, H. G.; Kwag, D. S.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2006-06-01

    The electrical insulating design is important to realize the HTS (high temperature superconducting) cable because this cable is operated under the high voltage environment. For the insulation design of HTS cable, it is necessary to investigate the PD (partial discharge) inception, ac and impulse breakdown strength of LN2 (liquid nitrogen)/LPP (laminated polypropylene) composite insulation system. However, the designed insulation thickness by ac and impulse could not be applied to cable fabrication process due to much low electrical breakdown strength. The effect of the multi-layered insulation paper was not considered on the previous insulation design and the insulation thickness by PD inception strength could be applied only. In this paper, the electrical breakdown characteristic, which considered the effect of multi-layered of LPP, was investigated to design the insulation thickness.

  10. 49 CFR 234.267 - Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Insulation resistance tests, wires in trunking and cables. 234...CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.267 Insulation...

  11. Effect of D. C. testing water tree deteriorated cable and a preliminary evaluation of V. L. F. as alternate

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, G.S. Jr.; Fryszczyn, B.; Katz, C. (Cable Technology Lab., Inc., New Brunswick, NJ (US)); ElBadaly, H.A.; Jean, A.R. (Consolidated Edison of New York, Inc., New York, NY (US))

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that according to the experience of some power utilities, the application of industry recommended high voltage d.c. field tests on 5-35 kV extruded dielectric cables, containing water trees, sometimes causes further deterioration of the insulation. Tests conducted on laboratory aged 15 kV ethylene propylene rubber (EP) and 15 and 28 kV crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) insulated cables indicate that d.c. proof tests in accordance with AEIC specifications an IEEE test guides without flashover do not appear to cause further deterioration. Depending on the degree of cable aging and the level of test voltage, when flashovers take place, damage may be inflicted to XLPE cables. No damage was observed on aged EP cable, at the same test levels. Because of the aforementioned power utility experience, some users have requested an alternate field proof test. Tests conducted on new XLPE and EP cables indicate that damage to the insulation structure can be detected using VLF (0.1 Hz) voltage at approximately one-third the d.c. voltage level. Field tests conducted on severely tree deteriorated 15 kV polyethylene (PE) cable using AEIC recommended d.c. voltage level of about five times operating voltage level caused cable failure; VLF voltage levels up to two times operating voltage did not. VLF voltage appears to be a suitable alternate to d.c. voltage for field proof testing.

  12. 30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 56.12008 Section...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires...

  15. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517 Section 75.517 Mineral Resources...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power...

  16. 30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. 57.12008 Section...MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires...

  17. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517 Section 75.517 Mineral Resources...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power...

  18. 30 CFR 75.517 - Power wires and cables; insulation and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. 75.517 Section 75.517 Mineral Resources...Equipment-General § 75.517 Power wires and cables; insulation and protection. [Statutory Provisions] Power...

  19. Laser detection of voids and contaminants in polyethylene-insulated power cables. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheo

    1979-01-01

    The results of a continuing effort leading toward the development of an on-line inspection instrument for quality control of extruded solid dielectric cable insulation are delineated. The inspection method involves the processing of far-infrared laser signals scattered from defects imbedded in cable insulation and has been well established during the Phase I program period. During the course of the Phase

  20. Dielectric phenomena in the breakdown of non pressure assisted, impregnated paper insulated, HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Gazzana Priaroggia; P. Metra; G. Miramonti

    1992-01-01

    The authors present an overview of dielectric phenomena in the breakdown of non-pressure-assisted, impregnated-paper-insulated HVDC (high-voltage direct-current) cables. Dielectric breakdown stress results are presented and interpreted. The dielectric phenomena arising in a shrinkage void formed within a cable insulation made of impregnated paper layers are analyzed

  1. Thermal ageing assessment of EPDM-chlorosulfonated polyethylene insulated cables using line resonance analysis (LIRA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ekelund; P. F. Fantoni; U. W. Gedde

    2011-01-01

    Two cables with chlorosulfonated polyethylene jackets and EPDM core insulations, but having different designs and geometries, were aged at 140 °C for different periods of time mimicking ageing at 50 °C for an exposure time of more than one hundred years. The cable samples were aged in dry air and dry nitrogen. The cable samples were studied with indenter modulus measurements, tensile

  2. Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with micro-cavity in tracking failure test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, L.; Li, S.; Wang, S. B.; Lei, S. L.; Liu, S. X.

    2011-12-01

    Installation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable joint possibly introduces defects into the XLPE-silicon rubber interface, such as micro-cavity and micro-wire. Those defects greatly decrease the interfacial breakdown strength and endanger the stability of power system. However, the traditional method only measures the breakdown strength, which alone is limited and can not provide detailed information to more clearly understand the dielectric performance and tracking failure mechanism. This paper investigated the effect of micro-cavity on tracking failure by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization. Interfaces with those defects were setup by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. A 50 Hz AC voltage was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm until tracking failure occurred. The evolution of both discharge light and carbonization at the interface from discharge to the failure was recorded with a video recorder and then their channel width was analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that micro-cavity at an XLPE-silicon rubber interface strengthens the transportation of charge and easily leads to interfacial discharge and tracking failure. The distribution of discharge light and carbonization at the interface with micro-wire proves this.

  3. Development of technology for the manufacture of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables rated 138 through 345 kV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bahder; C. Katz; D. A. Silver

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to develop the technology required to manufacture chemically crosslinked polyethylene insulated power cables in the voltage range 138 to 345 kV, and having insulation thicknesses approximately equal to oil-impregnated paper insulated cables. Background studies are presented using miniature cable models to demonstrate the effect on voltage breakdown strength of irregularities at the

  4. Effect of ethylene content on bowtie trees and wet electrical performance in filled EPR insulation materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amalendu Sarkar; Mark Easter; Ed Walcott; William Temple; J. T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The insulation for extruded medium voltage power cables currently used world-wide are based on two broad categories of polymeric materials: crosslinkable elastomers, consisting of Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR)*, and crosslinkable low density polyethylene, consisting of Crosslinked Polyethylene (XLPE) or Tree Retardant Crosslinked Polyethylene (TRXLPE). These two broad categories have over 40 years of proven field performance. A considerable amount of

  5. Electric characterization of films peeled from the insulation of extruded HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Zebouchi; P. Carstensen; A. A. Farkas; A. Campus; U. H. Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    During the manufacture of cross-linked polyethylene cables the insulation material experiences temperature protocols which vary with the radial position. The time-temperature scheme has, however, a major influence on microstructure of the insulation and chemical composition of the peroxide by-products. Thus it could be expected that the electrical properties of the insulation would vary with the spatial position within the cable.

  6. International research and development trends and problems of HVDC cables with polymeric insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salah Khalil

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the worldwide research and development of HVDC cables with polymeric insulation. The unique features of the dc insulation characteristics of polyethylene are presented and discussed. The problems of using polymeric insulation in HVDC applications are presented and analyzed.

  7. 30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12008 - Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12008 Insulation and fittings for power wires and cables. Power wires and...

  9. Dielectrometry measurements of moisture diffusion and temperature dynamics in oil impregnated paper insulated electric power cables

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

    2007-01-01

    Paper insulated lead covered (PILC) cables have played an important role in underground power distribution for a hundred years. Replacing aged PILC before failure is critical to managing power distribution. Three prominent ...

  10. Electromagnetic Techniques for Fault and Partial Discharge Location in Gas-Insulated Cables and Substations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Boggs

    1982-01-01

    The fully enclosed nature of gas-insulated substations substantially increases the difficulty of testing, maintaining, and troubleshooting the switchgear. Under EPRI sponsorship, Ontario Hydro has developed systems for fault location in gas cables and partial discharge location for cables and substations.

  11. On the use of doped polyethylene as an insulating material for HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salah Khalil

    2002-01-01

    The merits of HVDC power cables with polymeric insulation are well recognized. However, the development of such cables is still hampered due to problems resulting from the complicated dependence of the electrical conductivity of the polymer on the temperature and the DC electric field and the effects of space charge accumulation in this material. Different methods have been suggested to

  12. Transition of Progressing Aspect of Negative Creeping Discharge along Aerial Insulated Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Toshiyuki; Hanaoka, Ryoichi; Takata, Shinzo

    When a stroke of lightning happens in the vicinity of the outdoor high voltage distribution lines, the inductive lightning surge invades to the central line of aerial insulated cables. The creeping discharges can progress along the cable surface from the free end of the binding wire just after the flashover of the insulator at the cable supporting points. If the weak points such as the pin-holes exist in the insulated coating near the cable supporting points, the creeping discharges may give rise to a punch-through breakdown of the insulated coating and melting or snapping accidents of the cable. To prevent these disasters, it is important to clarify the mechanism of the creeping discharge phenomena along the cable surface. The negative creeping discharge along the cable surface depends on the peak value of surge voltage and its progressing process is extremely complicated. We already reported photographically the progressing aspect of the negative creeping discharge using a high-speed image converter camera. In this paper, we consider the progressing mechanism of negative creeping discharge using the discharge models which propose on the basis of the discharge photographs that have been obtained by experimental observations.

  13. Evidence of strong correlation between space-charge buildup and breakdown in cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yewen Zhang; Jacques Lewiner; Claude Alquie; Nigel Hampton

    1996-01-01

    Many processes have been considered over the years to explain the origin of breakdown in cable insulation. Such effects as space charge build-up, tree growth, charge injection, etc. have all been discussed. Various techniques are now available to measure, in a nondestructive way, space charge distributions in insulators. These techniques, for instance the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method, can be

  14. Time resolved measurements of electroluminescence in XLPE under impulse voltage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufhold, M.; Bamji, S.S.; Bulinski, A.T. [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Time resolved electroluminescence (EL) measurements were performed on high voltage grade XLPE cable insulation using negative impulse voltages of different shape and duration. To create divergent fields in the insulation, needle electrodes made of semiconductive polymer were used. It is shown that the El emission probability is independent of the impulse rise time but increases with the impulse fall time and amplitude. Independently of the impulse shape and duration, EL pulses are always grouped into two distinct time intervals between which there is no El activity. The first El period begins at the rising portion of the impulse and the second at the falling portion when the impulse voltage drops below 50% of its peak value. EL emission during the first interval is believed to be caused by electron injection and the impact excitation processes, whereas the EL in the second interval is seen to be due to the local electric field reversal and the electron-hole recombination.

  15. On the particle-initiated breakdown of SF6 insulated cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Morcos; K. D. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    The excellent insulation properties of compressed sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are adversely affected by metallic-particle contamination in practical compressed-gas insulated cables (GIC). The movement of such particles is random and the particles play a crucial role in determining the insulation behavior of GIC. This paper reports some calculations of the breakdown probability of compressed SF6 when aluminum wire particles are present

  16. Luminescence in crosslinked polyethylene of high voltage cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski

    1997-01-01

    Luminescence can occur in crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) of underground high voltage cables. Above room temperature XLPE emits thermoluminescence even without voltage application and the intensity of this light depends on the concentration of the crosslinking by-products present in the polymer. Above a certain threshold voltage XLPE, at or above room temperature, emits electroluminescence and the inception voltage of electroluminescence is

  17. Spatial and spectral resolution of electroluminescence in XLPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new experimental setup that can simultaneously resolve the spectral and spatial distributions of electroluminescence (EL) at points of stress enhancement in XLPE cable. The set-up consists of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to simultaneously capture the EL when high voltage is applied to the polymer. The spectra, resolved by interference

  18. A Sol-Gel Approach to the Insulation of Rutherford Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, F.; Hascicek, Y. S.; Sumption, M. D.; Arda, L.; Aslanoglu, Z.; Akin, Y.; Collings, E. W.

    2004-06-01

    Two wind-and-react compatible variants for the electrical insulation of Rutherford cables by a sol-gel route have been investigated. The first variant involves the direct application of a sol-gel coating of SnO2-ZrO2 to the surface of the strands in the cable, whereas the second is an indirect approach consisting of coating stainless steel tapes with MgO-ZrO2 that are to be wrapped around or co-wound with the cable. Following the application of the insulation by one of the two methods, the insulation electrical resistance and breakdown voltage were determined for samples consisting of two 7 inches long cables pressed together and vacuum impregnated with epoxy (CTD-101K). With a notable exception, the breakdown voltages on directly insulated cables were too low for practical purposes. Better results, with breakdown voltages ranging from 20 to almost 200 V, were obtained for insulator coatings applied to stainless steel tapes. An additional sintering at 700-800°C for 6-12h of the coatings deposited on stainless steel was found to increase the breakdown voltage.

  19. Condition assessment of 12- and 24kV XLPE cables installed during the 80s. Results from a joint Norwegian\\/Swedish research project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sverre Hvidsten; B. Holmgren; L. Adeen; J. Wetterstrom

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the condition assessment of 12- and 24-kV cross-linked polyethylene (XPLE) cables using a technique based on dielectric spectroscopy initially developed at KTH in Sweden. The work aims to examine whether the method could detect water tree degradation for the second generation medium voltage (MV) cables with long, but not bridging, water trees. While the

  20. ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    GROVE,E.; LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; HSU,F.

    2000-04-06

    Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables.

  1. Partial Discharge Characteristics in Composite Insulation Systems with PPLP for HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Tatamidani, K.; Masuda, T.

    2014-05-01

    The electrical insulation system of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable consists of liquid nitrogen (N2(l)) and polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP). Partial discharge (PD) may occur in butt gaps of the insulation layers and its characteristics imply the insulation performance of HTS cables. N2(l) cooling system is installed in the power system and N2(l) will flow through the cables during the system operation. Filling the HTS cable with N2(l) in order to perform pre-shipment inspection is time-consuming and costly for cable manufacturers. Therefore, they are trying to find a cost effective method for pre-shipment inspections. One alternative is to use high pressure gaseous nitrogen (N2(g)) instead of N2(l). This article investigates PD characteristics such as PD inception electric field (PDIE) and PD extinction electric field (PDEE) in butt gaps of HTS cables in 0.1 to 0.3 MPa and 0.1 MPa to 1.0 MPa N2(g) environments. For assessing the surface/volume effects, PD characteristics are measured with changing the size of butt gaps. It turns out that PDIE and PDEE in N2(g) are linearly correlated with those in N2(l) at any gas pressure in our testing, and PDIE in 1.0 MPa N2(g) is almost 30% of that in 0.2 MPa It suggests that PD characteristics in N2(l) can be extrapolated from those in N2(g).

  2. Development of 500 kV DC PPLP-insulated oil-filled submarine cable

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimori, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, H. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)] [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Imajo, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, R. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kakihana, T. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a 500 kV DC oil-filled submarine cable capable of transmitting 2,800 MW with {+-} 500 kV 2800A bipole system. Polypropylene Laminated Paper (PPL) was employed as the insulation material, which is the worlds first application to DC cables. The conductor size is 3,000 mm{sup 2}, which is the largest size for submarine cables ever put into practical use. Through various fundamental and prototype tests, the cable proved to have excellent electrical characteristics for DC voltage as well as transient overvoltage. The cable and accessories are currently undergoing a long-term accelerated aging test as the final confirmation of their reliability and stability.

  3. Effect of processing conditions on the reliability of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation. First year report

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P J

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in crystallization and morphology, treed cables, and cable production on the reliability of cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation. Scanning electron microscopy of polished surfaces etched with carbon tetrachloride vapor, differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction were used for morphological investigations until recently when good results have been obtained using the technique of permanganic acid etching. (FS)

  4. Development of 500-kV AC cable employing laminar insulation of other than conventional cellulosic paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahder, G.; Eager, G. S., Jr.; Walker, J. J.; Dima, A. F.

    1980-09-01

    The results of an investigation to develop a 500 kV ac laminar dielectric power cable and joint having insulation with lower losses than conventional cellulosic paper insulation are presented. Background information is presented on proposed low loss synthetic and composite synthetic/cellulosic paper insulations. From these studies, fibrous polypropylene paper tape and cellulosic paper-polypropylene film-cellulosic paper composite paper (PPP) were chosen. Extensive testing of handwrapped cable models fabricated with each type of tape served to eliminate the fibrous polypropylene paper tape from further consideration. Cable model tests indicate that the PPP tape is satisfactory for insulation in 500 kV ac cable, and that oil impregnants now used in conventional cellulosic paper insulated cables are unsuitable, but that silicone oil with an additive is satisfactory for PPP tapes.

  5. A new application area for fullerenes: voltage stabilizers for power cable insulation.

    PubMed

    Jarvid, Markus; Johansson, Anette; Kroon, Renee; Bjuggren, Jonas M; Wutzel, Harald; Englund, Villgot; Gubanski, Stanislaw; Andersson, Mats R; Müller, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Fullerenes are shown to be efficient voltage-stabilizers for polyethylene, i.e., additives that increase the dielectric strength of the insulation material. Such compounds are highly sought-after because their use in power-cable insulation may considerably enhance the transmission efficiency of tomorrow's power grids. On a molal basis, fullerenes are the most efficient voltage stabilizers reported to date. PMID:25504254

  6. Development of diagnostic methods for characterization of physical-chemical evolution of on-site and laboratory high voltage cable insulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Clavreul; F. Wynant

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant measurement methods for polyethylene insulation cables have been studied. Water measurement based on the Karl-Fischer method is applicable to aged polyethylene cables insulation in order to detect water obtained by diffusion. Nothing can be concluded from impurity migration analysis diagnostic methods. PIXE and NAA at ppm concentrations indicated no impurity diffusion in aged polyethylene cable insulation. Improvements in the

  7. Genetic algorithm for the optimization of rubber insulated high voltage power cables production lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Milani; F. Milani

    2008-01-01

    The optimization of vulcanized EPM\\/EPDM mechanical properties must be a fundamental task for electric cables producers. Insulator mechanical properties depend on the vulcanization degree of the rubber, which is obtained by manufacturers by means of a number of different peroxides acting as reticulation inducers. The industrial production process consists in the extrusion coating of the conductor with elastomeric compounds, and

  8. Feature article - Polymeric HVDC cable design and space charge accumulation. Part 2: insulation interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Deipino; D. Fabiani; G. C. Montanari; C. Laurent; G. Teyssedre; P. H. F. Morshuis; R. Bodega; L. A. Dissado

    2008-01-01

    The electric field distribution of cable insulation systems under HVDC can be affected significantly at interfaces due to space charge build-up. In this article, the second part of a three-article series, face and space charge accumulation are analyzed first in terms of macroscopic physics, then through approximate mathematical models that will be used to fit experimental data obtained for model

  9. Influence of different test conditions on volume resistivity of polymeric insulated cables and polyethylene samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rakowska; K. Hajdrowski

    2002-01-01

    Resistivity is one of the main quality and usefulness parameters of dielectric materials. For cable insulation the most significant is volume resistivity rather than surface resistivity. Measurement of resistivity is relatively difficult because of the influence of many different factors on its value. Exterior factors are temperature, humidity, surface pollution, time and type of applied voltage; interior factors are structure,

  10. Safety considerations of aerial systems using insulated and covered wire and cable

    SciTech Connect

    Landinger, C.C.; McAuliffe, J.W. [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States)] [Hendrix Wire and Cable, Milford, NH (United States); Clapp, A.L.; Dagenhart, J.B. [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States)] [Clapp Research Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States); Thue, W.A.

    1997-04-01

    Insulated and covered wires and cables have been used in aerial applications for over fifty years. Their various constructions, characteristics, and applications are discussed in Design and Application of Aerial Systems Using Insulated and Covered Wire and Cable. Some have suggested that covered wires and cables should be used in general applications solely for the purpose of providing safety to operating personnel and the general public. This paper discusses factors leading to the conclusion that nonshielded, covered conductor should not be installed solely to assure personal safety. The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) treats covered conductors as bare conductors for purposes of clearances to personnel spaces; such a requirement is strongly supported by this paper.

  11. Thermally stimulated current from water-treed XLPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski; Y. Chen

    1992-01-01

    The authors report thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements on unaged and aged water-tree retardant XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene). It is shown that the TSC spectra change with the degradation of polymeric insulation due to water treeing. The nonuniform distribution of charges in the aged specimens could be due to the penetration of ions and water molecules into the polymer during aging

  12. Investigation of Cable Insulation and Mechanical Properties of Niobium-Tin Composite

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Chichili, T.T. Arkan and I. Terechkine

    1999-04-23

    As a part of the Fermilab high field Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole development program, various issues of magnet technology are being investigated. In cable insulation development, S-2 fiber glass sleeve and a new ceramic insulation developed by Composite Technology Development Inc. (CTD) were studied as a possible candidates. For each type of insulation, Nb{sub 3}Sn ten-stack samples were reacted and then vacuum impregnated with epoxy. Measurements of modulus of elasticity and Poisson?s ratio under compression were made at room temperature and at 4.2 K. For comparison, an epoxy impregnated NbTi composite was also tested.

  13. Equipment qualification research test of electrical cable with factor splices and insulation rework: Test no. 2, report no. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, E. E.; Furgal, D. T.

    1982-09-01

    Electric cables with flame retardant chemically crosslinked polyolefin extruded insulation containing factory made center conductor splices and insulation repairs manufactured by the Rockbestos Company were used in a methodology test of the IEEE Standard 383-1974. Cable specimens were radiation aged at a low dose rate and then thermally aged to simulate a 40 year containment exposure. After aging, the specimens were subjected to LOCA radiation and a 33 day steam and chemical spray exposure. The cables were electrically loaded and functioned without failure during and after LOCA steam and chemical spray exposure. Insulation resistance measurements were taken during the exposure sequence. Subsequence to the exposures, hipot and mandrel bend tests were conducted. To determine the most severe cable aging sequence, cable insulation material samples were subjected to varied aging exposure to observe sequence related and dose rate related material degradation. A dose rate effect was observed.

  14. Electric field analysis on the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Koo, Ja-Yoon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2014-09-01

    DC HTS power cable is a promising electric power transmission line for the future of smart grid, and it has been competitively investigated at many research institutes all over the world. For the commercialization of DC HTS cable, higher power transmission capacity and longer length for long distance transmission line should be prepared. In order to meet the needs of long distance DC HTS cable, a joint box should be developed for the connection of cable components. As for AC HTS cable, a number of patents of nominal joint box have been already reported. However, any conceptual designs of the joint box for DC HTS cable have not been suggested yet. One of the reasons is that the cryogenic high voltage insulation design, especially in DC environment is not fully investigated yet. Conventional normal joint box for AC HTS cable could not be directly applied to DC HTS cable because different electric field distributions compared to AC electric field which requires totally different electrical insulation design concepts. In this paper, in order to establish the basic insulation design of the stop joint box (SJB) for DC HTS cable, three kinds of SJB models were designed and electric field analyses have been conducted both considering AC and DC environment. And the critical factors affecting the DC insulation design of the stop joint box were analyzed. From the simulation results, it was observed that the electric field distribution was totally different both in AC and DC operating conditions. And it was possible to find the weakest regions in the insulation design of the SJB. Consequently, based on the DC electric field analysis, the insulation design criteria and the desirable configurations were suggested for the insulation design of the stop joint box for DC HTS cable.

  15. IFSMTF experiences and conclusions regarding the use of Kapton insulated, high-voltage cable in a vacuum/cryogenic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.T. Jr.; Luton, J.N. Jr.; Shen, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF), formerly called the Large Coil Test Facility, with regard to the use of Kapton insulated cable for high-voltage instrumentation within the IFSMTF vacuum vessel. Initial high-potential tests performed on the General Dynamics electrical system were disappointing and led to a general review and subsequent change of the philosophy and technology associated with the use of Kapton insulated cable.

  16. Comparative analysisof grounding systems formed by MV cable lines with either uninsulated or insulated metal sheath(s)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ljubivoje M. Popovi?

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that medium-voltage (MV) paper-insulated cables essentially reduce the potentials appearing during a ground fault in substations located in urban surroundings. This is explained by the fact that these cables usually (normally) have an uncoated metallic sheath. Due to this, MV cable lines leaving a high-voltage\\/middle-voltage (HV\\/MV) substation act as long external grounding electrodes and spontaneously form

  17. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through porous superconducting cable insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Baudouy, B.J.P.; Juster, F.P.; Meuris, C.; Vieillard, L. [CEA, Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The LHC program includes the study of thermal behavior of the superconducting cables wound in the dipole magnet cooled by superfluid helium (He II). Insulation of these superconducting cables forms the major thermal shield hindering the He II cooling. This is particularly a problem in magnets which are subjected to thermal loads. To investigate He II heat transfer processes an experimental model has been realized which creates a one-dimensional heat transfer in such media. Insulation is generally realized by wrapping around the superconducting cable a combination of different kind of Kapton{reg_sign} tapes, fiber-glass impregnated by epoxy resin or Kevlar{reg_sign} fiber tapes. Steady-state heat transfer in He II through these multi-layer porous slabs has been analyzed. Experimental results for a range of heat flux show the existence of different thermal regimes related to He II. It is shown that the parameters of importance are a global geometrical factor which could be considered as an equivalent {open_quotes}permeability{close_quotes} related to He II heat transfer, the transfer function f(T) of He II and the thermal conductivity of the slab. The authors present and analyze results for different insulations as a function of the temperature.

  18. Induced Surge Characteristics on a Control Cable in a Gas-Insulated Substation due to Switching Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Ametani; Takahiro Goto; Naoto Nagaoka; Hiroshi Omura

    2007-01-01

    This paper has investigated the basic characteristics of switching surges in a gas-insulated substation and induced surges to a control cable based on EMTP simulations. It has been found that a switching surge voltage on the core conductor of a gas-insulated bus (GIB) tends to increase and the oscillating frequency becomes lower as the number of spacers increases. The maximum

  19. Discharge light and carbonization distribution characteristics at XLPE-silicon rubber interface with silicon-grease in tracking failure test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liang; Liu, W.; Lei, S. L.; Wang, S. B.; Deng, Y. Y.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging processing method was adopted to investigate the effect of silicon grease on tracking failure of the XLPEsilicon rubber interface by analyzing the distribution characteristics of discharge light and carbonization at the interface. Three interfaces were set up by pressing together a slice of XLPE and a slice of transparent silicon rubber. One filled silicon grease and the other partly filled the grease. As comparison, the third one filled on grease. High voltage (AC 50 Hz) was applied on a pair of flat-round electrodes sandwiched at the interface with their insulation distance of 5 mm. When the test voltage was raised to a certain value, discharge occurred and discharge light appeared and carbonization accumulated at the interface. The discharge light from discharge to the failure and the carbonization after the failure was recorded with a digital video recorder and then the images were analyzed with image processing method. Obtained results show that silicon grease at the interface weakens the transportation of charge and enhances the interfacial breakdown strength. However, interfacial discharge and tracking failure easily occur once discharge appears. Image processing method is helpful to understand the tracking failure process and mechanism of XLPE cable joint.

  20. Long-term aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical cables

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.F.; Gauthier, G.; Carlin, F. [and others

    1996-10-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the aging degradation and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical cables subjected to long-term aging exposures. Four different cable types were tested in both the U.S. and France: (1) U.S. 2 conductor with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (2) U.S. 3 conductor with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (3) French 3 conductor with EPR insulation and a Hypalon jacket. (4) French coaxial with polyethylene (PE) insulation and a PE jacket. The data represent up to 5 years of simultaneous aging where the cables were exposed to identical aging radiation doses at either 40{degrees}C or 70{degrees}C; however, the dose rate used for the aging irradiation was varied over a wide range (2-100 Gy/hr). Aging was followed by exposure to simulated French LOCA conditions. Several mechanical, electrical, and physical-chemical condition monitoring techniques were used to investigate the degradation behavior of the cables. All the cables, except for the French PE cable, performed acceptably during the aging and LOCA simulations. In general, cable degradation at a given dose was highest for the lowest dose rate, and the amount of degradation decreased as the dose rate was increased.

  1. HV cables at the turn of the century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bjorlow-Larsen

    2000-01-01

    HV cable technology is characterized by a change over from the conventional lapped paper dielectric impregnated with oil under pressure to extruded synthetic dielectrics. Thermoplastic polyethylene and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) are increasingly used at higher and higher voltage levels because of favorable properties (low dielectric losses, simple maintenance, elimination of impregnant etc.). XLPE is used extensively in most countries up

  2. Development of insulation material for DC cables -- Space charge properties of metallocene catalyzed polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Fujita, Michitomo; Tanimoto, Gen; Aida, Fumio; Fujiwara, Yasutaka [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Applicability of polyethylene polymerized using a metallocene catalyst to an insulation material for DC power cables has been investigated. The accumulation properties of space charge in a range from room temperature to 90 C was examined using the pulse electroacoustic method. The result indicated that hetero-charge was observed in the vicinity of the surface of sample at increased temperature, and that hetero-space charge produced by activation of an antioxidant added to the sample was increased or decreased with the increase of the temperature of sample. A hetero-charge absorber was added for controlling the hetero-space charge. As a result, hetero-charge was not observed on the sample in a high electric field extending from room temperature to high temperature. It was confirmed that the volume resistivity of sample was increased at high temperature.

  3. Coaxial cable connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caro, Edward R. (inventor); Bonazza, Walter J. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A coaxial cable connector is provided, which resists radio frequency breakdown in coaxial cables used in the vacuum of outer space. The connector body surrounds an insulator which includes an easily compressible elastomeric portion. An insulated coaxial cable is prepared so that its insulation projects beyond the outer conductor and compresses the elastomeric portion of the connector insulator.

  4. The influence of macrofouling on two polymers used as insulation on submarine high voltage cables in Cozumel, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Delgado, R.; Valero-Huerta, M.A. [Lab. de Pruebas de Equipos y Materiales, Irapuato (Mexico)

    1995-11-01

    Macrofouling is a major source of problems causing poor power plant availability and efficiency. A variety of macrofouling control technologies has been developed for use at power plants, however, only one control technology has been designed to protect submarine cables used for electric transmission. The selection of materials possessing antifouling properties is the method used to control the growth of marine fouling organisms. Such methodology is applied in this study with the purpose of evaluating the behavior of two polymers. This practice will permit choosing the polymer that presents the better antifouling properties. In this study are presented the results obtained from the tension and elongation tests accomplished on two kinds of plastic materials: high density polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), both of which were exposed to bio-degradation during 106 and 162 days, at different depths in the Caribbean Sea. The proven materials will be used as electrical insulation in submarine cables of high voltage: 115 kV.

  5. Coaxial Cable

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    A coaxial cable consists of an outer conductor and an inner conductor separated by an insulating plastic filler. These two conductors usually carry equal currents in opposite directions. You may have seen this type of configuration on cable TV hookups as well as certain types of computer networks.

  6. 30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...voltage of the circuit. When the tubing is split for purposes of installation, the joints shall be effectively sealed. The butt ends may be sealed with a moisture resistant insulating tape. (3) When tape is used to insulate existing power wires...

  7. 30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...voltage of the circuit. When the tubing is split for purposes of installation, the joints shall be effectively sealed. The butt ends may be sealed with a moisture resistant insulating tape. (3) When tape is used to insulate existing power wires...

  8. 30 CFR 75.517-2 - Plans for insulation of existing bare power wires and cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...voltage of the circuit. When the tubing is split for purposes of installation, the joints shall be effectively sealed. The butt ends may be sealed with a moisture resistant insulating tape. (3) When tape is used to insulate existing power wires...

  9. Polymeric HVDC Cable Design and Space Charge Accumulation. Part 1: Insulation\\/Semicon Interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fabiani; G. C. Montanari; C. Laurent; G. Teyssedre; P. H. F. Morshuis; R. Bodega; L. A. Dissado; A. Campus; U. H. Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    From theory and experiments, it can be deduced that materials for DC applications should not accumulate a large amount of space charge if accelerated degradation of the insulation system is to be avoided. Therefore, the characterization of DC insulation must take into account the evaluation of space charge accumulation. This cannot be done exhaustively without taking a system approach considering

  10. Design and test of low-capacitance, air-insulated, 80-kV, 0. 5-sec source cables for MFTF sustaining-neutral-beam power supples

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhall, D.J.; Wilson, J.H.; Caldwell, W.J.; Watson, T.F.; Jenkins, J.W. Jr.

    1981-10-16

    The design of air-insulated cables, which meet strict requirements, is described. Inductance, heat transfer, and electrostatic computer codes are used in design. Tests include electric circiut parameters, dc voltage holdoff, impulse voltage holdoff, heat rise at greater than peak duty, and shield mechanical strength.

  11. Crosslinking of polyolefin insulation of cables and insulated wires by the use of energy-rich radiation. Part 1: material of irradiation. Final report, March 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pieper; A. Schillmoeller

    1981-01-01

    Polyolefins were selected that are crosslinkable by radiation including the copolymers of ethylene and polyolefin elastomer blends. Effective stabilizing systems against thermo-oxidative ageing and copper-catalized oxidation were developed. The influence of crosslink-reforcing, coagents fillers, and pigments was studied. For the materials XLPE, EPR and EVA the optimization of compounds in a scope of production trials resulted in useful proposals for

  12. Possible Mechanism of Microvoid Formation in Polyethlene Insulated High Voltage Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Hill; M. F. Maringer; A. Barlow

    1983-01-01

    Trees are known to initiate at some microvoids and contaminants in polyethylene high voltage cables. The long term relaxation and reordering of crystallizable entities in the polyethylene known as secondary crystallization is suggested as a possible mechanism for microvoid or discontinuity formation. It is shown that both the increase in microvoid concentration with age and the radial distribution of microvoids

  13. Contamination-free system for cross-linked polyethylene cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Takemori

    1976-01-01

    A contamination-free system which minimizes voids and foreign matter in the final cable product was developed. A consistent exhaustive system from polymerization of polyethylenes to extrusion of foreign matters, such as resins, rusted iron, dust particles and lint was studied and laboratory controls of the processes were implemented. As a result, the quality of the polyethylene raw material has been

  14. On the computation of electric field and temperature distribution in HVDC cable insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chakradhar Reddy; T. S. Ramu

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents certain aspects of electrical\\/thermal failure of DC power cables. Closed form theoretical formulations for computing the critical stress and temperature due to an external heat source in the form of a steady current through the conductor is presented. The criticality here implies an unstable state of the dielectric and is shown, more often than not, to be

  15. 30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...buried in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, be installed on the side of the entry opposite to trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Additional insulation shall be provided for communication circuits at points where they pass...

  16. 30 CFR 75.516-2 - Communication wires and cables; installation; insulation; support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...buried in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, be installed on the side of the entry opposite to trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Additional insulation shall be provided for communication circuits at points where they pass...

  17. Light and tree inception characteristics of XLPE at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski; H. Suzuki; M. Matsuki; Z. Iwata

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the characteristics of light emission at an XLPE a (cross-linked polyethylene)-semicon interface held above and below the temperature at which the crystallites of the polymer start to melt. The spectra of EL (electroluminescence) and the light inception voltage of degassed, an N2- and SF6-impregnated XLPE are reported. It is shown that XLPE subjected to elevated temperature emits

  18. Migration of vinyl acetate from semiconductive to insulation of power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Haridoss

    1990-01-01

    Semiconductor compounds based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers were used along with ultraclean insulation to form an ideal interface for diffusion studies. The interface was analyzed before and after diffusion at different temperatures, using micro-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Migration of vinyl acetate species was detected at these interfaces using their characteristic absorptions at 1742, 1240, and 1025 cm-1. The results

  19. Performance of the ±250 kV HVDC Skagerrak submarine cables. Further development of the HVDC paper-insulated, mass-impregnated (solid type) submarine cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Hauge; J. N. Johnsen; T. A. Holte; K. Bjorlolw-Larsen

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the performance of the \\\\±250 kV HVDC mass-impregnated, solid-type submarine cables installed between Denmark and Norway. The cables, which have been partly overloaded, have successfully met all requirements. Three mechanical failures have occurred, two due to heavy beam trawls and the third during stormy weather. On two occasions the cables were repaired in stormy weather.

  20. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  1. Selected developments in laser wire stripping. [cutting insulation from aerospace-type wires and cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The operation of mechanical and thermal strippers and the early development of laser wire strippers are reviewed. NASA sponsored development of laser wire stripping for space shuttle includes bench-type strippers as well as an advanced portable hand-held stripper which incorporates a miniaturized carbon dioxide laser and a rotating optics unit with a gas-jet assist and debris exhaust. Drives and controls girdle the wire and slit the remaining slug without manual assistance. This unit can strip wire sizes 26 through 12 gage. A larger-capacity hand-held unit for wire sizes through 1/0 gage was built using a neodynium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. The hand-held units have a flexible umbilical cable to an accompanying cart that carries the power supply, gas supply, cooling unit, and the controls.

  2. Electroluminescence properties and degradation of XLPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mito; Y. Muramoto; N. Shimizu

    2007-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL), faint light observed at electric field concentrating points is well accepted as a precursor of the electrical tree initiation. EL is considered to be related to material degradation; the start of EL is the start of the degradation. When cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is subjected to long time voltage application of 5 kVrms for 25 hours, time-variation of EL

  3. Electronically controlled cable wrapper

    DOEpatents

    Young, T.M.

    1982-08-17

    A spindle assembly engages and moves along a length of cable to be wrapped with insulating tape. Reels of insulating tape are mounted on a outer rotatable spindle which revolves around the cable to dispense insulating tape. The rate of movement of the spindle assembly along the length of the cable is controlled by a stepper motor which is programmably synchronized to the rate at which rotatable spindle wraps the cable. The stepper motor drives a roller which engages the cable and moves the spindle assembly along the length of the cable as it is being wrapped. The spindle assembly is mounted at the end of an articulated arm which allows free movement of the spindle assembly and allows the spindle assembly to follow lateral movement of the cable.

  4. Submarine Coaxial Cable Pressure Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Aida; M. Aiki

    1978-01-01

    In equalization design of submarine coaxial cable system, the cable attenuation deviation due to pressure in deep sea bottom has significant weight. This paper treats the submarine coaxial cable characteristics pressure dependency. By using an artificial ocean test facility, 1.7 inch submarine coaxial cable attenuation, phase, capacitance and insulator core diameter were studied and their pressure coefficients under a pressure

  5. Experimental and analytical study of the DC breakdown characteristics of polypropylene laminated paper with a butt gap condition considering the insulation design of superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, In-jin; Choi, Won; Seong, Jae-gyu; Lee, Bang-wook; Koo, Ja-yoon

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the insulation design under DC stress is considered as one of the critical factors in determining the performance of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) superconducting cable. Therefore, it is fundamentally necessary to investigate the DC breakdown characteristics of the composite insulation system consisting of liquid nitrogen (LN2)/polypropylene-laminated-paper (PPLP). In particular, the insulation characteristics under DC polarity reversal condition should be verified to understand the polarity effect of the DC voltage considering the unexpected incidents taking place at line-commutated-converters (LCC) under service at a DC power grid. In this study, to examine the variation of DC electric field strength, the step voltage and polarity reversal breakdown tests are performed under DC stress. Also, we investigate the electric field distributions in a butt gap of the LN2/PPLP condition considering the DC polarity reversal by using simulation software.

  6. Superconducting alternating current cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kafka

    1971-01-01

    A superconducting alternating current cable has a space for conducting a fluid of insulating helium and a carrier member for conducting a fluid of cooling helium. The carrier member maintains the insulating helium separate from the cooling helium, the insulating helium being kept at a pressure different from that of the cooling helium.

  7. Development of New-type Outdoor Termination using Composite Insulator with SF6 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusuda, Yusuke; Fukuda, Kinya; Matsumura, Masao; Hagisawa, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Gaku; Nakanishi, Tatsuo; Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    Recently, composite insulators have been increasingly employed mainly from the economic viewpoint. We have been developed new type outdoor termination with composite insulator, which can be installed horizontally on the steel tower, in order to reduce the construction cost. In this outdoor termination, SF6 gas is filled in the composite insulator and a cold shrinkable pre-molded rubber unit is applied instead of the combinational use of rubber-molded stress relief cone, epoxy resin insulator and spring unit. The application of composite insulator, SF6 gas and cold shrinkable pre-molded rubber unit lights the total weight and makes it possible to install horizontally on the tower. The composite insulator type outdoor termination for 77kV XLPE cable has already applied as commercial use and enabled to reduce the construction cost of power transmission lines. A 154kV new type outdoor termination has been developed and successfully completed the initial electrical test. This paper describes the design and performance of both 77kV and 154kV new type outdoor termination, and the follow-up survey of 77kV outdoor termination in the commercial power transmission line.

  8. Insulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Dennis

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with insulation. Its objective is for the student to be able to determine insulation needs of new or existing structures, select type to use, use installation techniques, calculate costs, and apply safety factors. Some topics covered…

  9. Oil well electrical cable with gas conducting channel and vent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neuroth

    1985-01-01

    An electrical cable especially useful in oil wells having a gas conducting channel beneath the outer sheath and a valved vent through the sheath to prevent explosive decompression. Gases entrained in the cable's insulation can exit from the insulation into the channel, move longitudinally of the cable along the channel and exit from the sheath via the vent. The cable

  10. Development of 138 kV transition joint between HPPT cable and extruded cable

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, H.; Ghafurian, R.; Maguire, K (Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)); Parmigiani, B. (Pirelli Cavi SpA, Milan (Italy)); Walker, J. (Pirelli Cable Corp., Bayonne, NJ (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The growing utilization of high voltage cable with extruded insulation predicts the need to connect this type of cable with cables having different insulations. This paper describes the successful development of a 138 kV transition joint between high-pressure dielectric-fluid filled cable with paper insulation to cable with extruded insulation, such as cross-linked polyethylene or ethylene propylene rubber. Such a joint must have adequate electrical and mechanical properties and contain the high-pressure dielectric fluid normally at 1400 kPa (200 lb/in[sup 2]). There is an anticipated need for such a transition joint on the Con Edison system.

  11. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online knowledge based system (KBS) that helps utilities select the most effective diagnostic technologies for a given cable circuit and circuit conditions.

  12. Process of modifying a cable end

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1995-08-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves. 5 figs.

  13. Simulation of Water Diffusion in Polymeric Cables Using Finite Element Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Helleso; V. C. Henoen; S. Hvidsten

    2008-01-01

    The major aging mechanism in polymeric medium voltage cable insulation is water treeing. Water trees can grow from contaminations and protrusions in the cable insulation when the relative humidity (RH) in the cable insulation exceeds a value of about 70 %. Water trees can cause service breakdown of the cable when they reach a critical length. The service life of

  14. Flammability of radiation cross-linked low density polyethylene as an insulating material for wire and cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, A. A.

    2002-03-01

    Various formulations of low-density polyethylene blended with ethylene vinyl acetate were prepared to improve the flame retardancy for wire and cable applications. The prepared formulations were cross-linked by ?-rays to 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy in the presence of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). The effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties of these formulations were investigated. In addition, the influence of various combinations of aluminum trihydroxide and zinc borate as flame retardant fillers on the flammability was explored. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and average extent of burning were used to characterize the flammability of investigated formulations. An improved flame retardancy of low density polyethylene was achieved by various combinations of flame ratardant fillers and cross-linking by gamma radiation.

  15. Far-infrared cable inspection laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Matthews; R. A. Rubino; V. S. Harper

    1991-01-01

    In 1979, EPRI initiated a project to develop a laser-based cable inspection for installation on cable manufacturing extrusion lines. During the period from 1981 to 1984, the laser scanner was designed and built to perform inspection of polyethylene insulation during extrusion, signaling the presence of voids and contaminants. In 1979, when work on the laser scanner began, cables were produced

  16. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  17. Investigation Of Dielectric Behaviors Of Nanoclay Filled Epoxy And PP/NYLON66 Nanocomposites For Cable Insulation Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashmi; Renukappa, N. M.; Siddaramaiah

    2010-10-01

    High performance polymer nanocomposites are emerging as a new class of materials for its demanding applications as insulating material. The outstanding properties of nanoclay make them an attractive candidate for preparing advanced composite materials with multi functional features for electrical and electronics applications. A series of nanoclay incorporated epoxy and polypropylene/nylon66 (50/50 blend) nanocomposites have been prepared via chemical and melt mixing methods respectively. The fabricated nanocomposites have been characterized for dielectric behaviors such as dielectric constant (?r) and dissipation factor (tan ?). The effect of filler content, frequency, temperature and sea water ageing on dielectric behavior of nanocomposites has been investigated. The variation in the diffusion coefficient (D) of the material aged in water at different temperature with different percentage of nanoclay loaded epoxy and PP/nylon66 nanocomposites were calculated. It is observed that at increase in ageing temperature relatively increases the diffusion coefficient of the material. The measured dielectric results of the nanocomposites reveals that a significant influence of frequency and sea water ageing and marginal change with temperature. Higher dielectric constant was noticed for epoxy nanocomposites as compared to PP/nylon66 composites

  18. Semiannual report for the period April 1-September 30, 1979 of work on: (1) Superconducting power transmission development; (2) Cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project Technical Note No. 99

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The objective of the program is to develop an underground superconducting power transmission system which is economical and technically attractive to the utility industry. The system would be capable of carrying very large blocks of electric power, thus enabling it to supplant overhead lines in urban and suburban areas and regions of natural beauty. The program consisted initially of work in the laboratory to develop suitable materials, cryostats, and cable concepts. The materials work covers the development and testing of suitable superconductors and dielectric insulation. The laboratory work has now been extended to an outside test facility which represents an intermediate step between the laboratory scale and a full-scale system. The facility will allow cables several hundred feet long to be tested under realistic conditions. In addition, the refrigerator has been designed for optimum service for utility applications.

  19. Impurities in extruded cables: A proton-induced x-ray emission diagnostic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Crine; P. F. Hinrichsen; A. Houdayer

    1990-01-01

    The impurity contents and distributions in electrical trees grown in various field-aged XLPE distribution cables were measured by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The objectives pursued in this preliminary study were the following. Determination of any possible correlation between electrical tree initiation and the nature of some specific impurities. Evaluation of micro-PIXE as a reliable analytical technique to measure impurities

  20. Extruded dielectric dc cable development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersztyn, S.E.; MacKenzie, B.T.

    1980-04-01

    The development of an extruded 100-kilovolt (kV), direct-current (dc) cable insulated with mineral-filled polymeric dielectrics is described. Analysis of the factors controlling the rated stress and load limits indicated that capabilities of an extruded dc cable could be improved by reducing the dependency of electrical resistivity on temperature and the thermal resistivity of the dielectrics. It was experimentally determined that these two properties of extrudable polymers can be suitably modified by introduction of mineral fillers. Insulation efforts produced a family of candidate compounds exhibiting the desirable characteristics. Screening tests conducted on slab samples, insulated wires, and full-size experimental cables resulted in selecting a mineral-filled, cross-linked polyethylene compound, and a prototype 100-kV dc cable was manufactured. In addition to the the mineral-filled prototype, a reference cable insulated with conventional unfilled cross-linked polyethylene was made. Both cables were designed to meet the same operational requirements. The prototype and reference cables, connected in series, were subjected to the CIGRE dc cable qualification test, but failed it. However, the posttest examination disclosed multiple punctures in both cables, and it was not possible to conclude which cable initiated the failure of the series-connected cable system. The unfilled polyethylene reference cable was then retested alone and failed. Because of insufficient quantity of the original prototype, a mineral-filled, 35-kV ac cable from commercial production was selected as a substitute and subjected to and passed the CIGRE test. These results indicate that a mineral-filled, cross-linked polyethylene compound is a promising dielectric for extruded dc-power cable application.

  1. HVDC cable design logic for digital computers

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, F.G. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    The design of High-Voltage, Direct-Current transmission cables insulated with oil-impregnated cellulose paper is constrained by the maximum temperature and the maximum steady-state and transient stresses (voltage gradients) that the cable insulation can reliably withstand over the desired operating lifetime. Because the electrical stresses in the insulation are related in a very complex fashion to temperature, applied voltage and cable geometry, iterative techniques are required to compute the values of these stresses. Digital computers are ideally suited for these iterative techniques. This paper presents the principal equations and logic needed to develop suitable computer programs.

  2. Cable Car

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, learners string a line across the room and build cable cars that can move from on end to the other. Learners construct their cable cars out of wood sticks, motors, and electrical circuits. Use this activity to introduce how cable cars work as well as physics principles related to center of gravity, rotational motion, electricity, and motors.

  3. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables: common test methods part 4-1: methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds – resistance to environmental stress cracking – measurement of the melt flow index – carbon black and/or mineral filler content measurement in polyethylene by direct combustion – measurement of carbon black content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) – assessment of carbon black dispersion in polyethylene using a microscope

    E-print Network

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods to be used for testing polymeric insulating and sheathing materials of electric cables for power distribution and telecommunications including cables used on ships. Gives the methods for measurements of the resistance to environmental stress cracking, for wrapping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of melt flow index and for measurement of carbon black and/or mineral filler content, which apply to PE and PP coumpounds, including cellular compounds and foam skin for insulation.

  4. Improved high-temperature metal-sheathed cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, H. A., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Process prevents moist air degradation of cables insulated with magnesium oxide. Electrical-grade silicone oil is polymerized by heat application to produce water repellant surface coating. Insulation treated with this oil repels moisture.

  5. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  6. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M. (Espanola, NM); Wilfong, Dennis H. (Brooksville, FL); Lomax, Ralph E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  7. Superconducting Cable Termination

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Tolbert, Jerry (Newnan, GA)

    2005-08-30

    Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

  8. Electrically-Conductive Polyaramid Cable And Fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orban, Ralph F.

    1988-01-01

    Tows coated with metal provide strength and conductance. Cable suitable for use underwater made of electrically conductive tows of metal-coated polyaramid filaments surrounded by electrically insulating jacket. Conductive tows used to make conductive fabrics. Tension borne by metal-coated filaments, so upon release, entire cable springs back to nearly original length without damage.

  9. Cable compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

    1992-06-01

    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  10. Cable compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  11. Electrical conduction in HVDC mass-impregnated paper cable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. P. Jeroense; F. H. Kreuger

    2002-01-01

    HVDC cables play an important role in a growing number of HVDC links. For almost all of these cables, mass impregnated paper is used as electrical insulation. The electrical conductivity of this insulation is given by a commonly used empirical formula. This formula takes into account the temperature and stress dependency of the conductivity. This paper derives a physics-based equation

  12. Comparative Testing of Shield Terminations of High Voltage Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Pokryvailo; Costel Carp; Clifford Scapellati

    2008-01-01

    In HV systems, cable terminations are one of the weakest links. They are especially stressed by the electric field in free space connections. In this light, several termination types for polyethylene HV cables were tested for dielectric strength and leakage current, down to a pico-ampere level. The tested terminations ranged from simple flush cut to graded insulation using non-linear insulation

  13. Ageing mechanisms and diagnostics for power cables - an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Densley

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes briefly the main ageing and failure mechanisms and will indicate the advantages and limitations of the diagnostic tests available for the different insulation systems used in distribution and transmission cable systems. SC21 of CIGRE has addressed the subject of ageing factors and diagnostics of cable systems and has published three reports covering both fluid-filled and extruded cables.

  14. Surface properties of artificially contaminated polymeric cable terminations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sundararajan; S. Madhavan; M. Lynch; S. Sundhar

    1997-01-01

    Low voltage surface resistance measurement and Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) have been used to investigate the surface recovery properties of artificially contaminated polymeric cable terminations. Due to the basic functionality difference between cable terminations and insulators, it will be of practical interest to investigate the surface recovery properties of polymeric cable terminations under contaminated conditions. Results show that the surface

  15. Power Cables in the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. HAMMONS

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a variety of viewpoints from engineers within the power cable industry as to how current trends in the cable industry will influence future cable designs, particularly with polymeric insulation, lapped dielectrics, and improved diagnostic techniques. The use of high-temperature superconductors and designer polymers as well as the possible availability of conducting polymeric materials is also considered. The

  16. The application of the enlargement law to HVDC cable lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Marzinotto; G. Mazzanti

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the traditional enlargement law for AC cables - based on the so-called “volume effect” - is extended to DC cables via an innovative theoretical approach, that takes into account some aspects peculiar of HVDC cables, i.e. the dependence of the electric field profile on volume electrical resistivity of the insulation, the associated dependence of volume resistivity on

  17. Influence of physical properties and peroxide decomposition products on the space charge formation in XLPE and EPDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUO SEKII; TADASHI KOGURE; TAKASHI MAENO

    1997-01-01

    Distributions of space charges formed under DC voltage in LDPE, XLPE and EPDM were studied using pulsed electroacoustic methods. The material density of LDPE was found to affect the space charge distribution, whereas the MFR shows no influence. Heterocharges are created in XLPE containing peroxide decomposition products, while homocharges are formed in the absence of decomposition products. It was confirmed

  18. Cable indenter aging monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements.

  19. Changes In Isomeric Composition of Lab Cable Oil Associated With A Range of Terminal Electron Acceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Johnson; N. Christofi; D. A. Barry

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) are used as insulating oils in underground elec- tricity transmission cables. Following accidental damage to the cables or a failure of the cable system, oil may leak into the surrounding soil. The cable is normally repaired quickly and the majority of the oil is recovered, but access to soil containing residual contamination may be hampered by

  20. A novel method to test the quality of ADSS fiber optic cables installed in transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadik Kucuksari; Ibrahim Gunes; George G. Karady

    2009-01-01

    Dry-band arc resistance determines the quality of fiber optic cable insulation materials. Three different brands of ADSS fiber optic cable qualities are determined with IEEE 1222 standard test method. Results give a ranking of the cables. During the experiment, it is noticed that randomly spread water droplets are a factor for the results. Therefore, the same cables are tested with

  1. Theoretical Maximum Limits on Power-Handling Capacity of HVDC Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandupatla Chakradhar Reddy

    2009-01-01

    In the case of an ac cable, power transmission is limited by the length of the cable due to the capacitive reactive current component. It is well known that high-voltage direct current (HVDC) cables do not have such limitations. However, insulation-related thermal problems pose a limitation on the power capability of HVDC cables. The author presents a viable theoretical development,

  2. Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high-voltage insulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sosnowski; C. Katz

    1981-01-01

    Tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating electric stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables having contaminants in the insulation. The use of a range of sizes and levels of contaminants in the insulation to obtain cables with a range of dielectric breakdown strengths was investigated. Based on the preliminary results, a selection was made to achieve cables with

  3. Industrial installation for voltage-on space measurements in HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome CASTELLON; S. Agnel; A. Toureille; J. Matallana; H. Janah; P. Mirebeau; D. Sy

    2005-01-01

    This work is concerned with a facility for characterizing the insulation of power cables whilst submitted to high dc voltage. The presented tool allows to measure the real distribution of the electric field in the cable insulation, which can be significantly different from the capacitive (Laplace) field repartition, and is of interest in insulation design and survey. After reviewing the

  4. A novel wavelet transform technique for on-line partial discharge measurements. 1. WT de-noising algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Zhang; T. R. Blackburn; B. T. Phung; D. Sen

    2007-01-01

    Medium and high voltage power cables are widely used in the electrical industry with substantial growth over the last 20-30 years ago, particular in the use of XLPE insulated systems. Ageing of the cable insulation is becoming an increasing problem that requires development of reliable methods for on-line condition assessment. For insulation condition assessment of MV and HV cables, partial

  5. Cable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerpheide, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of material selection is stressed in the design and manufacture of FCC. Several applications of flat conductor cable are discussed relative to material selection and the reasons for using a particular material for each application is explained.

  6. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ground check conductor, and grounded metallic shields around each power conductor or a ground metallic shield over the assembly, except that on equipment employing cable reels, cables without shields may be used if the insulation is rated...

  7. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ground check conductor, and grounded metallic shields around each power conductor or a ground metallic shield over the assembly, except that on equipment employing cable reels, cables without shields may be used if the insulation is rated...

  8. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ground check conductor, and grounded metallic shields around each power conductor or a ground metallic shield over the assembly, except that on equipment employing cable reels, cables without shields may be used if the insulation is rated...

  9. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ground check conductor, and grounded metallic shields around each power conductor or a ground metallic shield over the assembly, except that on equipment employing cable reels, cables without shields may be used if the insulation is rated...

  10. Common test methods for insulating and sheathing materials of electrical cables - Part 4 Methods specific to polyethylene and polypropylene compounds. Section Two

    E-print Network

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Gives the methods for measurement of elongation at break after pre-conditioning, for wrapping test after pre-conditioning, for wraping test after thermal ageing in air, for measurement of mass increase, for long-term stability test and for measurement of copper-catalysed oxidative degradation, which apply to polyolefin insulations.

  11. Time Warner Cable Service Tips CABLE SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Saidak, Filip

    Time Warner Cable Service Tips CABLE SERVICE: Time Warner Cable Basic Cable service (PLUS one shooting tips: If you are unable to access the Internet, please try the following troubleshooting steps: 1 the Time Warner Cable Support line at 1-866-693-1528 and state your name and that you are an on campus UNCG

  12. Terminating Rubber and Plastic Cables in Contaminated Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Lee

    1967-01-01

    For termination of rubber-insulated cable, it has been found practical to simply expose the factory insulation between stress cone and terminal for uncontaminated outdoor locations. In severe contamination exposure, however, the factory insulation surface and conventional tapes have been found susceptible to deterioration from leakage-current, resulting in tracking and subsequent flashover. This difficulty may be reduced or eliminated by applying

  13. Backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray studies of water-treed polymeric insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Y. Timbrell; A. Bulinski; S. S. Bamji; J. Densley

    1990-01-01

    The backscattered-electron imaging mode in a scanning electron microscope has been used to detect and image water trees in electrically stressed cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation. The location and distribution of inorganic contaminants, such as Cu or Cl, within the water-treed regions of the insulation were revealed using backscattered-electron imaging. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and mapping were subsequently used to ascertain

  14. Change of Tensile Strength due to Non-uniform Thermal Deterioration of XLPE Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sheets were thermally deteriorated in atmospheric air at 180°C for at most 100 hours, and their depth profiles of the oxidation degrees were investigated with a micro FT-IR, and the relationships between the oxidation degree and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break were examined. The oxidation degree was defined as the ratio of the IR absorption peak for the C=O bond to that for the C-H bond. When tensile strength and elongation at break of XLPE sheets decreased, the oxidation degree increased and the oxidation degree distributed non-uniformly with depth. That is, the oxidation degree was the largest on the upper surface of XLPE sheets where air supply was sufficient during heating, and it was the smallest on the lower surface that contacted with a metal plate during heating. Since the mechanical characteristics such as the hardness and the Young's modulus decreased in the oxidized region of XLPE sheets, it was pointed out that the oxidized region became a weak point against the mechanical stress. It was also pointed out that the micro FT-IR was useful in evaluating the depth profile of oxidation in polymer materials.

  15. U. S. -French Cooperative Research Program: U. S. test results for cable insulation and jacket materials at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Eight different U.S. insulation and jacket products have been accelerated aged at Sandia. The experimental variables included: (1) sequential versus simultaneous accelerated aging exposures; (2) the order of the sequential exposures; and (3) ambient versus 70/sup 0/C irradiation temperatures during sequential aging exposures. We observed that the irradiation temperature (70/sup 0/C or ambient) was secondary in importance to the choice of sequence for thermal and radiation aging. For most materials studied (except TEFZEL) the irradiation then thermal aging sequence was as severe or more severe than the thermal then irradiation aging sequence.

  16. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  17. Extending the service life of 15KV polyethylene URD cable using silicone liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkham, H.; Johnston, A.R. (Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This paper describes methods and materials used to extend the useful life ot extruded polyethylene insulated cables rated 15KV that have developed electrochemical trees in the insulation of sufficient severity to cause service failures. Earlier rehabilitation methods treated extruded dielectric cable with both gases and insulating liquids. This new method fills the cable and impregnates the insulation with a silicone liquid. This liquid, which is reactive, significantly improves the voltage breakdown strength of the cables, which has been reduced by electrochemical trees, and extends the useful service life of the cable. A review of the criteria used to develop the silicone liquid for this application and the methodology used to inject it into the cable will be discussed. An assessment of the costs of this life extension indicates a significantly lower cost than conventional cable replacement with little disturbance to the service and property of the customer.

  18. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

  19. Tools for applying lead tape to flat conductor cabling for chemical stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1969-01-01

    Two tools facilitate chemical stripping of insulation on flat conductor cabling. A tape pressing tool and a taping fixture apply adhesive lead tape with the proper amount of pressure to protect the remaining insulation from the chemical stripping solution.

  20. Elements of a specification for superconducting cable and why they are important for magnet construction

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, A.F.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to point out several features of the specification for SSC superconducting cable and its insulation that are important for fabrication of dipole magnet coils. Among these are the dimensions of the cable and insulation and their relevance for obtaining coils with appropriate overall dimensions, Other important cable properties are related to the twist direction of wire used to fabricate it and the opposite twist (or lay) direction of the cable. For some coils it is easier to work with cable of a particular lay direction. In conjunction with the ease of coil winding comes the requirement in the specification for superconducting cable which restricts the cable surface condition. The ease of winding coils is governed by the ability to bend and twist the cable at the coil ends without having wires come out of place, possibly later leading to insulation damage and a turn-to-turn short. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hot-blade stripper for polyester insulation on FCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Chambers, C. M.

    1971-01-01

    Stripper incorporates a blade which is electrically heated to a controlled temperature. Heated blade softens and strips insulation from cable while paper ribbon removes insulation material and keeps blade clean for next operation.

  2. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...following: (1) Have each conductor of a current-carrying capacity consistent with the Insulated Power Cable Engineers...Tables 1 and 2 in Appendix I.) (2) Have current-carrying conductors not smaller than No. 14 (AWG)....

  3. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L. (Franklin, GA); Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Reece, David S. (Carrollton, GA); Muller, Albert C. (Eidson, TN)

    2005-07-22

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  4. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L. (Franklin, GA); Sinha, Uday K. (Carrollton, GA); Reece, David S. (Carrollton, GA); Muller, Albert C. (Eidson, TN)

    2005-03-08

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  5. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Darrell F. (Huntington, WV); Lake, Bill L. (Ona, WV); Ballinger, Ronald G. (Andover, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

  6. Flat-conductor cable has rotary and linear flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report describes capabilities and limitations of flat-conductor cable /FCC/ relative to flexure in bending, folding, rotating, and extending, it also compares FCC mechanical and endurance characteristics with round-wire cable, and compares qualities of various types of insulation for FCC. Several configurations exemplify FCC flexibility.

  7. Termination of flat conductor cable to NASA/MSFC plugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Data, supplemented with artwork, are presented on the major steps involved with terminating flat conductor cable (FCC) to MSFC's FCC plugs. Cable and shield preparation steps include material cutting, insulation stripping, and plating of exposed conductors. Methods and equipment required to terminate FCC to each of four MSFC plugs are described.

  8. The Hardening of Satellite Cables to X-Rays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Clement; R. A. Lowell

    1978-01-01

    Various hardening techniques for shielded satellite cables exposed to X-rays are experimentally investigated. The most promising technique that maintains flight quality of the cables without increasing weight significantly is the use of an additional layer of conductive plastic around each primary wire's insulation. The principal effect of the conductive plastic is to shunt the kinetic charge emitted from the shield

  9. On the Intrinsic Thermal Stability in HVDC Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chakradhar Reddy; T. S. Ramu

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with some important aspects of steady state thermal stability in the insulation of HVDC cables. The resistively graded electric field distribution and the temperature distribution, under steady state, in dc cables, are interrelated. The dc conductivity is known to be a function of stress as well as of temperature. Reasonably convincing theories of electric stress and temperature

  10. Modelling of the electric field in HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Carstea; I. Carstea

    2002-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to present some aspects in modeling of electrical field in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) cables. Some computation models for electrical fields are presented. Computation procedures are developed for DC cables with one and two imperfect dielectric insulation layers for capacitive and resistive field distribution

  11. Design of coaxial-cable pulse transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Dollinger; D. A. Moll; D. L. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Coaxial-cable pulse transformers with good high-frequency response (30-ns rise time) and excellent high-voltage interwinding insulation (?300 kV primary to secondary) were designed, built, and tested. They have the advantage that the open-circuit transformation ratio is unaffected by the thickness of the interwinding insulation, and good coupling is maintained with step-up designs. An equivalent circuit was developed, involving two coupling coefficients,

  12. Thermoplasticizing Technology for the Recycling of Crosslinked Polyethylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Tokuda; Sanae Horikawa; Kunio Negishi; Kenji Uesugi; Hiroshi Hirukawa

    2003-01-01

    Because of its outstanding dielectric properties and heat resistance, crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) is widely used as insulation materials for electric wires and cables. However the three-dimensional lattice structure produced by crosslinking makes it impos- sible to melt it down again for molding. Thus almost all waste XLPE is currently burnt (as a fuel) or disposed of in landfills. In this

  13. Estimation of thermal breakdown voltage of HVDC cables - A theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Chakradhar Reddy; T. S. Ramu

    2007-01-01

    The insulation in a DC cable is subjected to both thermal and electric stress at the same time. While the electric stress is generic to the cable, the temperature rise in the insulation is, by and large, due to the ohmic losses in the conductor. The consequence of this synergic effect is to reduce the maximum operating voltage and causes

  14. Electrical characteristics of a dc superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    A dc superconducting cable is ideal for transmitting large blocks of electrical power over a long distance. However, it must be designed to operate reliably within the constraints of the electrical system. Therefore, system analysis must be performed for each application. The conductor losses caused by the harmonics on the dc must be within the design goals; a system fault should not drive the cable normal with eventual damage to the cable and interruption of power flow; and, the dielectric system of the cable must be designed to be compatible with the expected transient voltages by proper insulation coordination. Transient overvoltages are of concern to electrical power systems; these are especially critical to cryogenic cables because of the susceptibility of the cryogenic enclosures to these transients. This paper discusses the electrical system constraints which are particularly applicable to a dc superconducting cable and shows how such a cable can be designed to be compatible with the electrical system. This paper also summarizes the work on low temperature dielectrics performed at Los Alamos. It shows the variation of break down voltage of dielectric materials, in sheet form and cable configuration, with temperature and pressure under dc and impulse voltage. The surface flashover characteristics with large creepage distance as well as electrical conductivity of dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures are discussed. These studies are essential for the design of high voltage apparatus operating in cryogenic environments.

  15. 7 CFR 1755.200 - RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. 1755.200...1755.200 RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (a) Scope...methods for splicing plastic insulated copper and fiber optic cables. Typical...

  16. A study on the origin of space charge accumulation in polymeric HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Carstensen; J. Jonsson; A. A. Farkas; A. Campus; U. H. Nilsson

    2004-01-01

    The paper covers results from a study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms behind accumulation of space charge in polymeric high voltage direct current (HVDC) cables. It was observed that the charges in cable samples were mainly located in the outer part of the insulation while space charge profiles obtained on plaque specimens showed almost symmetrical shapes. In both cables

  17. Fiber optic plenum cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles, Purita; Kurt, Jeffrey

    1986-11-01

    Fiber optic plenum cables use fluorocarbon jackets to provide the low smoke and flame characteristics required to be classified as plenum cables. Compared with more commonly used optical cable jackets, fluorocarbon jackets have less creep resistance and potentially higher shrinkback. Consequently, the establishment of satisfactory plenum cables required both specialized modeling and experimental cable testing. This paper describes theoretical modelling of the change in attenuation of a plenum fiber optic cable as a function of temperature range. The temperature test results of one and two fiber plenum cables and single fiber connectorized assemblies show the models to be useful tools in rationally developing fiber optic plenum cable.

  18. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-11-29

    A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

  19. Space charge development and breakdown in XLPE under DC field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Abou-Dakka; Alexander Bulinski; Soli Bamji

    2004-01-01

    The correlation between space charge accumulation and insulation failure has been investigated in four, polyethylene-based materials subjected to a DC field of 50 kV\\/mm. Two of the materials contained tree-retardant additives and all four materials were aged for extended periods up to 19,000 h. The specimens were removed periodically from the external field and subjected to space charge density measurements

  20. Radiation degradation of plastic insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoní?ek, B.; Hnát, V.; Janovský, I.; Pejša, R.

    1995-02-01

    Several types of polymeric compounds, used as insulating and sheathing materials of cables, were subjected to accelerated thermal and radiation ageing and to LOCA test. The stability of materials was evaluated via their mechanical properties, namely strain at break.

  1. 30 CFR 56.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  2. 30 CFR 56.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...phase-to-ground, shall not be moved with equipment unless sleds or slings, insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized...cables are moved manually, insulated hooks, tongs, ropes, or slings shall be used unless suitable protection for persons is...

  8. Sound cable crossing brings inexpensive electric power to Long Island

    SciTech Connect

    Grzan, J. (New York Power Authority (US)); Goyette, R. (Parsons Main, Inc. (US))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that while many electric-utility customers in New York State benefit from inexpensive hydroelectric power from Canada and upstate New York, lack of sufficient transmission connections have prevented this electricity from reaching Long Island. However, a newly constructed underground/underwater link capable of carrying 700-MW now transmits low-cost electricity to the island, saving money for customers. The self-contained fluid-filled cable used for the underwater portion of the project is the largest underwater cable in the world. The use of high-pressure, fluid-filled pipe-type cable on the land portion represents the largest application of paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) insulated cable in the United States. State-of-the-art technologies were implemented in the use of temperature monitoring and leak detection systems, SF{sub 6} gas-insulated substation, and underwater cable laying and embedment techniques.

  9. Development of extruded dielectric underground transmission cables rated 138 kV, 230 kV, and 345 kV. Final report. Volume I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bahder; L. A. Bopp; G. S. Eager; R. G. Lukac; G. A. Schmidt; D. A. Silver; C. Katz

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of investigations made to develop technology required to manufacture chemically crosslinked polyethylene-insulated power cables in the ac voltage range 138 to 345 kV and having insulation thicknesses approximately equal to oil impregnated paper insulated cables. After giving an account of the State of the Art at the initiation of the project, the conceptual design of the new

  10. Diagnosis of moisture in oil\\/paper distribution cables - Part I: Estimation of moisture content using frequency-domain spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Neimanis; R. Eriksson

    2004-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy (dielectric response measurements) has been applied for nondestructive estimation of humidity in oil-paper cable insulation. The experiments have been based upon two field-aged cables, 20 and 50 years old. Paper samples from these cables have been characterized and subjected to environments with different relative humidity. Dielectric loss and capacitance have been measured in a frequency range 1 MHz

  11. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J. (Spokane, WA); McCoy, William G. (Spokane, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  12. Cutting Edge Cable Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Describes how one school district was able to efficiently install fragile telecommunication cabling throughout its high school and save thousands of dollars. Discusses solutions to some common cable-management problems. (GR)

  13. Vertex Detector Cable Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

  14. Cable-fault locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  15. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  16. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  17. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  18. Kontek HVDC cable link

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wolff; T. Elberling

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe the Kontek HVDC cable link connecting Denmark and Germany which has been in commercial operation since 1996, and, with a total length of 172 km and a transmission capacity of 600 MW at 400 kV, the cable link is still unique worldwide. In addition, the 120 km of land cable is the world's longest continuous length of

  19. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, R.A. [Science & Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jacobus, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent.

  20. Fiber Optic Cables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, is an easy-to-use introduction to fiber optic cables and their uses. Students are able to reveal each section at their leisure as they click through the helpful illustrations and animations on fiber optic cable components, LEDâ??s, multi-mode and single-mode cables, and cable connectors. Three review questions wrap up the slide show to test knowledge gained. This would be a great resource for teachers to help introduce the topic to students, or for students to have a comprehensive overview of fiber optic cables.

  1. New MV cable design for wet environments in underground distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, M.D.R. Jr. (Ficap Fios e Cabos Plasticos do Brasil SA, Rio De Janeiro (BR))

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes the development of new wet design MV power cables, up to 35 kV, using EPDM compound as insulation and longitudinal water tightness. The combination of the cable design and the type of insulation compound allow for reduction of the insulation thickness in such a way, as to have an electrical stress at the conductor of 4 kV/mm which is significantly greater than used in MV distribution cables. Following a methodology established, at the author's company, the reliability of this design, cable and EPDM's formulation, in wet location, without metallic water barriers, was well demonstrated. Mini-installation of model cables in service-like conditions, to estimate the ageing rate, are presented and discussed.

  2. Naval Research Laboratory array cable qualifying test program. Contract report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, R.C.; Howell, T.A.

    1994-08-01

    In 1993, Neptune Technologies designed and fabricated two prototype array cables under NRL`s support. Briefly, these two generic cables consisted of a monolay construction utilizing 18 singles and atwisted pair construction incorporating seven twisted pairs. Each conductor core was strengthened with an overbraid of Kevlar, then one core was jacketed with a braided sleeve of polyester which incorporated a fuzz type fairing, while the monocore incorporated an extruded jacket with a straked strum suppressor. The essence of the new cables are small AWG number 26 conductors insulated with a thin coating of Surlyn. These much smaller conductors are expected to provide a smaller cable with higher reliability. See Neptune Report dated December 32,1993, entitled Prototype Cable Final Technical Report.

  3. 47 CFR 36.153 - Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...shielded, disc-insulated and coaxial, recognition is given to the additional costs which are charged to the high-frequency complement. (2) Cable Loading. (i) Methods for assigning the cost of loading coils, cases, etc., to categories are...

  4. Critical current measurements of ISABELLE superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, M.; Sampson, W.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1982-11-30

    Short sample critical measurements on ISABELLE superconducting cables are described. The purpose is to provide a basis for assessing magnet performance and to provide Quality Assurance data on materials purchases. The measurements are made on 1 m samples in a dipole magnet. Voltages on the V-I curve are determined to a precision of several tenths of a microvolt. The critical current is defined as that at which rho = 1 x 10/sup -12/..cap omega..cm/sup 1/ and is determined to a precision of 1 to 2%. Similar techniques are employed in determining the critical currents of the wires of which the cables are made. The relation between cable and wire critical currents will be discussed. It is found that well insulated, slowly ramped cables of the ISABELLE design are stable for currents up to approximately rho = 2 x 10/sup -12/..cap omega..cm. The value of current corresponding to the resistivity determines the limit of magnet performance. Additional properties of the cabled conductors such as the normal state resistance and the longitudinal quench propagation velocity are also measured.

  5. Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigling, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200 C.

  6. Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Rigling

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200

  7. Using new technology to improved reliability of an industrial cable distribution system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Morrison; R. I. Arhart

    1991-01-01

    The service history of medium-voltage power cables on the US plant sites of a major industrial manufacturer from 1961 through 1990 is summarized. In past years this company tended to be reactive, using specifications, diagnostic testing, and maintenance practices to manage the reliability of their cable distribution systems. Several new technologies in insulation systems, terminations, splices, and installation techniques, introduced

  8. Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Loggins; R. H. Herndon

    1974-01-01

    The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

  9. On-site diagnostic technique for smart maintenance of power cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Abou-Dakka; Alexander Bulinski; Soli S. Bamji

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric insulation of power cables has excellent short-term dielectric properties but is subjected to serious degra- dation problems due to defects, water, ionic contamination, par- tial discharges, electrical treeing, etc. Since more than 20% of installed underground power cables are older than their design life-time, utilities are faced with important maintenance related questions whether to repair, refurbish or completely replace

  10. Application of advanced PD diagnostics for condition based maintenance of MV power cable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Wester; Edward Gulski; Johan J. Smit; Paul N. Seitz; M. Turner

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a strategy for condition based maintenance of medium voltage power cable networks, on the base of PD detection. It is known that partial discharge detection and localization is a useful tool for the identification of degradation processes in the insulation material of cable systems. Based on advanced PD diagnostics, systematic information of typical discharge sources in power

  11. HVDC submarine power cable systems-state of the art and future developments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Valenza; G. Cipollini

    1995-01-01

    The paper begins with an introduction on the reasons that lead to the use of HVDC submarine cable links. The main aspects for the choice of direct current are presented as well as the advantages deriving from the utilization of submarine cables. The second part is dedicated to a discussion on the various type of insulation that could be used

  12. The Effect of Temperature Gradient on Space Charge and Electric Field Distribution of HVDC Cable Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fabiani; G. C. Montanari; R. Bodega; P. H. F. Morshuis; C. Laurent; L. A. Dissado

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the effect of temperature gradient applied to polymeric cables on space charge accumulation inside insulation bulk. In particular, experimental measurements on HVDC cable models showed that space charge due to temperature gradient is generally negligible with respect to excess charge injected from the electrodes at electrical fields larger than the threshold for space

  13. Evaluation of Abrupt Grounding as Quality Control Method for HVDC Extruded Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Mauseth; Erling Ildstad; Rolf Hegerberg; Marc Jeroense; Bjørn Sanden; Jan Erik Larsen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results from laboratory experiments performed in order to evaluate different methods for quality control of polymeric insulated HVDC cables. In this work, we have investigated the effect of short term (24 h) DC stress followed by rapid grounding of the cable. This is comparable to a voltage step of -Usub0\\/sub at the point of grounding ,and depending

  14. The effect of the thermal history on the space charge accumulation in HVDC crosslinked polyethylene cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Carstensen; A. A. Farkas; A. Campus; U. H. Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    Space charge profiles of polymeric high voltage direct current (HVDC) cables measured by pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) systems are normally asymmetrical. It is observed that the space charges in cable samples are mainly located in the outer part of the insulation with little or no space charge accumulation at the inner semi-conductive layer. The objective of the present work is to

  15. Space charge accumulation in polymeric high voltage DC cable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bodega

    2006-01-01

    One of the intrinsic properties of the polymeric high voltage (HV) direct current (DC) cable insulation is the accumulation of electrostatic charges. Accumulated charges distort the initial Laplacian distribution of the electric field, leading to a local field enhancement that may cause insulation degradation and premature breakdown of the system.\\u000aThe general objective of the present study is to obtain

  16. Cable Measuring Engine Operation Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1997-07-11

    The Cable Measuring Engine (CME) is a tool which measures and records the cable dimensions in a nondestructive fashion. It is used in-line with the superconductor cable as it is being made. The CME is intended to be used as a standard method of measuring cable by the various manufacturers involved in the cable process.

  17. Cable suspended windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  18. Cabling Installation & Maintenance Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site offers articles and information about cabling solutions and components for fiber and copper communications, voice, data, and video systems. Cable installation and repair issues cover coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic, zipcord, wireless, and network management. Instructional videos covering timely topics of importance to workers and decisionmakers in the data telecommunications industry are provided. Cable contractors and suppliers worldwide are also listed.

  19. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  20. Aging assessment of cables

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal ({approximately}100{degrees}C) and radiation ({approximately}0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation ({approximately}6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam (up to 400{degrees}C) exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, was also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400{degrees}C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of these tests do not indicate any reason to believe that many popular nuclear power plant cable products cannot inherently be qualified for 60 years of operation for conditions simulated by this testing. Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) are more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials.

  1. A single insulated sodium conductor for HVDC underwater power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dunlap

    1979-01-01

    The minimum energy transmission cost cable configuration for HVDC underwater power transmission is considered. Cable material costs, energy losses, operating temperatures, bend radii, terminal voltages, currents, and resistances are determined. Electrode design, single vs two conductor transmission, splices, insulation, control of buoyancy, operating hazards, and the cost per unit of energy are analyzed. It is concluded that the use of

  2. Cable tracking system proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, N.

    1993-06-25

    The Experimental Facilities Division requires a labeling system to identify and catalog the instrumentation, control, and computer cables that will run throughout the building. Tom Sheridan from the MIS Group has already made some general suggestions about the information that could be included in an Oracle-based Cable Tracking System (E-mail text distributed by Gary Gunderson on the 27th of August). Glenn Decker`s LS Note No. 191 is also relevant to the subject since it addresses name assignment rules for the storage ring devices. The intent of this note is to recommend a mechanism for tracking wires/cables, with enough specifics, to which all groups in the Division would adhere when pulling cables. Because most cables will run between various beamline devices, hutch safety components, and equipment racks, any method of tracking cables is related to the Equipment Tracking System. That system has been developed by the APS Project personnel and is described in the APS Project Equipment Tracking System Guidelines (DRAFT). It can be adopted to XFD`s needs. Two essential features of the Cable Tracking System are: 1) Each cable shell have a unique Identifier, and 2) Cable label must contain information that is helpful during troubleshooting in the field. The Identifier is an alphanumeric string of characters that will originate in the Oraclebased Cable Tracking System. It is not necessary for the identifier to carry a lot of intelligence its primary purpose is simply to provide a link to the database. Bar-coding the Identifier would make it easy to combine cable information with the Equipment Tracking System.

  3. Ice accretion on different aluminum cable steel reinforced

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fochi Wang; Yuzhen Lv; Qing Zhang; Zhou You; Chengrong Li

    2010-01-01

    Ice accretion on high voltage power lines is a severe problem for power network and it can cause insulator flashover, wire breakage and tower falling down. In the present work, hydrophobic aluminum cable steel reinforced was prepared with a simple chemical etching and modified with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) coating. Only partial area of the hydrophobic sample was covered by some

  4. Induced transients in substation cables: Measurements and models

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.E.; Wiggins, C.M.; Salas, T.M.; Nickel, F.S. (BDM International, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, S.E. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    An extensive set of switching transient EMI response measurements on several types of substation cables and internal cable wires in described in this paper. Measured and predicted cable/wire current and voltage transients at both air-insulated substations (AIS) and gas-insulated substations (GIS) are presented, for system voltages ranging from 115 kV to 500 kV.. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of measured wire transients are found to vary from around 1 A to almost 20 A (current in amperes), and from 0.3 kV to almost 7 kV (voltage in kilovolts). Predictive models for field-driven coupling, as well as for direct-driven coupling via current transformers or capacitively-coupled voltage transformers (CT's/CCVT's), are presented. Model predictions are compared to and validated against measured wire transients.

  5. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  6. Cable Television Interconnection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    State and local governments have not been involved in the complexities of cable television interconnection issues in the past despite opportunities. Without their intervention, the result may well be a lack of concern for local public services. However, the entertainment and communications industries will interconnect cable systems without the…

  7. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Albert R. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  8. DOCSISTM cable modem technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fellows; Doug Jones

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the cable modem interface standard is presented. This standard is the foundation for high-speed access to content on the Internet being offend by North American cable operators. It also facilitates retail sales of modems and integration into computers, is being adopted by international operators, and provides a path for convergence of video, data, and voice services on

  9. Lightning vulnerability of fiber-optic cables.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele

    2008-06-01

    One reason to use optical fibers to transmit data is for isolation from unintended electrical energy. Using fiber optics in an application where the fiber cable/system penetrates the aperture of a grounded enclosure serves two purposes: first, it allows for control signals to be transmitted where they are required, and second, the insulating properties of the fiber system help to electrically isolate the fiber terminations on the inside of the grounded enclosure. A fundamental question is whether fiber optic cables can allow electrical energy to pass through a grounded enclosure, with a lightning strike representing an extreme but very important case. A DC test bed capable of producing voltages up to 200 kV was used to characterize electrical properties of a variety of fiber optic cable samples. Leakage current in the samples were measured with a micro-Ammeter. In addition to the leakage current measurements, samples were also tested to DC voltage breakdown. After the fiber optic cables samples were tested with DC methods, they were tested under representative lightning conditions at the Sandia Lightning Simulator (SLS). Simulated lightning currents of 30 kA and 200 kA were selected for this test series. This paper documents measurement methods and test results for DC high voltage and simulated lightning tests performed at the Sandia Lightning Simulator on fiber optic cables. The tests performed at the SLS evaluated whether electrical energy can be conducted inside or along the surface of a fiber optic cable into a grounded enclosure under representative lightning conditions.

  10. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easil

  11. Cable and Line Inspection Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  12. Cable and line inspection mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  13. Thermal Stability in HVDC Cables: Whether it is Internal or External?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chakradhar; T. S. Ramu

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown in HVDC Cable insulation is more often traced to thermal origins. Possibility of two kinds of instability has been suggested in the literature; internal (or intrinsic) thermal instability and external (or interactive) thermal instability. The internal thermal stability is believed to be due to the limitations of thermal and dc resistance of insulation. The interactive thermal stability, on

  14. Protection of SFâ gas insulated substations - Industry survey results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Akamine; E. A. Baumgartner; J. T. Emery; R. W. Haas; T. J. Murray

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the result of an industry survey of gas insulated equipment practices and develops recommendations where necessary. Tables are included to show the type of gas insulated equipment located at each substation (current transformers, voltage transformers, switches, bus bars, bushings, lightning arresters, and cable end terminations), the equipment configuration (single or three conductors), the type of gas monitoring

  15. Design Considerations on Three Phase Enclosure Type Gas Insulated Substation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Azumi; H. Kuwahara; I. Sakon; T. Marutani; H. Niwa

    1980-01-01

    A series of three phase enclosure type gas insulated substations is developed at the voltage ratings from 72 kV up to 204 kV. All the substation equipments, not only the switchgears and bus works but measuring transformers, surge arresters and the connections to transformers and cables are enclosed three phases in a common enclosure in the gas insulated substation (GIS).

  16. Partial discharge diagnostics and electrical equipment insulation condition assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Stone

    2005-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) measurement has long been used as a test to evaluate different insulation system designs, and as a quality control test for new equipment. However, in the past 20 years, PD measurement has been widely applied to diagnose the condition of the electrical insulation in operating apparatus such as switchgear, transformers, cables, as well as motor and generator

  17. Qualification High Voltage Testing of Short Triax HTS Cables in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James, David Randy [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In order to qualify the electrical insulation design of future HTS cables installed in the electric grid, a number of high voltage qualification tests are generally performed in the laboratory on either single-phase model cables and/or actual three-phase cable samples. Prior to installation of the 200-m Triax HTS cable at the American Electric Power Bixby substation near Columbus, Ohio, in September, 2006, such tests were conducted on both single-phase model cables made at ORNL and tri-axial cable sections cut off from cable made on a production run. The three-phase tri-axial design provides some specific testing challenges since the ground shield and three phases are concentric about a central former with each phase separated by dielectric tape insulation immersed in liquid nitrogen. The samples were successfully tested and qualified for partial discharge inception, AC withstand, and lightning impulse where voltage is applied to one phase with the other phases grounded. In addition one of the phase pairs was tested for dc withstand as a ldquoworst caserdquo scenario to simulate the effect of VLF (Very Low Frequency) tests on the actual cable installed at the Bixby site. The model and prototype cables will be described and the high voltage test results summarized.

  18. Partial discharge tests and characterisation of the Advanced Photon Source linac modulator cables.

    SciTech Connect

    Cours, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2007-01-01

    The advanced photon source (APS) linac modulators are PFN-type pulsers with switch-mode charging power supplies (PSs). The PS and the PFN are connected to each other by 15 feet of 100-kV x-ray cable, with the PFN end of the cable terminated with a connector that was confirmed partial-discharge (PD)-free up to 38 kV ac (53.5 kV peak). Another end of the cable is terminated with a connector that was designed by the PS manufacturer and cannot easily be replaced with another type of connector, since part of it is located inside the densely packed PS. PD tests of the cables with this type of connector show that the PD inception voltages (PDIVs) in different cables turn out to be located within a wide voltage range: 21 to 27 kV ac that corresponds to 29 to 38 kV peak. In order to evaluate the insulation condition of the modulator cables, detect insulation deterioration, and ensure failure-preventing equipment maintenance, over the last two years the PDIVs of all high-voltage (HV) cables in use in the modulators have been tested about every three and a half months. Before the tests, all cables were removed from the equipment, carefully cleaned, inspected, and regreased. The tests were performed using a 40-kV PD detector. The test results show that: 1 The PDIVs remain almost unchanged in all tested cables. 2 From test to test, the PDIV of any particular cable may slightly oscillate around some average value. This possibly depends on the connector regreasing technique. 3 There is no direct evidence of cable insulation deterioration during more than two years of operation under voltage higher than the PD inception level.

  19. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  20. Flat conductor cable survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

  1. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Is Cable the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Ronald D.; Chen, Kan

    1978-01-01

    The promise of cable, as a supplement or alternative to broadcast television, has been undermined in recent years by the emergence of one or two dominant organizations developing with the same profit motive as presently existing networks. (JMF)

  3. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which holds it in position. The leads of the nichrome wire are attached to screw terminals that connect them to power leads. A bayonet plug mounted at the bottom of the rectangular block connects the power leads to a relay circuit. A thin aluminum shell encloses the entire structure, leaving access points to attach to the bayonet plug and to feed a cable into the cylinder. The access holes for the deployment cable are a smaller diameter than the nichrome coil to prevent the cable from coming in direct contact with the nichrome when loaded. It uses the same general method of severing a cable with a heated wire as was used previously, but implements it in such a way that it is more reliable and less prone to failure. It creates a mechanism to create repeatability that was nonexistent in the previous method.

  4. Cable in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cable in the Classroom is an "initiative by Canada's cable companies and programming services to provide copyright cleared, commercial free, educationally relevant television programming for Canadian schools." Included are a list of hyperlinked program service providers, a searchable and browsable list of classroom TV programs all over Canada, and a large list of Internet resources including schools on the Internet, resources for teachers, and information on getting your school on the Internet. http://www.cableducation.ca/

  5. Model of Inception and Growth of Damage from Microvoids in Polyethylene-based Materials for HVDC Cables. 1. Theoretical Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mazzanti; G. C. Montanari; F. Civenni

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive physical aging and life model is presented for damage inception and growth in polymeric insulation, starting at the level of microscopic cavities, that are known to be one of the most severe factors limiting design electric field and life of cable insulation. Degradation within a polyethylene-based material for HVDC cables is considered as a hot-electron induced bond-breaking process

  6. Mitigation of Manhole Events Caused by Secondary Cable Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili

    "Manhole event" refers to a range of phenomena, such as smokers, fires and explosions which occur on underground electrical infrastructure, primarily in major cities. The most common cause of manhole events is decomposition of secondary cable initiated by an electric fault. The work presented in this thesis addresses various aspects related to the evolution and mitigation of the manhole events caused by secondary cable insulation failure. Manhole events develop as a result of thermal decomposition of organic materials present in the cable duct and manholes. Polymer characterization techniques are applied to intensively study the materials properties as related to manhole events, mainly the thermal decomposition behaviors of the polymers present in the cable duct. Though evolved gas analysis, the combustible gases have been quantitatively identified. Based on analysis and knowledge of field conditions, manhole events is divided into at least two classes, those in which exothermic chemical reactions dominate and those in which electrical energy dominates. The more common form of manhole event is driven by air flow down the duct. Numerical modeling of smolder propagation in the cable duct demonstrated that limiting air flow is effective in reducing the generation rate of combustible gas, in other words, limiting manhole events to relatively minor "smokers". Besides manhole events, another by-product of secondary cable insulation breakdown is stray voltage. The danger to personnel due to stray voltage is mostly caused by the 'step potential'. The amplitude of step potential as a result of various types of insulation defects is calculated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) program.

  7. Artificial contamination tests of silicone rubber cylindrical models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Goto; Yoshikatsu Hori; Tokui Yonemura; Masahiro Suetsugu

    2000-01-01

    To develop the composite insulator termination for EHV XLPE Cable, especially for those used for contamination conditions, it is necessary to evaluate the contamination performance of composite insulators. This article presents the results of artificial contamination test on the cylindrical model made of FRP tube covered with silicone rubber, and also introduces the relation between methods of making contamination samples

  8. Electrical properties of biodegradable polylactic acid film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nakagawa; Takuo Nakiri; Ryuichi Hosoya; Yoshiro Tajitsu

    2004-01-01

    We measured the basic electrical insulation characteristic of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA), and the following results were obtained. The volume resistivity, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss tangent measured at room temperature were almost the same as those of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) currently used as insulating material for cables and electric wires. The mean impulse breakdown strength of PLA was about

  9. Topological Insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Hasan; C. L. Kane

    2010-01-01

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap\\u000alike an ordinary insulator, but have protected conducting states on their edge\\u000aor surface. The 2D topological insulator is a quantum spin Hall insulator,\\u000awhich is a close cousin of the integer quantum Hall state. A 3D topological\\u000ainsulator supports novel spin polarized 2D Dirac fermions on its surface.

  10. Insulation Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television

    2013-01-01

    In this physical sciences activity, learners explore insulation. Leaners investigate how insulation can be used to slow down the conduction of heat from one side of a wall to the other. Learners are challenged with designing the best way to insulate a cup to prevent ice cubes from melting.

  11. Distributed measurement of conductor temperatures in mine trailing cables using fiber-optic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dubaniewicz, T.H. Jr.; Kovalchik, P.G.; Scott, L.W. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Lab.] [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Lab.; Fuller, M.A. [AmerCable, Sewickley, PA (United States)] [AmerCable, Sewickley, PA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Mine trailing cables operated above safe thermal limits can cause premature insulation failure, increasing electrocution and fire hazards. Previous US Bureau of Mines Pittsburgh Research Center research showed that, under static test conditions, electrical current levels permitted under present regulations may not limit cable temperatures to less than the 90 C rating of reeled trailing cable. Continuing research under the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) addresses thermal characteristics of reeled trailing cable under dynamic test conditions more representative of field conditions, where operators constantly reel in and pay out cable. This research is in support of efforts by industry associations and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to establish safety guidelines for cyclically rated reeled machines. This paper describes a unique approach to measuring temperatures within reeled cable under dynamic test conditions. Fiber-optic sensors embedded within the metallic conductors measure temperatures at 1-m intervals along the entire length of cable. Temperature measurements are reported to be accurate to within {+-}1 C. The test setup requires access to only one end of the trailing cable, allowing researchers to freely reel in and pay out cable while temperature measurements are made, simulating field conditions. Manufacture of a fiber-optic-embedded trailing cable is described, along with initial test results that indicate the fiber-optic approach is viable.

  12. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results.

  13. 15. CLOSEUP VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CABLE BOLT, SUSPENSION CABLE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CABLE BOLT, SUSPENSION CABLE, AND CONCRETE ANCHORING BLOCK, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - San Rafael Bridge, Spanning San Rafael River near Buckhorn Wash, Castle Dale, Emery County, UT

  14. 103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CABLES ENTERING CABLE TRAY SHED AT EAST OF LSB; OXIDIZER APRON AND LAUNCH PAD IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2005-09-20

    A seal for a coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal seal for a coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transformer. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive core of the coaxial cable. The electrically insulating material also doubles as a seal to safegaurd against penetration of fluid, thus protecting against shorting out of the electrical connection. The seal is a multi-component seal, which is pre-compressed to a desired pressure rating. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string. The internal coaxial cable connector and its attendant seal can be used in a plurality of downhole tools, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  16. Improved Connector Shell for Cable Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, A. L.; Rotta, J. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Cable connector shell improves electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by electrically connecting cable braid around entire circumference. Connector cable braid is slipped over ferrule and sleeve is slipped over braid, clamping it tightly to shell. Connector shell completely shields cable conductors.

  17. Transatlantic Cable Communications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new addition to Canada's digital collections chronicles the role played in worldwide communications by the Nova Scotian town of Canso and the nearby community of Hazel Hill as home to one end of the transatlantic cable linking Britain and North America. The site explores the history of telegraphy, the cable's social and economic impact on the community, and some famous messages sent and received. It also examines the science of telegraphy, the construction of the cable, and some key inventions. In addition, users will find here some photos, several videos, a glossary, and a FAQ. While by no means the most extensive online history exhibit, this site should appeal to anyone interested in the history of communications or history of science.

  18. Application of the CMARS concept to advanced-technology cables (Volumes 1 and 2). [Cable Monitoring and Rating System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    CMARS is the acronym for Cable Monitoring and Rating System, a sophisticated computer-based algorithm for monitoring temperatures in underground electric-power-transmission cables and dynamically updating cable ratings based on the monitored temperatures. CMARS was originally developed for oil-filled pipe-type cables. However, extensions to other types of underground cables can be made quite readily. The original batch-mode computer program was modified to accommodate different dynamic thermal models. Dynamic thermal models of other advanced-technology (HVDC, gas-insulated) have been developed and integrated into the modified CMARS software structure. Testing of the modified program and the newly developed thermal models has been carried out using simulated real-time data. For each cable design, a reasonable set of dimensional data was chosen, and a simulated time-history data file was created to represent the real-time data. Descriptions of outputs and sample outputs of these test runs are shown in the CMARS Program Modular Batch Version User's Manual, Volume 2 of this final report.

  19. Wide-span cable structures

    E-print Network

    Santoso, Katherina, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the application of cable structures in buildings has gained huge popularities. Although cable technology has been established since the 1950s, there is suddenly a surge in the number of its building ...

  20. Use of plain copper conductors in lieu of tinned-copper for internal cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, R. T.; Mottram, K. G.

    In line with most Telephone Operating Administrations, Telecom Australia has specified and used tinned-copper conductors, with PVC insulation and sheathing, for most internal cabling within telephone exchanges and subscribers' buildings. Following some reported problems associated with solderability, an investigation showed that the current production tinned conductors in Australia were inadequately specified; however, the excellent performance of plain copper prompted a more detailed investigation which revealed that plain copper conductors (i.e., no tinning) were suitable for all current applications of internal cable. The study covered soldering, wire wrapping, and insulation displacement terminations. As a result of this work, Telecom Australia has adopted plain copper as the standard for internal cables. This decision has resulted in both an improved performance in comparison with the previous tinned conductors (particularly in relation to solderability) and a substantial cable cost reduction.

  1. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  2. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  3. Cables and connectors: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A technological compilation on devices and techniques for various types of electrical cables and connections is presented. Data are reported under three sections: flat conductor cable technology, newly developed electrical connectors, and miscellaneous articles and information on cables and connector techniques.

  4. Cable discharges into communication interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Stadler; T. Brodbeck; R. Gartner; H. Gossner

    2006-01-01

    Current amplitudes of a cable discharge event (CDE) are a risk for electronic interfaces if a cable can discharge directly into a signal pin. CDE have been recorded for several cables in different configurations. CDE can be modeled by square pulses, thus, Transmission Line Pulsing is a good approach for characterizing interface pins and protection elements.

  5. Effect of aging on EPR cable electrical performance during LOCA simulations. [Ethylene propylene rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    When exposed to a LOCA environment, some ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials experience substantial moisture absorption and dimensional changes. These phenomena may contribute to mechanical damage of the cable insulation resulting in electrical degradation. Recent experiments illustrate that the extent of moisture absorption and dimensional changes during an accident simulation are dependent on the EPR product, the accelerated age, and the aging technique employed to achieve that age. Results for several commercial EPR materials are summarized.

  6. A new concept for test equipment for testing large HV and UHV cables on-site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Mohaupt; A. Bergman

    2010-01-01

    Summary  The number of projects involving long and extra long HV and UHV AC cables as well as HVDC cable connections can be observed\\u000a to increase (Cao et al., 2008; Kabouris et al., 2006). At the same time, operating voltage levels are increasing, accentuating the need for more powerful on-site test systems\\u000a needed to prove the integrity of the insulation before

  7. Fiber Optic Submarine Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Ulrich H. P.

    1990-01-01

    Submarine communication cables have one of the longest history in the field of technics. During the last 20 years their importance showed a drastic decay in favour of satellites. Presently their future looks bright again as they contain now optical fibers instead of coaxial pairs.

  8. Fiber optic cable connector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Ludman; J. L. Horner; H. J. Caulfield

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optic cable connector for coupling together a pair of optical fibers having a pair of fixtures, each of the fixtures securing therein a respective optical fiber and having magnification lens optically aligned with the end of the optical fiber. The lens and fibers are so positioned relative to each other so as to focus a magnified or enlarged

  9. Cable in Mass 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Founders Annex Public Service Project, Inc., Dedham, MA.

    The current (1972) status of cable television (CATV) in Massachusetts is reviewed in this guide. The tone of the guide is oriented toward more citizen participation and public access to CATV operations throughout the state. The legal and technical CATV considerations are briefly discussed. Short illustrated chapters on the possibilities of local…

  10. Educational Telecommunications. Cable Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    The Michigan Department of Education sponsored a conference which brought educational administrators and cable television (CATV) entrepreneurs together for a common exploration of their respective concerns in order that they might develop a working relationship leading to the effective utilization of CATV by educators. Major topics dealt with: 1)…

  11. Cable TV: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Educational Library/Media Association, Columbus.

    Designed to aid in planning the best use of cable television in a particular educational situation, this pamphlet was prepared by a joint committee of the Ohio Educational Library Media Association and the Greater Miami Valley Instructional Television Council in order to share their plans, experiences, problems, and solutions with others who are…

  12. Flat conductor cable handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Handbook includes discussion of FCC advantages, status of FCC regarding military specifications, hardware availability, and existing applications, descriptions and data on available cable, connectors, fasteners and hardware, design techniques and applications, wiring, manufacturing and installation techniques - and inspection and test procedures.

  13. Cable Pool - Cherryfield

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS monitors the Narraguagus River at Cherryfield, Maine at a location called Cable Pool. This spot was once renowned for Atlantic salmon, where anglers would line the banks, waiting their turn to cast a line into the water. In fact, posts along the river bank to hold the waiting anglers rods e...

  14. Privacy for Cable Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Frank R.

    Cable television's potential for providing new and attractive types of services will best be realized if the public can be assured of privacy of information transmitted specifically to their terminals and of the right to view any channel without information being gathered as to which channel is being watched at any particular time. It appears that…

  15. Handbook for photovoltaic cabling

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D. N.

    1980-08-01

    This volume, originally written as part of the Interim Performance Criteria Document Development Implementation Plan and Procedures for Photovoltaic Energy Systems, is an analysis of the several factors to be considered in selecting cabling for photovoltaic purposes. These factors, correspoonding to chapter titles, are electrical, structural, safety, durability/reliability, and installation. A glossary of terms used within the volume is included for reference.

  16. Thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  17. HVDC submarine power cables systems state of the art and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Valenza, D.; Cipollini, G. [Pirelli Cavi S.p.A., Milano (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The paper begins with an introduction on the reasons that lead to the use of HVDC submarine cable links. The main aspects for the choice of direct current are presented as well as the advantages deriving from the utilization of submarine cables. The second part is dedicated to a discussion on the various type of insulation that could be used in power cables and their possible application to HVDC submarine cables. In the following there is a description of the main characteristics and technical details of some particular project that at present time (1995) are in progress. Two projects are briefly presented: Spain-Morocco, a 26 km long interconnection for the transmission, in a first phase, of 700 MW from Spain to Morocco at 400 kV a.c. by means of three cables, plus one spare, of the fluid filled type. The cables are designed for a future change to d.c. 450 kV, allowing a transmission of 500 MW each (i.e., 2 GW total). One of the peculiarities of the link is the maximum water depth of 615 m (world record for submarine power cables at the time of installation). Italy-Greece, a 1km long interconnection for the transmission of 500 MW (bi-directional) by means of one paper insulated mass impregnated cable having 1,250 sq mm conductor size and insulated for a rated voltage of 400 kV. This link (the installation of which will be posterior to the Spain-Morocco) will attain the world record for the maximum water depth for submarine power cables: 1,000 m. The last part deals with the future developments expected in this field, in terms of conductor size and voltage, that means an increase in transmissible capacity.

  18. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  19. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph (Sandia Park, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  20. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  1. San Francisco Cable Car Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Celebrated in American film, song, and popular legend, the San Francisco cable car gets its full due on this well honed site devoted to the history and operation of this cherished form of transportation. Beginning with a virtual tour of the Cable Car Museum, the site contains a full roster of current San Francisco cable cars and a detailed explanation of how a cable car works. Probably the strongest aspect of the site is the sheer amount of visual material available here, including over 150 photos that relate the history of the cable car system and continue on to the present day. Recent additions to the site include a collection of historic cable car transfers and information about a new book on cable cars in San Francisco.

  2. Performance of a technical and economical feasibility study of an HVDC compressed gas insulated transmission line. [600 kV

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Progress in evaluating the technical feasibility of gas-insulated cables and circuit breakers for HVDC systems (600 kV) is reported. Investigations with a model cable resulted in cautious optimism that it will be possible to commission the total length of an installed cable with HVDC. The major problem is to prevent the insulators from being contaminated by residual particles. The model cable was used to test a new design principle that particles moving towards the insulator can be directed toward a shield on the conductor adjacent to the insulator and be confined at the end edges of the shield. Then they can be trapped and retained inside a particle trap at the bottom of each bulge. Results showed that all metal particles can be moved out of a 2 ft length of enclosure in minutes, and that no particles were seen on or in the vicinity of the insulator. Specific plans for accelerating this project are outlined. (LCL)

  3. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Summary of past work. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings from a review of published documents dealing with research on the environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables used in nuclear power plants. Simulations of accelerated aging and accident conditions are important considerations in qualifying the cables. Significant research in these two areas has been performed in the US and abroad. The results from studies in France, Germany, and Japan are described in this report. In recent years, the development of methods to monitor the condition of cables has received special attention. Tests involving chemical and physical examination of cable`s insulation and jacket materials, and electrical measurements of the insulation properties of cables are discussed. Although there have been significant advances in many areas, there is no single method which can provide the necessary information about the condition of a cable currently in service. However, it is possible that further research may identify a combination of several methods that can adequately characterize the cable`s condition.

  4. Insulation materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Graves; D. C. Wysocki

    1991-01-01

    This volume reflects the interest in this decade of conserving energy and protecting he environment. The Symposium and the resulting STP clearly demonstrate the Committee's objective of providing timely information on the testing, characterization, use, and development of thermal insulations. In the 1970s and 1980s, interest and activity in thermal insulation was spurred by the growing recognition of the need

  5. The 345 kV underground/underwater Long Island Sound cable project

    SciTech Connect

    Grzan, J.; Hahn, E.I. (New York Power Authority, White Plains, NY (United States)); Casalaina, R.V.; Kansog, J.O.C. (Ebasco Services Inc., Lyndhurst, NJ (United States))

    1993-07-01

    A high voltage underground/underwater cable system was installed to increase the transmission capacity from the mainland of New York to Long Island. In terms of weight and diameter, the self-contained, fluid-filled (SCFF) cable used for the underwater portion of the project is the largest underwater cable in the world. The use of high-pressure, fluid-filled (HPFF) pipe-type cable on the land portion represents the largest application of paper-polypropylene-paper (PPP) insulated cable in the United States. State-of-the-art technologies were implemented in the use of fiber optic cables for relay protection and SCADA/RTU, temperature monitoring and leak detection systems, SF[sub 6] gas-insulated substations, and underwater cable laying and embedment techniques. This paper discusses the design and installation of a 750 MVA, 43 km (26.6 mi), 345 kV underground/underwater electric transmission system installed by the New York Power Authority (NYPA).

  6. Pellet detector investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.P.; Starrett, W.A. (BICC Cables Corp., Indianapolis, IN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The presence of voids and contaminants in the extruded polyethylene insulation of distribution cable can cause premature cable failure. A recent EPRI investigation sought to use an experimental far-infrared laser (FIRL) to identify impurities in cable insulation manufactured from specially inspected pellets. 15 kV XLPE cables were made from three lots of insulation material which had been scanned 0%, 2% and 100% by a pellet inspection device. The cables were then examined with the FIRL (Far Infrared Laser Instrument for Cable Inspection). The 0% inspected cable had more defect indications on the FIRL, appeared dirtier and had the roughest surface of three cables. However, AC breakdown tests on unaged and aged (30 and 90 days) cables failed to reveal any statistically significant differences between cables made with the three lots of material. 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Method to improve superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  8. Hanging Windmills From Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G.

    1987-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive structure enables raising and lowering of windmills. Windmills supported, according to new concept, by hanging from cables. Possible to raise and lower windmills easily for maintenance and to lower them to avoid excessive windspeeds. Airframe consists of fuselage and empennage. Windmill turns shaft driving electrical generator. Device aerodynamically stable so it will rotate in yaw to maintain windmill in downwind position as wind direction changes.

  9. Cable coupling lightning transient qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.

  10. High-Frequency Modeling of the Long-Cable-Fed Induction Motor Drive System Using TLM Approach for Predicting Overvoltage Transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwei Wang; Carl Ngai-Man Ho; Francisco Canales; Juri Jatskevich

    2010-01-01

    Induction motor drive systems fed with cables are widely used in many industrial applications. Accurate prediction of motor terminal overvoltage, caused by impedance mismatch between the long cable and the motor, plays an important role for motor dielectric insulation and optimal design of dv\\/dt filters. In this paper, a novel modeling methodology for the investigation of long-cable-fed induction motor drive

  11. Analysis of Harmonics in Subsea Power Transmission Cables Used in VSC–HVDC Transmission Systems Operating Under Steady-State Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Hsin Chien; Richard W. G. Bucknall

    2007-01-01

    Subsea power cables are a critical component of a voltage-source converter-high-voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission system in any offshore electrical power scheme. Subsea cables have complicated structures consisting of many different layers: conductor, insulation, sheath, and armor. Harmonic performance of the system depends upon the interactions between the subsea cable, the power converters, and other system components, such as smoothing

  12. Tapping the television cable.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice. PMID:9375105

  13. Development of a generator stator insulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buritz, R. S.

    1983-04-01

    The insulation of stator windings in generators is an old technology, dating to the turn of the century with kraft paper insulated, oil filled cables. Recently, two new classes of machines requiring much more advanced techniques of insulation have emerged. These generators are designed for relatively short duty in situations where light weight and small size are crucial to the overall mission, and mobility is a must. One class of machines uses superconducting windings to achieve small size. The other class consists of conventional generators designed to have extremely high power densities and specific powers. These machines represent a considerable engineering achievement, being significantly smaller than any previous generator. In one of these generators, manufactured by Bendix, substantial problems have been encountered in the stator winding insulation, because of the high fields dictated by the extremely high power density. This report presents the Hughes Aircraft Company approach and solution to these problems.

  14. Monitoring cables for local degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Sliter, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiences in operating nuclear plants in the United States have demonstrated the need for an in situ cable condition monitoring technique that can assess whether installed, low-voltage, unshielded cables have local damage that could compromise their ability to function under normal and accident service conditions. This paper summarizes current US programs that have been initiated to develop a technological basis for monitoring cables with local degradation. 7 refs.

  15. World record HVDC submarine cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ilstad

    1994-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 1993 a new 350 kV\\/440 MW HVDC cable was commissioned between Norway and Denmark. This 127 km-long, Skagerrak 3 cable was manufactured bv Alcatel Kabel Norge. It was installed at a record maximum sea depth of 530 m. During the summer of 1994 a 250 km-long, 450 kV\\/600 MW HVDC cable will be installed across the Baltic

  16. Tendon Control of Cable Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Preumont

    \\u000a Cable structures are used extensively in civil engineering: suspended bridges, cable-stayed bridges, guyed towers, roofs in\\u000a large public buildings and stadiums. The main span of current cable-stayed bridges (Fig.15.1) can reach more than 850  m850 \\\\ m (e.g. Normandy bridge, near Le Havre, in France). These structures are very flexible, because the strength of high performance\\u000a materials increases faster than

  17. CableLabs: Current Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site highlights projects being conducted by CableLabs, "a non-profit research and development consortium that is dedicated to pursuing new cable telecommunications technologies." Most of these projects are creating specifications that will improve quality and ensure interoperability of cable systems. Focuses of research include cable modems, interactive services, broadband applications, and more. Each project's home page has extensive documentation on the intended goals and access to all specifications. Some presentations are also given that give a basic overview of the project.

  18. Automotive Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between Boeing North America and BSR Products, Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are now used to insulate race cars. BSR has created special TPS blanket insulation kits for use on autos that take part in NASCAR events, and other race cars through its nationwide catalog distribution system. Temperatures inside a race car's cockpit can soar to a sweltering 140 to 160 degrees, with the extreme heat coming through the engine firewall, transmission tunnel, and floor. It is common for NASCAR drivers to endure blisters and burns due to the excessive heat. Tests on a car insulated with the TPS material showed a temperature drop of some 50 degrees in the driver's cockpit. BSR-TPS Products, Inc. now manufactures insulation kits for distribution to race car teams around the world.

  19. Deep Water Cable Solutions - Cable System Development and Installation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUNNAR EVENSET; BJØRN LADEGAARD

    SUMMARY The need for new renewable power production, electrification of offshore platforms and interconnections for exchange of energy between countries has increased the market for HVDC cable systems. In addition the development of Voltage Source Converters (VSC) has opened a new market for HVDC cable systems because of the ability of the VSC converter to feed power to remote islands

  20. 4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM NORTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. TOPS OF BUNKER PERISCOPE AND FLAGPOLE ON ROOF OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Aging of polymeric and composite insulating materials. Aspects of interfacial performance in aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    Aging of polymeric and composite materials is reviewed mainly from the standpoint of their interfacial performance. Insulating materials can be divided into simple polymers and composites. Polymers for power cables, transformers, insulators and rotating machines consist of thermoplastics such as PE, PET and PPS, elastomers such as silicone, EPR and EPDM, and thermosets such as epoxy. Composites for GIS, rotating

  2. Interaction of drive modulation and cable parameters on AC motor transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russel J. Kerkman; David Leggate; Gary L. Skibinski

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates overvoltage transients on AC induction motors when connected through a cable of arbitrary length to a variable frequency drive (VFD) consisting of a pulsewidth modulation (PWM) inverter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power devices. Factors contributing to a motor overvoltage transient equal to a theoretical twice DC bus voltage are first described using existing transmission line

  3. Riding the reflected wave-IGBT drive technology demands new motor and cable considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Saunders; G. L. Skibinski; Steve T. Evon; David L. Kempkes

    1996-01-01

    Drive manufacturer migration to insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) output devices demands a more careful selection of motors and load cables. IGBT drives have faster output voltage risetimes which have increased the dielectric voltage stress placed on the motor. Semiconductor risetime now has a greater influence on motor transient voltages, emphasizing the need to understand the reflected wave phenomenon and

  4. 47 CFR 36.153 - Assignment of Cable and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...and Wire Facilities (C&WF) to categories. (a) Cable consists of: Aerial cable, underground cable, buried cable, submarine cable, deep sea cable and intrabuilding network cable. Where an entire cable or aerial wire is assignable to one...

  5. Change of electrical characteristics of radio-frequency cables under thermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. V.; Pavlov, P. P.; Khrenkov, N. N.

    1985-01-01

    Four basic temperature dependent electrical parameters of r-f cables are described by expressions which facilitate an analysis of their sensitivity to temperature effects, these parameters being capacitance, wave impedance, attenuation factor and phase shift factor. Calculations for coaxial cables are based on an equivalent dielectric permittivity of the insulation system, including air gap between dielectric and outer conductor produced in the manufacturing process as well as the air gap between dielectric and inner conductor produced by variation of the radius of the latter. Mechanical strains affecting the system geometry are found from the solution to Lame's problem for thin walled cylinders and Hooke's law extended to a three dimensional state of stress. For illustration, numerical results are given for RK-3-28-Pr high precision cables with monolithic Teflon-4D insulation (dielectric constant epsilon = 2.03 at 20 C).

  6. Effect of LOCA simulation procedures on cross-linked polyolefin cable's performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    Electrical and mechanical properties of three commercial cross-linked polyolefin (XLPO) materials, typically used as electrical cable insulation, have been monitored during these simulations of nuclear power plant aging and accident stresses. For one XLPO cable accelerated thermal aging is performed, then the samples are irradiated to the combined aging and LOCA total dose. Finally, a steam exposure is applied. For a second and third set of XLPO cables simultaneous applications of elevated temperature and radiation stresses are used to preaccident age specimens. These aging exposures are followed by simultaneous and steam exposures to simulate a LOCA environment. The measurement parameters during these tests included: dc insulation resistance, ac leakage current, ultimate tensile strength, ultimate tensile elongation, percentage dimensional changes, and percentage moisture absorption. Test results for three XLPO materials are presented.

  7. Cable Television and Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranberg, Gilbert

    One of the most promising applications of cable television (CATV) is municipal surveillance of public areas for protection against crime, fire detection, control of air pollution, and traffic. Thus far, however, the CATV industry has made minimal efforts to realize the potential of CATV for community protection--the use of cable for public safety…

  8. Plowing Cables Under the Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Duncan

    1969-01-01

    The principal cause of submarine telephone cable failures has been fishing activities on the continental shelf, particularly in the Western Atlantic area. The Bell System has conducted extensive investigation of methods of burying these cables in the affected area to eliminate this hazard. This has culminated in the development of a unique underwater plow which was used successfully in July

  9. Ocean bottom seismic cable connector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Edgerton; J. H. Engel; H. Ottsen; H. A. Seal; J. F. Wadsworth

    1984-01-01

    A cable connector for connecting marine seismic cables having an electrical conductor and a high tensile strength load transmitting core, comprising a housing having spherical sockets provided in opposite ends thereof, a pair of diametrically opposed grooves extending partially into the inner surface of the spherical sockets and extending longitudinally relative to the housing, strain relief members attached to the

  10. Cable Television: Uses in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Polly

    This is the first volume of a two-part study of the role of cable television in education; its purposes are to discuss the implications of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruling that all cable systems in the top 100 markets must reserve one channel for educational purposes and to stimulate the interests of educators by making them…

  11. Harmonic behaviour of HVDC cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Benato; Michele Forzan; Marco Marelli; Ambrogio Orini; Ernesto Zaccone

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with harmonic analysis of HVDC submarine cables. The longitudinal series impedance matrix is computed with reference to armoured cables. The results are also compared with Finite Element models showing a very good agreement. This investigation can be considered the first step of more detailed further analysis about the propagation of harmonics on the d.c. and a.c. sides.

  12. Choosing Power Cables on the Basis of Energy Economics 

    E-print Network

    Dimachkieh, S.; Brown, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    reduces cable resistance and cable operating temperature resulting in lower cable losses. A simplified method of analysis is presented which incorporates the effects of cable operating temperature. The analysis permits determination of cable loss savings...

  13. Radiation Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

  14. Membranes Improve Insulation Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    Bullock, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    membranes over the insulation, and (2) layered membranes between fiber batts to form closed cells in the insulation both dramatically improve the efficiency of the fiber insulation. The efficiency of this insulation will be improved to an even greater degree...

  15. The influence of defects on the short-term breakdown characteristics and long-term dc performance of LDPE insulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Chen; A. E. Davies

    2000-01-01

    Extruded polyethylene is used as the bulk insulation for ac HV cables because of its high electric resistivity and breakdown strength. Although the material at present has limited use in dc power cables, it is used extensively in submarine optical communication cable systems. This paper reports on the study of the short-term characteristics and long-term performance of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)

  16. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Manufactured by Hitco Materials Division of Armco, Inc. a ceramic fiber insulation material known as Refrasil has been used extensively as a heat-absorbing ablative reinforcement for such space systems as rocket motor nozzles, combustion chambers, and re-entry shields. Refrasil fibers are highly porous and do not melt or vaporize until fibers exceed 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these and other properties, Refrasil has found utility in a number of industrial high temperature applications where glass, asbestos and other materials fail. Hitco used this insulation to assist Richardson Co., Inc. in the manufacturing of hard rubber and plastic molded battery cases.

  18. Partial discharge measurements on a high voltage direct current mass impregnated paper cable

    SciTech Connect

    Jeroense, M.J.P. [NKF KABEL B.V., Delft (Netherlands); Kreuger, F.H. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Partial discharge measurement has been a good tool for the quality assurance of cables under alternating voltage. With the growing interest in High Voltage Direct Current cables it seems therefore logical to extend this technique for use at direct voltage. The paper describes this technique as used on a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper. The different phases of operation (no load, full load, cooling phase, etc.) are characterized by a different discharge behavior. Special attention is given to the dangerous cooling phase. Models have been developed which can explain the discharge patterns that were measured. This paper gives an insight in the electrical behavior of a HVDC cable with mass impregnated paper insulation.

  19. Development of semi-rigid coaxial cables for application to low temperature experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushino, Akihiro; Kasai, Soichi

    2011-03-01

    Fast signal readout with low noise is essential for spectrometric research. Superconducting spectrometers operating below ~ 1 K are promising with their high spectral resolution, detection efficiency and counting rate. Cables connecting these spectrometers and electronics at high temperature must be coaxial and have low thermal conductance in order to reduce heat into low temperature. We have developed thin semi-rigid coaxial cables using low thermal conductivity alloys, CuNi, SUS and NbTi, for both center and outer conductors. The outer conductor is seamless and separated from the center conductor by a PTFE electrical insulator. We have assembled an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) at the 2nd stage of a GM cryocooler, which enables to cool the coaxial cables below 1K, and have measured low thermal conductance and performance of the cables at high frequencies up to ~ 5 GHz.

  20. Diagnostic measurements of high voltage insulation using current comparator technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bulinski; E. So; S. Bamji; Y. Chen; J. Densley; J.-M. Braun

    1994-01-01

    The 60 Hz dielectric loss measurements in high voltage cable insulation containing water trees are described. A current-comparator-based high voltage capacitance bridge has been employed to isolate the small loss currents from the large quadrature (capacitive) currents. It is shown that water trees introduce higher harmonics into the loss current waveform and that the total harmonic distortion of the loss

  1. Development and optimization of breakdown strength measurements on polyethylene insulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Clavreul; J. Berdala

    1995-01-01

    In order to study the ageing phenomena of polyethylene insulants in high voltage cables, we carried out electrical measurements, for example the short time dielectric breakdown field in polyethylene. The decrease of the intrinsic dielectric rigidity of polyethylene may be correlated with ageing. That is why we optimized the short time breakdown field measurements on polyethylene samples between plane surface

  2. The design of insulation online monitoring system based on bluetooth technology and IEEE1451.5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailong Zhang; Genzhi Guan; Xiaoyan Zang

    2007-01-01

    At present, most of the on-line insulation monitoring systems are cable network. They exposed many disadvantage in application, such as complicated wiring, installation difficulties, easily affected by electromagnetic interference. To solve the above problems, a new wireless on-line insulation monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The new on-line insulation monitoring system is based on Bluetooth technology and wireless smart

  3. Technical and economic feasibility study of an HVDC compressed gas insulated transmission line. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the concept whereby the two insulation systems (insulators and gas with particles) can be optimized independently. Methods have been developed to achieve and maintain cleanliness of the gas space and to exclude particle generation possibilities from the gas space. These have made possible a high and consistent dielectric strength of the insulating gas. A high working stress can be used and the gas space can be reduced in size to improve the economics of the HVDC CGI cable. (DLC)

  4. An Apparatus for Monitoring the Health of Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, Devdas M.; Tatum, Paul; Pace, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    As with most elements of infrastructure, electrical wiring is innocuous; usually hidden away and unnoticed until it fails. Failure of infrastructure, however, sometimes leads to serious health and safety hazards. Electrical wiring fails when the polymeric (usually rubber) insulation material that sheathes the conductor gets embrittled with age from exposure to pressure, temperature or radiation cycling or when the insulation gets removed by the chafing of wires against each other. Miles of such wiring can be found in typical aircraft, with significant lengths of the wiring immersed in aviation fuel - a recipe for an explosion if a spark were to occur. Diagnosing the health of wiring is thus an important aspect of monitoring the health of aging aircraft. Stress wave propagation through wiring affords a quick and non-invasive method for health monitoring. The extent to which a stress wave propagating through the cable core gets attenuated depends on the condition of the surrounding insulation. When the insulation is in good condition - supple and pliable, there is more damping or attenuation of the waveform. As the insulation gets embrittled and cracked, the attenuation is likely to reduce and the waveform of the propagating stress wave is likely to change. The monitoring of these changes provides a potential tool to evaluate wiring or cabling in service that is not accessible for visual inspection. This experiment has been designed for use in an introductory mechanical or materials engineering instrumentation lab. Initial setup (after procuring all the materials) should take the lab instructor about 4 hours. A single measurement can be initiated and saved to disk in less than 3 minutes, allowing for all the students in a typical lab section to take their own data rather than share a single set of data for the entire class.

  5. Microsphere insulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Mark S. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new insulation system is provided that contains microspheres. This insulation system can be used to provide insulated panels and clamshells, and to insulate annular spaces around objects used to transfer, store, or transport cryogens and other temperature-sensitive materials. This insulation system provides better performance with reduced maintenance than current insulation systems.

  6. Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Apex Mills Corporation's superinsulators are used by makers of cold weather apparel, parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. Their attraction in such applications is that radiant barrier insulation offers excellent warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.

  7. Cable Modem Technology Implementation: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1998-01-01

    Describes cable modem technology (i.e., an external device that facilitates high-speed access to the Internet via the same network configuration employed for cable television). Examples of cable field trials carried out in collaboration with educational user communities are presented, and cable technical capabilities, advantages, and constraints…

  8. Cable Television, Market Power and Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Kenneth E.

    The goals of this dissertation are to provide an empirical examination of the impact of competing technologies on cable television firms and to document existing pricing behavior in the cable and pay programming industry. The introduction provides a brief overview of the cable television industry, including the impact of cable on federal policy…

  9. Automated assembly of parallel fiber optic cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Igl; B. A. DeBaun; N. A. Lee; T. L. Smith; G. D. Henson; A. S. Kuczma; P. K. Pepeljugoski

    1997-01-01

    The INCA (IN-line Cable Assembly) process was developed for assembling fiber optic cables automatically. During the INCA process, precisely coated fibers are laminated between the cable backing materials. Connectors are installed robotically onto the fibers as required. After the cable is assembled, the connectors are finished and body parts are added. Automation of the assembly process is efficient and results

  10. FLAT-SAG CABLES WITH SEMIACTIVE DAMPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Johnson; R. E. Christenson; B. F. Spencer

    2002-01-01

    Cables, such as are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, guy wires, transmission lines, and flexible space structures, are prone to vibration due to their low inherent damping characteristics. The mitigation of cable vibration is necessary to minimize negative impact. Transversely-attached passive viscous dampers have been implemented on some cables to dampen vibration. However, it can be shown that only

  11. SEMIACTIVE DAMPING OF CABLES WITH SAG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Johnson; R. E. Christenson; B. F. Spencer

    2000-01-01

    Cables, such as are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, guy wires, transmission lines, and flexible space structures, are prone to vibration due to their low inherent damping characteristics. The mitigation of cable vibration is necessary to minimize negative impact. Transversely-attached passive viscous dampers have been implemented on some cables to dampen vibration. However, it can be shown that only

  12. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. Passive cable laying system for subsea cabled observatory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengwei Wang; Bin Fu; Ping Ren; Daoyan Wang; Lian Lian

    2010-01-01

    For the developing research and exploring of deep-sea mineral and biological resources, subsea observatory is quite an effective method for long-time automatic data or image collection of subsea environment and creatures. But building an observatory network underwater is complicated and the power\\/optical signal transmission between subsea nodes requires extension cables. In this paper, a new kind of passive cable laying

  14. Handling optical cables: safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, C C

    1977-09-01

    We found that it is very dangerous to stare directly at thQ free end of an optical cable excited by a GaAlAs laser or by a high radiance LED. We determined the minimum tolerable distance between the human eye and the cable end. In the case of a cable with one multimode fiber, the typical safety zone should be 1 m when using a laser light source and 15 cm when using an LED. In the case of a single mode fiber the critical distance is approximately two to four times as large as in the multimode case; however, when taking into account typical values of the power level in single mode fibers, the critical distance is approximately 1 m as well. For N fibers within the cable the critical distance agrees with that of the single fiber, provided that the fibers are not too closely packaged. PMID:20168935

  15. Window Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A highly reflective insulating material developed to protect NASA spacecraft from intense solar radiation is now being used in a commercially-available window-insulating product which offers significant energy savings. Called Nunsun, it is a thin metallized film adhesively bonded to windows of homes, office buildings, schools, industrial plants and other facilities; the film reflects the sun's heat and glare outward, thereby cutting down on energy costs for cooling. Trained dealer personnel can affix the film to windows of any size in minutes (right), converting ordinary glass to heat-reflective mirror glass at a fraction of the cost. Manufactured by National Metallizing, a division of Standard Packaging Corporation, Cranbury, New Jersey, Nunsun is also available in windowshade form.

  16. Composite thermal insulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sh. Ishihara; R. Yamamoto; H. Yoneno

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a composite thermal insulator including a Freon gas expanded plastic, and an evacuated powder insulation. The present invention provides a composite thermal insulator light in weight and having a superior heat insulating performance over a long period through replacement of a thick metallic container conventionally used for the evacuated powder insulation and considered indispensable for

  17. Pipe Insulation Economies 

    E-print Network

    Schilling, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Pipe Insulation Economies is a computer program written in IBM basic to simplify the economic insulation thickness for an insulated pipe. Many articles have been written on this subject, from simple nomographs to a small book written in 1976...

  18. CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.

    2004-03-22

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

  19. AC losses of the 5 m BSCCO cables with shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, K.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Hwang, S. D.; Song, H. J.

    2010-11-01

    In order to research the AC loss characteristics of a multi-layered conductor and a shield in a high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable, we prepared two short cable samples, which are the same as the 22.9 kV/50 MVA HTS-cable installed at Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corporation, and attached voltage-leads to both the conductor and the shield. To investigate the effect of transport period on their AC losses, we also applied current with the same magnitude and opposite direction to the conductor and the shield from a few cycles to several minutes. The tests show that the AC loss measured from the lead attached to the shield (shield-lead) is constant regardless of transport period. But the measured loss from the lead attached to the conductor (conductor-lead) is greatly dependent on transport period. It seems to be caused by difficulty in heat transfer to the surrounding coolant due to thick insulator around the conductor. As transport period becomes longer, the conductor’s temperature rises and thus the AC loss measured from the conductor-lead increases. In addition, the measured loss from the conductor-lead is 1.5 times larger than that from the shield-lead, particularly for the transport period of a few cycles.

  20. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...service cable shall be spliced to the main cable in accordance with § 1755.200, RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (4) Where practicable, aerial cable shall pass under electrical guys, distribution secondaries,...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...service cable shall be spliced to the main cable in accordance with § 1755.200, RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (4) Where practicable, aerial cable shall pass under electrical guys, distribution secondaries, and...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...service cable shall be spliced to the main cable in accordance with § 1755.200, RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (4) Where practicable, aerial cable shall pass under electrical guys, distribution secondaries, and...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...service cable shall be spliced to the main cable in accordance with § 1755.200, RUS standard for splicing copper and fiber optic cables. (4) Where practicable, aerial cable shall pass under electrical guys, distribution secondaries, and...

  4. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...in the tank or protected by an enclosure; and (3) Neither braided cable armor nor cable metallic sheath is used as the grounding conductor. (d) Braided cable armor or cable metallic sheath must not be used as the grounding conductor....

  5. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...in the tank or protected by an enclosure; and (3) Neither braided cable armor nor cable metallic sheath is used as the grounding conductor. (d) Braided cable armor or cable metallic sheath must not be used as the grounding conductor....

  6. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...in the tank or protected by an enclosure; and (3) Neither braided cable armor nor cable metallic sheath is used as the grounding conductor. (d) Braided cable armor or cable metallic sheath must not be used as the grounding conductor....

  7. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...in the tank or protected by an enclosure; and (3) Neither braided cable armor nor cable metallic sheath is used as the grounding conductor. (d) Braided cable armor or cable metallic sheath must not be used as the grounding conductor....

  8. 46 CFR 111.60-5 - Cable installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...in the tank or protected by an enclosure; and (3) Neither braided cable armor nor cable metallic sheath is used as the grounding conductor. (d) Braided cable armor or cable metallic sheath must not be used as the grounding conductor....

  9. Topological insulators/Isolants topologiques An introduction to topological insulators

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Topological insulators/Isolants topologiques An introduction to topological insulators Introduction topology, the insulator is called a topological insulator. We introduce this notion of topological order sont finalement discutées. Keywords: topological insulator, topological band theory, quantum anomalous

  10. GAP FILLING CERAMIC INSULATING PUTTY FOR HIGH FIELD MAGNETS

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J. A.; Rice, H. M. [MultiPhase Composites, LLC Longmont, CO, 80501 (United States)

    2008-03-03

    Gaps between the A15 superconducting cable and its supports can sometimes occur requiring expensive rework of the support or filling with a non-optimal material. Recently, a new ceramic putty has been developed that can fill these gaps to fully support the superconducting cable. This ceramic material can withstand the extreme temperature differences between the high temperature heat treatment and the cryogenic operation. Significant performance improvements have been made that will enable the insulating putty to be used in some accelerator magnet systems. Processing methods will be discussed as well as strength and thermal data.

  11. Tank Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    For NASA's Apollo program, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, Huntington Beach, California, developed and built the S-IVB, uppermost stage of the three-stage Saturn V moonbooster. An important part of the development task was fabrication of a tank to contain liquid hydrogen fuel for the stage's rocket engine. The liquid hydrogen had to be contained at the supercold temperature of 423 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. The tank had to be perfectly insulated to keep engine or solar heat from reaching the fuel; if the hydrogen were permitted to warm up, it would have boiled off, or converted to gaseous form, reducing the amount of fuel available to the engine. McDonnell Douglas' answer was a supereffective insulation called 3D, which consisted of a one-inch thickness of polyurethane foam reinforced in three dimensions with fiberglass threads. Over a 13-year development and construction period, the company built 30 tanks and never experienced a failure. Now, after years of additional development, an advanced version of 3D is finding application as part of a containment system for transporting Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by ship.

  12. 18 IEEE Transactions onPower Delivery, Vol. 14, No.1, January 1999 Leak Location in Fluid Filled Cables

    E-print Network

    pipe, which encloses three PE-314-PWRD-O-04-1998 A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Insulated. Self-contained, low and medium- pressure, fluid filled cables which have an oil channel in the middle and applied in verifying the ability of atmosphere transport and dispersion models to predict air- born

  13. Double copper sheath multiconductor instrumentation cable is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Crae, A. W., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Multiconductor instrumentation cable in which the conducting wires are routed through two concentric copper tube sheaths, employing a compressed insulator between the conductors and between the inner and outer sheaths, is durable and easily installed in high thermal or nuclear radiation area. The double sheath is a barrier against moisture, abrasion, and vibration.

  14. Breakout cables for short haul fiber optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, F. T.

    A breakout cable construction has been designed consisting of individually strengthened and jacketed optical channels which facilitate use of single channel optical connectors. This cable design eliminates the need for a patch panel, breakout box or cable furcation (which are required for standard cable designs) at the cable to electronics interface. The cable design parameters are reviewed along with a detailed cost comparison between use of standard multi-fiber cable and the new breakout cable in short-haul optical links.

  15. Multi-frequency cable vibration experiments

    E-print Network

    Wiggins, Andrew (Andrew Dale)

    2005-01-01

    A series of Multi-Frequency cable vibration experiments at Reynolds number 7600 were carried out at the MIT Tow Tank using the Virtual Cable Towing Apparatus (VCTA). Motions observed in a Direct Numerical Simulation of a ...

  16. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Alan

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  17. Manufacture of flat-conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1976-01-01

    Report discusses cable design and fabrication of both unshielded and shielded FCC. Discussion includes numerous cable configurations and fabrication processes, such as laminating, etching, extruding, and weaving. Bibliography lists additional references.

  18. Folding tools for flat conductor cable harnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R.

    1971-01-01

    Vise grip pliers have detachable metal gripping plates which are changed to accommodate cables from 1 to 3 in. wide and to form any desired fold angle. A second tool squeezes cable along crease to complete the fold.

  19. Debris protection cover assembly for cable connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yovan, Roger D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A protective cover assembly for an end of a cable connector having a cable housing that encloses a plurality of connective pins or sockets and that satisfies all requirements for space applications. A connector body flange is formed at the extremity of a cable and is positioned so that it may register with a corresponding connector body flange on the end of a companion cable to which a connection is to be made, one cable end having cable lead pins and the companion cable end having lead sockets with which the pins register. A latch mechanism having a latch housing is received in the connector body flange and a crank connected to a manually rotatable cap actuates a spring-loaded latch element that is engageable with a connector body flange to secure or to release the cover assembly with the simple twisting motion of the cap, thereby simplifying the task of effecting coupling and decoupling of the cable ends.

  20. Broken aerospace fiber optic cable characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Beranek; Joseph Ahadian; Charles Kuznia; Bruce Pregger

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the physical and optical characterization of a fleet\\/field representative 100\\/140\\/172 (core\\/cladding\\/polyimide coating) aerospace fiber optic cable that failed due to cable bending\\/kinking.

  1. Development of Bi-2212 Rutherford cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motowidlo, L. R.; Sokolowski, R. S.; Hasegawa, T.; Aoki, Y.; Koizumi, T.; Ohtani, N.; Scanlan, R.; Dietderich, D.; Nagaya, S.

    An 80 meter long Rutherford cable was fabricated with 20 strands of 0.8 mm diameter Bi-2212 wire. The conductor utilized in this cable was a double stack design (7 × 61) comprising 427 filaments. The critical current (Ic) of the cable was measured at liquid helium in applied magnetic field up to 4T. The Ic results of the cable show no degradation when normalized to the strand. The cable was sectioned into four 17-meter lengths and one 10-meter piece. These sections were heat treated and the ends cut and tested. The average Ic of all cable pieces tested was 2990 A ± 10% in self field. The bending strain of Rutherford cables with a ceramic coated Ni-alloy core showed little or no degradation up to 6%. In contrast, cables manufactured without a Ni-alloy core showed critical bending strains of about 2%.

  2. Performance Evaluation of K-DEMO Cable-in-conduit Conductors Using the Florida Electro-Mechanical Cable Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Yuhu

    2013-07-16

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for design of the Toroidal Field (TF) insert coil, which will allow validation of the performance of significant lengths of the conductors to be used in the full scale TF coils in relevant conditions of field, current density and mechanical strain. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) will build the TF insert which will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test facility at JAEA, Naka, Japan. Three dimensional mathematical model of TF Insert was created based on the initial design geometry data, and included the following features: orthotropic material properties of superconductor material and insulation; external magnetic field from CSMC, temperature dependent properties of the materials; pre-compression and plastic deformation in lap joint. Major geometrical characteristics of the design were preserved including cable jacket and insulation shape, mandrel outline, and support clamps and spacers. The model is capable of performing coupled structural, thermal, and electromagnetic analysis using ANSYS. Numerical simulations were performed for room temperature conditions; cool down to 4K, and the operating regime with 68kA current at 11.8 Tesla background field. Numerical simulations led to the final design of the coil producing the required strain levels on the cable, while simultaneously satisfying the ITER magnet structural design criteria.

  3. Insulation Coordination for Gas Insulated Substations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helfried Anderl; Charles Wagner; Thomas Dodds

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the development of BIL (Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level) ratings for SF6 gas insulated substations from 72.5 kV to 765 kV. The unique properties of the gas insulated substation are analyzed and insulation coordination design techniques are utilized to determine BIL ratings for the substation equipment, other than the transformer, with a lightning arrester located at the

  4. Fabrication of Nb3Sn Shell-Type Coils with Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichili, D. R.; Andreev, N.; Kashikhin, V. S.; Zlobin, A. V.; Codell, D.; Fabian, P.; Tupper, M.

    2004-06-01

    Insulation is one of the critical components for high-field Nb3Sn magnets that follow wind-and-react approach. The insulation material has to withstand high bending stresses while winding the coil and high heat-treatment temperatures under pressure during coil reaction. At Fermilab we have developed a procedure and tested successfully the dry ceramic insulation tape with inorganic liquid binder to wind and cure the coils. Recently we have extended this to a pre-preg ceramic insulation tape, which would minimize and control the amount of binder in the coil. Several coils with various insulation patterns have been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This paper discusses the fabrication issues of the coils with different types of cable insulation including the pre-preg ceramic insulation.

  5. Validation of a real-time cable deployment control system for slack cable laying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Andres; S. R. Jefferies; G. Gillenwaters

    1993-01-01

    The validation of a real-time control system for the deployment of submarine communication cables presented. The control system allows the user accurately control cable bottom slack and position the cable along a pre-planned route. The system was successfully used to lay an underwater acoustic tracking range for the US Navy. A total of eight, 40 mile long cables, each having

  6. Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable

    SciTech Connect

    W.M.Denny

    2003-01-02

    The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

  7. FOA Lecture 4: Fiber Optic Cables

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hayes, Jim

    This is the 4th lecture on fiber optics by Jim Hayes, president of the Fiber Optic Association. This lecture covers fiber optic cables. Cables are used to protect the fibers in the installation environment, outdoors or indoors. In this lecture, Hayes covers the requirements of cables for various applications and the types of cables typically used. Running time for the lecture is 10:15. Flash is required to view the video.

  8. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  9. Breakout cables for short haul fiber optic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. T. McDuffee

    1983-01-01

    A breakout cable construction has been designed consisting of individually strengthened and jacketed optical channels which facilitate use of single channel optical connectors. This cable design eliminates the need for a patch panel, breakout box or cable furcation (which are required for standard cable designs) at the cable to electronics interface. The cable design parameters are reviewed along with a

  10. The Submarine Optical Cable of the Submarcom S 280 System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Trezeguet; P. Ollion; P. Franco; J. Thiennot

    1984-01-01

    Submarine optical telecommunication cables must satisfy a large number of specific items. To comply with specifications, CDL has developed a cable structure based on high-performance optical fibers placed with slack in the grooves of a plastic rod put in the center of a very strong cable. The deep-sea cable is the basic structure for armored cables or land cables. Armor

  11. Failure of posterior titanium atlantoaxial cable fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolando Garcia; Stephen Gorin

    2003-01-01

    Background context: The operative treatment of rotatory atlantoaxial instability remains controversial. The use of cable fixation has largely replaced the use of wire for interlaminar fixation. Although cable fixation offers biomechanical advantages over wire fixation, it is still at risk of fatigue failure. The authors were unable to locate any published reports of fatigue failure of titanium cables in the

  12. Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables

    E-print Network

    Assessing Deterioration of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report of ADSS Fiber Optic Cables Due to Corona Discharge Final Project Report George G. Karady, Project Leader-Supporting) fiber optic cables installed on high voltage lines. The high electric field on those lines generates

  13. Broadband Connection DSL vs. Cable Modem

    E-print Network

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    Broadband Connection DSL vs. Cable Modem Michael Bausha CS553A Intro to Networking: Final Project Family Section Four: Broadband: DSL vs. Cable Modem Comparison Providers Current Markets and Statistics) and Cable Modem. Broadband has turned Internet access into a fast, multiple signal technology. To qualify

  14. Translational Planar Cable-Direct-Driven Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Williams II; Paolo Gallina

    2003-01-01

    A planar cable-direct-driven robot (CDDR) architecture is introduced with only translational freedoms. The motivation behind this work is to improve the serious cable interference problem with existing CDDRs and to avoid configurations where negative cable tensions are required to exert general forces on the environment and during dynamic motions. These problems generally arise for rotational CDDR motions. Thus, we propose

  15. BSCCO-2212 Wire and Cable Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Barzi; V. Lombardo; D. Turrioni; F. J. Baca; T. G. Holesinger

    2011-01-01

    BSCCO-2212 round wires and cables are being studied for possible use in very high field magnets ( 25 T) within the multi-Lab Very High Field Superconducting Magnet Collabo- ration (VHFSMC). Billets produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology were used to make Rutherford-type cables of various geometries. The effect of the cable parameters was measured on the extracted strand performance and deformation.

  16. Cable Design for Optical Submarine Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Worthington

    1984-01-01

    Transoceanic communication systems using coaxial cables with repeaters have been in use since the 1950's and there is now a very extensive international network. All major manufacturers of such systems are now developing optical cables and repeaters which will provide increased capacity at lower cost. This paper describes some of the aspects of the design requirements of cables suitable for

  17. Cable design for optical submarine systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Worthington

    1984-01-01

    Transoceanic communication systems using coaxial cables with repeaters have been in use since the 1950's and there is now a very extensive international network. All major manufacturers of such systems are now developing optical cables and repeaters which will provide increased capacity at lower cost. This paper describes some of the aspects of the design requirements of cables suitable for

  18. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  19. The Cable Book. Community Television for Massachusetts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtenberg, Ben

    This manual is especially designed to inform and aid community organizations in understanding cable television and planning for the future. With the exception of the chapter on Massachusetts cable legislation, most of the book should be useful to community organizations anywhere. At the beginning, the history and experience of cable television in…

  20. Intrepid MicroTrack leaky cable sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keith Harman

    2002-01-01

    Intrepid MicroTrack is the first leaky coaxial cable sensor to utilize FM CW radar techniques to detect and locate intruders. The first leaky coaxial cable sensor, introduced at the 1976 Carnahan Conference in Lexington, Kentucky, used pulse radar techniques to detect and locate intruders. Since then, there have been numerous papers on CW leaky cable sensors that detect, but do

  1. Placing Fiber Optic Cables in Multioccupied Ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grimado; A. Colucci

    1986-01-01

    Placing fiber optic cable (FOC) in duct containing copper cable can save millions of construction dollars. This paper describes techniques used successfully in rodding duct over copper cables in actual field installations-a necessary and most critical step preparatory to the actual placement of the FOC. In addition, a mathematical model useful in planning and predicting expected FOC pulling tensions for

  2. Analysis of Surveyor 3 television cable after residence on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, F. C.; Park, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 12 astronauts brought the Surveyor III television camera back from the moon in November 1969. Chemical analyses of a portion of television cable revealed changes in the glass fabric sleeve and in the wire insulation as a result of exposure to the lunar environment. Loss of volatile constituents from the glass fabric and a discoloration of the glass occurred. The Teflon layer on the wire showed a slight discoloration and possibly a slight change in its infrared spectrum. Both the polyimide layer and the Teflon layer of the wire insulation showed changes in tensile strength and elongation.

  3. Evaluation of HVDC cables for the St. Lawrence crossing of Hydro Quebec 500 kV DC line. I. Dielectric and accelerated aging tests on prototypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Couderc; N. G. Trinh; M. Belec; M. Chaaban; J. Leduc; Y. Beausejour

    1991-01-01

    The dielectric and accelerated aging tests on prototype ±500 kV DC oil-filled self-contained cables are discussed. The extensive test program was required to evaluate the high-voltage cables for the St. Lawrence river crossing of the ±500 kV Quebec-New England HVDC power transmission system. The main elements of the test program are related. The required insulation levels, the characteristics of the

  4. Digital Transmission over Submarine Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Litchman

    1965-01-01

    The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using submarine cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is

  5. Selecting a Cable System Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Intended to assist franchising authorities with the process of selecting a cable television system operator from franchise applicants, this document provides a framework for analysis of individual applications. Section 1 deals with various methods which can be used to select an operator. The next section covers the application form, the vehicle a…

  6. Regulatory Developments in Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes major rule making actions since 1972, current rules and regulations, and guidelines for citizen participation in FCC (Federal Communications Commission) processes related to cable television regulation. A large portion of the report pertains to current rules and regulations in the areas of certificate of compliance,…

  7. Pressurized fiber optic cable designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miltner; A. Gittle; C. Rim

    1986-01-01

    Different concepts of pressurized fiber optic cable systems are presented. These systems maintain a static pressure throughout the continuous system length into the termination building including all splice points comprising the route. In these redundantly protective systems, an increase in the rate of gas flow into the system indicates outer sheath damage or penetration. The evolution of existing designs are

  8. Fiber optic cable flammability performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Maack; Wayne M. Kachmar; Joseph B. Masterson

    1986-01-01

    Tight buffered fiber optic cables were made using a number of different materials and subjected to flame testing. The results show that different materials and combinations of materials do not perform equally. The best flame resistance was obtained when the outer jacket was a very flame resistant material. It was also found that the contribution of a burning tight buffer

  9. 300 Area signal cable study

    SciTech Connect

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-09-15

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system.

  10. EMP Coupling Through Cable Shields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendali Casey; Edward Vance

    1978-01-01

    Recent research in electromagnetic coupling between the interior and exterior of coaxial cables is described. Both tubular shields and shields with apertures are discussed with reference to the physical coupling mechanisms and their mathematical representations in terms of transmission-line models.

  11. Threshold voltage for electrical tree inception in underground HV transmission cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Bamji; A. T. Bulinski; Y. Chen; R. J. Densley

    1992-01-01

    Experimental evidence is provided to show that irreversible aging which leads to electrical treeing in polymeric insulation such as low-density and crosslinked polyethylene used in HV transmission cables, does not start at local fields between 5 and 20 kV\\/mm. It is shown that a much higher stress is required for electrical tree inception and that the electroluminescence inception voltage is

  12. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  13. Properties of cryogenic insulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gerhold

    1998-01-01

    High vacuum, cold gases and liquids, and solids are the principal insulating materials for superconducting apparatus. All these insulants have been claimed to show fairly good intrinsic dielectric performance under laboratory conditions where small scale experiments in the short term range are typical. However, the insulants must be integrated into large scaled insulating systems which must withstand any particular stressing

  14. Insulation Materials Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students test the insulation properties of different materials by timing how long it takes ice cubes to melt in the presence of various insulating materials. Students learn about the role that thermal insulation materials can play in reducing heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation, as well as the design and implementation of insulating materials in construction and engineering.

  15. Development of Pre-Preg Ceramic Insulation for Superconducting Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codell, D. E.; Fabian, P. E.

    2004-06-01

    A new pre-impregnated (pre-preg) ceramic-based electrical insulation system capable of surviving high superconductor reaction temperatures has been developed for use in superconducting magnets. The use of Nb3Sn superconductors holds great promise for increased magnet performance for high energy physics, fusion, and other applications. A robust, cost-effective manufacturing process is critical to the successful implementation of these coils. Due to its embrittlement after the high temperature reaction cycle, Nb3Sn cable is usually insulated and wound into the coil prior to heat treatment. An earlier ceramic-based insulation system, applied using wet-winding or vacuum impregnation, has been successfully used in the "wind and react" fabrication process. Use of the new pre-preg system will further simplify the manufacturing process while improving control over the insulation properties. Pre-preg insulation offers several advantages including improved dimensional control of the insulation, controllable and uniform fiber to matrix ratio, and certainty that the insulation does not infiltrate the superconductor. This paper describes the pre-preg development process, processing properties, as well as insulation performance data at cryogenic temperatures.

  16. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  17. Testing flat-conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Report describes characteristics of type of FCC which consists of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with self-extinguishing polyester adhesive.

  18. Silicone injection restores failing submarine cables

    SciTech Connect

    Tilstra, M. [Orcas Power & Light Co., Eastsound, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Faced with the prospect of replacing nearly 10 miles of aging undersea cables, Orcas Power & Light Co (Opalco) elected instead to inject silicone into as many of the cables as possible. Silicone injection has been used extensively on underground residential distribution (URD) and feeder cables, but only two underwater cables had previously been injected: a feeder cable for Florida Power Corp under an intercoastal waterway and a cable for Washington Water Power Co under a lake in western Idaho. The compound restores power cables damaged by water treeing and prevents further water damage. Selection criteria included age, type, and whether the cables had ever been spliced. Older, soldered, hand-wrapped splices were avoided as they block the CableCure fluid from flowing through. This makes the cable uninjectable unless the splices are replaced with the molded type. The first cables chosen for injection were between 15 and 30 years old and clear of soldered splices. They also were free from faults. 4 figs.

  19. NEW INSULATION APPLICATION PROCESS FOR WIND-AND-REACT MAGNET FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, K. S.; Stewart, M. W.; Hooker, M. W. [Composite Technology Development, Inc. Lafayette, CO, 80026 (United States)

    2008-03-03

    Wind-and-react processes offer a cost-effective means of fabricating large-scale Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets, while also eliminating the need to manipulate the brittle superconductor after the high-temperature reaction process. Composite Technology Development, Inc. (CTD) has developed a hybrid inorganic/organic insulation system that can be co-processed with the Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet at elevated temperatures. In this work, a new process was demonstrated for applying a thin, ceramic-based insulation that is compatible with wind-and-react processing. The insulation was applied to Rutherford cables using a continuous manufacturing process, and cable assemblies (i.e., 10-stacks) were fabricated and tested. The results of this work show that the insulation possesses a high strain tolerance, as well as the dielectric strength and fatigue resistance needed for high-field magnet applications.

  20. Cable, Terminal Block, Cable Connector Bulletin 1492 Pre-wired cables

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gale

    ://mms.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/multi_media/documents/mul timedia/1492timesaver.wmv #12;2 of 2 Review the catalog of wiring systems. http/analog-cables.html BULLETIN 1492 Digital/Analog Programmable Controller Wiring Systems http://literature.rockwellautomation.com/idc/groups/literature/documents/td/1 492-td008_-en-p.pdf #12;

  1. High Voltage Testing of a 5-meter Prototype Triaxial HTS Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    High voltage tests were performed on a 5-m long prototype triaxial HTS cable (supplied by Ultera) at ORNL in preparation for installation of a 200-m HTS cable of the same design at the AEP utility substation in Columbus, Ohio. The triaxial design comprises three concentric phases and shield around a common former with the phase to phase dielectric at cryogenic temperature. Advantages of this design include increased current density, a reduced amount of HTS tape needed, and reduced heat load. The phase to phase voltage will be 13.2 kVrms (7.6 kVrms to ground). Preliminary testing was done on half-scale and full-scale terminations which successfully passed AC withstand, partial discharge, and impulse tests. High voltage tests conducted on the 5-m cable with the cable straight and after bending 90 degrees were ac withstand to 39 kVrms, partial discharge inception, and a minimum of 10 positive and 10 negative lightning waveform impulses at 110 kV. Phase to phase insulation was tested by applying high voltage to each phase one at a time with all the other phases grounded. Partial discharge data will be presented. The 5-m prototype triaxial HTS cable passed all the HV tests performed, with a PD inception voltage significantly above the required voltage.

  2. High current pulse transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1990-09-28

    This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

  3. Performance of a technical and economical feasibility study of an HVDC compressed gas insulated transmission line. [600 kV

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, R.L.

    1980-12-15

    Progress in evaluating the technical feasibility of SF/sub 6/-insulated cables and circuit breakers for HVDC systems is reported. During this reporting period a new test setup was completed. An assembly jig was designed and fabricated. Model cable up to 20-ft length can be assembled complete outside the test tank. Components to extend the test tank to accommodate a 20-ft model cable have been obtained. A report was drafted on the effect of material selection as well as processing into insulators on the long-term dielectric performance of the insulator. The vertical leaf expansion joint design was improved by replacing the Alcuplate copper-to-aluminum transition piece with nickel plating on the aluminum parts. The joint was fatigue tested with condition which simulate almost 2 1/2 cycles of temperature excursions each day for the 40 year design life of the line. Electrical tests of the joint are in progress.

  4. Whale Entanglements With Submarine Telecommunication Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Peter Wood; Lionel Carter

    2008-01-01

    Before 1955-1966, 16 instances of whale entanglement with submarine telegraphic cables were reported in the scientific literature. Here we present new information, derived from global cable fault databases, that reveals an absence of whale entanglements since 1959. This cessation coincided with the transition from telegraphic to coaxial telecommunication cables followed by the change to fiber-optic systems in the 1980s. We

  5. Fibrous refractory composite insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Smith, M.; Leiser, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    Family of high-temperature, low-density refractory composite insulations made from aluminoborosilicate and silica fibers has insulating material with improved mechanical and thermal properties. Composition is useful for reusable heat-shield materials.

  6. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-print Network

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    cost reduction programs. One of the best places to start with energy conservation is to employ proper insulation systems. This article discusses the significant properties of thermal insulation materials primarily for industrial application. Some...

  7. Silica reusable surface insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. E.; Smith, M.; Leiser, D. B. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    A reusable silica surface insulation material is provided by bonding amorphous silica fibers with colloidal silica at an elevated temperature. The surface insulation is ordinarily manufactured in the form of blocks (i.e., tiles).

  8. Analysis of deterioration of PET insulation with multiple voids due to electrical stressing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Adhikari; D. M. Hepburn; B. G. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The insulation systems of high-voltage power cables and their accessories are subjected to different kinds of stresses during their service life and thus suffer degradation and deterioration. These can lead to a reduction of life which in turn can lower the reliability of electrical power systems. Therefore, a lot of research activities are being carried out to get a better

  9. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  10. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An electrode...

  12. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An...

  13. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An...

  14. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable. (a) Identification. An...

  15. Semiactive Damping of Cables with Sag 1 SEMIACTIVE DAMPING OF CABLES WITH SAG

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    Semiactive Damping of Cables with Sag 1 SEMIACTIVE DAMPING OF CABLES WITH SAG E.A. Johnson,1 R, transmission lines, and flexible space structures, are prone to vibration due to their low inherent damping characteristics. The mitigation of cable vibration is necessary to minimize negative impact. Transversely

  16. Flat-Sag Cables with Semiactive Damping 1 FLAT-SAG CABLES WITH SEMIACTIVE DAMPING

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Erik A.

    Flat-Sag Cables with Semiactive Damping 1 FLAT-SAG CABLES WITH SEMIACTIVE DAMPING E.A. Johnson,1 R, transmission lines, and flexible space structures, are prone to vibration due to their low inherent damping characteristics. The mitigation of cable vibration is necessary to minimize negative impact. Transversely

  17. Vacuum insulator coating development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

  18. Mott Metal Insulator Transitions

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    Physics Letters 95, no. 4 (2009) 14 #12;Mott Insulators: Actuators Bimorph Actuators Thermal Sensing Liu, despite being a "toy" model, is used in active research Crystal structures matter! Mott insulators haveMott Metal Insulator Transitions Satej Soman, Robert Tang-Kong March 21, Physics 141A 1 #12

  19. Fractional Topological Insulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Levin; Ady Stern

    2009-01-01

    We analyze generalizations of two-dimensional topological insulators which can be realized in interacting, time reversal invariant electron systems. These states, which we call fractional topological insulators, contain excitations with fractional charge and statistics in addition to protected edge modes. In the case of sz conserving toy models, we show that a system is a fractional topological insulator if and only

  20. 47 CFR 1.767 - Cable landing licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...for both a common carrier cable landing license (payment type code CXT) and overseas cable construction (payment type code BIT). There is no application fee for modification of a cable landing license, except that the fee for assignment or transfer...